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Compare 1587 edition: 1 And euen ſo came it to paſſe:Makbeth and Banquho are ſent agaynſt the rebelles. for being ſente foorth with a newe power, at his entring into Lochquhaber, the fame of his cõming put ye eni|mies in ſuche feare, that a great number of them ſtale ſecretely away from theyr captaine Mak|dowald,The rebelles forſake theyr captayne. who neuertheleſſe enforſed thereto, gaue batayle vnto Makbeth, with the reſidue whiche remained with him, but being ouercome and fle|ing for refuge into a caſtell (within the whiche hys wyfe and chyldren were encloſed,) at length when he ſaw how he coulde neyther de|fend the hold any longer againſt his enimies, nor yet vpon ſurrender be ſuffered to depart with lyfe ſaued, he firſt ſlew his wife & children,Makdowald ſleeth his wife and children, and laſtly him ſelfe. and laſtly himſelfe, leaſt if he had yeelded ſimply, he ſhoulde haue bene executed in moſt cruell wiſe for an ex|ample to other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Makbeth entring into the caſtel by the gates, as then ſet open, founde the carkaſe of Makdo|wald lying dead there amongſt the reſidue of the ſlaine bodies, whiche when he behelde, remitting no peece of his cruell nature with that pitifull ſight,Makdowaldes head ſent to the king. Makbeths cru|eltie. he cauſed the head to be cut off, and ſet vpõ a pooles ende, & ſo ſent it as a preſent to the king who as then lay at Bertha.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The headleſſe trunke he commaunded to be hong vp vpõ an high payre of gallowes. Them of the Weſterne Iſles, ſuyng for pardon in that they had ayded Makdowald in his trayterous enterpryſe, he fined at great ſummes of money: and thoſe whom he tooke in Lochquhabir, being come thither to beare armure agaynſt the king, he put to execution.

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1.1. The Chapters of those lawes which yet remaine to be obserued, are these.

The Chapters of those lawes which yet remaine to be obserued, are these.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _LEt euerie shire haue certein men skilled in the lawes appointed to Lawiers [...]. be resident in the same, according as in the beginning it was insti|tuted. Let their sonnes also in their youth be brought vp in knowledge of the same lawes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Let them onelie keepe in their custodies The tables of the law to be kept. the tables of the lawes, with the register bookes of the kings & peeres of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If any of them be conuicted of extort bri|bing, Bribers to be hanged. or other the like vniust dealing, let him die vpon the gallowes, and his bodie remaine vnburied.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Such as are cõdemned for theft, let them be hanged, and those that are proued giltie Punishment too theft and m [...]ther. of murther, let them lose their heads.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A woman which is condemned to die, ei|ther A woman cõ|demned to be drowned, or burned quick. let hir bee drowned in some riuer, ei|ther else let hir be buried quicke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that blasphemeth the name of God, of the saints, of his prince, or of the cap|teine Blasphemers haue their toongs cut out of his tribe, let him haue his toong cut out.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that is conuicted of a lie to his neigh|bours The punish|ment for a lier. hinderance, let him haue his swoord taken from him, and be banished out of all mens companie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Such as be accused of any crimes that deserue death, let them passe by the sen|tence A man accu|sed to be con|demned by an o [...] quest o [...] men. of 7 honest men, either else of 9, 11, 13, 15, or more, so that the number be od.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Robbers by the high waies, destroiers Robbers to be put to the sword. of corne growing in the fields, as is vsed by enimies in time of warre, let them die by the swoord.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Fugitiues, vagabonds, and such other [...]agabonds to be whipped and burnt in the chéeke. The wife shal not suffer for the husbands offense. The concu|bine and hir mate to haue [...] punish|ment. idle persons, let them be whipt and burnt in the cheeke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Let not the wife suffer for the husbands offense, but the husband shal answer for the wiues misdeeds, if he be priuie therevnto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Any mans lemman or concubine shall suffer the same paines that he dooth which offendeth with hir.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that rauisheth a maid shall die for it, [...] [...]s of m [...]s shall die. vnlesse she require for safegard of his life, to haue him to hir husband.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If any man be taken with an other mans Adult [...] shall die. wife in adulterie, she consenting vnto him therein, they shall both suffer death for it. But if she consent not, but be forced a|gainst hir will, then he shall die onelie for the same, and she shall be released.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If the child hurt the father either with A child h [...]|ting his father shall die. toong, hand, or foot, let him first be depriued of that member, and then hanged, his bo|die to remaine without buriall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A murtherer, a dumbe person, or he that who are not to inh [...]t. is vnthankfull to his parents, shall not in|herit his fathers patrimonie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Iuglers, wizzards, necromancers, and Iuglers and wizzard [...], [...]. such as call vp spirits, and vse to seeke vpon them for helpe, let them be burnt to death.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Let no man sow in the earth any graine So [...]ing of graine. before it be purged of all the weeds.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that through negligent slouth, suffe|reth Euill hus|bandrie. his arable ground to bee choked vp and ouergrowne with weeds; for the first fault let him forfait an oxe, for the second ten oxen, and for the third let him forgo the same ground.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thy companion in the warres, or thy Buriall of friends. friend being slaine, see him buried, but let the enimie lie vnburied.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Anie straie cattell that commeth into w [...]ifes and [...]. thy grounds, either restore them to the ow|ner, either els deliuer them to the searcher out of theeues, commonlie called Tonode|rach, or to the parson or vicar of the towne: for if thou reteine them in thy hands by the space of three daies, thou shalt be ac|counted giltie of theft.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that findeth anie thing that belon|geth Things found. to an other man, let him cause it to be cried in the market, or els he shall be iud|ged for a fellon.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that striketh him, with whom he go|eth Aduersaries in sute of law. to the law, about anie matter in con|trouersie, shall be iudged giltie of the acti|on, and the other set free.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If oxen or kine chance by running togi|ther Oxen or kine hurting [...]h other. to kill one another, the truth being not known which it was that did the hurt, that which is found without hornes shall be iudged the occasion of the skath; and he that is owner of the same, shall haue the dead beast, and satisfie him for the losse to whome it belonged.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If a sow eate hir pigs, let hir be stoned A sow. to death, and buried, so that no man eate of hir flesh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A swine that is found eating of corne Swine. that groweth in the field, or wrooting vpon the tilled grounds, let it be lawfull for anie man to kill the same without danger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Other kinds of beasts, wherein other Beasts [...] f [...]ant. men haue anie propertie, if they breake in|to thy pastures, or eate vp thy corne, im|pound them, till time the owner haue satis|fied thee for the quantitie of the damage.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶ These were ciuill ordinances belonging Articles tea|ching religion to the good gouernement of the people, o|ther there were, which apperteine to reli|gion: EEBO page image 134 as these.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thou shalt deuoutlie reuerence the al|tars, temples, images, oratories, chapels, priestes, and all men of religion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thou shalt obserue with due reuerence Kéeping of ho|lie daies. festiuail and solemne holie daies, fasting daies, vigils, and all maner of ceremonies instituted by the godlie ordinance of man, in the honor of our S. Christ & his saints.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To hurt a priest, let it be accounted an offense woorthie of death. Priests.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 That ground wherin anie that is slaine lieth buried, leaue it vntilled for seuen Ground to be left vntilled. yeeres space.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Repute euerie graue holie, and adorne it with the signe of the crosse, so as thou Graurs. shalt be well aduised that in no wise with thy feet thou tread vpon it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Burie the dead according to the quanti|tie of his substance. Buriall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The bodie of a noble man & of him that hath well deserued of the common-wealth, Buriall of no|ble men. shall be buried in solemne and pompous wise, but yet in mourning sort & dolorous manner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Let there be two knights or esquires to attend his bodie to the graue. The one be|ing mounted vpon a white horsse shall beare the coate-armor of the dead, and the other in mourning apparell with his face couered shall ride vpon a blacke horsse; who after the corps is brought to church, tur|ning his horsse from the altar, shall crie out how his maister is dead: and there|with the people making an outcry against him, he shall streictwaies depart and get him with all speed to the place frõ whence he came; the other going streight to the al|tar, shall there offer vp vnto the priest his coate-armor with his horsse, as a token to signifie thereby that his maister dooth in|ioy euerlasting life, in the land of perma|nent light and ioies eternall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But this custome of buriall, as that which was supposed not apperteining to the order of the christian religion, the age that followed did vtterlie abolish, appointing to the priests in steed of the horsse and armor, fiue pounds ster|ling in monie for the offering. With these and diuers other ordinances, which time and other statuts by other kings deuised haue abrogated, Kenneth gouerned his people in great felicitie during his life time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The bishops sée, which before had béene at Abirne|thie, he translated vnto the church of that holie man S. Reule his church, now called Saint Andrewes. S. Reule. Euer since which time the towne hath béen called S. Andrewes, and those which gouerned the same church a long time after, were called the great bishops of Scotland: for the realme was not diui|ded into dioceses till the daies of Malcolme the 3, who by diuine inspiration (as is said) ordeined the sée of Murthlake, now called Abirden: but such as were reputed of vertuous behauiour and know|ledge méet for the office, vsed the authoritie & roome of bishops, in what place soeuer they were resident. Yet such was the continuance of those which gouer|ned the church of S. Andrewes, that there haue béene aboue the number of fortie bishops resident there, since the first institution of that sée; manie of them for the opinion conceiued of their holinesse, being numbred according to the manner in times past in the register of saints. But now to returne vnto Ken|neth, The bounds of the Scotish kingdome. who hauing (as is said) inlarged the bounds of his kingdome, so as the same stretched foorth vnto the confines of Northumberland on the one side, and to the Iles of Orknie on the other, the sea compas|sing the residue, at the length after he had reigned a|bout twentie yéeres in great renowme and glorie, he departed out of this life, through too much abun|dance King Ken|neth departed out of this life, 855. H. B. of rheumatike matter, at Fortiuiot, in the yéere of our Lord 856. His bodie was conueied into the Ile of Colmekill, and there honorablie buried a|mongst his ancestors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 AFter his deceasse succéeded in gouernment [...] the realme his brother Donald, farre differing Donald. in qualities from his noble brother the foresaid Ken|neth; Donald the fourth of that name succée|deth his bro|ther Kenneth. The king is of dissolute be|hauior. but yet before he came to the rule of the realme, he disclosed not his vicious nature, for doubt of of|fending the king his brother. Neuerthelesse he had continued scarse two yéeres in the estate, but that he had subuerted all good orders in his realme, by his naughtie examples of dissolute liuing: for his mind was set on nothing but on wanton pleasure; as in the vnlawfull vse of concubines, riotous banket|ting, kéeping of hawkes, hounds, & horsses for plea|sure, and not for the vse of warres, whereof he had no regard at all: for such charges as he should haue béene at for maintenance of men of warre to kéepe the frontiers of his realme, were imploied on a sort of rascals, that serued him in the furtherance of his wanton delights and voluptuous desires, as hunts|men, falconers, cookes, bawdes, ruffians, and such like lozzels.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon diuers of the nobles remembring what apperteined to their duties, spared not but frée|lie The king is admonished of his nobles. admonished the king what danger would insue of his misordered behauior, if he reformed not his ma|ners, nor restreined the licentious dooings of his ser|uants and familie. But when they perceiued that their woords were not regarded, but for the same they themselues ran into displeasure; they sorrowed not a little, to sée so small hope of amendment of such enormities, as euerie where reigned through the re|gion: for all youthfull persons giuen to sensuall lust followed the same without anie feare or care of cor|rection, so that there was no measure of offending and haunting of euill rule in all parties, insomuch that shortlie, through want of all good gouernance, wrong was placed in stéed of right, and contempt of Gods honor imbraced euerie where in place of ver|tue and godlinesse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In this meane while, the residue of the Picts re|maining The exiled Picts require aid of the Englishmen. amongst the Englishmen, ceassed not to solicit the gouernors of the countrie to aid them to|wards the recouerie of their dominion out of the Scotishmens hands, promising to be subiects vnto the English nation, if by their helpe they might be restored to their ancient seates. At length Osbert Osbert and Ella kings of Northumber|land. and Ella kings of Northumberland were persuaded through instant sute to take that enterprise in hand, the rather vpon trust of good successe, for that they vnderstood what lacke of politike gouernement then remained amongest the Scots, by reason of the kings naughtie demeanor and most inordinat trade of life. But first there was a league concluded with The English|men and Bri|tains ioined their powers with the Picts. new articles of agreement betwixt the Englishmen and Britains, as yet inhabiting alongst the coasts of Cumberland, by meanes of which league both Britains and Englishmen ioined their powers to|gither, and in most spéedie and forcible wise passed the water of Twéed, first pitching their campe in the countrie of Mers. From [...]ence immediatlie king Osbert (being appointed as generall in that iournie) EEBO page image 135 sent an hera [...]d vnto Donald the Scotish king, com|manding [...] her [...]d is [...] vnto Do| [...]. him either to surrender vp vnto the Picts all such regions as the Scots had taken from them, either else to looke to haue the Englishmen and Bri|tains no lesse their enimies than the Picts, whose cause they had taken vpon them to mainteine and defend.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Donald being at the first sore troubled with these newes, yet at length (by the aduise of his nobles) he tooke a good hart vnto him, and in defense of his realme caused musters to be taken throughout all his dominions, and foorthwith came into the field to [...] is put to [...]ght at [...]dworth, or Iedburgh. incounter his enimies, whome he found at Ied|worth readie to giue battell: where after sore fight, in the end Osbert with his people was chased to the next mounteins. Donald hauing thus obtei|ned the victorie in this conflict, supposed all had béene his owne, and therevpon remooued ouer Tweed with all possible hast, marching foorth till he came to the mouth of that riuer, where there laie at anchor certeine English vessels, laden with proui| [...]on of vittels and all other things necessarie for the furniture of an armie. Donald setting vpon these ships, with small resistance tooke them, spoiled them [...] his prouision by w [...]ter is ta|ken by the [...]. of all such things as were found aboord, and after set fire on them. The spoile was diuided amongest the souldiers and men of warre, which serued them to small vse or commoditie: for all the youth of the ar|mie, through example of their prince, was so corrup|ted in vicious customes, that the campe was reple|nished with hoores, bawds, stews, and dicing tables, in such wise, that all such prouision as should haue serued for store and staple of vittels, was spent in riotous banketing without anie order or measure: & oftentimes (as it chanceth where politike gouerne|ment [...] great dis|order in the Scotish campe. lacketh) there happened amongest them in the armie, discord and variance with sundrie [...] and slaughters.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 When the enimies were aduertised how far out of order all things stood in the Scotish campe for want of g [...]d and discreet chie [...]eins, Osbright with all spéed got a mightie host togither againe, and before his approch was looked for of the Scots, he commeth vp|on them one morning in the breake of the day, and assaile [...] them in their lodgings, wherein he found them so vnprouided of all helps to make resistance, that it was a woonder to sée the disorder that appea|red amongest them: some of them running vpon their enimies naked without all discretion, other The Scots campe sud|denlie inua|ded. breaking foorth of the campe to saue themselues by flight, not sparing hill nor dale where they saw anie way to escape the enimies hands, though it were with present danger of breaking their necks downe the [...]deling banks and craggie rocks, being forced [...] by the fierce pursute of the Englishmen and Britains, who most eagerlie preased vpon them in all places, to reuenge the late receiued ouerthrow and slaughter of their friends and kinsfolks. There died of the Scots in this mortall bickering aboue [...]0000 [...] sl [...]. King Donald is taken with the n [...]bilitie. twentie thousand persons. King Donald being fast asleepe at the first assault of the enimies, as he that had drunke ouer night more than i [...]gh, was ta|ken before he could make anie shift for himselfe, with the residue of the nobilitie, that scaped with life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Scotish campe, the next day a [...]ter this The campe is [...]. ouerthrow, was [...]ed, the spoile being d [...]ded a|mongest the Englishmen and Britains. But when the [...]ame of this infortunat battell was n [...]sed once through the realme of Scotland, how the king was taken prisoner, his campe woone, the armie [...], The whole [...] of Scotland dis| [...]ted. and almost all the souldiers and men of warre [...], those few of the nobles which were left aliue remaining prisoners in the enimies hands, there was such dole and lamentation made ouer all, as though the realme had alreadie béene lo [...] without re|couerie. Some there were that blamed fortune, some curssed the wicked trade of life in the king, o|ther bewailing the great calamitie of this mischance put the fault in diuers other things, as in such cases commonlie it falleth out: for in sundrie heads are e|uer sundrie opinions. Manie [...]an vp and downe the stréets and high waies, to inquire the certeintie of all things, and whether there were anie hope at all left to resist the enimies, also which way the eni|mies held, whereabout they went, and what they pur|posed to doo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Anon after, when it was certeinlie knowen that The English men inuade Louthian, the Britains Galloway. the Englishmen were entred by Louthian, and the Britains by Galloway, there was such feare mixed with sorrow (for losse of their friends and kinsfolks) stricken into the peoples hearts, and namelie into the womens, that a greater hath not béene heard of in anie region. So that all prouision to defend The Scots left comfort|lesse. their countrie was quite neglected, so amazed were the Scots with the sudden change of fortunes fauor. The Englishmen herevpon tooke all the countrie e|uen to the water of Forth, and likewise the Britains seized into their hands all that which lieth from the The Bri|tains as yet kept posses|sion of Cum|berland, and those other coun [...]es li| [...]ng by the coast of th [...]se wes [...] seas. The victori [...] vsed cru [...]. bounds of Cumberland vnto Sterling bridge, fin|ding no resistance in their way at all. Herevnto as|well the Englishmen as Britains vsed the victorie verie cruellie, sparing neither one nor other of the Scotish bloud, that by anie means fell into their hands, but priests and all passed one way, that is, by the edge of the sword.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Osbert purposed to haue passed the water of Forth, that waie to haue entered into Fife, & so o [...]er Taie into Angus: but hearing that the Scots had gathered a power to impeach his passage, he staied certeine daies. At length vnderstanding that the enimies were nothing of that puissance or num|ber, as at the first they were reported to be; he de|termined to set ouer in certeine boats ten thousand of his men; but through a sudden tempest of wind A great manie Englishmen drowned. and weather, that rose in that instant, there were fiue thousand of them drowned, the residue being constreined to land againe on the same side from the which they loosed, hauing lost through violence of the weather all their tackle and whole furniture of their vessels. Osbert being also admonished with this mis|fortune, thought good to attempt no more the furi|ous rage of the water, but determined by land to go vnto Sterling, where he vnderstood he should find the Britains, with whome he might ioine his power, and passe ouer the bridge there, and so inuade other of the Scotish regions which lay thereabout.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But at his comming thither, certeine Scotish am|bassadours came vnto him to sue for peace, which Ambassadors sue for peace. they humblie required at his hands in name of the whole realme, beseeching him to consider [...] the state of the case as it stood, and not to trust too much Fortune is brittle. o [...] brittle fortune, the which sheweth hir selfe neuer stable; but commonlie vseth to call backe againe hir grant of prosperous successe, where the receiuer [...] not skill to vse it moderatlie, and the vanqui|shed séemeth to haue béene sufficientlie corrected. As for the Scots, though it might appeare that their force was greatlie abated, & that resistance should little auaile them: yet were they minded to die in defense of their liberties, rather than to submit them|selues vnto anie conditions of vile seruitude. The words of these ambassadors being throughlie weied (though some tooke them in great disdaine) yet in the end it was supposed that after victorie thus had a|gainst the enimies, honorable conditions of peace ought to be preferred before doubtfull warre.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon answere was made to the ambassa|dors, that both the English and British people with EEBO page image 136 their kings were contented to haue peace with the Peace gran|ted with con|ditions. Scots (though it laie in their hands now to destroy the whole nation) if so be the Scots would agrée to resigne aswell to the Englishmen as Britains all such lands and countries as they had now gotten in|to their possessions, without anie claime or title to be Articles of peace propo|ned. made to the same from thenceforth, either by them or anie of their posteritie, so that the water of Forth on the east halfe, should diuide the Scotish domi|nions from the confines of the Englishmen & Bri|tains, The Forth called the Scotish sea. and be called from that time euer after, the Scotish sea. On the west the water of Clide should diuide the Scotish lands from the Britains; the ca|stell of Alcluith, standing at the mouth of the same Donbreton. It was cal|led before Ca|er Arcluith, that is, the ci|tie vpon Cluid, as H. Llhoid hol|deth. riuer, to remaine in the hands of the Britains, from thencefoorth to beare the name of Dunbreton, that is to say, the castell of the Britains. And further|more, that if anie of the Scots should attempt to passe the said bounds into anie of the British or English borders, he should die for that offense. And if by force of tempest it chanced anie of them to be driuen to land on the south shore, within anie of those parties, they should take nothing away with them but water or vittels, and depart within thrée daies, except some reasonable cause of staie constreined them to the contrarie. Moreouer, they should not for|tifie anie townes or castels on the frontiers néere to the English or British confines. And further, they should couenant to pay vnto the Englishmen and Britains, within the space of twentie years, the summe of one thousand pounds of siluer. For per|formance of which articles of agréement, the Scots should deliuer thréescore hostages, being the sonnes and heirs apparant of the chiefest noble men of all Hostages are required. their realme and countrie. And if it so were that they misliked and refused anie of these articles, he com|manded that there should no other ambassadour come to him for anie other treatie of accord.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The ambassadors returning home, and declaring how they had sped, manie of the Scots thought the articles nothing reasonable for frée people to accept; The Scots mislike the ar|ticles of peace. other iudged that either they must come to some a|greement with the Englishmen and Britains, or els put the land in extreme perill. Thus had the peo|ple béene diuided into two contrarie opinions and factions, had not one Calene a noble man, borne of high parentage, and gouernour of Angus, with so|ber reasons and strong arguments appeased this contention, persuading them to haue respect to the Calene his graue counsell taketh place. time. And sith the force of the realme was so infée|bled, ab [...]ted, and brought vnder foot through aduerse fortune: better it was to yeeld vnto necessitie in sa|uing part at that present, in hope after, when occa|sion serued to recouer the residue, than through ob|serued wilfulnesse to lose the whole. For considering the present danger, it could be reputed no dishonor to receiue conditions of peace at the enimies hands, sith there wanted not the like example of the Ro|mans, who gladlie accepted such articles of peace, as that noble prince king Gald appointed them: and yet it is not to be iudged, that there wanted men of great knowledge and wisdome amongest them, and such as regarded their honor, so far foorth as reason in anie wise did reach.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The multitude moued with these words of Calene, whose graue authoritie (by reason of his age and The multi|tude consen|ted vnto Cale|ne his sai|engs. roome) was of no small reputation amongst them, hauing lost nine of his owne sonnes in the last bat|tell, they finallie determined to follow his opinion in receiuing the same conditions of agreement which Osbert had prescribed: and therevpon sent againe The Scots receiue the peace. their ambassadours with the hostages appointed for the establishing of the peace, in maner as is before rehearsed. Which being throughlie accomplished in such solemne wise, as in those daies and in the like cases was accustomed, Osbert set Donald with his King Donald with the noble men are sent home againe. nobles at libertie, sending them home togither with the ambassadours, being earnestlie required so to doo, both by the English lords, and also by the Bri|tains.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The agréement being thus made, the lands were Lands diui|ded betwixt the Britains and English|men. diuided betwixt the Englishmen and the Britains, in such sort as the Britains had for their part all that which lieth from Sterling vnto the west sea, betwixt the riuers of Forth and Clide, vnto Cumberland: and the Englishmen possessed the other parcels, li|eng from Sterling vnto the east sea, betwixt the Scotish sea and Northumberland: so that by this means, Clide water, Forth, and the Scotish sea (where Forth runneth into the maine sea) diuided the Scots from the Englishmen and Britains. And thus was the towne of Sterling a common march vnto those thrée people; the same towne with the castell remaining vnto Osbert, as it was couenan|ted amongest other articles of this peace. Here (as the Scotish writers haue) he ordeined his mint, and his coiners of monie to inhabit, wherevpon came vp the name of Sterling monie: but therein they are deceiued, for (as in the historie of England shall appéere) that name came not in vse till manie yéeres after. Osbert also in this place caused a stone bridge A bridge of stone made [...] Sterling. to be made ouer the water of Forth, in stead of the woodden bridge which the Picts had made there, and was now pulled downe, and in the midst of this new stone bridge he set vp a crosse, whereon were ingrauen these verses, to be read of the passers by:

Anglos à Scotis separat crux ista remotis,
Arma hîc stant Bruti, stant Scoti hac sub cruce tuti.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Picts which had béene with the Englishmen in this iournie, euer hoping to be restored to their lands and former possessions by Osbert, when they saw how he reteined the same in his owne hands, appointing his subiects to inhabit therein, they doub|ted that which afterwards came to passe in déed, least the Englishmen of friends would now become eni|mies, séeking the destruction of the whole Pictish generation, thereby to assure themselues in the pos|session of those lands and liuings, wherevnto the Picts (as they thought) would euer make some claime and title, whilest anie of them remained aliue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Upon this mistrust therefore did those Picts, which were amongest the Englishmen, make the best shift they could for themselues, so that manie of them got ships, and sailed into Norwaie and Denmarke, vn|to The Picts went into Norwaie and Denmarke. their countriemen there: the other that could not make shift to get away, were slaine anon after by the Englishmen, so that one of them was not to: b [...] found aliue within anie of the English dominions. And such was the end of the Picts that fled vnto the Englishmen for succour. In this meane time the Scotish king Donald being restored againe to his countrie, was receiued with more ioy and honor than he had deserued; in hope yet by this scourge of aduerse fortune, that he would haue reformed his former abuses. Neuerthelesse, he had not béene at home anie long time, but that he fell to his old vici|ous King Donald falleth to his old vices a|gaine. trade of life againe, remoouing from his com|panie such honorable personages as wished the suer|tie of his estate, with the aduancement of the com|mon welth, to the reliefe and ease of his poore mise|rable subiects. At length the nobles of the realme, perceiuing the danger that their countrie stood in, by reason of Donalds insolent misorder, vndiscréet King Don [...]ld is laid in pr [...]|son. rule and gouernement, they found means to appre|hend and commit him vnto safe keeping. But the monstrous creature, within a few daies after he EEBO page image 137 was thus put in ward in great desperati [...] [...]ue He slaieth himselfe in prison. himselfe, in the sixt yeare after he had begun his in|fortunat reigne, and in the yeare of our Sauiour 860. 860.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The same yeare that the realme of Scotland was brought vnto such miserable state by the puissant force of the Englishman and Britains, as aboue is rehearsed; there were sundrie woonders heard of in the countrie; as in Louthian a child of one moneth A yoong babe giueth war|ning vnto his mother. old and a h [...]fe, admonished the mother to flie out of that co [...]ie: for it would come to passe, that the enimies should come and take that region out of the Scotishmens hands. Beasts also, as they were pa|sturing Beasts ro| [...]ng died. abroad in the fields there, roaring after a strange sort, suddenlie died. Fishes likewise, in shape resembling the figure of man, were found Fishes like in shape to men. dead in the sands of the Scotish sea. In Galloway there fell such abundance of adders and snakes out Adders and snakes fell downe out of the skie. of the skie, that the aire being corrupted with the sauour of them lieng on the ground, both men and beasts died of certeine diseases, which they tooke through infection thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Such as were accounted to be skilfull in diuina|tion, affirmed that these things did signifie an in|fortunat reigne, with an euill end vnto king Do|nald, The interpre|tation of the prodigious things. King Con|stantine crow|ned. as afterwards it happened, who hauing made away himselfe in prison (as before is expressed) Con|stantine the sonne of king Kenneth was crowned king at Scone, in the chaire of marble there, accor|ding to the maner as then vsed. After his first en|tring into the estate, he would gladlie haue gone in hand with the wars against the Englishmen, to He lain would recouer his predecessors losses. He was adui|sed otherwise by his coun|cell. haue recouered out of their possessions, those coun|tries which they had latelie taken from the Scots in his predecessors time: but his councell aduised him otherwise, declaring that the state of the common|wealth was so decaied by the misgouernance of his said predecessor, that till the same were reformed, and such intestine discord, as through licentious li|bertie reigned amongest his subiects might be ap|peased and quieted, there was no hope to atchiue a|nie woorthie enterprise abrode against forreigne e|nimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Herevpon by their aduertisements and good ad|uise, he deuised a reformation of all such misorders Misorders are redressed. as were growen vp in all parts of his realme: and first for the spiritualtie, he ordeined that priests should attend their cures, and not to intermeddle Priests shuld onelie attend their vocation. with anie secular businesse, but to be frée from go|ing forth to the warres: neither should they keepe horsses, hawks, or hounds. And if anie of them were found negligent in dooing his dutie apperteining to his vocation, he should for the first fault forfeit a A penaltie for not dooing their dueties. péece of monie, but for the second he should lose his benefice. For the youth of his realme he tooke order (to bridle them the better from wanton delights and Youth should cate but one meale a day. sensuall lusts) that none of them should haue past one meale a day, and that of no fine or deintie deli|cats, and to absteine from all such drinke as might Drunkennes punished with death. distemper their braine, so that if anie yoong person, either man or woman were knowen to be drunken, they should die for it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 He commanded further, that all the youth of his realme, should exercise running, wrestling, shoo|ting, throwing of the dart and bowle: so to auoid slouthfulnesse, that their bodies might with such ex|ercises be made the more able to indure paines and trauell: and for the same purpose he tooke order, that they should lie vpon the bare boords, with one man|tell onelie throwen vnder them, so that they should Youth to b [...] trained vp in hardnesse. tast nothing neither by day nor night, that might noozell them in anie wanton delights or effeminat pleasures. It was also ordeined, that all such as kept vittelling houses for banketting cheere, should Kéepers of banketting houses he ba|nished. be banished the rea [...]e, with those that kept brothell houses. Thus were the Scots by obseruing of these ordinances made within short [...]e of glut|tons an [...] excessiue [...]ders, sober and temper at men: of de [...] and [...]ull persons, hard, tough, and able Scots were made sober and able to abide hardnes to abide anie trauell or labor, were the [...]ame neuer so painfull: and hereof the state of the common|wealth began to grow to good perfection, so that Constantines administration was liked of the [...]ost part of all his subiects.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The first that went about to disquiet the prospe|rous reigne of that woorthie prince, was one Euan, Euan disqui|ered the king and realme. a man of an ancient house, & borne in the westerne Iles. ¶ Such haue béene the vnquiet nature of the Scotishmen, euen from the beginning, neuer to The vnquiet nature of Scotishmen. liue contented anie long [...]me either with peace or warre: for being once wearied with the charges of the warres, they streightwaies wish for peace; and hauing in time of peace heaped togither some wealth, then can they not suffer the gouernement of their superiors, but either are readie to fall out with some forreigne enimie, or else to raise some commotion amongest themselues. This Euan Euan lieute|nant of Dun|stafage conspi|reth against the king. therfore being the kings lieutenant of his castell of Dunstafage in Louchquhaber, practised a conspira|cie against the king, with a number of other light persons being gentlemen borne, misliking the ad|ministration of things, onelie for that they saw how their inordinat libertie to oppresse inferiour persons, and to vse such wild and insolent misdmeanour, as they had doone afore time; was now restreined by lawfull iustice and execution of due punishment for the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But as these conspirators went about to haue mooued the people of Louchquhaber, Murrey land, Rosse, and Cathnesse, to haue ioined with them in their traitorous interprise; some of them in whom Euan put most trust, secretlie aduertised the king The king is aduertised of Euan his treason. of all the whole matter, who gathering a competent number of men togither, made such spéedie hast to|wards Dunstafage, where the chiefe capteine of the rebels as then lay, that he came before the same yer The king cõ|meth to Dun|stafage with an armie. anie inkling were knowen to them within of his approch. By meane whereof comming vpon them so at vnwares, he had the castell soone at his pleasure; and immediatlie herevpon caused Euan to be trus|sed Euan is exe|cuted. vp on a high paire of gallowes, for a spectacle to all his complices. And furthermore, least the other conspirators might prouide them of some other chief|teine, he apprehended diuerse of the nobilitie that were accused to be of Euans confederacie, the which he put in streict prison, there to be safelie kept, till the Manie kept in prison. peeres of the realme had determined with good deli|beration, what should become of them. This busines being in this wise appeased, when all men looked for quietnesse, there suddenlie followed a greater and One trouble followeth another. more pernicious trouble: for such is the course of the world, that when men least thinke of mischiefe, they fall oftentimes into most danger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Cadane king of Denmarke, pretending a title to all such lands as somtimes belonged to the Picts, for Cardane king of Denmarke that the residue of that nation which had escaped the hands of the Scots and Englishmen, had resigned vnto him all their right & interest of the same lands, he determined in that quarrell (and in reuenge of the The cause that made the Danes to make warre against Eng|land and Scotland. iniuries which the Picts alledged they had susteined) to make warres both vpon Scots and Englishmen. He caused therefore an huge number of ships to be prepared, and a mightie armie of men to be put in a readinesse, to passe in the same ouer into Albion, vnder the leading of his two brethren, the one na|med Hungar, and the other Hubba. These two chief|teins hauing their ships and men with all prouision A great nauie sent into Scotland. apperteining once readie, tooke the sea, and sailed EEBO page image 138 foorth till they came to the coosts of Scotland, where they tooke land within the countrie of Fife, before a|nie tidings were heard of their comming thither.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Danes being set on land, spared no kind of cru|eltie The Danes vse great crueltie. that might be shewed against the inhahitants, and namelie for that they had not as yet receiued the faith of Christ, they raged without all measure a|gainst priests, and religious persons, ouerthrowing and burning vp churches and chappels, wheresoeuer they found anie in their way. Wherevpon the Eng|lishmen The inhabi|tants fled the countrie. that inhabited in Louthian, and the Scots that dwelled in Fife, left their houses & possessions, fléeing into other parties, where they thought they might best escape the hands of their new come ad|uersaries. A great companie also of such vertuous and godlie persons, as about the same time laboured busilie in setting foorth the woord of life vnto the peo|ple in those parties, fled with one Adrian as then bi|shop of the Scotishmen, into the Iland called Maie, which lieth in maner in the midway of the passage o|uer the Forth betwixt Fife and Louthian, where as then there was a famous monasterie of moonks. But neither the reuerence of the place, neither the in|nocencie of those harmles creatures could restraine the Danes from polluting their wicked hands in murthering that deuout companie, as they were They that fled into May Iland were slaine. then estéemed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This is that reuerend band of martyrs, which the Scotish people haue had in such reuerence in the foresaid Iland of Maie; a few names of some of that multitude as yet remaining in memorie a|mongst writers, as the foresaid bishop Adrian, Glo|dian, Gaius, or (as others write) Monanus archdea|con of saint Andrews, and bishop Stolbrand; the names of the residue are forgotten. ¶ Some there be that affirme how this companie were Hungari|ans, The vncerten+tie of writers in this matter of these mar|tyrs. the which flieng out of their countrie, from the persecution which was their exercised by men of mis|beliefe against the christians, they arriued here in Scotland, and applied themselues to the instructing of the Scotishmen in the way of saluation. Other write that they were Scots and Englishmen thus assembled there togither. But of whence soeuer they were, certeine it is that by custome they were be|come Scots, and instructed the Scots (as before is said) in the way of saluation. After this cruell slaugh|ter thus by the Danes committed, they continued in their wood rage, as they passed through Fife and the other countries néere bordering vpon the same, till all the inhabitants were auoided out of their hou|ses, either by flight or slaughter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Constantine the Scotish king being kindled in the meane time with passing great displeasure, for these so notable iniuries receiued at the hands of the Danes, thought good with all spéed to go against them, and to attempt the chance of battell before they had wasted anie further within his dominions, so greatlie to the diminishing of his roiall power and estimation amongst his subiects. Herevpon leuieng his people, and assembling a mightie host togither, he Constantine assembled a mightie army. passed foorth with the same towards his enimies, the which were lodged in two seuerall camps, the one be|ing distant from the other about a quarter of a mile, seuered in sunder with the course of a little riuer cal|led Leuin, the which (vpon the approch of the Scots vnto that part of the campe that laie on the further side next vnto them) chanced to be raised on such hight, thorough abundance of raine, that in two daies after vnneth it might bée passed ouer at the foords.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this sore and tempestuous weather, the aire cleared vp and waxed verie faire and calme, giuing occasion to the Scots to worke their feat against one part of their enimies, whilest the other could not come ouer vnto their aid and succor [...]. In this campe which lay on that side the riuer next vnto the Scots, Hubba was lodged, who did what he could to haue staied his men from issuing foorth of the campe, to giue battell when the Scots drew néere to the same, and assaied all waies by prouoking the Danes with skirmishes to come foorth and fight with them in The Scots & Danes ioine their battels. plaine field. But notwithstanding all that he could doo, foorth they rushed in such wise by plumps, and with so great noise and clamour, that the capteins were constreined of necessitie to set them in order of battell, sith they would néeds giue the onset vpon their present enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Danes did weare aloft vpon their armor cer|teine linen garments, wrought with red silke, shew|ing The Danes apparell. faire and white both at hand and a far off. Their weapons were of such sort as serued for the push ra|ther Their wea|pons. than for downe-right blowes, the points being of such a handsome strong fashion, that no armor might lightlie hold foorth against them. These kind of weapons, togither with the muster of their huge bo|dies, was dreadfull at the first for the Scotishmen to Tall men of bodie and lims. behold, as they marched towards them in araie of battell. But anon comming néere togither readie to ioine, the Scots manfullie taking to them new cou|rages, A battell. set vpon the Danes with great violence, who likewise began the battell verie stoutlie, so that the same continued right fierce and cruell a good space. At length the Danes being assailed on each side, both afront before, and on their backs behind, oppressed as The Danes take the flight. it were with multitudes, did throw downe their weapons and fled amaine. Manie of them making towards their campe were ouertaken and slaine, di|uerse of them falling into the ditches were oppressed with throng, aswell of their owne companie, as of their enimies, as they passed ouer them in following the chase, and striuing to enter the campe vpon such as stood to defend them from entering. Other there were that leaping into the water in hope to get ouer, were drownd in the whorling waues of the streame; though some, through helpe of their fellowes (which stood on the other side readie to haue passed the wa|ter, if they might so haue doone without manifest danger of drowning) escaped and got ouer, amongst whome Hubba was one, to the great reioising of his Hubba was saued from drowning. brother Hungar, to sée him thus deliuered twise from perill of death, as first from amongest his eni|mies, and secondlie out of the roring streame of that déepe and swift raging riuer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Scots hauing thus put one part of their eni|mies to the woorse, with that happie successe tooke such The Scots tooke of this victorie immo|derate ioy. comfort and immoderate ioy, as though they had béene now sure of victorie ouer all the residue; so that for two daies togither, there was such dansing, sin|ging, and piping amongst them, as ehe like hath not béene heard of. Yea so farre procéeded their insolent outrage, that they began to contend amongst them The Scots for ioy readie to fall out. selues for the prisoners and spoiles, which they coun|ted now their owne, as though alreadie they had the same wholie in their possession: and further reasoned, not without altercation, whether the Danish captens after they had them once in their hands, should be put to death, or els be kept aliue to be shewed to the peo|ple in triumph or no. Great adoo and manie vaine woords were spent héereabout, in such earnest sort, that they were at point to haue fallen out amongst themselues: but there was no mention at all made touching the ordering of their battels, and other the necessarie procéedings against their enimies. At length, when the riuer was fallen and come to his old course againe, so that it might easilie be passed, Constantine in order of battell got ouer with his people, Constantine procéeded a|gainst his eni|mies. to the other side where the Danes were lodged, who hauing more mind to set themselues in such order, whereby EEBO page image 139 whereby they might gaine the victorie, than to deuise for the diuiding of the spoile, perceiuing occasion now offered to giue the onset, foorthwith araied their The order & [...]ing of the Danes [...]e. [...]bba had the right wing Buerne had the left wing. people in this sort.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Hubba with six thousand Danes, was placed in the right wing. The left was led by one Beurne an Englishman borne, who was fled out of his countrie, for that he could not beare such iniuries as Osbert offered him in forcing his wife, to the great reproch and dishonor of his house and name He had with him in this left wing certeine bands of Eng|lishmen, with those Picts that had escaped ouer into Denmarke (as before is mentioned.) Hungar with all the resi [...]e of the armie, kept the battell or middle Hungar kept the battell. ward, [...]xhorting his men to shew their force & man|hood that day, sith the same should either put them in possession of the whole l [...]d of Albion, wi [...]h all the substance and riches conteined therein, either else bring them perpetuall seruitude with ignominie a|mongst their most cruell and fierce aduersaries. He therefore himselfe openlie in presence of them all, [...]owed with solemne oth, either to returne with vic|torie to his campe, either else to die in the place, wil|ling [...]ngar made [...] [...]ow. them all to make the like couenant. Wherevp|on the vniuersall multitude allowed him so much The souldiers did make the like [...]ow. for this his motion, that there was not one amongst the whole number, which agréed not to [...]weare the like [...]th. Constantine keeping in manner the like order, placed in the right wing his brother E [...]hus, in the [...]ing Con|stantine pla|ced his men in like manner. left Duncane [...]he lieutenant or thane of Athole, ap|pointing to either of them ten thousand men a péece.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All the residue were set in the battell where he him|selfe stood. And first he gaue them all hartie thanks in An incourage ment giuen to his souldiers. that they had so valiantlie atchiued the [...]orie in the last battell, requiring them now not to blemish their former glorie with anie faintnesse of courage, re|creant cowardise, or dishonorable flight: and further he willed them in no wise to be afeard of their eni|mies, in respect more for their hugenesse of bodie, than for anie of their valiant [...]outnesse of heart: for if they assailed them with one whole and entire con|sent, according to their woonted for wardnesse & man|like prowes, they should quicklie put them to [...]ight, and obteine a ioifull victorie. Heerewith he also war|ned them not to run rashlie vpon the enimies, but to suffer them first to giue the charge: for by that meanes he thought the Danes would wi [...]h their ear|nest violence disorder themselues, and so should it be more easie for the Scots to breake in amongst them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But this deuise did not a little abate the Scotish mens courages. For the Scots vse is, when they shall enter into battell, to make a great shout and noise, and therewith to run vpon their enimies, by which meanes (as they suppose) they both put the eni|mie in feare, and incourage themselues to the bat|tell. The Danes at the sound of the trumpet marched The Danes approch to|wards the Scots. foorth towards the Scots, where they [...]ood thus in or|der of battell: but when they perceiued that the Scots came not forward, they also staied in the [...]d|way to refresh themselues, least at the ioining they should be out of breath. Anon after, passing for|ward The Danes [...]ot quarels and threw darts. The Scots sho [...] arrowes and darts as thicke [...]s [...]. an easie pace, they shot quarrels, and threw darts at their enimies verie freshlie, and the Scots let [...]ie at them againe with arrowes and darts as thicke as it had béene a [...]torme of haile.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this they rushed togither with great violence on both sides: but within a while, the Danes after compassing the maine battell round about, they constreine the same in the end with great bloudshed The Scots [...]e put to [...]ght. and slaughter to giue backe and flee out of the field. Ten thousand Scots died that day in this infortunate battell with Constantine himselfe, who being first taken was had into a caue by the sea side amongst Con [...]tine is taken [...] [...]thered. The blacke den or [...]. the rocks, and there cruellie murthered by the enimies. The place was called certeine yeeres after, the blacke den: but now they name it the diuels den, in memorie of that heinous murther there committed. The Scotish nation also had beene vtterlie as then destroied, had not Ethus the brother of Constantine, perceyuing how the field was lost, escaped Ethus [...]ro|ther vnt [...] Constantine was sa [...]d by flight. awaie with two companies of his best men of warre, so reseruing himselfe to the time of more luckie fortune.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 THe people likewise doubting for want of a go|uernor Ethus. to be the sooner ouercome by their eni|mies, did lead [...]he said Ethus to Scone, where they crowned him king, in the yéere after the birth of our Sauiour 874, and the 13 after Constantine began 874. to rule the estate of the realme. The same yéere were manie woonders and v [...]keth sights séene with|in the Scotish do [...]ons. In the mouth of the Fishes like vnto men [...] shape. Forth, otherwise called the Scotish sea, there ap|peared fishes in great numbers, like vnto men in shape, swimming vp and downe in the streame with halfe their bodies aboue the water, and hauing a blacke skin, which couered there heads and necks, from their shoulders vpwards like an hood. These Bassmates. are called Bassmates, and vse to go in great compa|nies togither, as though they were skulles of her|rings, signifieng (when they are seene) some great [...]fortune vnto the countrie, as the common people haue long had an opinion. Also the loches, riuers, and all maner of other waters were frozen from the beginning of Nouember, till the latter end of A|prill; A long winter and when the frost brake, and the snowe mel|ted, there was such a [...]oud flowing ouer all the plaines euen to the roots of the mounteins, as the like had not bene séene. Furthermore, when the same shr [...]nke and went away, in the mud and [...]ime there was such a sort of frogs left, that when they were Frogs in the [...]d & [...]me. dead, and began to putrisie, the aire was so infected, that manie deadlie diseases insued, whereof great numbers of the inhabitants did perish. Moreouer, there was a mightie starre or comet séene with firie A comet. raies issuing foorth of the same, which both night and day folowed the moone during the moneth of Aprill, to the great horror of all that beheld it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to procéed. The Danes (as is said) hauing vanquished the Scots, and was [...]ed the countrie of Fife, passed ouer into Louthian, where robbing and The Danes went into Louthian. spoiling all before them, they pursued the inhabi|tants into Northumberland, whi [...]her they fled for refuge. There the Danes being aided with certeine Englishmen in fauour of Bruerne, [...]ue in battell King Os [...]rt & E [...]a [...]aine. both Os [...]ert and E [...]a, kings of that countrie. The crueltie of the Danes was such after they had atchi|ued the victorie, that few escaped with life, but such as saued themselues by flight. But chie [...]lie there rage appeared most against priests, and such as pro|fessed themselues men of religion. For the Danes being Eth [...]ks, persecuted most egerlie those that in anie wise professed Christ. The like outragious This cr [...] inuaded Nor|folke also. murthering of the christians was practised through|out the countrie, and at length came vnto that blessed king saint Edmund, reigning as then o|uer the people of the Eastangles, as in the English historie more plainlie ma [...]e appéere. Howbeit other of the English kings mainteined the warres with these Danes certeine yéeres after this, with variable fortune; the most part of those people which inhabited on that coast toward the Germane seas, either be|ing [...]aine or brought into miserable bondage and thraldome. But Alured, which succéeded his brother king Edelfred, not in the kingdome of Northfolke King [...] redressed those harmes. Hector Boeti|us [...]staketh diuers mat|ters touching the report of our histories. and Su [...]ke (as Hector Boetius affirmeth) but in the kingdome of the We [...]ons, redressed a great part of this miserie, into the which the countrie was EEBO page image 140 thus brought by the Danes, by subduing them in sundrie conflicts, and sleaing their two capteins the foresaid Hungar and Hubba, as in the same En|glish historie is further expressed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now to returne vnto Ethus, I find that he was of such swiftnesse of foot, that he would watch and make waie in running with harts and hounds, and therevpon was surnamed Lightfoot: but of what Ethus surna|med Lightfoot nimble lightnesse of bodie soeuer he was, truth it is that he was of disposition in mind vnfit to haue the order of anie publike regiment. For whereas he might haue recouered Fife and Louthian with other regions, whilest the Englishmen and Danes were Ethus neg|lected the op|portunitie. togither by the eares, he passed ouer that occasion, delighting more in following the pleasures of the bo|die & sensuall lusts, than to bestow his time in feates of chiualrie and other warlike exercises. The nobles of the realme perceiuing him thus to abuse the woor|thie A conspiracie made against king Ethus. gifts of his person, mistrusting least his insolent dooings should indamage the publike state of the common-wealth, they tooke counsell togither how they might apprehend him, and to send him some whi|ther out of the waie where to be safelie kept, and then to place some other in the gouernement of the realme, that might rule the same with more discreti|on & better aduise. And least their resolution should be disclosed before it tooke effect, they slacked no time, but went spéedilie about their businesse. And com|ming to the king, whome they found a hunting in Calidon wood, they suddenlie arested him, and ther|with King Ethus is arested, with his fa|uourers. committed him to safe kéeping: & those whome they knew to be fauourers of his euill rule and mis|gouernance, they put them also fast in irons, till they had answered vnto such articles as should be laid to their charge. This doone, they procéeded to the election of a new king; and in the end by the persuasion of one Dongall gouernor or thane of Argile, they chose Gregorie the sonne of that Dongall, which reigned Gregorie is chosen king. before Alpine, who was not past two moneths old when his father died.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 THis Gregorie being knowne to be a man woor|thie of the roome, though he himselfe onlie was Gregorie. against it, at length by persuasion receiued the inue|sture of the kingdome at Scone, with all due solem|nitie. Ethus hearing thereof, through anguish of mind died within thrée daies after, in the second yeere of his reigne, and 876, after the birth of our 876. H. B. 875. Io. Ma. Sauiour. There be that write how he was strangled in prison by Dongall his procurement, least by ad|uenture he might haue béene restored vnto libertie, and withall haue made claime to the crowne againe. Gregorie being thus established in the estate, consi|dering that the suertie of all realmes rested in the hands of the diuine maiestie, to begin his gouern|ment with some luckie enterprise, caused a conuoca|tion to be holden at Forfair, for the aduancement of A conuocati|on of the cler|gie. Priests are frée of all tri|bute. Christs religion: where amongst other things, it was ordeined, that priests from thencefoorth (to the end they might more freelie attend to their vocation) should be exempt from paieng of tribute and all ma|ner of exactions. Also that they should not be con|streined to go vnto the warres, neither to come be|fore They should not be called to serue in the warres. Authoritie gi|uen vnto bi|shops to order kings. anie temporall iudges, but onlie before their or|dinaries and bishops, by whome they should be iud|ged in all causes. The same ordinaries and bishops should also haue authoritie to order all men, both publike and priuate, aswell for the kéeping of faith gi|uen, as to constreine them to confirme the same, and to punish such as should be found in the contrarie; likewise in causes of controuersie touching matri|monie, tithes, testaments, legacies, and such like: moreouer the correcting of those that blaspheme ei|ther God or his saints.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Heretikes and necromancers, with other the like offendors against the lawes and articles of the chri|stian religion, was assigned vnto the bishops and their substituts, so that all those which were found dis|obedient vnto them, and refused to be at their com|mandement, then should haue authoritie to excom|municate them out of the church, and from compa|nie kéeping with anie of the cõgregation, so as they that were thus excommunicated, should be depriued of all abilitie to inioy anie inheritance or right to lands or possessions whatsoeuer they were. Neither should they be accepted as a witnesse in anie maner of cause, neither beare anie office or rule in the com|mon-wealth. This Gregorie also (as is said) was the first author of that ordinance, by the which the Scotish kings at their coronation vse of ancient cu|stome When the Scotish kings first be|gan to pro|mise by oth to mainteine the libertie of the church. King Grego|rie was giuen wholie vnto godlinesse. King Grego|rie was neuer maried. He was [...]. to vow by solemne oth, that during their liues, they shall mainteine and defend the church with his ministers, in all ancient liberties and priuileges, and not to suffer anie man to hurt or infringe the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There was suerlie in this Gregorie a certeine na|turall inclination to vertue, with such aduisednesse in all his woords, that he vttered few or none but that the same séemed to be spoken with verie great con|sideration. He was neuer maried, but continued in chastitie all his life time. Of meate & drinke he was verie spare, delighting in all kind of sobrietie, more watchfull than giuen to sléepe. But his fame increa|sed most for his mainteining of iustice and ciuill ad|ministration concerning the state of the common-wealth, not omitting the practise of warre, where ne|cessitie required. The first expedition which he tooke in hand, he made into Fife, to recouer that countrie to He made an expedition in|to Fife. The Picts fled into Lou|thian. the crowne of Scotland. At whose entrance into the same, the Picts, whome the Danes had left in those parties at their departure thence, being striken with feare to fall into the hands of the Scots their ancient enimies, fled foorthwith into Louthian, leauing Fife in manner void, and without anie that would offer to defend it against the Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon Gregorie so finding it desolate of The king set inhabitants in Fife. inhabitants, sent for people out of other parts of his realme, appointing them dwellings in that countrie as he thought most expedient. This doone he passed He subdued Louthian. into Louthian, where taking the fortresses and pla|ces of defense, some by force, and some by surrender, he easilie reduced that countrie into his subiection, so that within a few daies, hauing there all at his plea|sure, he came vnto Berwike, where there were a great number of Danes ioined togither with the The Danes and Picts ioine them|selues togi|ther. Picts, as men not minding to flee anie further, but to fight with the Scots euen there, if they should come forward vpon them. But when they saw what number the Scots were of, and héerewith doubting the Englishmen to come on their backs if the mat|ter went not well with them; they thought it best that such Danes as were of anie great reputation of nobilitie, should withdraw into Berwike before the enimies were at hand, and the residue to passe o|uer Twéed into Northumberland, there to ioine They [...]ed in|to Northum|berland. with other Danes that in those parties were latelie arriued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the Englishmen within Berwike, abhorring The Danish nobilitie fled into Berwike nothing more than to be vnder subiection of the Danes, in the euening after the receiuing of the Danish nobles into their towne, deliuered it togi|ther with their ghests vnto the Scotishmen, who suf|fering the Englishmen at their pleasure either to go their waies with all their goods, or to remaine still in their houses, slue the Danes, without sparing either The Danes are slaine in Berwike. man, woman, or child. Then leauing a strong garri|son of Scotishmen within Berwike, Gregorie marched foorth with the residue of his people into Northumberland, to vnite that countrie to other of EEBO page image 141 his dominions that bordered vpon the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In those parties at that selfe time there were two armies lodged in the fields, the one of Danes not far from Yorke, vnder the leading of one Herdunt, who had latelie taken and sacked that citie, and the o|ther of Englishmen that laie 20 miles off from the said Danes. Herdunt hearing of the slaughter which the Scots had made of his countriemen at Ber|wike, threatned sore that he would not leaue a man aliue of the Scotish race within anie part of the con|fines Herdunt threatned the Scots. of Albion. Which vow manie of the companie, following their capteins example, likewise made. Shortlie after, hearing of their enimies approch, the The Danes prepare to the battell. whole host (by commandement of Herdunt) issued foorth of their campe to giue battell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Héere the Scotish king standing with his people in order of battell, had thought to haue vsed some The Scots egerlie innade their enimies. comfortable speech vnto them, thereby to incourage them to fight: but such hast was made by the Scots to preasse vpon their enimies, that he saw it more needfull to take héed to the ordering of them in per|fect araie, than to stand about to erhort them, whome he saw readie inough of their owne accord to fight. Therefore he said no more vnto them, as he went a|mongst the ranks, but onelie willed them to remem|ber how cruellie Constantine their king was some|time King Grego|rie his saieng to the souldi|ers. murthered, after he had yéelded himselfe priso|ner to these enimies, with whome they should now ioine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scots héere vpon running to the battell with no lesse stoutnesse of mind than violent force, gaue their enimies scarse space to charge their weapons, but bare them downe with long speares and iaue|lins, and withall the bilmen following them made great slaughter on ech side, so that there néeded nei|ther exhortation of capteins, nor diligence of wi|flers The Danes [...]d to their camp [...]. to kéepe them in araie. For the wrathfull sto|machs of the souldiers onelie wrought the feat in such sort, that the Danes were quicklie put to flight and chased. Those that could not escape to the campe, got them vnto the next mounteins, who chanced vp|on better lucke than those that escaped to the campe, for the egernesse of the Scots was such in chasing the enimies, that neither ditch nor rampire could staie them from entring the campe vpon the Danes where they made greater slaughter than they had doone in the field.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next daie Herdunt goeth about to assemble his men togither againe, being dispersed here and Herdunt as|sembled his men togither. there: but when he vnderstood how he had lost the more halfe of his whole host, he cursed that vnhappie day, and determined to retire vnto Rasin, who as Herdunt went toward Ra|sin, chiefe ge|nerall of the Danes in England. then was capteine generall of all the Danes that were in England. But Herdunt by reason of [...]s wounded men, whome he was [...] to carie wi [...] him, could not make forward wi [...] anie great speed, so that he was scarse fortie miles got footh on his waie, when woord came to him, that [...] fighting with the Englishmen vnwarilie, at a place called Helcades, chanced to be slaine with a great multi|tude of his people: and therevnto his head was ca|ried abroad vp and downe the countrie from towne to towne to be séene. By such mishaps the prosperitie of the Danes so much flourishing of late, began now manifestlie to decaie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herdunt although he was not a little discouraged therewith, ye [...] he chose foorth a plot of ground mo [...] Herdunt re|mained in camp [...]. méet for his [...]; were he determined to abide in campe, till he might vnder [...] what the Danes in other places were [...]. But Gregorie king of Scots, hauing thus expelled the Danes foorth of Northumberland, brought [...]at countrie vn|der his subiection: neuer thele [...]e he [...] in|habitants King Grego|rie suffered the inhabi|tants of Nor|thumberland to inioy their lands. King Grego|rie wintered at Berwike. to inioy all their posse [...] still; onelie re|ceiuing of them in name of souereigntie a yéerelie tribute. So that within a few daies after, he brake vp his armie, and went himselfe into Berwike, where he remained all the winter season in consulta|tion with his nobles about the publike affaires of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the beginning of the next summer, he prepared againe for warre, and raising an armie, he purposed King Grego|rie prepared an armie a|gainst the Britains. to make a iournie against the Britains, who held (as before ye haue heard) a great part of Scotland. But he was not driuen to vse anie force in this warre: for the Britains being vexed afore this time with warre by the Danes, had compounded with them for an huge summe of monie to haue truce for twen|tie yéeres space: but the Danes without regard to their promise, shortlie after (with a greater power than at the first) entered into the British borders, re|newing the warre so fiercelie, that albeit their force was sore enféebled, by reason of the two last ouer|throwes; yet the Britains doubting the woorst, fea|red to incounter with them, and therefore after con|sultation had, they thought it best to assaie if they might happilie allure the Scots, of their enimies to become their friends. Héerevpon sending vnto the The Bri|tains send to king Grego|rie. Scotish king an herald, they require to ioine with them in armes against the Danes, common enimies to both their countries, promising that if they would so doo, they would willinglie render into his hands all such possessions which they held at anie time be|longing vnto the Scotish kingdome.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Gregorie weieng with himselfe how necessarie this friendship should be, not onelie to the publike King Grego|rie his consi|deration. weale of all the whole land of Albion, but also of the good suertie and aduancement of Christes religion, whereof the Danes were greeuous aduersaries (for this he thought, that if Scots, Englishmen, and Britains did some in one, and knit themselues to|gither in aiding each other, there was no nation in the world that they néeded to feare) he consented vn|to the request of the Britains, and so accepting their A peace con|cluded, and lands surren|dered to the Scots. offer, he had all those regions which perteined some|time to the Scots, and were now in possession of the Britains, surrendered into his hands, and so by this means were the Scotish confines inlarged and extended vnto their owne ancient limits and for|mer bounds.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This dissention and variance being ceassed after this maner, it greatlie reioised the minds of all the inhabitants of this Ile; but contrariwise, the Danes looked for nothing more than present destruction to insue vpon them, if this amitie should continue anie while amongest their enimies. Wherefore they prac|tised sundrie means to breake th'amitie thus remai|ning betwixt their aduersaries, Scots, English|men, and Britains. Wherein they néeded not great|lie to trauell, for within a short time after the conclu|sion of the same league, the prosperous successe of the Englishmen (which for a season had followed them vnder the conduct and gouernement of their king Alured against the Danes) occasioned the The Bri|tains repent them of the league made with the Scots. Britains also (hauing now no further feare of the Danish puissance) to repent themselues of the league, which they had latelie made with the Scots, so that Constantine, whome a little before they had receiued to be their king after the deceasse of his father, raised a power, and with the same entered into Annandale, to recouer that countrie out of the Scotishmens hands. But hearing in the end that Gregorie was comming with a great armie to suc|cour his subiects, whome the said Britains [...] [...]ch side had sore afflicted, they began to draw backe to|wards Cumberland with their [...]ie, thinking there to be in safetie, vntill a time more conuenient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But king Gregorie coasting the countrie, met EEBO page image 142 with them at Lochmaben, and there gaue them bat|tell, The Scots ouerthrow the Britains. wherein when Constantine perceiued how his people began to shrinke backe, as one hauing more regard to his honor than to the suertie of his life, he rushed foorth into the formost prease, there to succour and relieue his standards: but being compassed a|bout amongest a great companie of his enimies, his chance was there to be slaine with a number of Constantine is slaine. the chiefest lords of all the British nation. The other multitude séeing the day go thus against them, fled to saue their liues, leauing the victorie so vnto the Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This ouerthrow did put the Britains in danger to haue bin vtterlie ouerrun, what by the Scots on the one side, and Danes on the other: for as for forren aid to be looked for of the English, they had plaine an|swer they should haue none, sith they had so vniust|lie broken the league concluded with their confede|rats the Scots, to the great hinderance of the pros|perous procéedings of all the inhabitants of this Ile, against their common enimies the Danes. Yet the better to establish the estate of their coun|trie, and in hope of some recouerie of their former damages; they crowned to their king one Herbert or (as some copies haue) one Hebert the brother of Herbert king of Britaine sent ambassa|dors to Gre|gorie. the last Constantine, and herewith sent ambassa|dours vnto Gregorie king of the Scotishmen to ex|cuse themselues, in that they had so wrongfullie at|tempted the warres against him and his people, laieng all the fault in Constantine, who against the wils and contrarie to the minds of his subiects, did take vpon him that dishonorable and most infortu|nat enterprise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Gregorie hauing heard the message of these am|bassadours, for answere declared vnto them, that King Grego|rie his an|sw [...]re. he vnderstood well inough, that the Britains now sued for peace vpon no reuerend consideration they had vnto their oths of couenant; but onelie for that they saw how if they should pursue the warre still, they were sure that in the end they should be like to haue the foile: and therefore he was fullie thus resol|ued, not to conclude anie peace or truce wi [...]h such disloiall people, till they had resigned ouer into his hands the whole possession of the countries of Cum|berland Gregorie re|quired a resig|nation of Cumberland and Westmer|land. and Westmerland, with assurance neuer to pretend anie claime or title vnto those dominions from thenceforth: and herewith for performance of couenants, to render into his hands not onelie the keies of all the townes, castels and fortresses in the same countries, and to auoid quite their waies into Wales to other their countriemen there, but also to deliuer sixtie noble mens sonnes and heires appa|rant as pledges to remaine with the Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The ambassadours returning home with this message, and reporting it accordinglie vnto their king, when all men had said their aduise, in the end they condescended to conclude a peace with the rehearsed conditions prescribed by the Scotish king, sith they saw no better meane to preserue their nation from present destruction. And thus deliue|ring the appointed number of pledges, they left the countries of Cumberland and Westmerland void, Peace was concluded. surrendering into the Scotishmens hands the pos|sessions of all the townes, castels and fortresses, and therewith departed into Northwales, where they placed themselues in the countrie betwixt Conway and the riuer of Dée, out of the which they expelled the Humf. Lhoid. 870. Englishmen (that were then in possession thereof) and therewith they erected a kingdome there, which they named Stradcluid, mainteining warres a|gainst the Englishmen manie yeares after.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 King Gregorie hauing thus inlarged his king|dome, assembled his nobles at Carleill, where he resolued (with their aduise) to follow such good for|tune as by Gods prouidence dailie chanced vnto them. Wherevpon it was agréed, that they should go first vnto Yorke to conquere that citie, whilest The policie of the Scots to haue taken [...]orke. the Englishmen in Kent were occupied with the Danes that were come thither; so as neither the one nation nor the other could attend to make anie attempt to hinder the Scotishmens enterprise. But in the meane time came ambassadours vnto Gre|gorie King Alured sent ambassa|dours vn [...]o king Grego|rie. from king Alured, to congratulat his prospe|rous successe against his enimies the Danes and o|thers. These ambassadours also willed to haue the ancient league betwixt Englishmen and Scots re|newed, by which means both their powers might ioine togither against their common enimies, when they should attempt anie wrongfull inuasion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This request was granted, so that shortlie there|vpon Peace confir|med. peace was established betwixt those princes and their people, with confirmation of the old league, whereto were added these articles; That the Scots should inioy possession of Northumberland without anie claime to be made to the same by the English|men; New condi|tions of peace. If the Danes chanced to inuade either of their dominions, the warre should be accounted as com|mon to them both; Neither should the Scots grant No passage to be granted vnto the eni|mie. passage to anie enimie of the Englishmen through Scotland, neither the Englishmen suffer the Sco|tishmens enimies to passe through England; If a|nie Englishmen did rob or steale anie thing out of Punishment of robbers. Scotland, that should not breake the league; but the offendors with the receiuers should be deliuered to the Scotish magistrats, to be punished according to the qualitie of the offense; and the like should be ob|serued by the Scots towards the Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus things being quieted with the Englishmen, as Gregorie was about to lay armour aside, word came to him of new troubles forth of Galloway, by Galloway in|uaded by the Irishmen. reason of an inuasion made by the Irishmen into that countrie. For the Irishmen hauing knowledge that the inhabitants of Galloway had spoiled two ships of Dubline arriuing on their coast, sent ouer a great power of men, the which landing in Galloway, made great slaughter of the people on each side. King Gregorie being aduertised hereof, streitwaies made towards them, but they hauing knowledge of his comming drew to their ships with a great prey of goods and cattels, and returned therewith imme|diatlie backe into their owne countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herevpon Gregorie without delaie got togither his ships and followed the enimie with all his armie, and landing in Ireland, put the nobles of that realme in great feare, who as then were in contention togi|ther which of them should haue the gouernement, by reason their king was latelie dead, and had left a sonne behind him being but a child in yéeres, to suc|céed him in his throne. Some therefore of the wiser sort, and such as tendered the wealth of their coun|trie, went earnestlie about to agree the parties, but when they saw that it would not b [...], they did so much preuaile, that a truce was taken betwixt them for A [...]ce was taken betwixt the two parties. a while, least fighting still amongst themselues, they should put their countrie in danger to be ouerrun of the Scots: against whome when they had agréed vp|on the foresaid truce, either of the factions raised a The two I|rishmen ga|ther their powers. power, one Bren being generall of the one, and Cor|nelius of the other; for these two princes were heads of the parties, betwixt whom the controuersie for the gouernement of the realme rested [...]nd therevpon by consent of the residue had the [...]ding of all them that were of their [...]on.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 These two capteins with their armies in [...]mped themselues vpon the banke of the riuer Bane, vn|der the mounteine called Fute: their camps being seuered by a small distance the one from the other, Two armies one néere the other. in such a strong place, that it was not possible for EEBO page image 143 the enimies to approch them without manifest dan|ger to cast away themselues. Their chiefe purpose The Irish|mens practise. was to prolong the time here in this place, till they had famished the Scotish armie, and then to deale with them at their pleasure. But the industrious pro|uision of Gregorie passed the politike deuise of the Irishmen: for he had commanded that euerie one of The Scots had made pro|uision of vit|tels afore hand. those Scotishmen, which passed the seas with him, should purueie himselfe of vittels, according to the custome of the countrie, for fiftie daies space, as of bread, chéese, butter, lard, and powdered biefe: as for drinke, they knew they should not néed to care, sith they were sure to find water inough in euerie place where they chanced to come: for as yet filthie & ser|uile gluttonie had not softned nor inured with wan|ton delicacie the warlike natures of the Scotish people.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the end Gregorie, hauing for certeine daies rested himselfe and his men, and deuising in the meane time which way he might best indamage the enimies; at length concluded to send in the night season two thousand of his souldiors vp to the ridge The kings deuise. of the forenamed mounteine called Fute, through the thicke bushes and woods, wherewith the same was couered, to the end that getting to the top of that hill, right ouer where the Irish camps laie, they might in the morning (at what time Gregorie with the rest of the armie went about to assaile his eni|mies) tumble downe stones from the browes of the hill vpon them, thereby either to destroy great num|bers of them, either else to constreine them to come foorth of their strength into the plaine fields, and so to fight with them in a place indifferent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Kenneth Cullan the thane of Carrike, tooke vp|on him to haue the conduct of them that should go a|bout Kenneth Cullan. this interprise, who conueieng his band ouer the water of Bane, and so vp on the backeside of the King Grego|ne assailed the Irishmen. mounteine, in the morning when their felows fell in hand to assaile the Irish campe, where Bren lodged, they tumbled such plentie of mightie stones downe vpon the Irishmen, that aboue a thousand of them being slaine, all the residue were forced to forsake their ground, & to flée in maner without anie stroke striken. The Scots that were sent to pursue them, tooke a great number of them prisoners, and slue but The Irish are pursued. a few, hauing before hand such commandement from their prince.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilest this mischiefe fell vpon Bren and his people, Cornelius with his folkes curssing that in|fortunate daie, left their lodgings, and marched their waies in good order of battell, till they were farre inough out of danger. The bodie of Bren also was found amongst other in the rifling of the campe, Bren was slaine. with the head bruised in péeces, and the braines pa|shed out with some stone throwne downe by the Scotishmen from the hill side: which Gregorie at the request of some of the prisoners, caused to be bu|ried in christian sepulchre. He caused also women and children to be sent awaie harmelesse, onelie re|teining the men of able age prisoners. Furthermore Women and children are kept harmles. he commanded that they should vse neither fire nor sword, but against such onelie as with weapon in hand made anie resistance: and commanded them Unarmed men were spared. Ui [...]s were commanded to be prouided also that they should prouide themselues of vittels to serue them, whilest they should lie abroad & remaine there in that countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herevpon manie of the Irish people thus fasting the merci [...] clemencie of the Scotish king, yéelded themselues vnto him with sundrie fortresses, so that Gregorie finding sufficient prouision of vittels to serue his host for a long season, he went vnto the strong citie of Doungarg, or Doungard, which he en|uironed Doungarg or Doungard besieged. about with a strong siege, & continuing the same certeine daies, at length they within wearied with continuall trauell and lacke of vittels, opened The towne was yéelded. the gate, and suffered him to enter. He would not permit his men to meddle with anie of the spoile, but appointed the townesmen to redéeme the same A gentis ransome. (their armour excepted) of his souldiors for a péece of monie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Afterward, tarieng in this citie by the space of thrée daies, he departed and came afore another citie called Pontus, which he receiued by surrender, and Pontus was surrendred also. therfore preserued the citizens from all hurt & annoi|ance. From thence he purposed to haue gone vnto Dublin, about 14 miles distant from Pontus, but as he marched thitherwards, he was aduertised that Cornelius was comming towards him with such Cornelius came with an huge armie. an huge armie, as the like had not béene séene with|in the memorie of man in that Ile. Whervpon Gre|gorie changing his purpose of going to Dublin, vp|on report of these newes, he got him vp into the next mounteine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next day came the Irishmen ranged in thrée The Irish|men came in thrée battels. Kernes. These might we name Gal lowglasses, if they had beene furnished with exes. battels. In the first there was a great multitude of Kernes with darts and bowes: in the second were a great number of mightie tall men, armed in cotes of male, with bucklers and great long swoords, which they caried vpon their right shoulders. In the third battell, wherein stood their generall Cornelius, with all the chiefest nobles of the countrie, were an infi|nite companie of all sorts of souldiors, chosen foorth of all the whole numbers. The Scots (according to The Scots came in two wings. their custome) diuided themselues into two wings, and a middle ward, in euerie of the which were thrée sorts of souldiors: as first archers, and those with long speares, then bilmen, and last of all such as bare long swoords and leaden malles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus the battels being ordered on both parts, Two battels ioine. forward they make one towards another to begin the fight. The Scots (after their shot and throwing of darts was spent, and that they came to ioine) kept off their enimies with long speares or iauelins, in such sort, that they were not able to come néere them: which disaduantage Cornelius perceiuing, com|manded on high, that they should with their swoords cut those [...]ns in sunder. And as he lifted vp the visor of his helmet, the better to exhort his people to the execution hereof, he was so wounded in the face Cornelius was sore wounded. with a speare, that he was faine to withdraw apart out of the field. The Irishmen supposing he had fled, incontinentlie to saue themselues, threw off their The Irish ran away. armor and fell to running awaie. Thus did the victo|rie incline to the Scotish standards.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There died but a few (to speake of) in the battell, howbeit in the chase there was a woonderfull num|ber slaine: for the Scots pursued them euen vnto Dublin gates, which citie the next daie Gregorie be|set on each side with a mightie siege. There was got Dublin be|sieged. into this citie at the same time a woonderfull multi|tude of people, what of such as were receiued into it fléeing from the battell, as also of other which were there assembled before, in hope of assured victorie and safegard of their goods. By reason wherof being thus besieged, they began quicklie to want vittels, so that either they must of necessitie yeeld, either else by some issue auoid that danger wherein they were pre|sentlie bewrapped.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But forsomuch as they saw no great likelihood of good successe in that exploit, in the end it was con|cluded amongst them, that (sith there was no meane for those noble men which were inclosed within that citie to escape the enimies hands, and that there were none other of anie reputation abroad able to defend the countrie from the Scotishmens puissance) they They confuse vpon a treatie of peace to be made. should fall to some treatie with the Scotish king for a peace to be had, with so reasonable conditions as might be obteined: for other remedie in that pre|sent EEBO page image 144 mischiefe they could deuise none, and therefore this was iudged the best waie of the whole number, namlie of Cormach bishop of Dublin, a man for his singular vertue and reputation of vpright life, of no small authoritie amongst them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He tooke vpon him also to go vnto Gregorie to breake the matter, & so comming afore his presence, besought him most humblie to haue compassion vp|on Cormach B. of Dublin went vnto K. Gregorie. the poore miserable citie, and in such sort to tem|per his wrath, if he had conceiued anie péece of dis|pleasure against the citizens, that it might please him yet vpon their humble submission to receiue them vnto his mercie, and further to accept into his protection his cousine yoong Duncane, vnto whome the kingdome of Ireland was due of right, as all Duncane. the world well vnderstood. He besought him also to remember, that it apperteined more to the honor of a king, to preserue the lawfull right of other kings A wittie saieng. and princes with the quiet state of cities and coun|tries, than by violent hand to séeke their destruction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Wherevnto the king answered, that he was not come into Ireland for anie couetous desire he had to the realme, or to the intent to spoile his kinsman of King Grego|rie his wife & godly answer. the gouernement thereof, but onelie to reuenge such iniuries as the Irishmen had doone to his subiects. Not the Scots but the Irishmen themselues were they that had giuen the occasion of the warre, which they had déerelie bought with no small portion of their bloud (which had bene shed) as punished for that crime worthilie by the iust iudgement of almightie God. But as touching an end to be had of his qua|rell, & for the reseruing of the kingdome vnto yoong Duncans behoofe, when he had the citie at his plea|sure, he would then take such order as he should thinke most conuement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This answer of the Scotish king being reported vnto them within the citie, they determined foorth|with to set open their gates to receiue him: who, Dublin is sur rendered vnto K. Gregorie. when he had caused search to be made whether all things were truelie ment according to the outward shew or not, he marched foorth towards the citie to enter the same in order of battell, with all his whole Gregory was receiued with procession. armie, into the which he was receiued with processi|on of all the estates: for first there met him all the priests and men of religion, with the bishop the fore|said Cormach, who hauing vpon him his pontificall apparell, bare in his hand the crucifix: then followed Cormach bi|shop of Dub|lin becõmeth a crosse-bearer. the nobles with the other multitude.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Which order when Gregorie beheld, he comman|ded his battell to staie a little, and therewith he him|selfe aduanced foorth on foot till he came to the bishop, and falling downe vpon his knées, he reuerentlie kissed the crucifix, wherevpon receiuing humble thanks with high commendation of the bishop for He kisseth the crucifix. such his clemencie, he entered the citie, not staieng till he came into the market place, where comman|ding one part of his armie to keepe their standing, he went with the residue vnto the church of our ladie, and after to that of saint Patrike, where hearing the celebration of diuine seruice, when the same was en|ded, hée entered the castell, where his lodging was prepared. In the morning he caused execution to be doone of certeine vnrulie persons of his armie, who He entred the castell. in the night passed had broken vp the houses of some of the citizens, and rauished diuerse women. And for this act Gregorie being had in high reuerence of the Irish people, lodged part of his armie within the ci|tie, and part he commanded to lodge without in the campe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At length hauing remained a season in this estate at Dublin, he caused the Irish lords to assemble in A peace con|clude [...] with Ireland. councell, where in the end the peace was concluded betwixt him and them, with these articles and coue|nants. First it was agréed that the yoong king Duncane should be brought vp vnder the gouerne|ment [...] of couenent. of wise and discréet persons, to be instructed in all princelie knowledge, within a strong castell, (wherein he had hitherto remained euer since his fa|thers Their yoong king to be wel brought vp. decease) till he came to yéeres of discretion. And that in the meane time Gregorie should haue the gouernance of the realme, receiuing all the for|tresses K. Gregorie to haue the go|uernment of the realme. He should also appoint the magistrates. No man to trafficke in Ireland with out a pasport. into his possession. He should also haue the ap|pointment of the magistrates, who should sée iustice ministred according to the old statutes & ordinances of the Irish kingdome. That the Irishmen should receiue neither Englishman, Britaine, nor Dane, into their countrie, no not so much as for trade of merchandize, without safe conduct to be granted by him. So that things being thus brought to a quiet|nesse in Ireland, he receiued an oth of the chiefest of them for performance of the couenants, and here|with K. Gregorie returned into Scotland. taking with him thréescore hostages, he retur|ned with his victorious armie backe into Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this there chanced no notable trouble to the Scots, neither forreine nor ciuill, by all the time of king Gregories reigne, so that passing the rest of his life in quietnesse, he studied chieflie for the politike gouernement of his people in good order and rule, to the aduancement of the common-wealth: and fi|nallie died an happie old man, in a castell called The king died. Doundore within the countrie of Gariosh, in the 18 yeere after his entring into his estate, and after the birth of our Sauiour 893. He was neuer maried, but liued in continuall chastitie: for his famous vic|tories 893. and other his princelie dooings, he deserued of the Scots to be numbered amongst their most high and renowmed princes. Amongst other his princelie acts which he set forward in his life time, to the ad|ornement of his countrie and common-wealth; A|berdine (of a village) was aduanced by him to the Aberdine is made a citie. state and dignitie of a citie, and the church there in|dowed with faire reuenues, and sundrie priuiled|ges. His bodie was conueied vnto the abbeie of King Grego|rie is buried in Colmekill. Colmekill, and there buried with all solemne pompe and exequies: ouer the which his next successor, Do|nald the fift of that name, caused a faire toome to be erected.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the daies of this Gregorie also, there liued that famous clearke Iohn Scot, a Scotishman in déed Iohn Scot. Some hold that he was an English|man. Bale. borne, but brought vp in studie of good literature at Athens, where hauing learned the Gréeke toong, he was sent for into France, to come vnto the empe|rour Lewes, with whom he remained in seruice for a time: and by whose commandement he translated the booke of saint Dionyse, intituled Hierarchia, into Latine. Afterwards being sent ambassador from the Dionys A [...]|pagita was translated by Iohn Scot. He taught [...]. Alured in England. He taught in Malmesburie same Lewes vnto Alured or Alfred king of Eng|land, he continued with him and taught his children, hauing a place thereto appointed him within the abbeie of Malmesburie, where he had such resort of hearers and scholers, that it was a woonder to be|hold. Notwithstanding, at length when he ceassed not to blame and sharpelie to reprooue the corrupt maners of such his scholers, as were giuen more to libertie than learning, he was by them murthered He was kil|led [...] his scho|lers. with daggers, as he was reading vnto them, and was afterwards registred amongst the number of martyrs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 BUt to our purpose. After Gregorie, succéeded Donald the 5 in gouernement of the kingdome, Donald. he was the sonne of Constantine the second, who Donald the fift. finding the state of the realme in good quiet and flou|rishing in welth, he applied his whole studie to main|teine the same in semblable plight and condition. And before all things he caused iustice to be [...]ulie He was a good iusticier. ministred, so that no iniurie, speciallie if it were doone to ante poore person, escaped vnpunished. Christ He [...] re|ligious. the Lord of all vertue had giuen him such a godlie disposed EEBO page image 145 disposed mind, whose religion (to the aduancement of his glorie) he had euer in high veneration. Among other his godlie ordinances, he made this statute to be obserued as a law, that such as by swearing vnaduisedlie blasphemed the name of almightie God, or in cursing and banning called vpon the name of the wicked feend, and betooke anie christian creature vnto his hellish power and domination (a vice naturalie following the people of that nation) should haue his toong thrust through with a burnig [sic] iron. But wo worth the negligence of such as haue succeeded him, in suffering so necessarie an ordinance to be abolished and worne out of vse, considering the horrible othes and blasphemie, with the bitter and dreadfull cursings so much frequented of all estates in this our time, as well in Scotland as elsewhere, as without great horror of the hearers cannot bee halfe expressed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to our purpose touching the gouernement of Donald, it chanced afterwards, that he had knowledge how Gormond a Dane was landed with a puissant armie vpon the coasts of Northumberland, and had pitched his campe neere vnto the shore, without dooing anie damage to the countrie: so that it was vncerteine what he intended, whether to begin a conquest there, or to passe ouer Humber to make warres on the Englishmen. To preuent therefore all dangers, Donald hasted towards Northumberland; howbeit he was not farre forwards on his iournie, but that word came vnto him, how Gormond was alreadie passed ouer Humber, and entered into the English borders. But yet did not Donald staie his iournie, till he hearde certeinlie that Gormond keeping vpon his way, was aduanced forward at the least 40 miles off from the riuer of Humber, doubting least happilie he had meant some deceit, as suddenlie to haue returned vpon the Scots in Northumberland, when the king had beene once gone backe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But now, when it was knowne that his purpose was onelie to assaile the English countries, accoring to the league newlie confirmed, Donald sent 5000 Scotishmen vnto the aid of the Englishmen; and also appointed two thousand horssemen to remaine with him in Northumberland (where he staied for a time) discharging the residue, & licensing them to returne vnto their homes. Shortlie after Gormond fought with Alured at Abingdon, where in the end the victorie abode with the Englishmen and Scots, though the same was got with such losse of men after long and doubtfull battell, that they were not able to pursue the enimies in chase, but constreined immediatly after to conclude a necessarie peace with them, on condition that the Danes should enioy common seats with the Englishmen in Albion, & that Gormond with his Danes should be baptised and professe the christian religion. Herevpon also were pledges deliuered on both parts, and Gormond comming to receiue baptisme had his name changed and was called Athelstane, during whose life the peace continued betwixt the two nations.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilst things passed thus in England, there rose a peece of trouble betwixt the inhabitants of Murrey land and Rosse, which disquieted king Donald not a little. The occasion grew by reason of certeine theeues, which comming foorth of Rosse in the night time, secretlie entered into Murrey land, to fetch booties from thence. At the first they of Murrey land made resistance against them as well as they might, but after calling their neighbours to aid them, they skirmished in such wise, that within two moneths space, there were slaine betwixt them two thousand of the one side and of the other. Donald being not a little offended to haue his peace broken with intestine discord, gathered a great power, and with the same hasted into Murrey land: where calling the chiefest dooers and mainteiners of this business to make answer to that which was laid to their charge, when they were not able to cleare themselues of the crime, he put them to open execution of death, to the example of other. This trouble being in this sort quieted, he went into Northumberland, to be there in a readinesse, if the Danes or Englishmen (whome he suspected) should attempt anie thing against his subiects in those parties: where in the end, after he had reigned almost I I yeers, he departed this world. His bodie was buried in Colmekill amongst his ancestors, with a marble toome set ouer his graue, as the manner in those daies was customable vsed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After Donald the fift, there succeeded in rule of the reame Constantine the third of that name, the sonne of Ethus the swift, beginning his reigne in the yeere after the incarnation 903. He was more apt for ciuill gouernement, than for the ordering of warlike affaires. King Edward that latelie succeeded Alured in rule ouer the Englishmen being ware thereof, sent vnto him a herald at armes, commanding him to restore vnto his subiects the Englishmen, the countries of Northumberland, Cumberland, & Westmerland (which the Scotish king Gregorie had in times past by occasion of the troublesome season taken from the right owners by force) either else to looke for warres at his hands within fortie daies after this summons.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Constantine heerevnto answered, that if king Edward were minded to make him wars for those lands which he held by rightfull title, he with his people would be readie to defend themselues, hoping in the almightie God that he would turne the punishment on them that uniustlie had piked the quarrell. Herevpon insued manie rodes and foraies betwixt the Englishmen and the Scots, made (as occasion serued) into ech others countrie, with diuers skirmishes and light bickerings for twelue moneths space togither, without anie notable incounter of their maine powers. In which meane time the Danes increased in puissance, more than was thought requisite for the suertie either of the Englishmen or Scots, which mooued king Edward by persuasion of his nobles, to make meanes vnto Constantine to haue the peace renewed: wherevnto Constantine lightlie agreed: so that the league was confirmed againe with the former articles betwixt the English and Scotish nations.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after the warre was renewed betwixt the Englishmen and Danes, and a peace againe confirmed by conclusion of a mariage betwixt Sithrike king of Northumberland, and Beatrice daughter of king Edward, till at length Sithrike was poisoned by his wife the said Beatrice: and then bicause Aualassus (whome the English writers name Aulafe) and Godfrie, the sonnes of Sithrike, put the same Beatrice to death, his father king Edward mooued warre against them, and in foughten field discomfited them, but was slaine in that battell himselfe (as Hector Boetius saith.) But for the further truth of this matter, ye may read more in the historie of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Danes being certified, that king Edward was this slaine, conceiued such hope of good successe after to come, that albeit they were at this time vanquished, they immediatlie made new preparation for the warre, and first of all Aualassus the one of the two brethren before mentioned, sent vnto Constantine the Scotish king, to allure him to ioyne with them against the Englishmen, which with great gifts and large promises he easilie brought to passe, the league notwithstanding which remained betwixt EEBO page image 146 the English and Scotish nations. Héere vpon both the Scots and Danes made the greatest prouision The Scots and Danes contederate themselues to|gither. Malcolme is made chiefe generall of the armie. He is created also heire ap|parant. The earle of Cumberland heire appa|rant to the king of Scots The Scots and Danes ioine their powers togi|ther. They begin a cruell warre. that might be, thinking verelie to subdue the Eng|lishmen, and to bring them to vtter destruction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Malcolme sonne to king Donald was appointed by king Constantine to haue the leading of the Scotish armie, conteining the number of twentie thousand men. The same Malcolme also at the same time was created heire apparant of the realme, ha|uing Cumberland assigned vnto him for the main|tenance of his estate. And euen then it was ordei|ned, that he which should succéed to the crowne after the kings deceasse, should euer inioy that prouince. Malcolme ioining his power with Aualassus and Godfrie (who had assembled in like manner a migh|tie host of Danes) they all togither brake into the English confines, sparing no kind of crueltie that might be deuised, murthering the people without a|nie pitie or compassion in all places where they came, to the intent that the Englishmen mooued with the slaughter of their kinsfolks and friends, should come foorth into the field to giue battell, suppo|sing they should not be able to withstand the force of the Danes and Scotishmen now ioined in one ar|mie togither.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the more vilanie they shewed in their dooings, the sooner were they punished for the same. For A|thelstane the base sonne of king Edward (whome the Athelstane base sonne vn|to king Ed|ward. Englishmen had chosen to succéed in gouernement of their kingdome after his fathers deceasse) with all spéed sought to be reuenged of such ini [...]ious doo|ings Where vpon getting togither an armie, he in|countred Athelstane came against the Scots. with them at a place called Broningfield, or Brunenburgh, in Iuly, in the yeere 937, where the English at the first of purpose gaue somthing backe, 937. as though they had fled: which manner when the Danes and Scots beheld, supposing the Englishmen had fled in déed, they began to pursue amaine, lea|uing The Scots and Danes out of order. their order of battell, ech of them striuing who might be the formost.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Englishmen (according to the order appoin|ted to them by their capteins) suddenlie fell into ar|raie againe, and fiercelie returning vpon their eni|mies, The Scots and Danes ouerthrowne. did beat them downe in great numbers, & so atchiued a most triumphant victorie. There died in this mortall battell manie thousands of Danes and Scotishmen, but chieflie the Scotish nobilitie bought The nobilitie went to wracke. the bargaine most déere, who choosing rather to die in the field than to suffer rebuke by dishonorable flight, it came so to passe that few of them escaped. There di|ed on that side (as some write) 20000 men in this battell, togither with Wilfert king of the Guentes, Hanwall king of Britains, and seuen dukes that came to helpe the Scots and Danes. Athelstane by good aduise following the victorie, entred into Nor|thumberland, Athelstane tooke Nor|thumberland. and finding the countrie dispurueied of men of warre, he easilie made a full conquest ther|of, hauing all the holds and fortresses deliuered into his hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then without further delaie he passed into West|merland, and after into Cumberland, where the inha|bitants Westmerland and Cumber|land recoue|red. of both those regions bare-footed and bare|headed, in token of most humble submission, yéelded themselues vnto him, promising from thence foorth to continue his faithfull subiects. In the meane time Malcolme being sore wounded in the battell, esca|ped; yet with great danger, and in an horsse-litter Malcolme escaped his hurts. was conueied home into his countrie, where he de|clared to king Constantine the whole circumstance of the ouerthrow and losse of his countries aforesaid. Wherevpon Constantine caused a councell to be cal|led at Abirnethie, where he perceiued how sore his A councell called by Con|stantine. realme was inséebled through lacke of such of the no|bilitie as were lost in the last battell, by reason the re|sidue that were left, seemed through wan [...] of yéeres, neither able by counsell nor by force to defend the realme, so as he vtterlie despaired either to be of power to beate backe the enimies, or to gouerne his realme in such politike sort as he would haue wi|shed. And therefore, to rid himselfe of all such cares and troubles, and withall despising all such worldlie pompe as might withdraw him from diuine contem|plation (where vnto he was partlie bent) he gaue o|uer his kinglie estate, and became a canon within Constantine becommeth a canon. the abbeie of saint Andrewes amongst the couent there.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This was in the yéere of our Sauiour 943, and in the fortith yéere of his owne reigne (as Hector Boe|tius 943. saith:) but if he did thus forsake the world, and entred into religion immediatlie after the battell fought at Broningfield or Brunenburgh (for so we find it named by some writers) then must it néedes Matth. West. be before this supposed time alledged by the same Bo|etius, for that battell was fought anno 937, as the best approoued amongst our English writers doo re|port, so that it should rather séeme that Constantine refused in déed to deale with the gouernement of the realme, about the same yéere of our Lord 937, or shortlie after; and that Malcolme gouerned as re|gent and not as king whilest Constantine liued, who departed this life (after he had continued in the ab|beie of saint Andrewes a certeine time) in the fore|said yéere 943, falling in the fortie yéere after he first 943. Constantine died. began to reigne. He was first buried in the church there amongst the bishops, but afterwards he was taken vp and translated vnto Colmekill, where he had a toome set ouer him, as was conuenient for the memorie of his name.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the 36 yéere of his reigne there were two mon|strous creatures borne in Albion, the one amongst the Danes being an hermophrodyte, that is to say, A monster, a child with both sexes, hauing the head like a swine, the brest standing foorth more in resemblance than the common shape of man, a fat bellie, with féete like a goose, legs like a man, full of bristels, and a verie euill fauored thing to behold. The other was borne in Northumberland, onelie hauing a mans An other monster. sex, with one whole bellie from the nauill downe, but aboue the same diuided with two brests creasted or compassed ridge-wise, and not broad like to the shape of man: beside this it had foure armes and two heads. And euen as from the nauill vpwards it was thus diuided into two bodies, so did it appeare there was two contrarie wils or desires in the same, Two contra|rie willes in this monster. euer lusting contrarilie, as when the one did sléepe, the other would wake; when the one required to haue meat, the other passed for none at all. Oftentimes would they chide and brall togither, insomuch that at length they fell so far at variance, that they did beat and rent either other verie pitifullie with their nailes. At length the one with long sickenesse wea|ring away and finallie deceassing, the other was not One part died before the o|ther. able to abide the gréeuous smell of the dead carcase, but immediatlie after died also.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the same time there issued foorth a founteine Bloud issued out of an hill. of bloud out of the side of a mounteine in Gallo|way, and flowed in great abundance for the space of seuen daies togither, so that all the riuers therabout (whereof there is great store in that countrie) had their waters mixed with bloud, and so running into the sea, caused the same to séeme bloudie certeine miles distant from the shore. These prodigious What was ment by these woonders. sights put men in great feare, for that diuinours did interpret the same to signifie some great bloud|shed to fall vpon the Scots shortlie after. They were also the better beléeued, for that within a while after, that great ouerthrow happened at Broningfield, as before is specified.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 147 AFter that Constantine (as is said) was entred into religion, the before named Malcolme the Malcolme forme of Donald was admitted king, [...] rather re|gent: who although he perceiued right well how the force of the realme was so infeebled, that there was no hope to mainteine warres abroad; yet his chiefe studie was by all means possible to defend the bor|ders of the Scotish dominion, and before all things to procure peace with the Englishmen. But as he was about to haue sent embassadours, vnto king Athelstane, to haue treated for peace, he was cre|diblie informed, how Athelstane had giuen Nor|thumberland [...] had gi [...]n him Northember| [...]g. vnto A [...]lassus, and made a league with him to haue his aid against the Scots. Which newes put Malcolme in woonderfull dread, for that he vnderstood how his realme was vnpurucied of skilfull capteins to make resistance. Yet he caused a councell to be called, wherein when such as were as|sembled [...] councel cal|led. proponed manie [...]ond and [...]dish reasons, it might happen there was small hope of anie good conclusion; but euen as they were at a point to haue broken vp without anie certeine resolution, word was brought ho [...] through seditious discord, which had chanced betwixt the Danes and Englishmen be|ing assembled togither in campe, they had fought a The English men and the Daius fall [...] togither, and fight. right cruell and bloudie battell, the victorie in the end remaining with the Englishmen, who ceased not to pursue the Danes in chase, so long as anie day light appéered in the skie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Aualassus with such Danes as he might get togi|ther Aualassus fled into [...]estmer|land, rifled the Ile of Man, and got him into Ireland. after that ouerthrow, fled into Westmerland, and within thrée daies after, in such ships as he found there vpon the coast, he failed ouer into the Ile of Man, and spoiling the same, with all the preie he pas|sed from thence ouer into Ireland. In the meane time king Athelstane hauing lost no small number of his people in the foresaid battell, omitted his iour|nie into Scotland, and lay still in Northumberland, no man vnderstanding what he intended to [...]. They go in procession in Scotland for [...]. Which newes were so pleasant to the Scotishmen, that there was common supplications and processi|ons made through the whole realme, in rendering thanks to almightie God for deliuering the people by this means from so great and present a danger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after came ambassadours from Athel|stane vnto Malcolme, to mooue means for a peace to Ambassadors sent vnto Malcolme. be concluded betwixt the Scotish and English nati|ons, according to the articles of the old league, which motion was i [...]fullie hear [...] of Malcolme, though he set a countenance of the matter as though he passed not whether he had warre or peace: but in the end, for that (as he said) peace was most necessarie for all parts, he shewed himselfe willing to haue the old [...] league renewed betwixt the Englishmen and Scots, with anie reasonable conditions which should be thought requisit.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After the returne of the ambassadours, the league The league was confir|med againe. was newlie confirmed betwixt the two kings and their people, with the semblable articles as were comprised in the old league, with this article onelie added therevnto; that Northumberland, being as Northumber|land allotted vnto Eng|land. now replenished most with Danish inhabitants, should remaine to the Englishmen; and Cumberland with Westmerland to the Scots: vpon this condition, that he which should succeed as heire vnto Cumberland and [...]ester|land to [...] ho|mage vnto England. the crowne of Scotland after the kings deceasse, being heire apparant, should hold those regions, and doo homage vnto the king of England as his vassall perpetuallie for the same. The peace being thus established betwixt these nations, Indulph the sonne of Constantine the third was proclaimed prince of Cumberland, and inheritour to the crowne of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, Malcolme passed the residue of his life in good quiet, without anie troubles of warre, as a man onelie studieng to mainteine the state of his realme in good order, as well for the wealth of the temporalitie, as spiritualitie, wherevnto he was equallie inclined. At length, as he rode about the prouinces of his realme, to see the lawes dulie ministred, at Vlrine a village in Murrey land, where he caused iustice to be somewhat streictlie executed vppon King Mal|colme was murthered. offendors, he was murthered in the night season by treason of a few conspirators, in the fifteenth yeare of his reigne. But such as did this wicked The conspi|rators were put to [...]|tion. deed with their complices, by diligent examination were tried out, and on the next day being apprehended, suffered due execution, according as they had deserued, being torne in peeces with wild horsses, The murthe|rers were torne with [...]ies. and those peeces sent vnto sundrie cities, where they were hanged vp on the gates and towers, vntill they rotted away.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They that were the deuisers of the murder also, The procu|rers of the murther were [...]ed. and procured the dooers therevnto, were thrust quite through vpon sharpe stakes, and after hanged vp aloft on high gibbets; and other of the conspirators were put to other kinds of death, as the case seemed to require. The death of Malcolme chanced in the yeare after the death of our Sauiour 959. Here 959. The mista|king of the names and tu [...]es of the English kings in the Scotish [...]|ters. we haue thought good to put you in remembrance, that either the Scots are deceiued in their account of yeares; or else mistake the names of the kings of England: for where they write that this Malcolme departed this life about the 22 yeare of Athelstane king of England, that can not be; if Malcolms deceasse chanced in the yeare 959, for Athelstane was dead long before that time, to wit, in the yeare 940, and reigned but sixteene yeares.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, where the Scotish writers make [...]|tion of the warres which king Edmund that [...]|ded Athelstane had against A [...]lafe and the Danes of Northumberland, in the daies of king Indulph that succéeded Malcolme, it can not stand by anie means (if they mistake not their account of yeares:) for the same Edmund was slaine in the years 948. But verelie this fault in the iust account of yeares is but too common in the Scotish historie, and there|fore to him that should take vpon him to reforme the errors thereof in this behalfe, it were necessarie to alter in a maner the whole course of the same hi|storie. And therefore we will not with anie man to giue anie credit vnto their account in yeares, tou|ching the reignes of the English kings, further than they shall see them to agrée with our writers, whome in that behalfe we may more safelie follow, [...] by conferring the same with the Scotish writers in some places, happilie perceiue the true time, aswell of the reignes of their kings, as of ants done, to full [...]tin in yeares and seasons, much differing from their account: thereof to admonish the reader, aswell [...]re as in the English historie, we haue thought it not impertinent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And albeit that some may [...] what rea [...] [...] haue to mooue vs to doubt of their account of years, more than we [...] of that in our owne writers? [...] will referre the same vnto their iudgements that are learned, and haue trauelled indifferentlis alike, aswell in peruling the one as the other without [...]. But as the errors are sooner found than ame [...] [...], so haue we thought good to set downe in the [...]argent of this booke, the yeares as we find them [...]ted in the Scotish writers, speciallie in places where we differ anie thing from them, because we will not séeme by way of controliment to preiudice the authors, further than by due consideration the [...] [...]sed reader shall thinke it expedient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 B [...] to my purpose. After the corps of Malcolme Indulph. [...] buried (according to the custome) a|mongst, EEBO page image 148 his predecessors in the abbie church of Col|mekill, Indulph prince of Cumberland was placed in the marble chaire at Scone, there receiuing the crowne and other the inuestures of the kingdome. In the administration whereof he continued for the space of fiue yeares without anié notable trouble; in the end of which terme, he was required by messen|gers sent vnto him from Aualassus, to ioine with Indulph is prouoked by Aualassus to warre against England. him in league against the Englishmen, in reuenge of that ouerthrow, which aswell the Danes as Scots had receiued at Broningfield, alledging that oppor|tunitie was now offered, sith after the decesse of A|thelstane, the Englishmen had created Edmund to His persua|sions. be their king, a man of a dull wit, & not fit for the ad|ministration of high affaires: neither did the league concluded betwixt Athelstane and Malcolme inforce anie impediment, but that he might enter the warre against the Englishmen, considering that both the princes that were the authors of that league were departed out of this life, by whose deceasse the said league was ended.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But Indulph for answere herevnto declared, Indulph his answere. that the league was concluded betwixt Malcolme and Athelstane, by great deliberation of aduise, and by consent of all the estates of both realmes, taking their solemne oths for the true obseruing thereof, so that he could not, vnlesse he should violate that oth, attempt anie thing to the breach of peace with the Englishmen, procuring the iust indignation of al|mightie God against him and his people in that be|halfe. Herevpon the Danes accounting Indulph The Danes not pleased with such an answere pro|cure warre a|gainst Eng|land. but a slouthfull and negligent person for this kind of answere, as he that regarded not the honor of his realme and people, in letting passe so great opportu|nitie to be reuenged of the Englishmen for the death of such Scots as died in the ouerthrow at Broning|field, determined not to be noted with the like spot of reproch: but with all speed sending for aid into Norwaie, prepared to passe ouer into England, vn|der the conduct of Aualassus, who ioining his power The Norwe|gians c [...]me to the aid of A|ualassus. R [...]inold a va|liant capteine. with the Norwegians, which came to his aid vnder the leading of a right valiant capteine called Rai|nold, transported with all spéed ouerinto Northum|berland, vnto whome the gouernour there named Elgarine, acknowledging himselfe to be descen|ded of the Danish bloud, yéelded all the castels, Elgarine yéel|ded the forts vnto the Danes. tounes & forts, promising to aid Aualassus against king Edmund to the vttermost of his power.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 These newes comming to the knowledge of Ed|mund, with all spéed he gathereth his power, and [...]ing into Scotland for such aid as he ought to haue from thence by couenants of the league, there came vnto him ten thousand Scotishmen with rea| [...] 10000 soul|diers sent vn|to king Ed|mund. [...]ls to serue him in these his wars against the Danes. Then ioining his owne people with those Sco [...]ishmen, he set forward towards the enimies. There were a [...] 8000 Northumberland men with Aualassus, the which vpon the first incounter with the Englishmen, fell [...]reight to running away, which made an open and readie breach vnto the English part, to atteine the victorie: for the Danes being not able to resist the violent force of their enimies, in|couraged now with the flight of the Northumbers, were quicklie constreined to giue backe, and in the [...]nd [...] flee amaine, the Englishmen and Scots [...]d [...]wing in the chase with such fiercenesse, that all such as they ouer [...]ke died vpon the sword, though they submitted themselues neuer so humblie in requi|ring mercie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Elgarine yet chancing to fall into his enimies Elgarine is taken priso|ner. hands was taken aliue: for so had Edmund com|manded, that if anie man might take him, he [...] in anie case saue his life, that he might put [...] death in most cruell wise, to the example [...].

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After this, and for the space of three daies after the battell, Edmund lay still in the fields néere vnto the place where they fought, and then repaired vnto Yorke, where Elgarine for his treason was drawen Elgarine is drawen in péeces. in péeces with wild horsses. There chanced also no notable trouble in Albion, during the space of foure yeares after this said ouerthrow of the Danes with their capteine Aualassus, who is also otherwise cal|led Aulafe, as is to be séene in the English histories, where the same make mention of the foresaid king Edmund, whome likewise they affirme to be the brother of Athelstane, and not his sonne, as before is partlie touched. Indulph in this meane time did with K. Indulph was diligent in his office. great diligence sée to the good order of his realme, shewing therein what belonged to the office of a woorthie prince. But euen as all things séemed to rest in peace & quietnes through the whole Ile of Al|bion, Hagon king of Norwaie, and Helrike king of Denmarke, of purpose to reuenge the slaughter of The kings of Denmarke and Norwaie enter with an armie into Scotland. their countrimen latelie made in Northumberland, came with a mightie nauie vnto the coasts of Scot|land, assaieng to land with their whole armie, first in the Forth, then in the riuer of Taie; but yet through such resistance as the Scots made, being assembled togither to kéepe them off, they were faine to with|draw, The enimies are put off. and wasting alongst the coasts of Angus, the Marnes, Mar, and Buthqhane, at length faining as though they would haue taken their course honie|wards, they lanched foorth into the high seas. But within foure daies after returning againe to the shore, they landed their people earlie in one morning vpon the coast of Boen, at a place called Cullane, a countrie ioining vnto Buthqhane, putting such of They land in Boen. the countrie people to flight, as presented them|selues to impeach their landing and inuasion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But Inulph being aduertised hereof, forthwith King In|dulph draw|eth néere to|wards the e|nimies. assembling the whole power of his realme, drew towards that part with such speed, that he was come into Boen before his enimies were certified that he was set forward. So soone therefore as they heard he was come, such as were abroad foraieng the same countrie, were called backe to the campe. But Inulph without protracting of time came still forward, and vpon his approch to the enimies, he K. Indulph prepared to battell. prepared to giue battell, and with a short oration began to incourage his people to fight manfullie. But before he could make an end, the Danes gaue the onset with such violence, that the battell a long space The Danes gaue the onset. continued doubtfull on both sides, the Danes on the one part and the Scots on the other, dooing their vttermost indeuours to atchiue the victorie, till at length they of Louthian with their capteins Dunbar and Grame began to appeare on the backe halfe A supplie sene vnto the Scots. of the Danes. With which sight they were put in such feare, that those which fought in the fore ward, retired backe vnto the middle ward, whome the Scots eagerlie pursuing, beat downe euen till they came vnto the reare ward, which coueting rather to die in the fight, than to giue backe, and so to be slaine in the chase (for those in the reare ward were heauie armed men) continued the battell more with a certeine stiffe stubbornes of mind, than with anie great force or forcast, being so ouermatched as they were, & forsaken of their fellowes: for other of the Danes, namelie the archers and kernes fled their waies, The Danes fled. some towards their ships, and some here and there being scattered abroad in the fields, fell into the mosses, the maresh grounds, and other streicts, where they were slaine euerie one by such as followed in the chase.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Inulph himselfe with certeine companies about him, departing from his maine battell to discouer the fields, as though all had beene quiet on eche side, The king with few in his companie fell by chance vpon a whole band of the Danes, where the EEBO page image 149 the same lay incouert within a close vallie, being fled from the field thither vpon the first ioining of the battels, with the which entering into fight, he was shot through the head with a dart, and so died; but not before he was reuenged of those his enimies, the [...]. In [...]ulph was slaine with a dart and died. whole number of them being slaine there in the place. His bodie was first buried in Tullane, a towne of Boene, and after translated vnto the abbie of Colmekill, and there interred amongest other his predecessors the Scottish kings. Indulph reigned about nine yeares and died thus valiantlie, [...]61 saith Io. [...]. though infortunatlie, in the yeare after the incarnation 968, as saith Hector Boetius. 968

Compare 1577 edition: 1 AFter the corps of Indulph was remooued vnto Duffe. Colmekill and there buried; Duffe the sonne of K. Malcolme was crowned K. at Scone with all due solemnitie. In the beginning of his reigne, Cu|lene the sonne of K. Indulph was proclaimed prince of Cumberland: immediatlie wherevpon the king The king went vnto the westerne Iles. transported ouer into the westerne Iles, to set an or|der there for certeine misdemeanors vsed by diuers robbers and pillers of the common people. At his arriuall amongst them he called the tha [...]es of the He purged the Iles. Iles afore him, commanding streightlie as they would auoid his displeasure, to purge their countries of such malefactors, whereby the husbandmen and o|ther commons might liue in quiet, without vexation of such barrettors and idle persons as sought to liue onlie vpon other mens goods.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The thanes vpon this charge giuen them by the king, tooke no small number of the offendors, part|lie, [...]tors ta|ken and put to death. by publike authoritie, & partlie by lieng in wait for them where they supposed their haunt was to re|sort, the which being put to execution according to that they had merited, caused the residue of that kind of people either to get them ouer into Ireland, either else to learne some manuall occupation where|with Uagabounds compelled to learne an oc|cupation. to get their liuing, yea though they were ne|uer so great gentlemen borne. Howbeit the nobles with this ertreme rigor shewed thus by the king a|gainst their linage, were much offended therwith, The nobles were discon|tented with the kings doo|ings. accounting it a great dishonor for such as were des|cended of noble parentage, to be constreined to get their liuing with the labor of their hands, which onlie apperteined to plowmen, and such other of the base degrée as were borne to trauell for the maintenance of the nobilitie, and to serue at their commande|ment by order of their birth, and in no wise after such sort to be made in maner equall with them in state and condition of life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore, they murmured closelie amongest The occasion of murmuring of the nobili|tie. themselues, how the king was onlie become friend to the commons & cleargie of his realme, hauing no respect to the nobilitie, but rather declared himselfe to be an vtter enimie thereof, so that he was vnwoor|thie to haue the rule of the nobles and gentlemen, vnles he knew better what belonged to their degrée. This murmuring did spread not onelie among them in the Iles, but also through all the other parts of his realme, so that they ceased not to speake verie euill of the gouernement of things. In the meane The king fell [...]cke. time the king fell into a languishing disease, not so gréeuous as strange, that none of his physicians could perceiue what to make of it. For there was séene in him no token, that either choler, melancho|lie, flegme, or any other vicious humor did any thing abound, whereby his bodie should be brought into such decaie and consumption (so as there remained vnneth anie thing vpon him saue skin and bone.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And sithens it appeared manifestlie by all out|ward signes and tokens, that naturall moisture did nothing faile in the vitall spirits, his colour also was fresh and faire to behold, with such liuelines of loo [...], that more was not to be wished for; he had also a temperat desire and appetite to his meate & drinke, but yet could he not sléepe in the night time by anie prouocations that could be deuised, but still fell into excéeding sweats, which by no means might be re|streined. The physicians perceiuing all their medi|cines to pant due effect, yet to put him in some com|fort of helpe, declared to him that they would send for some cunning physicians into forreigne parts, who happilie being inured with such kind of diseases, should easilie cure him, namelie so soone as the spring of the yeare was once come, which of it selfe should helpe much therevnto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit the king, though he had small hope of The king be|ing sicke, yet he regarded iustice to be executed. recouerie, yet had he still a diligent care vnto the due administration of his lawes and good orders of his realme, deuising oft with his councell about the same. But when it was vnderstood into what a pe|rillous sicknesse he was fallen, there were no small number, that contemning the authoritie of the ma|gistrats, A rebellion practised. began to practise a rebellion. And amongst the chiefest were those of Murrey land, who slaieng sundrie of the kings officers, began to rage in most cruell wise against all such as were not consenting to their misordered tumult. The kings physicians for|bad The rebellion was kept frõ the kings knowledge. in anie wise, that the king should be aduertised of such businesse, for doubt of increasing his sicknes with trouble of mind about the same. But about that present time there was a murmuring amongst the people, how the king was vexed with no naturall sicknesse, but by sorcerie and magicall art, practised by a sort of witches dwelling in a towne of Murrey Witches in Fores. land, called Fores.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon, albeit the author of this secret talke was not knowne: yet being brought to the kings eare, it caused him to send foorthwith certeine wittie persons thither, to inquire of the truth. They that Inquirie was made. were thus sent, dissembling the cause of their iornie, were receiued in the darke of the night into the ca|stell of Fores by the lientenant of the same, called Donwald, who continuing faithfull to the king, had kept that castell against the rebels to the kings vse. Unto him therefore these messengers declared the cause of their comming, requiring his aid for the ac|complishment of the kings pleasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The souldiers, which laie there in garrison, had an inkling that there was some such matter in hand as The matter appeareth to be true. was talked of amongst the people; by reason that one of them kept as concubine a yoong woman, which was daughter to one of the witches as his par|amour, who told him the whole maner vsed by hir mother & other hir companions, with their intent al|so, which was to make awaie the king. The souldier A witches daughter is examined. hauing learned this of his lemman, told the same to his fellowes, who made report to Donwald, and hée shewed it to the kings messengers, and therewith sent for the yoong damosell which the souldier kept, as then being within the castell, and caused hir vpon streict examination to confesse the whole matter as she had séene and knew. Wherevpon learning by hir confession in what house in the towne it was where The witches are found out. they wrought there mischiefous mysterie, he sent foorth souldiers about the middest of the night, who breaking into the house, found one of the witches An image of wax rosting at the fire. rosting vpon a woodden broch an image of wax at the fler, resembling in each feature the kings person, made and deuised (as is to be thought) by craft and art of the diuell: an other of them sat reciting cer|teine words of inchantment, and still basted the i|mage with a certeine liquor verie busilie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The souldiers finding them occupied in this wise, The witches were exami|ned. tooke them togither with the image, and led them in|to the castell, where being streictlie examined for what purpose they went about such manner of in| [...]hantment, they answered, to the end to make away EEBO page image 150 the king: for as the image did waste afore the fire, so The whole matter is confessed. did the bodie of the king breake foorth in sweat. And as for the words of the inchantment, they serued to keepe him still waking from sléepe, so that as the war euer melted, so did the kings flesh: by the which meanes it should haue come to passe, that when the war was once cleane consinned, the death of the king should immediatlie follow. So were they The nobles of the countrie set the wit|ches on work. taught by euill spirits, and hired to worke the feat by the nobles of Murrey land. The standers by, that heard such an abhominable tale told by these wit|ches, streightwaies brake the image, and caused the witches (according as they had well deserued) to bée The witches were burnt. burnt to death.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It was said, that the king at the verie same time that these things were a dooing within the castell of The king is restored to health. Fores, was deliuered of his languor, and slept that night without anie sweat breaking foorth vpon him at all, & the next daie being restored to his strength, was able to doo anie maner of thing that lay in man to doo, as though he had not béene sicke before anie thing at all. But howsoeuer it came to passe, truth it is, that when he was restored to his perfect health, The king with an armie pursued the rebels. he gathered a power of men, & with the same went into Murrey land against the rebels there, and cha|sing them from thence, he pursued them into Rosse, and from Rosse into Cathnesse, where apprehending them, he brought them backe vnto Fores, and there The rebels are executed. caused them to be hanged vp, on gallows and gibets.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Amongest them there were also certeine yoong gentlemen, right beautifull and goodlie personages, being neere of kin vnto Donwald capteine of the castell, and had béene persuaded to be partakers with the other rebels, more through the fraudulent coun|sell of diuerse wicked persons, than of their owne ac|cord: wherevpon the foresaid Donwald lamenting Captein Don wald craued pardon for them but not granted. their case, made earnest labor and sute to the king to haue begged their pardon; but hauing a plaine deni|all, he conceiued such an inward malice towards the king (though he shewed it not outwardlie at the first) that the same continued still boiling in his stomach, and ceased not, till through setting on of his wife, and in reuenge of such vnthankefulnesse, hée found meanes to murther the king within the fore|said castell of Fores where he vsed to soicurne. For Donwald conceiued ha|tred against the king. the king being in that countrie, was accustomed to lie most commonlie within the same castell, hauing a speciall trust in Donwald, as a man whom he ne|uer suspected.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But Donwald, not forgetting the reproch which his linage had susteined by the execution of those his kinsmen, whome the king for a spectacle to the people had caused to be hanged, could not but shew mani|fest tokens of great griefe at home amongst his fa|milie: which his wife perceiuing, ceassed not to tra|uell with him, till she vnderstood what the cause was of his displeasure. Which at length when she had learned by his owne relation, she as one that bare Donwalds wife counsel|led him to mur ther the king. no lesse malice in hir heart towards the king, for the like cause on hir behalfe, than hir husband did for his friends, counselled him (sith the king oftentimes v|sed to lodge in his house without anie gard about him, other than the garrison of the castell, which was wholie at his commandement) to make him awaie, and shewed him the meanes wherby he might soonest accomplish it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Donwald thus being the more kindled in wrath by the words of his wife, determined to follow hir ad|uise in the execution of so heinous an act. Whervpon The womans [...]ll counsell is followed. deuising with himselfe for a while, which way hée might best accomplish his curssed intent, at length gat opportunitie, and sped his purpose as followeth. It chanced that the king vpon the daie before he pur|posed to depart foorth of the castell, was long in his o|ratorie at his praiers, and there continued till it was late in the night. At the last, comming foorth, he called such afore him as had faithfullie serued him in pur|sute and apprehension of the rebels, and giuing them heartie thanks, he bestowed sundrie honorable gifts The king re|warded his friends. amongst them, of the which number Donwald was one, as he that had béene euer accounted a most faith|full seruant to the king.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At length, hauing talked with them a long time, The king went to bed. he got him into his priuie chamber, onelie with two of his chamberlains, who hauing brought him to bed, came foorth againe, and then fell to banketting with Donwald and his wife, who had prepared diuerse de|licate His chamber|lains went to banketting. dishes, and sundrie sorts of drinks for their reare supper or collation, wherat they sate vp so long, till they had charged their stomachs with such full gorges, that their heads were no sooner got to the pil|low, but asléepe they were so fast, that a man might haue remooued the chamber ouer them, sooner than to haue awaked them out of their droonken sleepe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then Donwald, though he abhorred the act great|lie in heart, yet through instigation of his wife hee called foure of his seruants vnto him (whome he had made priuie to his wicked intent before, and framed to his purpose with large gifts) and now declaring vnto them, after what sort they should worke the feat, they gladlic obeied his instructions, & spéedilie going about the murther, they enter the chamber (in which the king laie) a little before cocks crow, where The suborned seruants cus the kings throte. they secretlie cut his throte as he lay sléeping, with|out anie buskling at all: and immediatlie by a po|sterne gate they caried foorth the dead bodie into the fields, and throwing it vpon an horsse there prouided readie for that purpose, they conuey it vnto a place, about two miles distant from the castell, where they staied, and gat certeine labourers to helpe them to turne the course of a little riuer running through the fields there, and digging a déepe hole in the chanell, The king his buriall. they burie the bodie in the same, ramming it vp with stones and grauell so closelie, that setting the water in the right course againe, no man could perceiue that anie thing had béene newlie digged there. This they did by order appointed them by Donwald as is reported, for that the bodie should not be found, & by bléeding (when Donwald should be present) declare him to be guiltie of the murther. ¶ For such an opini|on men haue, that the dead corps of anie man being slaine, will bléed abundantlie if the murtherer be present. But for what consideration soeuer they bu|ried him there, they had no sooner finished the worke, The poorel [...] borers are slaine. but that they flue them whose helpe they vsed herein, and streightwaies therevpon fled into Orknie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Donwald, about the time that the murther was in dooing, got him amongst them that kept the watch, Donwald kept himselfe amongst the watchmen. and so continued in companie with them all the resi|due of the night. But in the morning when the noise was raised in the kings chamber how the king was slaine, his bodie conuied awaie, and the bed all bu|raied with bloud; he with the watch ran thither, as though he had knowne nothing of the matter, and Donwald a verie di [...]|biet. breaking into the chamber, and finding cakes of bloud in the bed, and on the floore about the sides of it, he foorthwith flue the chamberleins, as guiltie of that heinous murther, and then like a mad man running to and fro, he ransacked euerie corner within the ca|stell, as though it had béene to haue seene if he might haue found either the bodie, or anie of the murthe|rers hid in anie priuie place: but at length comming to the posterne gate, and finding it open, he burdened the chamberleins, whome he had slaine, with all the fault, they hauing the keies of the gates commit|ted to their kéeping all the night, and therefore it could not be otherwise (said he) but that they were of counsell in the committing of that most detesta|ble EEBO page image 151 murther.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Finallie, such was his ouer earnest diligence in [...] wiser than other. The matter [...]pected. the seuere inquisition and triall of the offendors héerein, that some of the lords began to mislike the matter, and to smell foorth shrewd tokens, that he should not be altogither cleare himselfe. But for so much as they were in that countrie, where he had the whole rule, what by reason of his friends and authori|tie togither, they doubted to vtter what they thought, till time and place should better serue there vnto, and héere vpon got them awaie euerie man to his home. For the space of six moneths togither, after this hei|nous murther thus committed, there appéered no Pr [...]digions [...]ather. sunne by day, nor moone by night in anie part of the realme, but still was the skie couered with continu|all clouds, and sometimes such outragious winds a|rose, with lightenings and tempests, that the people were in great feare of present destruction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 IN the meane time Culene prince of Cumberland, the sonne (as I haue said) of king Indulph, accom|panied Culene. with a great number of lords and nobles of the realme, came vnto Scone, there to receiue the crowne according to the manner: but at his com|ming thither, he demanded of the bishops what the The king as|ked the cause of the foule weather. The bishops answer vnto the king. cause should be of such vntemperats weather. Who made answer, that vndoubtedlie almightie God shewed himselfe thereby to be offended most highlie for that wicked murther of king Duffe: and suerlie vnlesse the offendors were tried foorth and punished for that deed, the realme should féele the iust indigna|tion of the diuine iudgement, for omitting such pu|nishment as was due for so greeuous an offense. Culene héere vpon required the bishops to appoint publike processions, fastings, and other godlie exer|cises The king re|quired pub|like praiers to [...]e had. to be vsed of the priests and people, through all parts of the realme, for the good appeasing of Gods wrath in this behalfe; and in such sort and manner as in semblable cases the vse and custome in those daies was. He himselfe made a solemne vow, confirming it with a like oth, before all the péeres & nobles there The king made an oth. assembled, that he would not ceasse till he had reuen|ged the death of king Duffe vpon the false inhabi|tants of Murrey land, to the example of all other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The multitude being present, getting them to ar|mor, followed their prince, taking his iournie with|out The king went with an arm [...]e into Murrey land. further delaie towards Murrey land, the inhabi|tants of which region hearing of his approch, and the cause of his comming, were striken with excéeding feare: but namelie Donwald, being giltie in consci|ence, doubted lest if he were put to torture, he should A giltie con|science accu|seth a man. be inforced to confesse the truth. Whervpon without making his wife priuie to his departure, or anie o|ther of his familie, saue a few such as he tooke with him, he secretlie got him to the mouth of the riuer of Spey, where finding a ship readie, he went aboord the Donwald get|teth him se|cretlie awaie. same, purposing to haue fled his waies by sea into Norwaie: for this is the peculiar propertie of a giltie conscience, to be afraid of all things, and either in ge|sture or countenance to bewraie it selfe, accounting flight most sure, if occasion may serue thereto. For this Donwald, whome no man (though some partlie The murther. of the king is reuealed. suspected him) might well haue burdened with the crime of his maisters death (by reason of his faith|full seruice shewed towards him afore time) had he not thus sought to haue auoided the countrie, was now detected of manifest treason, euerie man detes|ting his abhominable fact, and wishing him to be o|uer whelmed in the raging flouds, so to paie the due punishment, which of right he owght, for his vile tre|son in murthering his naturall lord.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Culene being heereof aduertised, passed ouer The castell of Fores is ta|ken and all the [...]nhabitants slaine. Spey water, and taking the castell of Fores, slue all that he found therein, and put the house to sacke and fire. Donwalds wife with his thrée daughters were taken: for Culene commanded, that whosoeuer could light vpon them, should in anie wise saue their liues, and bring them vnto him. Which being doone, he had The murther is who [...] con|fessed. them to the racke, where the mother vpon hir exami|nation confessed the whole matter, how by hir pro|curement chieflie hir husband was mooued to cause the déed to be doone, who they were that by his com|mandement did it, and in what place they had buried the bodie. Héere would the multitude haue run vpon hir and torne hir in peeces, but that they were restrei|ned by commandement of an officer at armes. The K. with the residue for that night rested themselues, and in the morning tooke order for due prouision of all things necessarie to take vp the bodie of king King Duffe his bodie to be taken vp. Duffe, and then to conueis it vnto Colmekill, there to be buried amongest his predecessors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But as they were busie héereabout, woord came that the traitor Donwald was by shipwracke cast Donwald is taken prisoner vpon the shore within foure miles of the castell, as though he were by Gods prouision brought backe into his owne countrie to suffer worthie punishment for his demerits. Wherevpon the inhabitants of the places next adioining tooke him, and kept him fast bound till they knew further of the kings pleasure: who verie glad of the newes, sent foorth immediatlie a band of men to fetch him. They that were sent did as they were commanded: and being scarse retur|ned, there came in diuerse lords of Rosse, bringing with them Donwalds foure seruants, which (as be|fore Donwalds foure seruants were taken also. is said) did execute the murther. Thus all the of|fendors being brought togither vnto the place where the murther was both contriued and executed, they were arrained, condemned, and put to death in ma|ner as followeth, to the great reioising of the people that beheld the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They were first scourged by the hangman, and then Donwald with his con|federats are executed. bowelled, their entrails being throwen into a fire and burnt, the other parts of their bodies were cut in|to quarters, and sent vnto the chiefest cities of the realme, and there set vp aloft vpon the gates & high|est towers, for example sake to all such as should come after, how heinous a thing it is to pollute their hands in the sacred bloud of their prince. This dread|full end had Donwald and his wife, before he saw anie sunne after the murther was committed, and that by the appointment of the most righteous God, the creator of that heauenlie planet and all other things, who suffereth no crime to be vnreuenged. Those that were the takers of the murtherers were Rewards gi|uen vnto the takers of those murtherers. highlie rewarded for their paines and trauell therein susteined, being exempt from charges of going foorth to the warres, and also of all manner of paiments belonging to publike duties, as tributes, subsidies, and such like.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 These things being thus ordered, the bodie of king Duffe was taken vp, and in most pompous manner The bodie of king Duffe honorablie bu|ried. conueied vnto Colmekill, accompanied all the waie by Culene, and a great multitude of lords both spiri|tuall and temporall, with other of the meaner states. There be that haue written how his bodie (though it had laine six moneths vnder the ground) was no|thing impaired either in colour or otherwise, when it was taken vp, but was found as whole and sound as though it had béene yet aliue, the skarres of the wounds onelie excepted. But to procéed, so soone as it Maruellous things are séene. was brought aboue the ground, the aire began to cleare vp, and the sunne brake foorth, shining more brighter than it had beene séene afore time, to anie of the beholders remembrance. And that which put men in most deepe consideration of all, was the sight of manifold flowers, which sprang foorth ouer all the fields immediatlie therevpon, cleane contrarie to the time and season of the yéere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Within a few yeeres after this, there was a bridge EEBO page image 152 made ouer the water in the same place, where the bo|die had beene buried, and a village builded at the one end of the bridge, which is called vnto this day, Kil|flos, that is to say, the church of flowers: taking that Kilflos. name of the woonder there happened at the remoo|uing of the kings bodie, as the same authors would séeme to meane. But there is now (or was of late) a rich abbeie, standing with a verie faire church, conse|crat in the honor of the virgine Marie. Monstrous sights also that were seene within the Scotish king|dome that yéere were these: horsses in Louthian, be|ing of singular beautie and swiftnesse, did eate their Horsses eate their owne flesh. A monstrous child. A sparhawke strangled by an [...]wle. owne flesh, and would in no wise taste anie other meate. In Angus there was a gentlewoman brought foorth a child without eies, nose, hand, or foot. There was a sparhawke also strangled by an owle. Neither was it anie lesse woonder that the sunne, as before is said, was continuallie couered with clouds for six moneths space. But all men vnder|stood that the abhominable murther of king Duffe was the cause héereof, which being reuenged by the death of the authors, in maner as before is said; Cu|lene was crowned as lawfull successor to the same Duffe at Scone, with all due honor and solemnitie, in the yeere of our Lord 972, after that Duffe had 972. ruled the Scotish kingdome about the space of foure yeeres.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The beginning of Culenes reigne, begun with King Culene did not conti|nue as his be|ginning was. righteous execution of iustice, promised a firme hope of an other manner of prince, than by the admini|stration which followed he declared himselfe to be: for shortlie after loosing the rains of lasciuious wan|tonnesse to the youth of his realme, through giuing a lewd example by his owne disordered dooings, all such as were inclined vnto licentious liuing, follow|ed He followes his sensuall lustes. their sensuall lusts and vnbrideled libertie, aban|doning all feare of correction more than euer had béene séene or heard of in anie other age. For such was the negligence of the king, or rather mainte|nance of misordered persons, that whatsoeuer anie of the nobilitie did either against merchants, priests, Euill dooers were not pu|nished. or anie of the commons, though the same were ne|uer so great an iniurie, there was no punishment vsed against them: so that all men looked for some commotion in the common-wealth therevpon to in|sue, if there were not other order prouided therefore in time. The ancient péeres of the realme also being Good counsell was not heard gréeued thereat, spared not to admonish the king of his dutie, declaring vnto him into what danger the realme was likelie to fall through his negligent be|hauiour.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Culene answered them, that he wist well inough The kings answer vnto his graue p [...]eres. how yoong men were not at the first borne graue and sage personages, like to them with hoarie heads: wherefore their first youthfull yéeres could not be so stable as they might be héereafter by old age and con|tinuance of time. But as for such rigorous extremi|tie as diuerse of his elders had vsed towards their subiects, he minded not (as he said) to follow, being taught by their example (as by the kings, Indulph, Duffe, and such other) into what danger he might in|curre by such sharpe seueritie shewed in the gouern|ment of the estate. Wherevpon he was determined so to rule, as he might giue cause rather to be belo|ued He would not displease. than feared, which was the onelie meane (as he thought) to reteine his subiects in due and most faith|full obedience. This answer was such, that although it séemed nothing agréeable for the preseruation of the publike state in quiet rest and safetie, yet was there no man, by reason of his regall authoritie, that durst reprooue the same, but diuerse there were that praised him therein, as those that hated all such as lo|ued the vpright administration of iustice.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But such ancient councellors as had trulie ser|ued in rule of the common-wealth in the daies of the former kings, Indulph & Duffe, misliking the state of that present world (wherin the youth of the realme, Ancient coun|cellors leaue the court. namelie all such as were descended of noble paren|tage, and vsed to be about the king, followed their wilfull & sensuall lusts, growing euerie day through want of correction to be woorse and woorse) departed from the court, and withdrew to their homes, with|out medling anie further with the publike admini|stration. The youthf [...] court follow|eth their se [...]|suall lusts. In whose place there crept in others, that with their flatterie corrupted the residue of such sparks of good inclination as yet remained in the king, if anie were at all; insomuch that in the end he measured supreame felicitie by the plentifull inioi|eng of voluptuous pleasures and bodilie lusts. He fansied onelie such as could deuise prouocations ther|vnto, A wicked time of volup|tuousnesse. and in filling the bellie with excesse of costlie meates and drinks, those that could excell other were chieflie cherished, and most highlie of him estee|med.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Heerewithall he was giuen vnto leacherie beyond all the bounds of reason, sparing neither maid, wi|dow, A leacherous king. nor wife, prophane nor religious, sister nor daughter (for all was one with him) that to heare of such villanie and violent forcings as were practised Forcing of womenkind excéeded. by him and his familiars, it would loth anie honest hart to vnderstand or remember. He was so farre past all shame in this behalfe, that when his leache|rous lust by too much copulation was so tired, that he might no more exercise his former lewdnesse, he tooke speciall pleasure yet to behold other to doo it in O beastlie be|hauiour! his presence, that his decaied lust might be the more stirred vp with sight of such filthinesse. This abhomi|nable trade of life he practised for the space of thrée yeeres togither, giuing occasion of much spoile, ra|uine, manslaughter, forcings, and rauishments of women, with all such kind of wicked and diuelish transgressions: no execution of lawes (instituted by All honestie exiled. authoritie of the former kings, for restreint of such flagitious offenses) being put in vre, through negli|gence of this monstruous creature.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 So farre foorth also increased the libertie of théeues, Robberie, theft, &c. were mainteined. robbers, and other offendors, mainteined by such of the nobilitie as consented vnto their vnlawfull doo|ings, and were partakers with them in the same, that if anie man went about to withstand them, or refused to accomplish their requests and demands, he should be spoiled of all that he had, and happilie haue his house burnt ouer his head, or otherwise be misu|sed in such outragious and violent sort, that it would gréeue all those that had anie zeale to iustice, to heare of such enormities as were dailie practised in that countrie. Howbeit, at length the death of king Death [...] an end of all. Culene brought an end to all such wicked dealings: for falling into a filthie disease (through abuse of ex|cessiue drinking and leacherie) called the wasting of nature, he consumed awaie in such wise by rotting [...]. of his flesh, that he appéered more like vnto a dead carcase, than vnto a liuelie creature, insomuch that his owne seruants began to abhor him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon the lords and other honorable perso|nages of the realme, vnderstanding his case, caused a parlement to be summoned at Scone, where they determined to depose king Culene, and appoint some A parlement. other (whome they should iudge most méetest) to reigne in his place. Culene also not knowing where|fore this councell was called, as he was going thi|therwards, at Meffen castell, being almost in the mid waie of his iournie, was murthered by one King Culene was murthe|red. Cadhard the thane of that place, whose daughter he had rauished before time amongst diuerse other. This end had Culene togither with all his filthie sensuali|tie: but the reprochfull infamie thereof remaineth in memorie with his posteritie, and is not like to be for|gotten EEBO page image 153 whilest the world goeth about. He was thus dispatched in the fift yéere of his reigne, and after the birth of our Sauiour 976, the nobles & great péeres of the realme reioising at his death, though they al|lowed 976. not of the manner thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 AFter that the bodie of king Culene was once conueied vnto Colmekill, and there buried a|mongst Kenneth. his elders, the nobles and great péeres as|sembled togither at Scone, where they proclaimed Kenneth the sonne of Malcolme the first, and brother vnto Duffe, king of the realme. In the beginning of his reigne, he had inough to doo to reduce the people Ill life is re|formed. from their wild and sauage kind of life (into the which they were fallen through the negligent gouern|ment of his predecessor) vnto their former trade of ciuill demeanor. For the nature of the Scotishmen is, that first the nobles, and then all the residue of the people transforme themselues to the vsage of their prince: therefore did Kenneth in his owne trade of liuing shew an example of chastitie, sobrietie, libera|litie, King Ken|neth was of a [...]rtuous li|uing. and modestie, misusing himselfe in no kind of vice, but refraining himselfe from the same. He ba|nished all such kind of persons as might prouoké ei|ther him or other vnto anie lewd or wanton plea|sures. He mainteined amitie aswell with strangers as with his owne people, punishing most rigorouslie He loued strangers. all such as sought to mooue sedition by anie manner of meanes. He tooke busie care in causing the people to auoid sloth, and to applie themselues in honest ex|ercises, He abhorred [...]outh. iudging (as the truth is) that to be the waie to aduance the common-wealth from decaie to a flourishing state.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus when he had somewhat reformed the misor|ders of his subiects, he indeuored himselfe by all meanes he could deuise to punish offendors against He did punish offendors. the lawes and wholesome ordinances of the realme, and to purge all his dominions of théenes, robbers, and other such as went about to disquiet common peace. At Lanerke, a towne in Kile, was a sessions A session kept at Lainrike, [...] Lanerke. appointed to be kept for execution of iustice, where certeine offendors were summoned to appéere. But at their comming thither, perceiuing that such mani|fest proofes would be brought against them of such crimes as they had committed, that they were not able to excuse the same, through persuasion of diuerse noble men vnto whom they were of kin, they fled se|cretlie The giltie ran awaie. their waies, some into the westerne Iles, and some i [...]to other places, where they thought most ex|pedient for safegard of their liues. The king percei|uing that through the disloiall meanes of the lords The king dis|sembled with thes [...] dooings. his purpose was so hindered, that he might not im|nister iustice, according to the institution of his lawes, he dissembled his wrath for a time, and licen|ced euerie man to depart to their houses, his traine onelie excepted Then went he into Galloway to vi|sit saint Ninian for performance of his v [...]w, which The king went to visit saint Ninian. The king consulted how to call the tr [...]ressors vn [...]dge|ment. he had made so to doo. Héere he inuented (by confe|rence which he had with some of his priuie councell) a deuise, whereby he might fetch againe the offendors vnto iudgement: but [...]his was kept close till the yéere following, for doubt least if those lords which bare them good will had come to anie inkling there|of, they would by vttering it haue disappointed his purpose.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At length, after a yeere was passed, he appointed all the lords and nobles of his realme [...] assemble a [...] Scone, as though it had béene to haue communed a|bout An assemblie h [...]d at Scone. some weightie a [...]aires touching [...] state of [...] realme. The night then before they should come togi|ther into the councell-chamber, he caused by some of his faithfull ministers, a sort of armed men to be [...] Armed men laid in [...]. close in a secret place, with commandement giuen to their capteine, that in no wise he should [...]rre with [...] [...]he next day that [...] sembled togither, and then without delaie to execute that which should be giuen him in commandement. On the morrow after the nobles comming togither The king and lords sitting, the armed men step foorth. into the councell-chamber, they had no sooner taken their places, euerie one according to his degree a|bout the king, but that the armed men before menti|oned, came rushing into the house, placing them|selues round about them that were set, according to the order prescribed by former appointment. The lords with this present sight being much amazed, be|held one an other, but durst not speake a woord. Then the king perceiuing their feare, began to declare vn|to The king put teth the lords out of doubt. them the whole cause of his calling them to coun|cell at that time, and why he had appointed those ar|med men to be there attendant. The effect of his ora|tion there made vnto them was, that he had not In oration made by the king. caused those armed men to come into the chamber for anie harme ment towards anie of their persons, but onelie for the publike preseruation of the realme. For so much as they knew, there was one kind of A rehearsall of all [...] people much noisome to the common-wealth, being confederate as it were togither by one consent to ex|ercise all sorts of mischiefe and oppression against the poore people, as to rob, spoile, and take from them all that they had, to rauish their wiues, maids, & daugh|ters, and some times to burne their houses: the which licentious libertie in such wicked persons, through want of due punishment in the daies of king Cu|lene, what danger it had brought vnto the whole state of the Scotish common-wealth, there was none but might well vnderstand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For sith it was so, that the lords and other high estates liued by the trauell of the commons, then if the same commons should in anie wise decaie, the lords and such other high estates could in no wise prosper: for if the labourer through iniurie of the robber were forced to giue ouer his labour; where should the lord or gentleman haue wherevpon to liue? So that those which robbed the husbandman, robbed also the lord and gentleman; and they that sought to mainteine such loitering persons as vsed to rob the poore man, went about the destruction both of king, lord, and gentleman; yea and finallie of the vniuersall state of the whole common-wealth. Ther|fore he that loued the common-wealth, would not séeke onelie to defend the commons from such iniu|ries as théeues and robbers dailie offered them; but also would helpe to sée iust execution doone vpon the sanie théeues and robbers, according to the lauda|ble lawes and customes of the land.

The last yeare (said he) you your selues remember (I thinke) how I purposed by your helpe and counsell to haue pro|céeded by order of the lawes against all enimies and perturbers of the peace. At Lainrike was the day Lainrike, or Lanerke. appointed for them to haue appeared, but there was not one of them that would come in, but contemp|tuouslie disobeieng our commandement kept them awaie, by whose counsell I know not. But I haue béene informed by some how diuers of you fauoring those rebels, by reason they were of your linage, were of counsell with them, in withdrawing them|selues so from iudgement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

The often sending of messengers betwixt them and you, well neere persuaded vs to thinke that this report was true. But yet not withstanding, I haue put away all such [...]er suspicion out of my head, wishing you (as I [...]rust you be) void of all such dissi| [...]ation. And now I require you, not as fautors of the rebelles, but as defendors of the common|wealth, though happilie somewhat-slacke heretofore in discharge of your dueties, to shew your selues [...]ch in helping to apprehend the offendors, as that the world may perceiue you to haue made full satis| [...] for your [...] [...]ror, [...]f before in you there EEBO page image 154 were anie.
In the end he was plaine with them, and told them flatlie that they should assure them|selues to haue those armed men which they saw there present, to be continuallie attendant about them, till he might haue all the rebelles at commande|ment.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lords hauing heard the kings spéech, and per|ceiuing The lords gentle submis|sion, with a large promise. what his meaning was, first partlie excused themselues so well as they might of their cloked dis|simulation, and then falling downe vpon their knées afore him, besought him to put away all displeasure out of his mind, and clearelie to pardon them, if in anie wise they had offended his maiestie, promising that they would with all diligence and faithfulnesse accomplish his desire, in causing the offendors to be brought in vnto iudgement: and till the time that this were brought to passe, they were well contented to remaine in such place where he should appoint them to abide. The councell then being broken vp, The king went to Ber|tha. the king with those lords passing ouer the riuer of Taie, went vnto Bertha, which towne during the kings abode in the same, was streictlie kept with watch and ward, that no creature might enter or go foorth without knowledge of the officers appointed by the king to take héed therevnto. If anie idle person were espied abroad in the stréets, streightwaies the Roges puni|shed. sergeants would haue him to ward.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The nobles remained in the kings house, or in o|ther lodgings to them assigned, procuring by their friends and ministers to haue such offendors as vsed to rob and spoile the husbandmen, apprehended and Iniurious men brought vnto Bertha. brought to the king to Bertha, there to receiue iudge|ment & punishment according to their merits: for so they perceiued they must néeds worke, if they min|ded the safegard of their owne liues. Hereof it fol|lowed also, that within short space after, there were brought vnto Bertha to the number néere hand of fiue hundred such idle loiterers as vsed to liue by A great num|ber of vaga|bonds were iudged to die. spoile and pillage, manie of them being descended of famous houses: all which companie being con|demned for their offenses to die, were hanged vp on gibbets about the towne, and commandement gi|uen by the king, that their bodies should not be ta|ken downe, but there to hang still to giue example to other, what the end was of all such as by wrong|full means sought to liue idelie by other mens la|bours.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The rebelles being thus executed, king Kenneth licenced the lords to depart to their owne houses, ex|horting The lords haue licence to depart. them to remember their duties towards the common-wealth, and to studie for preseruation of peace and quietnesse according to their vocation. After this, the realme continued in quietnesse with|out anie forraine or inward trouble for the space of certeine yeares following, and had remained in the same state still, if the Danes had not made a new The Danes séeke for to reuenge old losses. inuasion, who being sore greeued in their hearts for such displeasures as they had susteined in Albion, de|termined now with great assurance to reuenge the same. Where vpon gathering an huge multitude of The Danes take the sea to go into Al|bion. men togither, they were imbarked in vessels pro|uided for them; and sailing foorth, they purposed to take land vpon the next coast of Albion where they should chance to arriue; & being once on land, to de|stroie all before them, except where the people should submit & yeeld themselues vnto them. This nauie being once got abroad, within short time arriued [...] that point of land in Angus, which is called the red The Danes arriue at the red head, or red Braies in Angus. Braies, or red head, not far from the place where the abbie of Abirbroth, or Abirbrothoke was afterward founded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here the Danish fléet first casting anchor, their capteins fell in consultation what they were best to doe. Some of them were of this opinion, that it was not most expedient for them to land in that place, but rather to passe from thence into England; for at The Danes consuit to go into England the Scotishmens hands being poore, and yet a fierce and hardie nation, there was small good to be got, being thereto accustomed to giue more ouerthrowes than they commonlie receiued. Againe, the soile of that countrie was but barren, and in manner ouer|growen with woods (as it was in déed in those daies) with few townes & small habitations, and those so poore, that no man knowing the same, would vouch|safe to fight for anie possession of them: wherein con|trariwise England (that part namelie which lieth towards the south) was so fruitfull of corne and cat|tell, so rich of mines, and replenished with so manie notable cities and townes inhabited with men of great wealth and substance, that few were to be found comparable thereto. So that the matter be|ing well considered, they could not doo better, than to saile into Kent, where they might be sure of rich spoile, without anie great resistance. Other there were that held how that this iournie was attemp|ted They consult for to saile into Kent. by the counsell of their superiors, onelie to re|uenge such iniuries as the Danish nation had recei|ued at the hands of the Scotishmen, and not to at|teine They onelie sought re|uenge. riches or anie dominion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scots also being a cruell people, & readie to fight in defense of other mens possessions (as in the warres of Northumberland it well appeared) would suerlie be readie to come to the aid of the English|men into Kent, euen so soone as it was knowen that the Danes were on land in those parts: so that by this means they should be constreined to haue to doo both with the Scotishmen and Englishmen, if they first went into Kent: where if they set on land here in Scotland, they should incounter but onelie with the Scots. Therefore, the best were according Some thought best to land in Scotland. to their first determination, to land amongest the Scots, sith chance had brought them vnto those coasts; adding that when they had somewhat abated the arrogant presumption of their enimies there, then might they passe more safelie into England, af|ter a luckie beginning of fier and sword, to proceed against their aduersaries in those parties as fortune should lead them. This deuise was allowed of the greatest number, being glad to get beside the water. Wherevpon the mariners (vpon commandement giuen) drew with their ships into the mouth of the riuer called Eske, the which in those daies washed on the walles of a towne in Angus called then Ce|lurke, but now Mountros. Here the Danes ta|king The Danes doo land at Mountros. land, put the inhabitants of the countrie there|abouts in great feare, so that with all spéed for their safegard they got them into Mountros: but the towne being quickelie assailed of the Danes, was taken, put to the sacke, and after raced, castell and Mountros to|ken, and all within was slaine. all to the bare ground, not one liuing creature be|ing left aliue of all such as were found within the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From thence the armie of the Danes passed The Danes come to the ri|uer of Taie. through Angus vnto the riuer of Taie, all the peo|ple of the countries by which they marched fléeing a|fore them. King Kenneth at the same time laie at Sterling, where hearing of these gréeuous newes, he determined foorthwith to raise his people, & to go King Ken|neth gathered a great armie. against his enimies. The assemblie of the Scotish armie was appointed to be at the place where the ri|uer of Erne falleth into the riuer of Taie. Here when they were come togither in great numbers at the day appointed, the day next following word was brought to the king, that the Danes hauing passed a [...]r Taie, were come before the towne of Bertha, They [...] s [...]ge before Bertha. and had laid siege to the same. Then without further delaie, he raised with the whole armie, and marched [...] towards his enimies, commi [...] that night EEBO page image 155 vnto [...] village not f [...]r distant from the ri|uer of Taie, famous euer after by reason of the battell fought then néere vnto the same. The Danes hearing that the Scots were come, detracted no time, but foorthwith prepared to giue battell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Kenneth as soone as the sunne was vp, beholding the Daues at hand, quickelie brought his armie in|to King Ken|neth set his men in aray. order. Then requiring them earnestlie to shew their manhood, he promiseth to release the [...] of all tributs and paiments due to the kings cofers for the space of fiue yeares next insuing: and besides that he offered the summe of ten pounds, or else lands so much woorth in value to euerie one of his armie, that should bring him the head of a Dane. He wil|led them therefore to fight manfullie, and to remem|ber The king ex|horted the Scots vnto [...]. there was no place to atteine mercie; for either must they trie it out by dint of swoord, or else if they fled, in the end to looke for present death at the eni|mies hands, who would not ceasse till time they had found them foorth, into what place so euer they resor|ted for refuge, if they chanced to be vanquished. The Scots being not a little incouraged by the kings words, kept their order of battell according as they were appointed, still looking when the onset should be giuen. Malcolme Duffe prince of Cumberland led the right wing of the Scots; and Duncane lieu|tenant The order of the Scotish battell aray. of Atholl the le [...]t: King Kenneth himselfe go|uerned the battell. The enimies on the other part had taken their ground at the foot of a little moun|teine The Danes had the ad|uantage of a little moun|teine. right afore against the Scotish campe. Thus both the armies stood readie ranged in the field, be|holding either other a good space, till at length the Scots desirous of battell, and doubting least the Danes would not come foorth to anie euen ground, aduanced forward with somewhat more hast than The Scots begin the bat|tell. the case required, beginning the battell with shot, and throwing of darts right freshlie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Danes being backed with the mounteine, were constreined to leaue the same, and with all spéed to come forward vpon their enimies, that by ioining they might auoid the danger of the Scotish|mens arrowes and darts: by this meanes therefore they came to hand-strokes, in maner before the signe was giuen on either part to the battell. The fight was cruell on both sides: and nothing hindered the Scots so much, as going about to cut off the heads of the Danes, euer as they might ouercome them Which maner being noted of the Danes, and percei|uing that there was no hope of life but in victorie, they rushed foorth with such violence vpon their ad|uersaries, that first the right, and then after the left The two wings of the Scots fled. wing of the Scots, was constreined to retire and flée backe, the middle ward sto [...]tly yet kéeping their ground but the same stood in such danger, being now left naked on the sides; that the victorie must néedes haue remained with the Danes, had not a renewer of the battell come in time, by the appointment (as is to be thought) of almightie God.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For as it chanced, there was in the next field at the same time an husbandman, with two of his sons busie about his worke, named Haie; a man strong and stiffe in making and shape of bodie, but indued Haie with his two sonnes. with a valiant courage. This Haie beholding the king with the most part of the nobles, fighting with great valiancie in the middle ward, no [...] destitute of the wings, and in great danger to be oppressed by the great violence of his [...], caught a plow-beame in his hand, and with the same exhorting his sonnes to doo the like, hasted towards the battell, there to die rather amongest other in defense of his countrie, than to remaine aliue after the disco [...]ture in mise|rable [...] an [...] bondage of the cruell and most vnmercifull enimies. There was néere to the place of the battell, a long lane fensed o [...] the sides with di [...]|ches and walles made of [...], through the which the Scots which fled were beaten downe by the enimies on heapes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here Haie with his sonnes supposing they might Haie [...]aied the Scots [...]rõ running away best staie the [...]ght, placed themselues euer [...]wart the lane, beat them backe whome they met fleeing, and spared neither friend nor [...]o: but downe they went all such as came within their reach, wherewith diuerse hardie personages cried vnto their fellowes to returne backe vnto the battell, for there was a new power of Scotishmen come to their succours, The Scots were driuen to their battell againe. by whose aid the victorie might be easilie obteined of their most cruell aduersaries the Danes: therefore might they choose whether they would be slaine of their owne fellowes comming to their aid, or to re|turne againe to fight with the enimies. The Danes being here staied in the lane by the great valiancie The Danes fled towards their fellowes in great dis|order. of the father and the sonnes, thought verely there had béene some great succors of Scots come to the aid of their king, and therevpon ceassing from further pursute, fled backe in great disorder vnto the other of their fellowes fighting with the middle ward of the Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scots also that before was chased, being in|couraged herewith, pursued the Danes vnto the place of the battell right fiercelie. Wherevpon Ken|neth K. Kenneth called vpõ his men to remem ber their duties. perceiuing his people to be thus recomforted, and his enimies partlie abashed, called vpon his men to remember their duties, and now sith their ad|uersaries hearts began (as they might perceiue) to faint, he willed them to follow vpon them manfully, which if they did, he assured them that the victorie vn|doubtedlie should be theirs. The Scots incourages with the kings words, laid about them so earnestlie, The Danes [...]orsake the fields. that in the end the Danes were constreined to for|sake the field, and the Scots egerlie pursuing in the chase, made great slaughter of them as they fled. This victorie turned highlie to the praise of the Sco|tish nobilitie, the which fighting in the middle ward, bare still the brunt of the battell, continuing man|fullie therein euen to the end. But Haie, who in such wise (as is before mentioned) staied them that fled, causing them to returne againe to the field, deserued immortall fame and commendation: for by his meanes chieflie was the victorie atchiued. And therefore on the morrow after, when the spoile of the The spoile is diuided. field and of the enimies campe (which they had left void) shuld be diuided, the chiefest part was bestowed on him and his two sonnes, by consent of all the mul|titude; the residue being diuided amongst the souldi|ers and men of warre, according to the ancient cu|stome vsed amongst this nation.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king hauing thus vanquished his enimies, as he should enter into Ber [...]ha, caused costlie robes to be offered vnto Haie and his sonnes, that being Haie refused costlie gar|ments. richlie clad, they might be the more honoured of the people: but Haic refusing to change his apparell, was contented to go with the king in his old gar|ments whither it pleased him to appoint. So en [...]ring with the king into Bertha, he was receiued with The king came to Bertha. little lesse honor than the king himselfe, all the people running foorth to behold him, whome they heard to haue so valiantlie restored the battell, when the field was in maner lost without hope of all recouerie. At his entring into the towne he bare on his shoulder the plow-beame, more honourable to him than anie sword or battell are might haue béene to anie the most valiant warrior. Thus Haie being honored of all estates, within certeine daies after, at a councell Haie i [...] made one of the nobilitie. holden at Scone, it was ordeined, that both he and his posteritie should be accepted amongst the num|ber of the chiefest nobles and peeres of the realme, being rewarded (besides monie and other great gifts) He had reue|nues assig|ne [...] to him. [...] and reuenues, s [...]ch as he should choose EEBO page image 156 sufficient for the maintenance of their estates.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It is said, that by the counsell of his sonnes, who knew the fruitfulnes of the soile, he did aske so much ground in those parts where the riuer of Laie runs by the towne of Arrole ouer against Fife, as a falcon Haie his request. would flie ouer at one flight. Which request being freelie granted of the king, the place was appointed at Inschire for the falcon to be cast off: the which ta|king hir flight from thence, neuer lighted till shée came to a great stone néere a village called Rosse, The falcon mesured Haie his lands out. not passing foure miles from Dundée. By which meanes all that countrie which lieth betwixt In|schire aforesaid, and the said stone (being almost six miles in length, and foure in breadth) fell vnto Haie and his sons. The name of the stone also being cal|led the falcons stone to this daie, dooth cause the thing better to be beléeued, and well néere all the foresaid ground still continueth in the possession of the Haies euen vnto this day. Besides this, to the further hono|ring Haie had armes giuen him. of his name, the king gaue him armes thrée scutchons gules in a field of siluer, a plowbeame ad|ded therevnto, which he vsed in stead of a battell axe, when he fought so valiantlie in defense of his owne countrie. Thus had the Haies their beginning of no|bilitie, whose house hath atteined vnto great estima|tion of honor, and hath béene decorated with the of|fice of the constableship of Scotland, by the bounte|ous beneuolence of kings that succéeded. These things happened in the first yéere of king Kenneth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the residue of the time that he reigned, though there chanced no great businesse by forren enimies, yet by ciuill sedition the state of the realme was woonderfullie disquieted. First a companie of Kerns of the westerne Iles inuading Rosse, to the intent to Ciuill wars in Scotland. haue fetched a bootie, were met withall by the waie and ouerthrowne by the inhabitants of that coun|trie. After this sturre, another followed, farre more dangerous to the whole state of the common-welth, raised by one Cruthlint, one of the chiefest lords of the Mernes, who was sonne vnto a certeine ladie An other com|motion in Mernes by Cruthlint. named Fenella, the daughter of one Cruthneth, that was gouernor of that part of Angus which lieth be|twixt the two riuers, the one called Southeske, and the other Northeske. So it chanced, that on a time Cruthlint came vnto the castell of Delbogin to sée his grandfather, the said Cruthneth as then lieng in Cruthlint went to sée his grandfather. the same: where vpon light occasion a fraie was be|gun amongst the seruingmen, in the which two of Cruthlints seruants fortuned to be slaine. Which in|iurie Two of his seruants were slaine. when Cruthlint declared by waie of complaint vnto his grandfather, he was so slenderlie heard, and answered in such reprochfull wise, as though he him|selfe had bin the author of the busines, so that Cruth|neths seruants perceiuing how little he was regar|ded of their maister, fell vpon him and beat him, that They set vp|on Cruthlint also. not without danger of life he brake foorth of their hands, and hardlie escaped away.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In his returne homewards, he came to his mo|ther Fenella, where she lay within the castell of Fe|thircarne, the chiefest fortresse of all the Mernes. Where being incensed through his mothers instiga|tion, Cruthlint was instiga|ted to reuenge being a woman of a furious nature, he attemp|ted foorthwith to be reuenged of the iniurie receiued: so that assembling a number of his friends and kins|folks so secretlie as he might togither, with a band of the inhabitants of the Mernes, he entereth into Angus, and comming vnto the castell of Delbogin He killed all them that were in the castell. in the night season, was suffered to enter by the kée|pers of the gate, nothing suspecting anie treason in the world, by reason wherof was Cruthneth sudden|lie oppressed, the house sacked and raced, not one that was found within the same being left aliue. The spoile also was diuided by Cruthlint amongst them which came with him. The next day likewise he for|raied the countrie all there abouts, returning home The countrie is forraied. with a great bootie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They of Angus prouoked herewith, rested not long; but assembling themselues togither inuaded They of Mernes re|quite their iniuries. the countrie of Merns, where making great slaugh|ter on each side, they left the countrie void almost both of men and cattell. Thus did the people of those two countries pursue the warre one against another a certeine time, with dailie incursions and wastings of either others countries, in such cruell wise, that it was thought the one of them must néeds shortlie come to vtter destruction, if spéedie remedie were not the sooner prouided. The king being informed of this mischiefe and great trouble, which was fallen The king made a procla|mation by an herald. out through sedition amongst those his subiects, hée made proclamation by an herald, that those of An|gus and Mernes, whom he vnderstood to be culpable, should appeare within fifteene daies after at Scone, The culpable should appeare at Scone. there to make answer afore appointed iudges, to such things as might be laid to their charge, vpon paine of death to euerie one that made default. When the day of appearance came, there were but few that did appeare.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The most part of them doubting to be punished The faultie men ran away for their offenses with Cruthlint their capteine, fled out of Mernes, taking with them their wiues, and their children, and all their goods. The king being sore mooued herewith, perceiued how readie the Sco|tish The K. was sore offended therewith. people were by nature vnto rebellion, when they were gentlie vsed: and againe how they obeied the magistrates best when they were restreined from their wild outragious dooings by due punishment and execution of iustice. He considered therefore that if he did not cause those seditious rebels which had thus disobeied his commandements to be puni|shed according to the order of the lawes, he should haue the whole realme shortlie disquieted with ciuill The K. min|ded to punish the disobedi|ent rebels. Cruthlint ta|ken with ma|nie more. warre and open rebellion. Where vpon with all spéed he caused earnest pursute to be made after Cruth|lint, and the residue of the offendors, the which at length being taken in Lochquhabir, were brought vnto a castell in Gowrie called Dounsinnam, where after iudgement pronounced against them, Cruth|lint He is executed with certeine others. first, and then other the chiefest stirrers on either side were put to execution. The commons, for that it was thought they followed their superiors against their willes, were pardoned and licenced to depart to their houses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For this equitie shewed in ministring iustice by The K. was worthily com|mended for his iustice. the king, he was greattlie praised, loued, and dread of all his subiects; so that great quietnesse followed in the state of the common-wealth, greatlie to the aduancement thereof, and so continued till the 22 yéere of this Kenneths reigne. At what time the blind loue he bare to his owne issue, caused him to procure a detestable fact, in making away one of his K. Kenneth poisoned his confin Mal|colme. néerest kinsmen. This was Malcolme the sonne of king Duffe, created in the beginning of Ken|neths reigne prince of Cumberland, by reason wher|of he ought to haue succéeded in rule of the king|dome after Kenneths death. Whereat the same Ken|neth gréeuing not a little, for that thereby his sonnes should be kept from inioieng the crowne, found meanes to poison him. But though the physicians vnderstanding by such euident signes as appeared in The K. was not suspected of this fact. his bodie, that he was poisoned indéed, yet such was the opinion which men had of the kings honor and in|tegritie, that no suspicion at all was conceiued that it should be his deed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The cloked loue also which he had shewed toward him at all times, and so sudden commandement gi|uen by him vpon the first newes of his death, that his The poiso|ning of Mal|colme is brought into suspicion. funerals should be celebrated in euerie church and chappell for his soule; and againe, the teares which he EEBO page image 157 shed for him, in all places where anie mention chan|ced to be made of the losse which the realme had su|steined by the death of so worthie a prince, made men nothing mistrustfull of the matter, till at length some of the nobles perceiuing the outward sorow (which he made) to passe the true griefe of the heart, began to gather some suspicion, that all was not well: but yet bicause no certeintie appeared, they kept their thoughts to themselues. About the same time came ambassadors foorth of England from king Edward the sonne of Edgar (which after through treason of Ambassdors came from K. Edward. his stepmother Esculda, was made a martyr) requi|ring that sith Malcolme the prince of Cumberland was deceassed, it might please the king with the states of the realme to choose some other in his place, who dooing his homage vnto the king of England, He required a new prince to be elected. according as it was couenanted by the league, might be a meane to confirme the same league be|twixt the two nations for the auoiding of all occasi|ons of breach thereof that otherwise happilie might insue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Kenneth at the same time held a councell at Scone, where hauing heard the request of these am|bassadors, The K. heard a fit message for his pur|pose. in presence of all his nobles, he answered that he was glad to vnderstand that king Edward was so carefull for maintenance of loue and amitie betwixt his subiects and the Scotishmen, according to the articles of the ancient league in times past concluded betwixt them, the ratification whereof for his part he likewise most earnestlie desired, and therefore in rendering most heartie thanks vnto him for his gentle aduertisement, he purposed by the aduise of his nobles, and the other estates of his realme as then there assembled, to elect a new prince of Cumberland, without anie further delaie: and therevpon required the ambassador to be present on the morrow, to heare what he was whom the nobles should name to be preferred vnto that dignitie. The ambassadors herevpon departing foorth of the coun|cell chamber, were conueied to their lodging by di|uerse of the nobilitie that were appointed to kéepe them companie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then Kenneth with a long oration went about The king re|quested that the crowne might come by inheritance. to persuade the péeres, and other the estates of the realme there (as I said) assembled, to alter the cu|stome and ancient order vsed by their elders in choo|sing of him that should succéed in the gouernance of the realme, after the deceasse of him that was in possession. He vsed so manie reasons as was pos|sible for him to deuise in that behalfe, thereby to in|duce them to his purpose, which was to haue an act established for the crowne to go by succession, onelie to this end, that one of his sonnes might inioy the A fit oration for his pur|pose. same immediatlie after his deceasse. He declared also what discommodities, seditions, and great incon|ueniences had growne, in that the crowne had gone in times past by election: for though it was ordeined at the first that it should so doo, vpon a good intent and great consideration, yet in processe of time proofe He had roome though to walke in, to gather proofes & reasons to persuade this matter, it be|ing good of it selfe. and experience had shewed, that more hinderance happened vnto the common-wealth thereby (beside the danger euer insuing incidentlie vnto such issue as the king left behind him) than profit, if the sundrie murthers, occasions of ciuill discord, and other wic|ked practises were throughlie weied and considered, the summe whereof he recited from point to point, and so in the end with great instance be sought them, that so pernicious a custome might be abolished and taken away, to the great benefit of the whole state of the realme, speciallie sith in all realmes common|lie the order was, that the sonne should without anie contradiction succéed the father in the heritage of the crowne and kinglie estate.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king had no sooner made an end of his long oration, which he handled after the pithiest sort hée The peeres of the realme ded wilinglie grant to his reqest. could, but that diuerse of the noble men which were there amongst other, being made priuie to the mat|ter aforehand, motioned meanes to haue Malcolme the son of Kenneth created prince of Crunberland, that he might so haue an entrance to the crowne af|ter the deceasse of his father. This motion by and by was in manie of their mouthes, which Kenneth perceiuing, he required of the most ancient peeres whome they would name to be prince of Cumber|land, that there might be a meane to ratifie and con|firme the league betwixt the Scots and English|men, Constantine the sonne of king Cullin, and Grime the nephue of king Duffe by his brother Mo|gall: howbe it by the force of the former law they might by good reason haue looked to haue had the pre|ferment themselues.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But yet perceiuing it was in vaine to denie that which would be had by violence (although they The herald required Cõ|stantine his voice first. should neuer so mus [...] stand against it) being first de|manded of the herald what they thought, they an|swerd (notwithstanding against their minds indéed) that the king might order all things as should stand with his pleasure, appointing whom he thought most méet to bée prince of Cumberland, and to ab|rogate Constantins his saieng. the ancient law of creating the kings, in deuising new ordinances for the same, as should séeme vnto him and those of his councell most requi|site and necessarie. The multitude then following their sentence, cried with lowd & vndiscréet voices, The multi|tude wel plea|sed, crie Mal|colme. to haue Malcolme the sonne of king Kenneth crea|ted prince of Cumberland. And thus the same Mal|colme (though as yet vnder age) was by the voices of the people ordeined prince of Cumberland, in place of the other Malcolme sonne to king Duffe. The daie next following, the ambassadors comming into the councell chamber, heard what was decréed touching their request, and then being highlie re|warded of the kings bountious liberalitie, they re|turned into England, and Malcolme with them, to be acquainted with king Edward, and to doo his ho|mage for the principalitie of Cumberland, as the cu|stome was.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At the same time also there was a new act deuised A new act for the succession of the crowne. and made, the old being abrogated (by the appoint|ment of the king) for the creation of the Scotish kings in time to come, manie of the nobles rather consenting with silence, than greatlie allowing it ei|ther in harts or voices, though some currifauours a|mong them set forward the matter to the best of their powers. The articles of this ordinance were these. The eldest heire male of the deceassed king, Articles con|cluded in that parlement. whether the same were sonne or nephue, of what age soeuer he should be, yea though he should be in the mothers wombe at the tune of the fathers deceasse, should from thence-foorth succéed in the kingdome of Scotland. The nephue by the sonne should be prefer|red before the nephue by the daughter, in atteining to the heritage of the crowne. And likewise the bro|thers sonne should be admitted before the sisters son. The same law should be obserued of all such of the Scotish nation, as had anie lands or inheritance comming to them by descent. Where the king by this meanes chanced to be vnder age, & not able to rule, there shuld be one of the chiefest péeres of the realme chosen and elected to haue the gouernance of his per|son and realme, till he came to 14 yéeres of age. The which foureteenth yéere of his age being accompli|shed, he should haue the administration committed to his owne hands. The heires of all other persons of ech estate and degrée should remaine vnder the wardship of their appointed gouernors, till they came to the age of 21 yéeres, and not till then to meddle with anie part of their lands and liuings.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 158 These lawes and ordinances being once published and confirmed, king Kenneth supposed the kingdome King Ken|neth ministred iustice trulie. to be fullie assured vnto him and his posteritie, and therevpon indeuored himselfe to win the harts of the people with vpright administration of iustice, and the fauour of the nobles he sought to purchase with great gifts which he bestowed amongst them, aswell The good will of the nobilitie he bought with gifts. in lands belonging to the crowne, as in other things greatlie to their contentation. Thus might he séeme happie to all men, hauing the loue both of his lords and commons: but yet to himselfe he séemed most The king had a giltie consci|ence. vnhappie, as he that could not but still liue in conti|nuall feare, least his wicked practise concerning the death of Malcolme Duffe should come to light and knowledge of the world. For so commeth it to passe, that such as are pricked in conscience for anie secret offense committed, haue euer an vnquiet mind. And (as the fame goeth) it chanced that a voice was heard A voice heard by the king. as he was in bed in the night time to take his rest, vttering vnto him these or the like woords in effect:

Thinke not Kenneth that the wicked slaughter of Malcolme Duffe by thee contriued, is kept secret from the knowledge of the eternall God: thou art he that didst conspire the innocents death, enterprising by traitorous meanes to doo that to thy neighbour, which thou wouldest haue reuenged by cruell pu|nishment in anie of thy subiects, if it had beene offe|red to thy selfe. It shall therefore come to passe, that both thou thy selfe, and thy issue, through the iust ven|geance of almightie God, shall suffer woorthie pu|nishment, to the infamie of thy house and familie for euermore. For euen at this present are there in hand secret practises to dispatch both thée and thy issue out of the waie, that other maie inioy this kingdome which thou doost indeuour to assure vnto thine issue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king with this voice being striken into great dread and terror, passed that night without anie sleepe comming in his eies. Wherefore in the morning he The king confesseth his sinnes. got him vnto bishop Mouean, a man of great holi|nesse of life, vnto whome he confessed his heinous and most wicked offense, beseeching him of counsell, which waie he might obteine pardon and forgiuenes at Gods hands by woorthie penance. Mouean hea|ring how the king bemoned his offense committed, he willed him to be of good comfort. For as the wrath of almightie God was prouoked by sinne and wicked offenses, so was the same pacified againe by repentance, if so be we continue penitent and wil|ling to amend. King Kenneth being confirmed in The king ta|keth great re|pentance. hope of forgiuenesse by these and sundrie other the like comfortable woords of the bishop, studied vnfei|nedlie to doo woorthie penance, leauing nothing vn|doone which he thought might serue for a witnesse of his penitent hart, thereby to auoid the vengeance which he stood in feare of to be prepared for him, by reason of his heinous and wicked crime.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It chanced héerevpon, that within a short time af|ter he had beene at Fordune, a towne in Mernes, to visit the reliks of Paladius which remaine there, he The king went to For|dune in pil|grimage. A parke with wild beasts at the castell of Fethircarne. turned a little out of the waie to lodge at the castell of Fethircarne, where as then there was a forrest full of all manner of wild beasts that were to be had in anie part of Albion. Here was he receiued by Fe|nella ladie of the house, whose son (as ye haue heard) he caused to be put to death, for the commotion made betwixt them of Mernes and Angus. She was also of kin vnto Malcolme Duffe, whome the king had Fenella was of kin vnto Malcolme. made awaie, and in like manner vnto Constantine and Grime, defrauded of their right to the crowne, by the craftie deuise of the king (as before is partlie mentioned.) This woman therefore being of a stout stomach, long time before hauing conceiued an im|mortall grudge towards the king, vpon the occasi|ons before rehearsed (namelie aswell for the death of hir sonne Cruthlint, as hauing some inkling also of the impoisoning of Malcolme Duffe, though no full certeintie therof was knowne) imagined night and She was de sirous for to reuenge. day how to be reuenged.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 She vnderstood that the king delighted aboue mea|sure in goodlie buildings, and therefore to the end to compasse hir malicious intent, she had caused a tow|er Fenella hir malicious in|tent. to be made, ioining vnto hir owne lodging with|in the foresaid castell of Fethircarne. The which tow|er was couered ouer with copper finelie ingrauen with diuerse flowers and images. Héereto was it hoong within with rich cloths of arras wrought with gold and silke, verie faire and costlie. Behind the same were there crossebowes set readie bent with Crossebowes readie bent, hidden. sharpe quarrels in them. In the middest of the house there was a goodlie brasen image also, resembling the figure of king Kenneth, holding in the one hand a faire golden apple set full of pretious stones, deui|sed with such art and cunning, that so soone as anie man should draw the same vnto him, or remooue it neuer so little anie waie foorth, the crossebowes would immediatlie discharge their quarrels vpon him with great force and violence.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Fenella therefore being thus prouided aforehand, after meate desired the king to go with hir into Fenella had the king into the inner chamber. that inner chamber, into the which being entered, he could not be satisfied of long with the beholding of the goodlie furniture, aswell of the hangings as of di|uerse other things. At the last hauing viewed the i|mage which stood (as is said) in the midst of the cham|ber, he demanded what the same did signifie? Fenella answered, how that image did represent his person, and the golden apple set so richlie with smaragds, ia|cincts, saphires, topases, rubies, turkasses, and such like pretious stones, she had prouided as a gift for him, and therefore required him to take the same, be|séeching him to accept it in good part, though it were not in value woorthie to be offered vnto his princelie honor and high dignitie. And héerewith she hirselfe withdrew aside, as though she would haue taken some thing foorth of a chest or coffer, thereby to auoid the danger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the king delighted in beholding the gems and orient stones, at length remoouing the apple, the The king was slaine with the crosse bowes. better to aduise it, incontinentlie the crossebowes discharged their quarrels so directlie vpon him, that striking him through in sundrie places, he fell downe starke dead, and lay flat on the ground. Fenella as soone as she beheld him fall to the ground readie to Fenella esca|ped from them all. die, she got foorth by a backe doore into the next woods, where she had appointed horsses to tarie for hir, by meanes whereof she escaped out of all dan|ger of them that pursued hir, yer the death of the king were openlie knowne vnto them. His seruants His seruants looked for their king. still waiting for his comming foorth in the vtter chamber, at length when they saw he came not at all, first they knocked at the doore softlie, then they The doores broken open, they find him dead. rapped hard thereat: lastlie, doubting that which had happened, they brake open doore after doore, till at length they came into the chamber where the king lay cold dead vpon the floore.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The clamor and crie héerevpon was raised by his seruants, and Fenella curssed and sought for in eue|rie Fenella could not be found. place, that had committed so heinous and wicked a déed: but the vngratious woman was conueied so secretlie out of the waie, that no where could she be heard of. Some supposed that she fled first vnto Con|stantine, Fenella got hirselfe into Ireland by the helpe of Constantine. by whose helpe she got ouer into Ireland. The ambitious desire which the same Constantine shewed he had to succeed in gouernment of the king|dome after Kenneths deceasse, increased that suspi|cion greatlie. For immediatlie after it was known Constantine aspired vnto the crowne. that Kenneth was dead, he got his friends togither, and went vnto diuerse places requiring the lords to EEBO page image 159 assist him in atteining to the crowne, which by the old ordinance and law of the realme (instituted in the beginning, and obserued till now of late, that Ken|neth by his priuate authoritie had gone about to a|brogate the same) ought to descend vnto him, as all the world verie well vnderstood.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 COnstantine procured friends, so on ech side, that by their meanes being of high authoritie in the Constan|tine. realme, he was brought by them vnto Scone, and there crowned king the 12 day after Kenneths de|ceasse, Constantine procured friends. in the 25 yeere after that the same Kenneth had begun his reigne ouer the Scotishmen, and in the yéere of our saluation a thousand iust, in the which 994. Io. Ma. 1000. H. B. yéere (as is said) sundrie vnketh sights were séene as well in Albion, as in other places. The sea left vpon the sands on the coasts of Buchquane, an infinite Maruellons [...]aps chanced. multitude of fishes, the which lieng there dead, caused such a filthie sauour, that the aire being therewith in|fected, great death of people insued. The moone appée|red of a bloudie colour, to the great terror of them The moone appéered blou|die. that beheld it. In the summer next following, corne failed, and cattell died so generallie, that if there had not beene more plentie of fish got than was accusto|med Scarsitie of corne and cat|tell. It rained stones. to be, the people had béene famished in manie places. In Albion and also France it rained stones. But all these dreadfull woonders might not with|draw the Scotishmen from their wicked vices, wherevnto in those daies they were wholie giuen, though there wanted not diuerse vertuous men, as Preaching was despised. well bishops as other, that in their sermons exhorted the people to repent and amend their naughtie li|uings: for otherwise vndoubtedlie such grislie sights and tokens as chanced in those daies, menaced some great mischiefe to fall vnto the whole nation. And suerlie their woords proued true: for the Scots con|tinuing in their wilfulnesse, being stubborne harted one against another, brought their countrie into danger of vtter destruction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Malcolme the sonne of Kenneth, created (as ye Malcolme seeketh trends against Con|stantine. haue heard in his fathers life time) prince of Cum|berland, hearing that Constantine (against the or|dinance latelie made) had vsurped the crowne, as soone as his fathers bodie was buried in Colmekill, with such funerall pompe as apperteined, he desired his fathers friends to giue him such faithfull counsell as they thought most expedient, which way he were best to woorke for the appeasing of the sedition now begun, by reason of Constantines presumptuous Good counsell was giuen him. attempt. There were some amongest that compa|nie that tooke it to be best, first to vnderstand the minds of all the péeres and nobles of the realme, be|fore they went about anie exploit against the tyrant; least whilest Malcolme should séeke to deliuer him|selfe from danger, he might happilie wind himselfe further into trouble, than without extreame perill of the common-wealth he should be able to get foorth thereof againe. Other there were that iudged it best [...]et other counsell was giuen him. suddenlie to go against Constantine before he made himselfe strong: for if they came vpon him yer he were prouided for their comming, manie of them that feigned themselues to be his friends, would for|sake him, so soone as they saw anie power of his eni|mies at hand. And then should he either fall into their hands, or be driuen to flée the realme for safe|gard of his life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The flerce yoong man following this counsell as the best to his seeming, & trusting more to his owne wit than to the graue aduise of men of skill, assem|bled Malcolme go|eth with an [...]rmie to fight with Con|stantine. [...]. Constan|tine went to [...] Mal|colme. togither in all hast possible about the number of ten thousand men, with whome making towards Constantine with spéedie iornies, at length he came into Louthian. Constantine being informed of all his aduersaries dooings, had gotten togither also an huge power, so that passing foorth with the same to incounter them, the brute which ran of his great number and puissance, caused Malcolme for verie feare that he should not be able in anie part to match Malcolme thought him|selfe too weake him, to breake vp his armie, and to flée backe into Cumberland: by reason whereof he had béene put to such hinderance and dishonor, as would not easilie haue béene recouered, had not Kenneth the bastard sonne of his father the aboue mentioned Kenneth incamped with a mightie power about Sterling, & defended the passages of the Forth, that Constan|tine with his armie could not come ouer. Then rose Lacke of vit|tels caused Constantine to breake vp his campe. there great famine and penurie of vittels in both hosts, so that Constantine with great indignation was constreined to breake vp his campe, and so to leaue his enterprise for that season.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus was the realme diuided into two sundrie factions, wherevpon followed wastings and incur|sions made into each others possessions, with such crueltie, that the same might be a sufficient instruc|tion what mischiefe happeneth through ciuill discord. The poore commons and husbandmen were brought to such miserie through the often spoilings and rob|beries vsed by the men of warre, that they were not able to till their grounds. Finallie, there rose one mischiefe so fast in the necke of an other, that no kind of crueltie was spared, robbing, reauing, and forcible extortion was exercised on all sides without hope of anie redresse or amendment. Whilest the Scotishmen were thus at diuision amongest them|selues, King Ed|ward, or ra|ther Ethe [...]red, purchased peace of the Danes. renting and pulling in péeces their owne mi|serable natiue countrie, Edward king of England being oppressed with inuasion of Danes, was glad to buie peace at their hands, for himselfe and his peo|ple, with right large summes of monie; but percei|uing that his enimies ceassed not dailie to spoile and rob his subiects, he purposed to trie what he might Malcolme is readie to helpe king Ed|ward against the Danes. doo by making them warre: and to make his part the stronger, he required Malcolme prince of Cum|berland to aid him against the Danes, according to the couenant of the ancient league. Malcolme con|senting to K. Edwards request, came with a mightie armie of Cumberland men to support him: by rea|son whereof the Danes doubting to be ouermatched, King Ed|ward made peace with the Danes. after certeine light skirmishes, without anie great bloudshed, condescended to haue peace, which was concluded with these conditions: that king Edward should paie vnto the Danes a thousand pounds of gold, for the which they should content themselues with those lands which they had alredie in possession, and to inuade no further vpon the Englishmen; but contrariwise to be readie to fight in their defense, if anie forreine enimie sought to make anie warres vpon them. In the meane time, whilest Malcolme was thus in England occupied in aid of king Ed|ward against the Danes, king Constantine thought the time to serue verie well for his purpose, to reduce all those regions of Scotland, which tooke part with his aduersarie (the foresaid Malcolme) vnder his sub|iection.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He assembled therefore twentie thousand men, King Con|stantine ren [...]|ed warre with Malcolme. and comming into Louthian, heard how Kenneth the bastard aforesaid (being left by his brother Mal|colme to resist Constantines attempts) had got to|gither an huge armie of his brothers friends, and was come vnto Crawmond, where the riuer falleth into the Forth, thrée miles from Edenburgh, pur|posing there to abide his enimies, if they minded to assaile him. Constantine herevpon hasted thither|wards, and comming within sight of his enimies, Constantine ioined battell with Kenneth the bastard. streightwaies ioined battell with them; immediat|lie wherewith there rose such an outragious tempest of wind, comming out of the east, & driuing the sand in the faces of Constantines men, that they were not able to sée about them to make anie defense a|gainst EEBO page image 160 their enimies that then preassed vpon them right eagerlie. By means whereof the discomfiture lighted vpon Constantines side, though neither part King Con|stantine is slaine. had anie great cause to reioise: for in the hotest of the fight, Constantine and Kenneth chanced to in|counter togither, and so fighting man to man, either slue other. Thus Constantine ended his life by dint of the enimies sword, in the third yeare of his reigne, & in the yeare after the incarnation 1002, & his bodie 1002 was buried in Colmekill amongst his predecessors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 THen Grime nephue to king Duffe, hearing of the slaughter made betwixt king Constantine and Kenneth, gathered togither the residue of Con|stantines Grime. armie, being scattered abroad after the ouerthrow, supposing that by the death of Kenneth, the partie of his brother Malcolme was sore weake|ned, & therevpon he came vnto the abbeie of Scone, and there caused himselfe to be crowned king, as lawfull successor vnto Constantine, by force of the old laws and ordinances of the realme. And to esta|blish Grime vsed liberalitie and gentlenesse towards Con|stantines friends. himselfe the more firmelie in the state, he shew|ed great gentlenesse towards all them that were friends vnto Constantine, and bestowed vpon them manie bountious gifts. Neither was his liberalitie shut vp from other that had fauored Malcolme, for to the end he might allure them to beare him good will, he rewarded them highlie both in lands and treasure: but other of the same faction, whome he saw by no means could be woone, he caused them to be proclamed traitors, and confiscated their goods as rebels to his person, and enimies to the crowne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Malcolme prince of Cumberland sore mooued in his mind that Grime had thus taken vpon him the crowne, called his friends togither, requiring to Malcolme prince of Cumberland is mooued a|against Grime. A good coun|sell. haue their aduise, which way he were best to woorke in this so great a matter. They counselled him in no wise he should despise the force of his enimies, but rather to assaie by all means to draw those no|bles vnto his purpose, which were assistant vnto Grime. Wherevpon Malcolme following the coun|sell of his friends, sent foorth secret messengers vnto Malcolme sendeth priui|lie to the lords of Scotland. those lords that tooke part with Grime, requiring them to remember their promised faith, giuen vnto his father king Kenneth, concerning the obseruance of the law established by their consent for the succes|sion of their kings: which if they would doo in re|nouncing their obeisance vnto the vsurper Grime, he promised so to gouerne the realme with equall iu|stice, that no estate in reason should find cause to Malcolme his promise vnto the Scots. mislike with his dooings. Manie of the nobles by means of this message reuolted from the said Grime soliciting their friends by earnest trauell to doo the like. But other & the greater number tooke those that brought the message, & sent them as prisoners vnto Malcolme his messengers are committed to prison. Grime, who presentlie committed them to prison.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Malcolme sore offended therewith, by counsell of his friends, assembled an armie to go against them, that (contrarie to the law of all nations, as he see|med Malcolme be|ing offended therewith, ga|thered an ar|mie. to take the matter) had imprisoned his pur|seuants and messengers: but as he was mar|ching forward on his purposed iournie, he heard by the way, how his aduersarie king Grime had gathered a farre greater power than he had with Grime is of greater force than Mal|colme. him, not onelie of all such of the Scotish nation in|habiting beyond the riuers of Forth and Clide, but of them also of the westerne Iles. Malcolme doub|ting least if the certeintie hereof were once bruted a|mongest his people, the fame would increase the Malcolme would not haue his peo|ple to vnder|stand the trueth thereof. terror more than néeded; he gaue commandement therfore that no maner of wight should be suffered to come into his armie, vnlesse he were first brought to his presence. But this deuise nothing auailed him: for thereby, that which he desired to be concea|led His aduise a|uailed not. and kept most secret, became the more manifest, by reason that such as had some inkeling of the mat|ter, told it from one to another; making it much more than it was in déed. For there rose a murmu|ring amongest them, that there was such treason contriued, that if Malcolme with his armie went forward to ioine with his aduersaries, he should not A brute spred in Malcolmes armie of trea|son. be in danger onelie of them, which he knew to come against him in Grimes host; but also of no small number of them which were in his owne armie, who vpon the ioining had determined to turne their speare points against him in Grimes quarell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 This rumor passing from one to another, put the whole number in great feare. It was first raised by certeine merchantmen, of whome there was a Merchant|men authors of the rumor. great number in Malcolms host, hauing more skill in buieng and selling, than in anie warlike feats or enterprises. These at the first suing for licence to de|part home, and could haue no grant, began to la|ment their miseries, in such dolefull wise, that all the campe was troubled with the noise; insomuch that euen the old men of warre, and diuerse of the capteins were not a little discomfited and amazed with such wailefull clamors. Malcolme being ad|uertised hereof, thought not good to match in battell against his fierce enimies with his people thus asto|nied through dread and terror, and therefore gaue li|cence Malcolme li|cenceth the most part of his armie to depart hence. Malcolme in|tendeth to stop his eni|mie from pas|sing ouer the Forth. The great bishop of Scotland. to the most part of his host to depart for that time, and aboad onelie with certeine bands of his most faithfull friends néere to the water of Forth, to stop his enimies from passing ouer that riuer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Whilest the realme of Scotland was thus disqui|eted and troubled with ciuill discord, Fothadus the great bishop of Scotland, a man of right appro|ued vertue and clemencie, sore lamenting to sée his countrie thus diuided and rent as it were in péeces, got him into his pontificall vestures, with a multi|tude of other reuerend priests and ecclesiasticall mi|nisters, in humble wise comming and presenting Fothadus sée|keth to take vp the matter. themselues before king Grime, who with great re|uerence receiuing them, willed to vnderstand the cause of their comming. Then Fothadus answered, that he was come as the seruant of Christ, the au|thor of all peace and concord, beséeching him by way of humble supplication to take ruth and pitie of the great trouble and miserie fallen to the realme, since the time he had taken the gouernance vpon him, the state of things being such, as if some redresse were not found in all speedie wise, the vtter ruine of the common-wealth must needs insue, by reason of the sundrie debats and factions dailie rising among the people of all sorts and degrees, so that murthers, The fruits of ciuill warre. robberies, rapes, with all other kinds of iniuries & mischiefe were still put in practise without restreint or punishment, in such licentious sort that no man could assure himselfe of his owne: for whether it were within doores, or without, the robber was as redie to laie hands on it as the owner. Neither was there anie hope of reformation so long as the ciuill wars lasted. Therefore if it might stand with the pleasure of king Grime in reliefe of the poore com|mons of Scotland, to condescend vnto some neces|sarie Fothadus vndertaketh to conclude a peace betwixt the parties. agreement with Malcolme, Fothadus offered to vndertake to conclude a peace betwixt them, in such wise as should in no maner of behalfe be preiu|diciall to his honor and roiall maiestie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Grime mooued with the words of the bishop (who most instantlie besought him, although the calami|tie and great affliction of his people did but little mollifie his heart; yet in respect of his owne suertie, which might not continue if his people were once de|stroied, to remit part of his high displeasure) answe|red, that peace he could be contented to haue, so the same might be concluded with his honor saued: for Grimes an|swere to Fo|thadus. suerlie wars he neuer desired but onelie in defense EEBO page image 161 of his good title and right, which he had to the crowne descended vnto him by the old lawes and ancient ordinances of the realme, and therefore he purposed not to leaue the same with life, but to fight for it a|gainst Malcolme, and all his partakers, euen vnto death. But if it were so, that Malcolme would con|tent himselfe with the principalitie of Cumberland, and so therevpon breake vp his campe, and depart foorth of the lands perteining vnto the crowne, he would gladlie come to a communication with him for peace; but if Malcolme refused thus to doo, he as|sured him that he would not leaue off to pursue him to the vttermost of his power, as his most cruell and fierce enimie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Fothadus hauing heard Grimes words, besought him to stai [...] a time, till he might go vnto Malcolme, to vnderstand what his full mind was in this behalfe not doubting but to find him conformable vnto anie reasonable motion, for relieuing of the poore afflic|ted state of the land. Grime granting vnto this re|quest, Fothadus goeth vnto Malcolme. Fothadus in like sort and habit as he came vn|to Grime, went vnto Malcolme, whome he found at Sterling; where comming before his presence with a long oration, he greatlie bewailed the dolorous calamities of the Scotish common-wealth, into the which it was fallen through ciuill sedition onlie, and herewith declared also by great likeliehood of sub|stantiall reasons, how infortunat and miserable the end should be of the warres, if the same were pur|sued to the vttermost. His tale being throughlie heard and well digested, wrought so with Malcolme, that he promised to withdraw into Cumberland without anie further attempt, if Grime would in Malcolms of| [...]. like case breake vp his campe, and a [...]ée to haue a truce for three moneths space, in which meane time they might by certeine commissioners appointed and authorised thereto, talke and common for conclu|ding of a finall peace and concord betwixt them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Grime refused not this offer, and so therevpon licenced his people to depart to their homes, repai|ring Grime is con|tented with Malcolms motion. himselfe with certeine of his nobles into An|gus vnto the castell of Forfair, there to take further aduise what was to be doone touching the appointed communication of peace. But Fothadus would in no wise rest, till the commissioners were met and Fothadus his diligence to procure the parties to a|gréement. assembled togither in communication at Scone, where within few daies after (chieflie through his earnest diligence) peace was concluded with these conditions. First, that Grime during his life time should inioy the crowne, and after his deceasse the The condi|tions of the peace betwixt Grime and Malcolme. same to remaine to Malcolme & his heirs by lineall descent for euer, according to the ordinance & decrée made & established by K. Kenneth. And whosoeuer should go about either by word or déed to impeach or hinder the said ordinance and decrée, should be re|puted for a traitor to the common-wealth & realme. Furthermore all the lands lieng betwixt Louthian & Northumberland, and betwixt Clide and West|merland, euen from the Almaine seas to the Irish seas, should presentlie remaine & be transported vn|to the dominion & gouernement of Malcolme, with the which contenting himselfe, during the naturall life of Grime, he should continue in friendship with the said Grime, & so in no wise stirre or moue anie warre or debate, either against him or anie of his friends: for if he did, and went about to breake anie of the articles of this peace, he should not onelie lose those lands which he now held, but also be depriued of all the right, title, claime, and interest which either he or his posteritie might make or pretend vn|to the crowne at anie time hereafter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 When both the princes had bound themselues by solemne othes to performe euerie point and points The warres being [...]assed, the princes applie their studies to re|forme misde|meanors. in these articles comprised, they laid armor aside, and began to take order for reforming of all misde|meanours, which had happened within the land, by reason of the ciuill contention mooued betwixt them and their partakers. Howbeit, commandement was giuen by either of these princes, that their sub|iects should be still in a readinesse with armour and weapons (if néed required) to desend themselues a|gainst all sudden inuasions of their neighbours, whereby it may be gathered, that the one had the o|ther still in some mistrust, what countenance so [...]uer they shewed outwardlie. Yet notwithstanding, for the space of 8 yeares togither, the peace continued without breach, or any notable trouble betwixt them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But Grime at length of a chast & liberall prince, King Grime his alteration from noble qualities vnto detestable vices. through long slouth and increase of riches, became a most couetous ty [...]ant, and so corrupted in maners and conditions, that it passed the bounds of all rea|son and equitie: insomuch that when he had put vn|to death diuerse of his nobles, to the end he might haue their lands and goods as forfeited by atteindor, he oppressed the people by continuall exactions also each day more than other. His subiects being thus brought into extreame miserie through his wicked and vniust gouernement, not knowing where to séeke for redresse, saue onelie at the hands of almigh|tie The common peoples praier God, the punisher of all sinne, besought him to haue pitie of their afflictions and miseries, and to change the gouernment of the realme into some bet|ter state. The lords also hauing great indignation of the trouble fallen to the realme, by the kings misgo|uernance and auaricious crueltie, appointed a cer|teine The lords re|quire Grime to reforme the [...] of his officers. number of gentlemen to go vnto him as am|bassadors from them, to require him to put awaie from him such naughtie persons as by euill counsell had peruerted his mind, & mooued him to doo things contrarie to his honor, and the wealth of his realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 One of these ambassadors (to whome the charge was giuen) had the words in name of them all, who comming before the kings presence, declared to him that they were sent from the residue of the nobles and péeres of his realme, to admonish him of things perteining to the suertie of his estate, and common wealth of his dominions: which was, that whereas through persuasion of euill councellors he suffered manie enormities to be committed by his ministers and officers against his subiects, to their vtter impo|uerishment and vndooing, the rebuke whereof did re|dound vnto his dishonour; if it would please him to remooue out of his presence and seruice all such dis|loiall persons as sought the hinderance of the com|mon-wealth, he should win therby the loue of all his liege subiects, which now could not but grudge and repine at this his gouernement, as men by the same brought into such calamitie, that better it were for them in their iudgements to be dead than aliue, if re|formation were not the sooner had against such extor|tions as his seruants and officers did dailie practise, The office of the sword. and for the which no doubt he must néeds answer, sith the sword was committed vnto him, not to [...] couetous persons, nor to oppresse innocent and [...]ue dealing people, but contrarilie to punish and correct guiltie and vniust dealers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 When king Grime had heard what message these ambassadors had brought, he answered to the same with fa [...]ed words, and willed them vnder the pre|text of courtesie to a banket, in purpose to haue put King Grime purposed to haue slaine th [...] messengers. them all in prison: but they being aduertised thereof got them in all ha [...] to their horsses, and fled forthwith vnto Ber [...]a, where the residue of the nobles at the same time were assembled. Grime hauing [...]us no regard to the wholesome aduertisement of his no|bles, thought that all things would come forward with such felicitie and [...]ap as he wished, not cea [...]ng from raising new paiments and exactions [...]ill of EEBO page image 162 his subiects, till at length he was aduertised how his nobles had raised open warre against him, at which The lords of Scotland ar|rere warre a|gainst Grime their king. newes being sore kindled with displeasure, he got to|gither a great number of men, and marched foorth towards them that had so rebelled against him. Then followed more mischaefe and trouble than euer had béene séene afore that time in Scotland: for by reason of this ciuill dissention, castels were raced and ouer|throwne, What mischief insued. townes burned vp, corne destroied, fields wasted, and the people slaine in all places, yea as well in churches as elsewhere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Malcolme prince of Cumberland hearing of such cruell wars as were thus raised in Scotland betwixt the king and the nobles of the realme, to the danger of the vtter euersion of the whole common-wealth, returned with all spéed foorth of England (where he was with an armie as then in aid of king Egeldred against the Danes) into his owne countrie for de|fense of his subiects, if anie attempt should happilie be made against them in that troublesome season. Howbeit, he was no sooner returned home, but the nobles of Louthian came vnto him, beseeching Malcolme is required to re|lieue the Sco|tish estate. him to take pitie vpon his miserable and torne countrie, & to imploie his whole force to remooue a|way from the people such imminent destruction as dailie hasted towards them, which to doo they thought it was partlie euen his dutie, sith God had bestowed vpon him such gifts, both of bodie, mind, and fortune, as most plentioustie appeared in him, not onelie for the weale of himselfe, but also of his friends & coun|trie, & therefore his part was to shew his earnest di|ligence to deliuer the common-wealth of such ty|rannie as was practised by the misgouernement of Grime and his vnhappie councellors. Which be|ing done, he might order all things as should like him best.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Malcolme mooued with these and the like persua|sions Malcolme con senteth to make warres against Grime. of the Scotish lords, which dailie resorted vnto him, resolued with promise of their support to leuie warre against Grime in this so necessarie a quarell, and so assembling a great puissance togither, he did set foorth towards his aduersarie. By the way also there came still vnto him great numbers of men from each side to aid him in this enterprise, offering by solemne othes to become his liegemen and sub|iects. Grime likewise being aduertised of those newes, with all spéed got togther such people as hee might assemble for the time, and comming forward Grime assem|bleth an armie to incounter Malcolme. The camps néere the one to the other. Grimes policie. with the same at the towne of Auchnabart, both the armies pitched downe their tents, the one fast by the other, on the Ascension daie. Here Grime suppo|sing that he might take his enimies at some aduan|tage, if he came vpon them on the sudden, for that be|ing giuen to deuotion, they would looke for nothing lesse than for battell on that daie, he got foorth of his campe in the dawning of that morning, in purpose foorthwith to assaile them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Notwithstanding, Malcolme being aduertised thereof, sent vnto Grime, requesting him to desist Macolmes request. from battell for reuerence of that blessed feast, but Grime would in no wise assent thereto, but néedes would come on without stop or staie; whervpon both the armies rushing togither met right fiercelie, so that in the beginning there was great slaughter The battell betwixt Grime and Malcolme. Grimes part discomfited. made on both sides, but within a while king Grimes side was put to the woorsse, and in the end clearelie discomfited. In the chase were manie slaine, but yet no such number as so notable a victorie required. It is said that Grime was taken aliue standing at de|fense, & most fiercelie fighting, who being sore woun|ded The end of king Grime. in the head, had both his eies put out, and after|wards continuing so in great miserie and langnor certeine daies, at length departed out of this life, in the 9 yéere of his reigne, and was buried in Colme|kill, after the incarnation 1010 yéeres.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After this victorie thus obteined by Malcolme, he 1004. Io. M. 1010. H. B. called such noble men as were taken prisoners in Malcolmes words to thé that were ta|ken prisoners. this battell before him, vsing manie gentle woords toward them, declaring that the right of the crowne apperteined vnto him, and that the warres which hée had made, were not attempted against the common wealth of the Scotish estate, but rather in reliefe thereof, to the end the people might be deliuered of the tyrannie exercised by Grime and his councel|lors. When he had thus vttered his mind vnto them, he appointed a publike assembly to be kept at Scone A parlement at Scone. (for the election of a new king) there to be holden within 15 daies after. Whither the Scotish nobilitie comming togither at the time & place appointed, and consenting to crowne Malcolme king, he vtterlie Malcolme refuseth the crowne but vpon cõdition. refused to receiue the crowne, except the law establi|shed by his father Kenneth for the succession thereof were first confirmed and approoued, wherevpon the lords bound themselues by solemne othes to per|forme the same, and neuer to breake and violate it The ordinãce of king Ken|neth for the succession of the crowne is confirmed. in anie condition. His request herein being granted with generall consent both of the nobles and com|mons, the crowne was set vpon his head, he being placed in the chaire of marble, to the great reioising of all the people present.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 WHen the solemnitie of this coronation was ended, he called before him againe all the Malcolme lords and péeres of his realme; of the which, part had aided him in the last warres, and part had béene as|sistant vnto his aduersarie Grime: and there vsed the matter in such wise amongst them, that he made Malcolme a|gréeth the no|bles of his realme. them all friends, each one promising to other to for|get all former offenses, displeasures, and controuer|sies past, which he did to auoid all intestine trouble that might grow out of the rootes of such rancor and malice, as in time of the ciuill discord had sproong vp among them. Further, for the better administration Malcolmes wisdome in ordeining officers. of iustice in due forme and maner, he bestowed pub|like offices vpon discréet persons, skilfull in the laws and ordinances of the realme. Other offices pertei|ning to the warres & defense of the realme, he com|mitted to such as were practised & trained in such ex|ercises, so that iustice was ministred on all sides throughout the kingdome, with such equitie and vp|rightnesse, as had not beene heard of in anie age be|fore him. Whilest the Scotish estate was gouerned in such happie wise, by the prudent policie of king Malcolme; it chanced that Sueno king of Danes Sueno king of Denmark [...] landed in England. landed in England with a mightie nauie, in purpose to reuenge the iniuries done before vnto his people by the Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Sueno (as appeareth more at large in the historie of Denmarke) first being an earnest perse|cutor of christian men, and punished by the diuine prouidence for his crueltie in that behalfe, shewed by sundrie ouerthrowes receiued at the enimies hands, as in being thrife taken prisoner, and in the end dri|uen and expelled out of his kingdome, he came into Scotland for reliefe and succour, where through the Sueno cõuer|ted to the chri|stian faith in Scotland. wholesome instruction of godlie and vertuous men, he renounced his heathenish beléefe, and receiued the christian faith, and being baptised, at length was restored home to his kingdome. Shortlie after with a mightie armie of Danes, Gothes, Norwegians, and Swedeners, with other northerne people, he arriued (as is said) in England, and chased king E|geldred Egeldred (or as the Scots write Eldred) chased into Northumber|land, getteth aid from the Scots. into Northumberland, who there receiuing aid from the Scots, according to the league which latelie before he had contracted with them, he deter|mined est soones to trie the chance of battell with his enimies. Marching forwards therefore towards them, he came to the riuer of Owse, néere to the banks whereof, not farre from Yorke, he pitched EEBO page image 163 downe his tents.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then Sueno not forgetfull of the benefits and pleasures receiued but latelie at the Scotishmens Suenos mes|sage to the Scots. hands, sent an herald at armes vnto them, comman|ding them to depart their waies home, and to refuse Egeldreds companie; either else to looke for most cruell battell at the hands of the Danes, the Norwe|gians, and others the people of Germanie, there rea|die bent to their destruction. Egeldred being aduer|tised that his aduersaries messenger was thus come into his campe, caused him to be staied and arrested for a spie. And the same day he brought foorth his bat|tels readie ranged into the fields, to trie the matter by dint of swoord, if Sueno were so minded; who ve|rie desirous to accept the offer, brought foorth also his people in perfect order and well arraied to fight, so that there was no staie on either part, but that togi|ther they flue most fiercelie, & in such eger wise, that The battell betwixt Egel|dred & Sueno neither side had leasure to bestow their shot, but euen at the first they buckled togither at handblowes, con|tinuing certeine houres with great & cruell slaugh|ter, till at length the Englishmen were put to flight, The English men put to flight by the Danes. leauing the Danes a verie déere and bloudie victo|rie. The murther also that day of the Scots was great, but yet nothing to the number of the English|men. Egeldred himselfe with a few other, got a bote and passed ouer Ouse, so escaping out of the enimies Egeldred es|capeth by flight. hands, but the rest were for the most part either ta|ken or staine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Thus Egeldred being vtterlie vanquished and despairing of all recouerie, fled out of England ouer into Normandie, where he was verie friendlie recei|ued of Richard as then duke of Normandie, and af|terwards purchased such fauour there amongst the Normans, that he maried the ladie Emme, daugh|ter vnto the said duke, and begot of hir two sonnes, Alured and Edward, as in the English chronicles more at large it dooth appéere. Sueno hauing thus o|uercome his enimies, and now put in possession of the whole realme of England, was in mind to haue Suenos cru|ell imaginati|on. destroied all the English generation, so to establish the kingdome to him and his posteritie for euer, with|out anie impeachment afterwards to be made by such as should succéed of them that were then aliue. But the nobles of England aduertised of Suenos The nobles of England their humble petition vnto Sueno. determination, came humblie before his presence, & falling downe on their knées at his féet, besought him in most pitifull wise to haue compassion on their miserable estate, who in times past being a most puissant nation, both by sea and land, were now satisfied (if he would grant them life) to continue vn|der what bondage and seruitude it should stand with his pleasure to preseribe, for they desired neither pos|session of castels, townes, or other souereignties, but onelie to liue with their wiues and children vnder subiection within their owne natiue countrie, at the victors will and appointment.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Sueno, albeit he was of nature verie cruell, yet he qualified his displeasure by this humble submissi|on of the English nobilitie; in such sort, that he vsed Un [...]r what conditions Sueno licen|ced the Eng|lishmen to liue in their owne countrie. the victorie farre more gentlie, than at the first he had purposed, commanding that the whole English nation should remaine in the countrie, but in such wise, as by no meanes they should presume to beare anie armor or weapon, but to applie themselues vnto husbandrie, and other seruile occupations vnder the gouernement of the Danes, vnto whom they should resigne and deliuer all their castels, forts, and strong holds: and taking an oth to be true liege men vnto Sueno, as their souereigne lord and king; they should bring in (to be deliuered vnto his vse) all their weapons and armor, with other munition for the warres, also all their gold and siluer, aswell in pl [...] as coine. If anie of the Englishmen re [...]ed th [...]s is do, proclamation was made that he should immedi|atlie lose his life as a rebell and a disobedient per|son. These conditions were hard, and hardlie vrged. The Englishmen were brought vnto such an extre|mitie, that they were saine to accept these conditions of peace, for other meane to auoid present death they knew none. And thus was the dominion of Eng|land conquered by the Danes, after the Saxons had reigned in the same 564 yéeres. 529. H. B.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Such tyrannie also after this was vsed by the The miserie of the Eng|lishmen vnder the bondage of the Danes. Danes, that none of the English nation was admit|ted to anie office or rule within the realme, either spi|rituall or temporall, but were vtterlie remoued from the same, and some of them cast in prison and dailie put in hazard of their liues. Finallie, the English|men were brought into such miserable thraldome, that euerie housholder within the realme was con|streined to receiue and find at his owne proper costs and charges, one Dane, who should continuallie giue good watch what was said or doone in the house, and to aduertise the king thereof, for doubt of conspira|cies or treasons to be contriued and practised against his person and roiall estate. This Dane by the good man of the house and his familie, for honor sake, was called lord Dane, which woord was afterwards tur|ned to a name of reproch, as where anie idle person liued loitering, without the vse of some honest exer|cise The name of lordain how it came vp. to get his liuing withall, the people were and yet are accustomed to call him a lordaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶ Thus farre out of Hector Boetius we haue shew|ed of Suenos dooings in England, the which although it agrée not in all points with our English histories, yet sith the historie of Scotland in this place séemeth partlie to hang thereon, we haue thought good to set it downe as we find it in the same Boetius: but ad|uertising the reader withall, that if our histories be true, this which followeth touching Suenos inua|ding of Scotland, chanced before that Egeldred, whome the Scotish writers name Eldred, was dri|uen to flée into Normandie. For when that Sueno Sueno [...]anded héere this last time of his comming foorth of Den|marke into England in Iulie, in the yéere 1013, & departed this life in the be|ginning of Februarie, in the yeere 1014 lastlie returned into England, and constreined E|geldred so to forsake the land, he liued not long after but departed this life about Candelmas, in the yéere 1014 (as in the English histories ye may read more at large) not hauing time to make anie such iournie into Scotland: so that it may be thought, if he did enterprise anie such exploit there, it was before this his last arriuall in England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now to procéed according to that which we find in the foresaid Boetius. Sueno hauing spoiled the Englishmen of their liberties (in manner before re|membred, or rather brought them to become tributa|ries vnto him, as at the first time of his arriuall here he did in deed, he thought it necessarie, for the more suertie of his estate in England, to conclude some peace or league with his neighbours the Normans, Britains, & Scots, vnder condition that they should not support anie Englishman against him. But for|somuch as he could not compasse his intention héere|in, he furnished all the castels and fortresses on the sea-coasts, ouer against Normandie, with men, mu|nition, and vittels, to resist all sudden inuasions that might be attempted on that side. And on the other Sueno prepa|reth to inuade the Scots. part towards the north, he made all the prouision he could deuise to make mortall wars vpon the Scots: and the more to annoie his enimies, he sent com|mandement vnto Olauus his lieutenant in Nor|waie, Olauus, and Onetus. and to Onetus his deputie in Denmarke, to some with all the power they might leauie into Scotland, to make warres on his enimies there.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon shortlie after those foresaid capteins arriued with an huge armie in the mouth of Speie, The Danes land in Scot|land. and landed in such puissant order, that the inhabi|tants of M [...]y and fled out of their houses, with EEBO page image 164 their wiues, children, and goods (such as they could conueie awaie with them) into places where they thought to remaine most out of danger. But the Danes, after their manner, burne and spoile all be|fore The crueltie of the Danes. them, aswell churches and chappels, as other buil|dings and edifices. Such of the people as could not flée in time, but by chance fell into their hands, were slaine without all mercie. Also all the strengths and holds in the countrie were taken by the Danes, thrée castels onelie excepted: that is to say, Elgin, Fores, and Narne, which the Danes named afterwards Burg, and for that they trusted (when the same was woone) the other two would yeeld without anie fur|ther defense, they first laid siege vnto this castell of Narne, inforsing themselues with all their power to The castell of Narne besie|ged. win it: but in the meane time, they were informed how Malcolme the Scotish king was come within fiue miles of them with all the forces of his realme to giue them battell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Incontinentlie herevpon they raised their siege, and hasted foorth to méet him, with no lesse courage than if victorie were alreadie present in their hands. Shortlie after, there came vnto them heralds also Malcolme sendeth am|bassadors to the Danes. from Malcolme, to vnderstand whie they had thus inuaded his realme with open and most cruell warre, hauing no occasion giuen by him or his subiects so to doo: who scarselie had doone their message, but that The Danes slea the am|bassadors. they were slaine foorthwith by cruell outrage of the Danes. Malcolme being sore mooued to vnderstand the law obserued by all nations for the safetie of mes|sengers to be thus violated by the enimies, kept on his iournie with the more fierce courage, till he came to a medow a little beside Killos, where he incam|ped for that night. Great noise and clamour was heard throughout the armie, euerie man being desi|rous of battell, to reuenge the iniuries doone by the Danes against their friends and countriemen: not|withstanding on the morrow, when they saw their e|nimies in farre greater number, and in better order than euer had béene séene by anie of them before that time, their hart began to wax faint, hauing greater The Scots through feare are astonied. care which waie to saue their owne liues, than to giue the onset vpon their enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Malcolme perceiuing such dread to be entred into Malcolms woords to his nobles. the harts of his people, that they were now more like to run awaie than to fight, if he should bring them foorth to battell, got him to a little hill, and calling his nobles about him, he declared vnto them how he could not but detest their great cowardise, that were thus astonied at the first sight of their enimies, with|out further triall of their forces. ¶

At home (said he) ye are most hardie and valiant, where no danger ap|péereth. What rebuke then is it vnto you, to be thus faint harted (now that ye are come where valiancie should be shewed) in degenerating so far from your woorthie fathers and noble progenitors, the which at Loncart vnder the conduct of my father Kenneth, Loncart. obteined so famous a victorie of the selfe same nati|on, whose furious puissance ye séeme now so much to feare? There hath béene triall made in battell with this enimie in our time, both within the bounds of Scotland, and also of England, to the great honor and renowme of our elders. What discomfitures the Danes haue receiued are yet fresh in memorie, so manie of them losing their liues amongst vs, that Albion may well be reckoned the sepulture of Albion the se|p [...]lture of Danes. Danes; as some of you can well record by your owne remembrance, and other haue heard by report of their forefathers and ancestors. Ye ought then (said he) to be of good courage, rather than to faint now at néed, considering ye haue to doo with those e|nimies, who are but the remnant of the other, which before haue béene vanquished and ouerthrowne by Scotishmen, both at Loncart, and in diuerse other places; yea and besides that, such as moo [...]ing warres now at this present without [...]ust occasion, haue vio|lated the lawes both of God and man, deseruing thereby iust vengeance at Gods hands, the punisher of all such vniust offendors. There is great hope therefore of victorie (said he) left vnto all such as fight against these enimies, if we take manlie harts vnto vs, and shew our selues in valiant constancie like to our elders, whereby it shall then appéere what outra|gious follie remained in the Danes, to inuade vs without occasion of iniuries preceding. Therefore if ye haue not more regard to the safetie of your fraile bodies, which must néedes at length perish, than to the defense and preseruation of your common countrie; why passe ye not forward, sith there is now no place nor time to take longer aduise in the matter, as ye may well vnderstand by the presence of the enimie readie to ioine?

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The nobles mooued with these woords of their prince, began boldlie to exhort their people to battell. Incontinentlie whervpon rose such noise and raging furie through the armie, that without measuring ei|ther their owne forces or their enimies, they rush The Scots without order rush foorth to battell. foorth vpon them without anie order or good araie. O|lauus & Onetus beholding the Scots to come thus furiouslie against them, boldlie incountred them with arraied battels. Wherevpon insued a verie ter|rible fight, with great manhood shewd on both sides, nothing being let passe that might apperteine to woorthie capteins: the Scots inforcing themselues to defend their countrie and ancient liberties on the one side, and the Danes dooing their best indeuour by valiant hardinesse to saue their liues and honors on the other. At length, after huge murther & slaugh|ter The Scots put to flight. Malcolme [...] wounded. made on both parts, the Scots were put to flight, Malcolme was sore wounded, & had his hel|met so fast beaten to his head, that it might not well be got off, yet was he conueied out of the field in ma|ner for dead, and kept secret in a wood, till he was somewhat amended, and then got him into places out of danger. The Danes hauing got this victorie, and gathered the spoile of the field, returned to be|siege e [...] soones the castell of Narne, with more force and violence than before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 This castell in those daies was inclosed on ech side with the sea, hauing one narrow passage as an entrie vnto it, made by craft of man in manner of a bridge. Those that were within it, hauing know|ledge of the ouerthrow and losse of the field, rendered The castell o [...] Narne ren|dr [...]d by com|position. the fortresse, on condition, that leauing all their ar|mor, weapon, and other munitions behind them, they might depart with their liues and other goods saued. Neuerthelesse the Danes, contrarie to their [...]aith gi|uen, The Danes breakers of faith and pro|mise. being once entred the castell, hanged all those which they found within it ouer the wals, in most de|spitefull manner. Thus was Narne woone by the Danes, the strongest hold within Murrey land, and so garnished with men, munition, and vittels, that it was thought impregnable. Then those souldiers which kept Elgin and Fores, hearing what crueltie Elgin an [...] Fores left void. the Danes had thus vsed, fled out of those castels, and left them void without anie person to defend them. The Danes re [...]oising at this good fortune, trusted to establish themselues sure seates in Murrey land, and therevpon sent backe their ships into Norwaie and Denmarke, to fetch from thence their wiues and children. In the meane time they constreined such Scots as they had laid hands on, to reape and inne the corne growing abroad in the fields, vnto their vse and commoditie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 K. Malcolme being aduertised of all these things, doubting least by the arriuall of new aid, his enimies might war more puissant, in the beginning of the next summer he assembled a great multitud [...] of war|ors, EEBO page image 165 and came in good order and most warlike arraie vnto Murthlake, a towne of Mar, where the first e|rection Murthlake. of the bishops sée of Abirden was founded. Héere the one armie comming in sight of the other, they were suddenlie both amazed. For the Scots ha|uing had too much experience of the crueltie shewed The Scots and Danes [...] afraid of [...]other. afore time by the Danes, were put in no small feare now at the plaine & open sight of them. The Danes being farre off from the sea side, and vpon an vn|knowne ground, were more afraid of some ginle|fall practise, than of the open violence and force of their enimies. Yet neuerthelesse in the end, by the in|couragement of the capteins on both sides, they buckled togither with great fiercenesse and most cru|ell malicious hatred on ech hand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the first brunt thrée valiant capteins, that is to say, [...]nneth of Ila, Grime of Stratherne, and Pa|trike of Dunbar, rushing ouer fiercelie on their eni|mies, were slaine, and gaue occasion to manie of the [...] [...]s [...]ed [...]. Scotishmen to flee, but the place was such, that they could not well make their course anie waie foorth, by reason of the narrownesse thereof, fensed on either side with deepe trenches full of water and mud: also in trauerse were laid sundrie trées, as it had béene of purpose to impeach the passage, deuised in that sort (as was thought) in time of some ciuill warres. Here though Malcolme like a valiant champion, did his best to staie them that fled, yet was he borne backe with the preasie, till he came to the middest of this place, where stood a chappell dedicated in the honor of saint Moloke, the which Malcolme beholding, cast vp his hands towards heauen, making his praier on this wise.

¶ Great God of vertue, rewarder of pie|tie, and punisher of sinne, we thy people seeking to de|fend Malcolmes praier. our natiue countrie granted to vs of thy bene|uolence, as now destitute of all mortall helpe, and thus oppressed with the iniurious inuasion of Danes, doo flee vnto shée in this our extreme necessitie, besée|ching thee to haue compassion vpon our miserable e|state: remooue (oh mercifull lord) this dreadfull ter|ror [...]o you, that is to God, and o [...]r ladie, and saint Molo [...]e, for so he to [...]d them togither according to the manner of that tune. from thy people. And oh thou mother of God, the sweet refuge of mortall people in their distresse and miseries: and thou saint Moloke to whom this chap|pell was dedicate, helpe vs at this present, and in the honor of you I héere make a vow to build a cathe|drall church for a bishops sée, to remaine as a monu|ment, to testifie vnto our posteritie, that by your sup|port our realme hath béene defended.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Scarselie had Malcolme made an end of this praier, when diuers of the nobls with a lowd voice, as though they had béene assured that his praier was heard, cried to their companies; Stand good fellows, for suerlie it is the pleasure of almightie God, that we returne and renew the battell against our eni|mies. Héerevpon rose a woonderfull noise amongst The Scots oftentimes re|new battell. the souldiers, eth one incouraging other to withstand the enimies, and to fight in most manfull wise in de|fense of their countrie and ancient liberties, & foorth|with as it had béene by miracle they returned vpon their enimies, making great slaughter on ech side, without regard to their liues or bloudie wounds, which they boldlie and without feare receiued. Heere|with Malcolme with an ambushment of stout war|riors came vpon Onetus, who was pransing vp and downe the field without anie helmet on his head, as though the Scots had béene alreadie without recoue|rie clearelie discomfited, and so there was he beaten downe beside his horsse, and amongst the footmen [...]netus is slaine. slaine out of hand. The residue of the Danes behol|ding the slaughter of their capteine, staied from fur|ther pursute on the Scots. Heereof insued great boldnesse to the Scots, and discouragement to the Danes: albeit the battell continued still a long space, the souldiers dooing their best on either side, till at length the Danes were put to fight, manie of The Danes put to flight. them being slaine, and but few taken. D [...]s behol|ding the dis [...]ture of his people, [...] how his com|panion in authoritie was flame, fled into [...] [...]us [...]th into [...]rer [...]me land with a small companie about him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The next day, [...]lcolme considering what a [...]|ber of his most valiant capteins he had lost in this battell, diuided the spoile of the field amongest his men, and ceassing from further pursute of the Danes at that [...]me [...] into Angus, where he remained the residue of the yeere w [...]in the castell of Forf [...], taking counsell with his nobles touching the pub|like affaires of the realme, and how to recouer his countrie of Murrey land out of the ennimies hands. king Suen [...] hearing in the meane time how i [...] for|tunatelie his people had sped thus in Scotland at Suene [...]|teth a new ar| [...]e to [...] Scotland. the battell of [...]ake, in reuenge thereof deter|mined to inuad [...] the Scots with two mightie [...]a [...]es, the one to be rigged in England, and to come foorth of the riuer of [...]hames, and the other to be sent from Denmarke, one Camus a Dane, verie expert Ca [...] ap|po [...] cap| [...] generall of the Danes. in warlike knowledge, being appointed to be gouer|nor of all the men of warre that should come from both those parties.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The yeare next insuing, both these fléets according to commandement and order giuen, arriued and met togither within the mouth of the Forth, néere to saint Eb [...]s head. Here Camus going about to S [...]nt Eb [...]s [...]. The Scots [...]pe o [...] the Danes f [...]s landing. land his men, was kept off by the shout resistance of the Scots, there assembled for the same intent. Camus then plucking vp the sailes, directed his course vnto the Ile of Sketh, where riding at anchor for the space of one moneth, and abiding for some prosperous wind, at length when the same came once about, he passed from thence vnto the [...]ed|braies, called in Latine [...]ubrum promentorium. [...] there Carinus with his ar [...]e lan|deth at the [...]edbraus. landed his whole armie, before the countrie could be gathered to resist him. Camus being once landed, got him to the next hill, and beholding the ru [...]e of the towne of Montros, which a few yeares before had béene destroied by the Danes, he reioised not a little, for that his chance was to come on land in the selfe same place, where the Danes had earst vanqui|shed their enimies, hoping of like lucke in this his enterprise and present expedition.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 After this, he tooke his iournie through Angus, Camus mar|cheth through Angus. The crueltie of the Danes. sparing no maner of crueltie that might be deuised: cities, townes, villages, and churches, with all ma|ner of other buildings publike and priuat were con|sumed with fire. At his comming to Brechine, for that the castell there in those daies was of such strength, that it might not be hastilie woone, he The towne and church of Brechine de|stroied. caused the towne and church being right faire and sumptuouslie built in honor of the Trinitie (to whom it was dedicated) to be spoiled, & so raced to the earth, that one stone was not left standing vpon an other. With these and the semblable cruelties, Camus raging both against God and man, was final|lie aduertised that king Malcolme was come to Dundée with all the power of Scotland. Then sud|denlie he tooke the next way towards the sea side, comming the next day following vnto a village cal|led Balbrid, where he pitched downe his tents. The King Mal|colme hasteth foreward to fight with the Danes. same day, king Malcolme making all hast possible to succour his subicas, and preserue the countrie from the crueil outrage of the Danes, came to the towne of Barre two little miles from the place, where his enimies were incamped. In the morning he drew into the field, in purpose to giue them open battell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But before he arraied his battels, he called his Malcolmes oration. nobles and capteins togither, desiring them to con|sider how they should match in fight against people blinded with vile auarice, liuing on the spoile and pil|lage EEBO page image 166 got by théeuerie, and not by anie iust warres: enimies not onelie to the christian faith, but also to all innocent people, whome they sought vniustlie to inuade, without hauing occasion so to doo, saue onelie vpon an iniurious meaning to liue by spoile of other mens goods, wherein they haue no maner of proper|tie. He willed them therfore to remember how they were come thus against those enimies in defense of their natiue countrie, appointed vndoubtedlie by God to reuenge the cruell iniuries doone by the Danes against his name, and people that professed the same. They ought not then to measure force in number of souldiers, but rather in manhood and va|liancie of heart. Camus likewise exhorted his peo|ple, Camus ex|horteth his Danes. not vsing manie words, but yet pithie, desiring them to remember how it behooued them either to win immortall fame by victorie, either else to die with miserie in an vncouth land, by the hand of their most fierce and cruell enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Herewith Malcolme imbattelling his people, brought them foorth stronglie ranged in good order to incounter the Danes, which likewise approched to|wards him in good arraie of battell. His heart was filled the more with hope of victorie, for that he had tried sundrie times before the force of the enimies in diuers conflicts and encounters. For such is the na|ture The nature of valiant hearts and noble sto|machs. of noble and valiant stomachs, the more expe|rience they haue in honorable enterprises, the more are they kindled in desire to shew their powers in famous acts and woorthie attempts. The armies here vpon on both sides, fiercelie rushing togither, A bloudie bat|tell. began a battell right cruell & terrible, continuing certeine houres with such bloudshed, that the riuer of Lochtée ran with a purple hue downe into the Al|maine seas. The fields also where they fought, though they were full of sand (as the nature of the soile gi|ueth) yet were they made moist by the abundance of bloud spilled in the same. Manie there were so earnestlie bent to be reuenged on the enimie, that after they had their deaths wound, they would run themselues foreward vpon their aduersaries wea|pon, till they might close wish him, inforcing their vttermost powers to dispatch him also; so that di|uers were séene to fall to the ground togither fast grasping one another, and so immediatlie both of them to die withall: such burning hatred kindled their harts, that thus were they wholie set on re|uenge. At length yet the honor of the field remained Malcolme winneth the field. Camus is slaine. with Malcolme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Camus peceiuing the discomfiture to light on his side, with a small companie about him thought to haue escaped by flight vnto the next mounteins, but being pursued of his enimies, he was slaine by them yer he was got two miles from the place of the bat|tell. The place where he was slaine, is named after him vnto this day, and called Camestone, where is an obeliske set vp in memorie of the thing, with his An obeliske. picture grauen therein, and likewise of those that slue him. The principall slear of Camus was one Keith, a yoong gentleman of right hardie courage, The house of Keithes ad|uanced to ho|nor. whose seruice in the battell was verie notable, in re|compense whereof he was rewarded by king Mal|colme, with sundrie lands and faire possessions in Louthian. His familie (saith Hector Boetius) hath and dooth continue in great honor amongest Sco|tishmen euen vnto this day, and is decorated with the office of the marshalship of Scotland, to the high renowme and fame thereof, amongest the chiefest péers of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 An other companie of the Danes flieng from this ouerthrow were slaine at Abirlemnon, not past Danes slaine at Abirlem|non. foure miles from Brechin, where is set vp a great stone or obeliske, grauen with certeine characters or letters, to aduertise them that passe that waies foorth, of this slaughter of Danes there made by our woorthie elders. The residue of the Danes that esca|ped with life from the field, hauing certeine Scotish|men to their guides corrupted with monie sted to their ships, declaring to their fellowes what mishap had fortuned. King Malcolme after he obteined this famous victorie (as before is said) at Barre, he cau|sed The diuiding of the spoile. the spoile of the field to be diuided amongest his souldiers, according to the laws of armes; and then caused the dead bodies of the Danes to be buried in the place where the field had béene fought, and the bo|dies of the Scotishmen which were found dead were conueied vnto the places of christian buriall, and there buried with funerall obsequies in sundrie chur|ches and churchyards. There are séene manie bones Bones of Danes. of the Danes in those places where they were bu|ried, there lieng bare aboue ground euen vnto this day, the sands (as it often chanceth) being blowen from them. The other Danes, which escaped to their ships, pulled vp sailes to haue passed into Murrey land vnto Olauus, but remaining on the seas the space of foure daies togither, tossed to and fro by con|trarie winds, at length by a streinable east wind they were driuen vpon the coast of Buchquhan, and through want of conuenable harbrough were in pre|sent danger to haue béene cast away. At length, af|ter they had ridden at anchor in the Firth there, to their great displeasure a long space, and finding no prosperous winds to depart from the shore, for that their vittels began to faile them, they set fiue hun|dered of their best and lustiest souldiers on land, to fetch in some bootie or preie of cattell, therewith to relieue their hunger and famine. They that were thus sent foorth, being perfectlie appointed with ar|mour and weapon, ranged abroad till they had got togither a great number of beasts, with the which drawing towards their ships, they were incountred by the way by Marnachus the thane of Buchqu|hane Marnachu [...] thane of Buchquhan [...]. accompanied with the power of that countrie, whose force when they saw how they were not well able to resist without some aduantage of place, they got them vp into an high crag, where, with tum|bling downe stones vpon the Scotishmen as they mounted vp towards them, they caused them some|what to staie; but at length through the earnest exhor|tation of Marnachus, the Scots (as people inflamed with wood desire to be reuenged) mounted the hill in despight of their enimies, though diuers of them were slaine in that assault. Those which wan the height of the crag vpon the Danes, made such a cruell battell with them, that there was not one Dane that escaped their hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 This conflict was fought néere vnto Gemmer a Danes slain [...] néere vnto Gemmer. village or towne in Buchquhane, where, in memorie thereof, lie manie great bones of the Danes to be séene yet euen vnto these daies. It should appeare by the same bones, that men in former time were of more huge growth and stature, than they be at this present. The other Danes which were on ship bord, vnderstanding what had happened to their fellowes (because they returned not againe to the ships) so soone as the wind came about for their purpose, hoi|sed vp sailes, and tooke their course foorthright to|wards Murrey land. In the meane time king Sue|no hearing of these ouerthrowes, which his people had in such sort receiued at the Scotishmens hands, as a prince of a right haughtie courage, not lightlie ouercome with anie aduerse fortune, made prepa|ration in all spéedie wise to be reuenged, appointing his brother Canute, as then hauing the administra|tion Sueno prepa|reth the third time to inuade Scotland. Canute bro|ther vnto Sueno, ap|pointed gene|rall to come a|gainst the Scots. of Denmarke; to come from thence with a new fléete and armie against the Scots. It is said, that this Canuie, according to order prescribed him by his brother Sueno, landed first in Buchquhane, and EEBO page image 167 destroied a great part of that countrie by fire and sword, in reuenge of the slaughter of his countrie|men the Danes, which had beene there made late|lie before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Malcolme sore kindled in wrath by these iniuries, though through continuance of the wars his power was greatlie decaied, yet did he assemble an armie with all spéed he could deuise, and marched with the same towards the Danes, in purpose to staie them with often skirmishes and light incounters, but in King Mal|c [...]es deter|mination. no wise to ieopard with them in anie pitcht field or generall battell, for feare least if he had the ouer|throw, he should not be able to furnish a new power for defense of his countrie, against the rage of the enimies. For the space therefore of fiftéene daies togither, there was often skirmishing betwixt the parties. The which terme being expired, the Scots beholding so huge murder of their countriemen and friends, with the spoile of the fields, and destruction of the townes and villages, burning and blasing on each side before their faces, they come to king Mal|colme, and desired him that he would grant them The Scotish|mens request vnto their king for li|cence to fight. licence to fight with their enimies, protesting plaine|lie, that if he would not consent thereto, they would giue battell at their owne choise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Malcolme perceiuing the earnest minds of his people to incounter their enimies in plaine field, and that he might no longer protract the time, he granted their petition, and therewith beseeching them to re|member their honors and dueties: incontinentlie the onset was giuen with great hatred and malice The onset is giuen. on either part, so that most egerlie continuing in fight a long time, they inforced themselues to rid each other out of life: so that all the nobles well néere on both sides were slaine, the name of victorie rather than the victorie it selfe remaining with the Scots, The Scots wan the name of victorie, ra|ther than vic|torie it selfe. who were so féeble and faint with long fight & slaugh|ter, that in the end of the battell they were not able to pursue those few of the Danes, which escaping with life fled faintlie out of the field. And so for that night, which followed the day of this bloudie battell, they lodged heere and there in seuerall places, at ad|uenture as well as they might.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 On the morow after, when it was vnderstood on both parties, what losse they had susteined, their minds were conuerted rather to peace than to re|new battell, bicause they were not of power longer Peace conclu|ded for want of power to mainteine battell. The articles of the peace betwixt the Danes and Scotishmen. to mainteine it. Wherevpon by mediation of such as tooke vpon them to treat a peace, the same was con|cluded with these articles. First, that the Danes should depart out of Murrey land, Buchquhan, and all other the bounds of Scotland. That the warres should clearelie ceasse betwixt the Danes and Sco|tishmen, during the naturall liues of Sueno and Malcolme, or either of them. That neither of those two nations should aid or in anie wise support the o|thers enimies. That the field where the last battell was fought, should be hallowed for christian buriall, within the which the Danes that were slaine in the same battell should be buried, and a church to be built there, and lands appointed foorth for the mainte|nance of priests, to celebrate there according to the order of the christian religion, then vsed by both the people: for the Danes latelie before that season had also receiued the faith. This peace being ratified by the solemne othes of both the kings, Sueno and Mal|coline, The holds in Scotland de|liuered vp by the Danes in|to the Scotish mens hands. Canute retur|neth into Denmarke. Canute with his Danes resigning vp the pos|session of such holds and places as they held in Mur|rey land, Buchquhan, or else where within anie part of the Scotish dominions, got him to his fléet, and departed with the same home into Denmarke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Malcolme hauing thus restored his countrie vnto ioifull peace, thought nothing so good as to per|forme the articles of the agréement accorded be|twixt him and the Danes, and therefore caused a church to be builded in the place appointed, dedica|ting A church builded. the same in honor of saint Dlauus patrone of Denmarke and Norwaie, to signifie vnto such as came after, that sundrie nobles of the Danes laie buried in that church. In memorie hereof, the lands that were giuen to the same church, are called euen yet vnto these daies Crowdan, which signifieth as Crowdan, what it sig|nifieth. much as if ye should say, The slaughter of Danes. The church which was first builded there, chancing as often happeneth in those parties, to be ouercast with sands, an other was crected in place not farre off, hauing a more commodious site. Sundrie of the bones of them that were buried in this place, being Bones of Danes. left bare by reason that the sands were blowne away besides them, Hector Boetius (the writer of the Sco|tish chronicle) beheld in the yeere 1521, which séemed more like vnto giants bones, than to men of com|mon stature (as he auoucheth) whereby it should ap|peare, that men in old time were of much greater stature and quantitie of bodie, than anie that are to be found in these our daies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Malcolme being thus deliuered of his enimies Publike praiers. the Danes, caused publike praiers generallie to be made throughout the realme, in rendring thanks to almightie God, that it had pleased him to deliuer his people from the troubles of warre. He tooke order also, that churches should be repared, which by the The repa|ring of chur|ches. The restoring of lawes and iustice. enimies in time of the warres had béene destroied. And further, he caused the administration of the lawes and wholsome ordinances of the realme to be vsed and put in practise, according to the due forme of the same, which manie yéeres before could haue no place, by reason of the warres. He caused an assem|blie of all the estates of his realme to be called at A parlement at Bertha. Bertha castell, in those daies standing not farre from the place where the towne of Perth now standeth. In which conuention were manie things enacted, both for the setting foorth of Gods honor, and the weale of the realme, whereby Malcolme wan much praise a|mongst his subiects, to the eternall memorie of his nama.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After this, supposing it most honorable to ad|uance the bloud of such as had serued well in the last warres, or had their fathers or other friends slaine in the same, he called a parlement at Scone, in the A parlement at Scone. which, causing partition to be made of the realme, by diuiding it into baronies, he bestowed it amongest Diuision of the realme in|to baronies. the nobles, according to the qualitie of euerie one his merits, reseruing in maner nothing to the main|tenance of the crowne, common entries onelie ex|cepted, with the mounteine wherin the marble chaire stood, and a few other possessions which he purposed to giue vnto churches and chappels. The nobles on the other part, to the end the king might haue suffici|ent wherewith to mainteine his roiall estate, gran|ted vnto him and his successors for euer the custodis The ward|ship of heires granted ta [...] the king. and wardship of their heires, if they chanced to die leauing them vnder the age of 21 yéeres: and in the meane time till the same heires came to the said age, they agréed that the king and his successors should inioy the vse and profits of their lands, whether they were men or women, and when they came to the age of 21 yeeres, that then they should enter into the possession of their lands, yéelding vnto him or his successors one yéeres rent in name of a reliefe; and if they chanced not to be married before their fathers Mariage o [...] wards. deceasse, then also should they marrie at the kings appointment, or else compound with him for the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Thus ended the parlement for that season, with great ioy and comfort on each hand, for that the king had shewed such liberall bountiousnesse towards his barons, and they no lesse mindfull of their duties had EEBO page image 168 declared such veneuolent hearts, as appeared in that their frée and large gift granted in forme and maner as before is expressed. Neither did Malcolme forget the vow which he made at Murthlake, when he was in danger to haue receiued the ouerthrow at the hand of the Danes. For according to the same vow, he caused a church to be built in the same place, e|recting a bishops sée there, and indowed it with the lands & possessions of these thrée places, Murthlake, The sée of Murthlake, otherwise A|berden. Cleometh, and Dunmeth, with all ecclesiasticall in|risdictions and tithes apperteining thereto. The bi|shops that sat in this sée were called the bishops of Murthlake, till the daies of king Dauid the first, who changing the name, caused them to be called the bi|shops of Abirden, augmenting the sée with sundrie faire reuenues to the better maintenance thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Malcolme thus hauing purchased rest from further troubles of warre, gouerned the realme a certeine time after in good order of iustice, and caused a booke to bée set foorth, called Regia maiestas, conteining The booke talled Regia maiestas. the lawes and ordinances wherby the realme should be gouerned: and assigning foorth in the same what fées also should be giuen vnto the chancellor, secreta|rie, constable, marshall, chamberleine, iustice, trea|suror, register, comptroller, and other the officers of his house. Such princelie dooings and noble ver|tues were found in this Malcolme for a season, that if the same had continued with him in his latter age, there had neuer reigned anie king in Scotland, that might haue bene thought to haue passed him in wor|thie fame: neuertheles his excellent qualities were stained at length by that reprochfull vice of vile aua|rice. Malcolme waxeth aua|ritious. Couetousnes and age arri|uing togither. For as it oftentimes happeneth, couetousnesse and age laid hold on him both at once. He then began to repent in that he had béene so liberall in giuing a|way his lands to his barons; & to recouer the same againe, he surmized feigned matter by vntrue sug|gestions against diuerse of the chiefest nobles, put|ting some to death, & banishing other, that he might by this meanes inioy their lands and goods as con|fiscate Malcolmes crueltie to pur chase riches. to the crowne for their supposed offénses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The nobles hauing great indignation at such cru|eltie vsed by the king against them and their linage, and that vpon no iust causes, but enelie vpon forged The conspi|racie of the Scotish nobi|litie against Malcolme. deuises, they conspired in sundrie méetings secretlie appointed amongst them, to find some meanes to dis|patch him out of life. At length he chanced to haue some inkling whereabout they went, & doubting to fall into their hands, fled for safegard of his life vnto Glammis, where diuerse of the conspirators were Malcolme s [...]ne at Glammis. brought into his lodging, by some of his owne hous|hold seruants, and there slue him in reuenge of their friends, whome he before had wrongfullie put to death. These murtherers with their complices incon|tinentlie fled with all spéed possible to auoid further danger for this their act: but missing their way (for the ground was quite couered as then with snow) they finallie came to the loch of Forfair, which was the same time frozen ouer. They therefore thinking to passe ouer it, when they came into the midst, the ise brake vnder them, so that sinking in, they were finallie drowned. Howbeit their bodies were after|wards The murthe|ters drowned. drawne foorth of the loch with drags, and dis|membred, and their heads and quarters were sent to diuerse townes of the realme, and there hoong vp for a signification of their wicked treason. This was the end of king Malcolme in the 32 yéere of his reigne, if ye reckon from the death of Constantine, or 25 after the death of Grime, and after the incar|nation of our Sauiour 1034 yéeres. He was buried 31. H. B. 1040. H. B. in Colmekill with his ancestors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In this season was séene manie woonders and strange sights in Albion. On Christmas daie there Strange sights. was an earthquake, and a great rist of the earth made therewith in the midst of Striueling towne, out of the which issued such an abundant streame of water, that it bare away the next wood that was ad|ioining to the riuer of Forth. In the summer the sea rose higher, & flowed further into the land, than euer it had beene séene at anie other time. On Midsum|mer daie, which is the feast of saint Iohn Baptist, there was such a vehement frost, that the corne and other fruits of the earth were blasted and killed, so that therevpon followed a great dearth in all the countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 AFter Malcolme succéeded his nephue Duncane Duncane. the sonne of his daughter Beatrice: for Mal|colme had two daughters, the one which was this Beatrice, being giuen in mariage vnto one Abba|nath Duncan king of Scotland. Crinen, a man of great nobilitie, and thane of the Iles and west parts of Scotland, bare of that mariage the foresaid Duncane; the other called Do|ada, was maried vnto Sinell the thane of Glam|mis, by whom she had issue one Makbeth a valiant Makbeth. gentleman, and one that if he had not béene some|what cruell of nature, might haue béene thought most woorthie the gouernement of a realme. On the other part, Duncane was so soft and gentle of na|ture, Duncan of [...] soft a nature. that the people wished the inclinations and ma|ners of these two cousins to haue béene so tempered and interchangeablie bestowed betwixt them, that where the one had too much of clemencie, and the o|ther of crueltie, the meane vertue betwixt these two extremities might haue reigned by indifferent par|tition in them both, so should Duncane haue proued a woorthie king, and Makbeth an excellent capteine. The beginning of Duncans reigne was verie quiet and peaceable, without anie notable trouble; but af|ter it was perceiued how negligent he was in pu|nishing offendors, manie misruled persons tooke oc|casion thereof to trouble the peace and quiet state of the common-wealth, by seditious commotions which first had their beginnings in this wise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Banquho the thane of Lochquhaber, of whom the Banquho thane of Loch quhaber. The house of ye Stewards. house of the Stewards is descended, the which by or|der of linage hath now for a long time inioied the crowne of Scotland, euen till these our daies, as he gathered the finances due to the king, and further punished somewhat sharpelie such as were notorious offendors, being assailed by a number of rebels inha|biting A mutinie a|mongst the people of Lochquhaber. in that countrie, and spoiled of the monie and all other things, had much a doo to get awaie with life, after he had receiued sundrie grieuous wounds amongst them. Yet escaping their hands, after hée was somewhat recouered of his hurts, and was able to ride, he repaired to the court, where making his complaint to the king in most earnest wise, he pur|chased at length that the offendors were sent for by a sergeant at armes, to appeare to make answer vnto such matters as should be laid to their charge: but they augmenting their mischiefous act with a more wicked déed, after they had misused the messenger A sergea [...] [...] armes slaine by the rebels. with sundrie kinds of reproches, they finallie slue him also.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Then doubting not but for such contemptuous dem [...]anor against the kings regall authoritie, they should be inuaded with all the power the king could make, Makdowald one of great estimation among Makdowald offereth him|selfe to be cap|teine of the rebels. them, making first a confederacie with his neerest friends and kinsmen, tooke vpon him to be chiefe cap|teine of all such rebels as would stand against the king, in maintenance of their grieuous offenses latelie committed against him. Manie slanderous words also, and railing tants this Makdowald vtte|red against his prince, calling him a faint-hearted milkesop, more meet to gouerne a sort of idle moonks in some cloister, than to haue the rule of such valiant and hardie men of warre as the Scots were. He EEBO page image 169 vsed also such subtill persuasions and forged allure|ments, that in a small time he had gotten togither a mightie power of men: for out of the westerne Iles there came vnto him a great multitude of people, of|fering themselues to assist him in that rebellious quarell, and out of Ireland in hope of the spoile came no small number of Kernes and Galloglasses, offe|ring gladlie to serue vnder him, whither it should please him to lead them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Makdowald thus hauing a mightie puissance about him, incountered with such of the kings peo|ple Makdowald discomfiteth the kings power. as were sent against him into Lochquhaber, and discomfiting them, by mere force tooke their capteine Malcolme, and after the end of the battell smote off his head. This ouerthrow being notified to the king, did put him in woonderfull feare, by reason of his The smal skil of the king in warlike af|faires. small skill in warlike affaires. Calling therefore his nobles to a councell, he asked of them their best ad|uise for the subduing of Makdowald & other the re|bels. Here, in sundrie heads (as euer it happeneth) were sundrie opinions, which they vttered according to euerie man his skill. At length Makbeth speaking much against the kings softnes, and ouermuch slack|nesse in punishing offendors, whereby they had such time to assemble togither, he promised notwithstan|ding, if the charge were committed vnto him and Makbeths offer. vnto Banquho, so to order the matter, that the re|bels should be shortly vanquished & quite put downe, and that not so much as one of them should be found to make resistance within the countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 And euen so it came to passe: for being sent foorth with a new power, at his entring into Lochquha|ber, Makbeth and Banquho are sent against the rebels. The rebels forsake their capteine. the fame of his comming put the enimies in such feare, that a great number of them stale secret|lie awaie from their capteine Makdowald, who ne|uerthelesse inforced thereto, gaue battell vnto Mak|beth, with the residue which remained with him: but being ouercome, and fléeing for refuge into a castéll (within the which his wife & children were inclosed) at length when he saw how he could neither defend the hold anie longer against his enimies, nor yet vpon surrender be suffered to depart with life saued, hée first fiue his wife and children, and lastlie himselfe, Makdowald slaieth his wife and chil|dren, & lastlie himselfe. least if he had yeelded simplie, he should haue béene executed in most cruell wise for an example to other. Makbeth entring into the castell by the gates, as then set open, found the carcasse of Makdowald li|eng dead there amongst the residue of the slaine bo|dies, which when he beheld, remitting no peece of his cruell nature with that pitifull sight, he caused the Makdowalds head sent to the king. Makbeths crueltie. head to be cut off, and set vpon a poles end, and so sent it as a present to the king, who as then laie at Bertha. The headlesse trunke he commanded to bée hoong vp vpon an high paire of gallowes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Them of the westerne Iles suing for pardon, in that they had aided Makdowald in his tratorous en|terprise, he fined at great sums of monte: and those whome he tooke in Lochquhaber, being come thither to beare armor against the king, he put to execution. Her vpon the Ilandmen conceiued a deadlie grudge towards him, calling him a couenant-breaker, a Makbeth de|famed by the Ilandmen. bloudie tyrant, & a cruell murtherer of them whome the kings mercie had pardoned. With which reproch|full words Makbeth being kindled in wrathfull ire against them had passed ouer with an armie into the Iles, to haue taken reuenge vpon them for their li|berall talke, had he nõt béene otherwise persuaded by some of his friends, and partlie pacified by gifts pre|sented vnto him on the behalfe of the Ilandmen, sée|king to auoid his displeasure. Thus was iustice and law [...]stored againe to the old accustomed course, by Iustice & la [...] restored. the diligent means of Makbeth. Immediatlie where|vpon [...]wed came that Suen [...] king of Norway was Sueno king of Norway [...]ded in [...]ife a [...]ued in Fife with a puissant armie, to subdue the whole realme of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But here to the intent it maie be the better per|ceiued, what this Sueno was, I will somwhat touch from whence he descended. That Sueno, who (as ye This agréeth not with out English writers. haue heard) conquered the realme of England, be|ing also king of Denmarke and Norwaie, had thrée sonnes, Harold, Sueno, and Canute; the first he made king of England, the second king of Norwaie, and the third king of Denmarke. Harold inioied not Harold that reigned king of England, was not the son of Sueno but of Canute and was not slaine, but died of naturall disease. Sée more hereof in England. Canute king of Denmarke. Edmund Ironside. the same dominion of England past thrée yéeres af|ter his fathers deceasse, but was slaine by Ethel|dred or Egeldred, whom his father Sueno had chased into Normandie. But the same Etheldred kept not long the kingdome in peace, for Canute king of Denmarke, to reuenge his brothers death, landed in England with a mightie host, and sleaing Etheldred, recouered the kingdome to the vse of the Danes: but yet one Edmund sonne to the foresaid Ethel|dred, surnamed Ironside, mainteined the warre a|gainst Canute for a season, till at length by both their consents they agréed to fight a combat singularlie man to man, so to trie the matter betwixt them, who should reigne as king ouer the Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In this fight when they had continued a long space, and shewed right notable proofes of their man|hood:

Edmund (saith Canute) sith it hath pleased al|mightie Canutes words to Edmund Ironside. God, that thou shouldest thus trie the force of my hand without hurt or wound, I thinke it bée likewise his pleasure, that thou shouldest inioy part of the realme: go to therefore, I receiue thée as parte|ner with me in the king dome, so that (if thou be con|tented let vs diuide the kingdome betwixt vs with|out anie more contention.
Edmund gladlie acceptedthis condition of agreement, supposing it better to haue halfe the kingdome, than to stand to the doubt|full triall of loosing the whole: for he had receiued a wound at Canutes hands, though Canute vnder|stood not so much: againe, he foresaw that occasion hereafter might be offered, whereby he might with|out all trouble come to inioy the whole. Herevpon The diuision of the realme of England betwixt Ca|nute and Edmund Ironside. either of them lept beside their weried horsses in that fierce & earnest fight, & imbracing each other became good friends, in diuiding the realme according to the aboue mentioned motion of Canute. That part of England that lieth ouer against France was assig|ned vnto Canute; and the other, that is, the north parts vnto Edmund. In the meane time Emma the wife of Etheldred, with hir two sonnes (which she Alured & Ed|ward the sons of king E|theldred. had by the same Etheldred) Alured and Edward, fled ouer into Normandie, doubting least this concord betwixt Canute and Edmund should turne smallie to hir aduancement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But now touching the arriuall of Sueno the Norwegian king in Fife (as before is expressed) ye shall vnderstand, that the pretense of his comming was to reuenge the slaughter of his vncle Camus, and other of the Danish nation slaine at Barre, Crowdane, and Gemmer. The crueltie of this Sue|no The crueltie of Sueno king of Nor|waie. was such, that he neither spared man, woman, nor child, of what age, condition or degrée soeuer they were. Whereof when K. Duncane was certified, he set all slouthfull and lingering delaies apart, and be|gan to assemble an armie in most spéedie wise, like a Duncane be|stirreth him|selfe in assem|bling an ar|mie. verie valiant capteine: for oftentimes it happeneth, that a dull coward and slouthfull person, constreined by necessitie, becommeth verie hardie and actiue. Therefore when his whole power was come togither, he diuided the same into thrée battels. The first was The Scotish armie diuided into thrée bat|tels. led by Makbeth, the second by Banquho, & the king himselfe gouerned in the maine battell or middle ward, wherein were appointed to attend and wait vpon his person the most part of all the residue of the Scotish nobilitie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The armie of Scotishmen being thus ordered, EEBO page image 170 came vnto Culros, where incountering with the eni|mies, after a sore and cruell foughten battell, Sueno remained victorious, and Malcolme with his Scots Sueno van|quisheth the Scots. discomfited. Howbeit the Danes were so broken by this battell, that they were not able to make long chase on their enimies, but kept themselues all night in order of battell, for doubt least the Scots assem|bling togither againe, might haue set vpon them at some aduantage. On the morrow, when the fields were discouered, and that it was perceiued how no enimies were to be found abrode, they gathered the spoile, which they diuided amongst them, according to the law of armes. Then was it ordeined by com|mandement Suenos com|mandement to spare fire and swoord. of Sueno, that no souldier should hurt either man, woman, or child, except such as were found with weapon in hand readie to make resi|stance, for he hoped now to conquer the realme with|out further bloudshed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But when knowledge was giuen how Duncane was fled to the castell of Bertha, and that Makbeth Duncane fled to the castell of Bertha. was gathering a new power to withstand the incur|sions of the Danes, Sueno raised his tents, & com|ming to the said castell, laid a strong siege round a|bout it. Duncane séeing himselfe thus enuironed by Sueno besie|geth king Malcolme. his enimies, sent a secret message by counsell of Banquho to Makbeth, commanding him to abide at Inchcuthill, till he heard from him some other newes. In the meane time Duncane fell in fained communication with Sueno, as though he would Fained trea|tie. haue yéelded vp the castell into his hands, vnder cer|teine conditions, and this did he to driue time, and to put his enimies out of all suspicion of anie enterprise ment against them, till all things were brought to passe that might serue for the purpose. At length, when they were fallen at a point for rendring vp the hold, Duncane offered to send foorth of the castell in|to the campe great prouision of vittels to refresh the armie, which offer was gladlie accepted of the Danes, for that they had béene in great penurie of sustenance manie daies before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The Scots héerevpon tooke the iuice of mekil|woort berries, and mixed the same in their ale and Spiced cups prepared for the Danes. bread, sending it thus spiced & confectioned, in great abundance vnto their enimies. They reioising that they had got meate and drinke sufficient to satisfie their bellies, fell to eating and drinking after such greedie wise, that it séemed they stroue who might de|uoure and swallow vp most, till the operation of the berries spread in such sort through all the parts of their bodies, that they were in the end brought into The Danes ouercome with drinke, fall asléepe. a fast dead sleepe, that in manner it was vnpossible to awake them. Then foorthwith Duncane sent vnto Makbeth, commanding him with all diligence to come and set vpon the enimies, being in easie point to be ouercome. Makbeth making no delaie, came with his people to the place, where his enimies were Makbeth as|saiteth the campe of the Danes, being ouercome with drinke and sléeps. lodged, and first killing the watch, afterwards ente|red the campe, and made such slaughter on all sides without anie resistance, that it was a woonderfull matter to behold, for the Danes were so heaire of sléepe, that the most part of them were slaine and ne|uer stirred: other that were awakened either by the noise or other waies foorth, were so amazed and dizzie headed vpon their wakening, that they were not a|ble to make anie defense: so that of the whole num|ber The slaugh|ter of Danes. Sueno with ten other esca|ped. there escaped no more but onelie Sueno him|selfe and ten other persons, to whose helpe he got to his ships lieng at rode in th [...] mouth of Taie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The most part of the mariners, when they heard what plentie of meate and drinke the Scots had sent vnto the campe, came from the sea thither to be par|takers thereof, and so were slaine amongst their fel|lowes: by meanes whereof when Sueno perceiued how through lacke of mariners he should not be a|ble to conueie awaie his nauie, he furnished one ship Sueno fléeth with one ship, leauing the re|sidue of his nauie behind him. The fléete of the Norwegi|ans sunke by vehement rage of winds. throughlie with such as were left, and in the same sailed backe into Norwaie, cursing the time that he set forward on this infortunate iournie. The other ships which he left behind him, within three daies af|ter his departure from thence, were tossed so togi|ther by violence of an east wind, that beating and rushing one against another, they sunke there, and lie in the same place euen vnto these daies, to the great danger of other such ships as come on that coast: for being couered with the floud when the tide commeth, at the ebbing againe of the same, some part of them appéere aboue water.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The place where the Danish vessels were thus lest, is yet called Drownelow sands. This ouerthrow re|ceiued Drownelow sands. in manner afore said by Sueno, was verie displeasant to him and his people, as should appéere, in that it was a custome manie yeeres after, that no knights were made in Norwaie, except they were first sworne to reuenge the slaughter of their coun|triemen The oth that knights tooke in Norware, to reuenge the death of their friends. Solemne pro|cessions for victorie got|ten. A power of Danes arriue at Kingcorne out of Eng|land. The Danes vanquished by Makbeth and Banquho. and friends thus slaine in Scotland. The Scots hauing woone so notable a victorie, after they had gathered & diuided the spoile of the fleld, caused solemne processions to be made in all places of the realme, and thanks to be giuen to almightie God, that had sent them so faire a day ouer their enimies. But whilest the people were thus at their processi|ons, woord was brought that a new fléet of Danes was arriued at Kingcorne, sent thither by Canute king of England, in reuenge of his brother Sue|nos ouerthrow. To resist these enimies, which were alreadie landed, and busie in spoiling the countrie; Makbeth and Banquho were sent with the kings au|thoritie, who hauing with them a conuenient power, incountred the enimies, slue part of them, and chased the other to their ships. They that escaped and got once to their ships, obteined of Makbeth for a great summe of gold, that such of their friends as were slaine at this last bickering, might be buried in saint Danes buried in S. Colmes Inch. Colmes Inch. In memorie whereof, manie old se|pultures are yet in the said Inch, there to be seene grauen with the armes of the Danes, as the maner of burieng noble men still is, and héeretofore hath béene vsed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 A peace was also concluded at the same time be|twixt A peace con|cluded be|twixt Scots and Danes. the Danes and Scotishmen, ratified (as some haue written) in this wise: That from thencefoorth the Danes should neuer come into Scotland to make anie warres against the Scots by anie maner of meanes. And these were the warres that. Dun|cane had with forren enimies, in the seuenth yéere of his reigne. Shortlie after happened a strange and vncouth woonder, which afterward was the cause of much trouble in the realme of Scotland, as ye shall after heare. It fortuned as Makbeth and Banquho iournied towards Fores, where the king then laie, they went sporting by the waie togither without o|ther companie, saue onelie themselues, passing tho|rough the woods and fields, when suddenlie in the middest of a laund, there met them thrée women in strange and wild apparell, resembling creatures of elder world, whome when they attentiuelie beheld, woondering much at the sight, the first of them spake The prophesie of thrée wo|men suppo|sing to be the weird sisters or feiries. and said; All haile Makbeth, thane of Glammis (for he had latelie entered into that dignitie and office by the death of his father Sinell.) The second of them said; Haile Makbeth thane of Cawder. But the third said;

All haile Makbeth that héereafter shalt he king of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2

Then Ban [...]uho; What manner of women (saith he) are you; that séeme so little fauourable vnto me, whereas to my follow heere, besides high offices, ye assigne also the kingdome, appointing foorth nothing for me at all & Yes (saith the first of them) we pro|mise EEBO page image 171 greater benefits vnto thée, than vnto him, for he shall reigne in déed, but with an vnluckie end: nei|ther shall he leaué anie issue behind him to succéed in his place, where contrarilie thou in déed shalt not reigne at all, but of thée those shall be borne which shall gouerne the Scotish kingdome by long order of continuall descent. Herewith the foresaid women vanished immediatlie out of their sight.
This wasreputed at the first but some vaine fantasticall illusi|on A thing to woonder at. by Mackbeth and Banquho, insomuch that Ban|quho would call Mackbeth in iest, king of Scotland; and Mackbeth againe would call him in sport like|wise, the father of manie kings. But afterwards the Banquho the father of ma|nie kings. common opinion was, that these women were ei|ther the weird sisters, that is (as ye would say) the goddesses of destinie, or else some nymphs or feiries, indued with knowledge of prophesie by their necro|manticall science, bicause euerie thing came to passe as they had spoken. For shortlie after, the thane of The thane of Cawder con|demned of treason. Mackbeth made thane of Cawder. Cawder being condemned at Fores of treason a|gainst the king committed; his lands, liuings, and offices were giuen of the kings liberalitie to Mack|beth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The same night after, at supper, Banquho iested with him and said; Now Mackbeth thou hast obtei|ned those things which the two former sisters prophe|sied, there remaineth onelie for thée to purchase that which the third said should come to passe. Wherevpon Mackbeth deuiseth how he might at|teine the king|dome. Mackbeth reuoluing the thing in his mind, began euen then to deuise how he might atteine to the kingdome: but yet he thought with himselfe that he must tarie a time, which should aduance him there|to (by the diuiné prouidence) as it had come to passe in his former preferment. But shortlie after it chan|ced The daugh|ter of Siward earle of Nor|thumberland, wife to king Duncane. that king Duncane, hauing two sonnes by his wife which was the daughter of Siward earle of Northumberland, he made the elder of them called Malcolme prince of Cumberland, as it were there|by to appoint him his successor in the kingdome, im|mediatlie after his deceasse. Mackbeth sore trou|bled herewith, for that he saw by this means his hope sore hindered (where, by the old lawes of the realme, the ordinance was, that if he that should succéed were not of able age to take the charge vpon himselfe, he that was next of bloud vnto him should be admitted) he began to take counsell how he might Mackbeth studieth which way he may take the kingdome by force. vsurpe the kingdome by force, hauing a iust quarell so to doo (as he tooke the matter) for that Duncane did what in him lay to defraud him of all maner of title and claime, which he might in time to come, pretend vnto the crowne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The woords of the thrée weird sisters also (of whom Prophesies mooue then to vnlawfull at|tempts. before ye haue heard) greatlie incouraged him here|vnto, but speciallie his wife lay sore vpon him to at|tempt the thing, as she that was verie ambitious, burning in vnquenchable desire to beare the name of a quéene. At length therefore, communicating Women desi|rous of high estate. his purposed intent with his trustie friends, amongst whome Banquho was the chiefest, vpon confidence of their promised aid, he slue the king at Enuerns, Mackbeth [...]th king Duncane. or (as some say) at Botgosuane, in the sixt yeare of his reigne. Then hauing a companie about him of such as he had made priuie to his enterprise, he cau|sed himselfe to be proclamed king, and foorthwith Mackbeth v|surpeth the crowne. went vnto Scone, where (by common consent) he receiued the inuesture of the kingdome according to the accustomed maner. The bodie of Duncane was first conueied vnto Elgine, & there buried in king|lie wise; but afterwards it was remoued and con|ueied vnto Colmekill, and there laid in a sepulture Duncanes buriall. amongst his predecessors, in the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour, 1046. 1046. H. B.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Malcolme Cammore and Donald Bane the sons of king Duncane, for feare of their liues (which they might well know that Mackbeth would séeke to Malcolme Cammore and Donald Bane flée in|to Cumber|land. Malcolme Cammore re|ceiued by Ed|ward king of England. Mackbeths liberalitie. bring to end for his more sure confirmation in the estate) fled into Cumberland, where Malcolme re|mained, till time that saint Edward the sonne of Ethelred recouered the dominion of England from the Danish power, the which Edward receiued Mal|colme by way of most friendlie enterteinment: but Donald passed ouer into Ireland, where he was ten|derlie cherished by the king of that land. Mackbeth, after the departure thus of Duncanes sonnes, vsed great liberalitie towards the nobles of the realme, thereby to win their fauour, and when he saw that no man went about to trouble him, he set his whole intention to mainteine iustice, and to punish all en|ormities Mackbeth studieth to ad|uance iustice. and abuses, which had chanced through the féeble and slouthfull administration of Duncane. And to bring his purpose the better to passe without anie trouble or great businesse, he deuised a subtill Mackbeths policie. wile to bring all offendors and misdooers vnto iu|stice, solliciting sundrie of his liege people with high rewards, to challenge and appeale such as most op|pressed the commons, to come at a day and place ap|pointed, to fight singular combats within barriers, in triall of their accusations. When these théeues, barrettors, and other oppressors of the innocent peo|ple were come to darren battell in this wise (as is said) they were streight waies apprehended by Streict iu|stice. armed men, and trussed vp in halters on gibbets, according as they had iustlie deserued. The residue of misdooers that were left, were punished and ta|med in such sort, that manie yeares after all theft and reiffings were little heard of, the people inioieng the blissefull benefit of good peace and tranquillitie. Mackbeth shewing himselfe thus a most diligent punisher of all iniuries and wrongs attempted by a|nie disordered persons within his realme, was ac|counted the sure defense and buckler of innocent people; and hereto he also applied his whole indeuor, A kinglie en|deuour. to cause yoong men to exercise themselues in vertu|ous maners, and men of the church to attend their diuine seruice according to their vocations.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 He caused to be slaine sundrie thanes, as of Cath|nes, Iustice mini|stred without respect of per|sons. Sutherland, Stranauerne, and Ros, because through them and their seditious attempts, much trouble dailie rose in the realme. He appeased the troublesome state of Galloway, and slue one Mak|gill a tyrant, who had manie yeares before passed no|thing of the regall authoritie or power. To be briefe, such were the woorthie dooings and princelie acts of this Mackbeth in the administration of the realme, that if he had atteined therevnto by rightfull means, and continued in vprightnesse of iustice as he began, till the end of his reigne, he might well haue béene numbred amongest the most noble princes that anie where had reigned. He made manie holesome laws and statutes for the publike weale of his subiects.

1.2. Lawes made by king Makbeth set foorth according to Hector Boetius.

Lawes made by king Makbeth set foorth according to Hector Boetius.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _HE that is within orders of the Liberties of them that haue taken or|ders. church, shall not be compelled to answere before a temporall iudge, but be remitted to his or|dinarie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The tenth part of all fruits that in|crease Tithes to be paid to the church. on the ground, shall be giuen to the church, that God may be woorshipped with oblations and praiers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that continueth obstinatlie in the Persons ac|cursed. cursse of the church by the space of one EEBO page image 172 whole yeare, contemning to be reconci|led, shall be reputed enimie to the common|wealth: and if he perseuere with indurat mind the space of two yeares, all his goods shall be forfeited.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that taketh the order of knighthood, The order of knighthood. shall take an oth to defend ladies, virgins, widows, orphans, and the communaltie. And he that is made king, shall be sworne in semblable maner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The eldest daughter shall inherit hir fa|thers Eldest daugh|ters. lands, as well as the eldest sonne should, if the father leaue no sonne behind him. And if anie woman marie with the lord of the soile, she shall lose hir heritage.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 No man shall inioy anie lands, rents, The kings gift. offices, or other possessions, but onelie by gift and grant of the king.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 No office shall go by inheritance, but shall still remaine at the kings free disposi|tion, No offices to go by inheri|tance. as shall stand with his pleasure to as|signe it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 No man shall sit as iudge in anie tem|porall court without the kings commis|sion Iudges. authorizing him thereto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All conuentions, offices, and acts of iu|stice, shall passe in the kings name.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that is reteined or becommeth a sworne man to anie other person saue one|lie Reteiners. to the king, shall lose his life for it, and euerie man shall be bound to defend the king against all other creatures.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that raiseth the kings liege people, shall lose life, goods, and lands, and so shall Raisers of the kings people, or vnlawfull assemblies. they doo that assemble togither by his pro|curement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that attendeth anie man to the church, market, or to anie other publike [...]aiters vpon other men. assemblie, as a reteiner, shall suffer death, except he haue liuing at his hands, on whome he so attendeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A horsse kept by anie of the commons or husbandmen to anie other vse than for til|lage Kéeping of horsses. and laboring or the earth, shall be for|feited to the king by escheat.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Counterfeit fooles, minstrels, iesters, Counterset [...]ooles, with minstrels and such like. and these kind of iuglers, with such like idle persons, that range abroad in the countrie, hauing no speciall licence of the king, shall be compelled to learne some sci|ence or craft to get their liuing; if they re|fuse so to doo, they shall be drawen like hors|ses in the plough and harrows.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Though the sonne chance to be put in possessiõ of his fathers lands by the kings Possession of lands. licence, during the life of his father; yet shall the same lands be forfeited to the king if his father be afterwards conuicted of treason committed against the kings person.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All such women, that are maried to a|nie lord or baron (though she haue no issue Dowrie of wiues. by him) shall yet haue the third part of his lands after his deceasse, and the remanent shall go to his heires.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All maner of lords and great barons, shall not contract matrimonie with other, Mariage of lords and barons. vnder paine of death, speciallie if their lands and roomes lie neere togither.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All armour and weapon borne to other Bearing of armour. effect than in defense of the king & realme in time of wars, shall be confiscated to the kings vse, with all other mooueable goods of the partie that herein offendeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Such as be appointed gouernors, or (as I may call them) capteins, that buy with|in Capteins. those limits, where their charges lie, anie lands or possessions, shall lose both B [...]ng of lands. lands, & possessions, and the monie which they haue paid for the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And if anie of the said capteins or go|uernors marie their sonnes or daughters vnto anie maner of person that dwelleth within the bounds of their roomes, they shall lose their office: neither shall it be lawfull for anie of their sonnes or coperte|ners to occupie the same office.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 These and the like commendable lawes Mak|beth Makbeths counterfeit zeale and e|quitie. caused to be put as then in vse, gouerning the realme for the space of ten yeares in equall iustice. But this was but a counterfet zeale of equitie shew|ed by him, partlie against his naturall inclination to purchase thereby the fauour of the people. Shortlie after, he began to shew what he was, in stead of e|quitie practising crueltie. For the pricke of consci|ence Makbeths guiltie consci|ence. (as it chanceth euer in tyrants, and such as at|teine to anie estate by vnrighteous means) caused him euer to feare, least he should be serued of the same cup, as he had ministred to his predecessor. The woords also of the thrée weird sisters, would not out of his mind, which as they promised him the kingdome, so likewise did they promise it at the same time vnto the posteritie of Banquho. He willed therefore the same Banquho with his sonne named Fleance, to come to a supper that he had prepared for them, which was in déed, as he had deuised, pre|sent Makbeths deuise to [...]ea Banquho a [...] his sonne. death at the hands of certeine murderers, whom he hired to execute that déed, appointing them to meete with the same Banquho and his sonne with|out the palace, as they returned to their lodgings, and there to slea them, so that he would not haue his house slandered, but that in time to come he might cleare himselfe, if anie thing were laid to his charge vpon anie suspicion that might arise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 It chanced yet by the benefit of the darke night, that though the father were slaine, the sonne yet by Banquho is slaine, but his sonne esca|peth. the helpe of almightie God reseruing him to better fortune, escaped that danger: and afterwards ha|uing some inkeling (by the admonition of some friends which he had in the court) how his life was sought no lesse than his fathers, who was slaine not by chancemedlie (as by the handling of the matter Fleance Banquhos sonne fléeth into Wales. Makbeth woould haue had it to appeare) but euen vpon a prepensed deuise: wherevpon to auoid fur|ther perill he fled into Wales. ¶ But here I thinke it shall not much make against my purpose, if (ac|cording to th' order which I find obserued in the Sco|tish historie) I shall in few words rehearse the originall line of those kings, which haue descended The line of the Scotish kings. from the foresaid Banquho, that they which haue in|ioied the kingdome by so long continuance of des|cent, from one to another, and that euen vnto these our daies, may he knowen from whence they had their first beginning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Fleance therefore (as before is said) fled into Wales, where shortlie after by his courteous and a|miable behauiour, he grew into such fauor and esti|mation with the prince of that countrie, that he might vnneath haue wished anie greater; at length also he came into such familiar acquaintance with the said princes daughter, that she of courtesie in the EEBO page image 173 end suffered him to get hir with child; which being [...] de| [...]reth the [...]ce of [...] his daughter. [...]ce is [...]. [...] the sonne of Fle|ance. once vnderstood, hir father the prince conceiued such hatefull displeasure towards Fleance, that he final|lie flue him, & held his daughter in most vile estate of seruitude, for that she had consented to be on this wise defloured by a stranger. At the last yet, she was deliuered of a sonne named Walter, who within few yeares prooued a man of greater courage and valiancie, than anie other had commonlie béene found, although he had no better bringing vp than His bringing up. (by his grandfathers appointment) among the bafer sort of people. Howbeit he shewed euer euen from his infancie, that there reigned in him a certeine The stout sto|mach appea| [...]ng in wal|ter from his childhood. stoutnesse of stomach, readie to attempt high enter|prises.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 It chanced that falling out with one of his com|panions, after manie tawnting words which passed betwixt them, the other to his reproch obiected that he was a bastard, and begotten in vnlawfull bed; where|with being sore kindled, in his raging furie he ran vpon him and slue him out of hand. Then was he glad to flée out of Wales, and comming into Scot|land walter fléeth into Scot|land. to séeke some friendship there, he happened into the companie of such Englishmen, as were come thither with quéene Margaret, and behaued himselfe Saint Mar|garet. so soberlie in all his demeanours, that within a while he was highlie esteemed amongest them. Not long after by such means atteining to the degrée of high walter sent w [...]h an armie to [...]unt re|bels. reputation, he was sent with a great power of men into the westerne Iles, into Galloway, & other parts of the realme, to deliuer the same from the tyrannie and iniurious oppression there exercised by diuers misgouerned persons; which enterprise according to his commission he atchiued, with such prudent poli|cie and manhood, that immediatlie vpon his returne walter made [...]rd steward of Scotland. to the court, he was made lord steward of Scotland, with assignement to receiue the kings rents and duties out of the parts of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Walter Steward had a sonne named Ala|ne Steward, who went after with Godfreie of Bul|logne duke of Loraine, & Robertduke of Norman|die Alane Ste|ward. sonne to king William the bastard that conque|red England, into the holie land, at what time they The iournie into the holie land. Alexander Steward. walter Ste|ward. with other westerne princes made the great iournie thither, in the yeare 1099. Alane had issue Alexan|der Steward, that founded the abbeie of Pasleie of saint Benedicts order. Walter Steward, whose va|liancie was well notified at the battell of Largis, as hereafter shall be shewed, was the sonne of the said Alexander. The same Walter had issue two sons, Alexander Steward the sonne of wal|ter. Robert Ste|ward. the one named Alexander, fought right valiantlie in defense of his father at the foresaid battell; and the other named Robert Steward got the lands of Ter|bowtoune, and maried the heire of Crukeistoune, from whom descended the earles of Leuenor and Dernlie. Moreouer, the aboue mentioned Alexan|der Steward that founded Pasleie, had diuerse mo sonnes, as Iohn and Iames, with sundrie other. Iohn Ste|ward and Iames Ste|ward. Howbeit they tooke new surnames by the name of those lands, vnto the which they succéeded. The afore recited Iohn Steward, after the death of his brother Iames, maried the heire of Bonkill a virgine of great beautie, and had by hir Walter Steward that walter inhe|ritor of Bon|kill, &c. inherited the lands of Bonkill, Ran [...]rew, Rothes|saie. Bute, and Stewatoune, after that his father the forenamed Iohn was slaine at Falkirke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 He maried Margerie Bruce daughter to king Ro|bert Bruce, by whome he had issue king Robert the second of that name. This Robert the second tooke King Robert the second. to wife one Isabell Mure, a damsell of right excel|lent beautie, she was daughter to sir Adham Mure knight, and brought foorth issue, thrée sonnes and Iohn Ste ward other|wise named Robert. thrée daughters. The eldest sonne hight Iohn Ste|ward otherwise named Robert, who succéeded im|mediatlie after his fathers deceasse in gouernance of the crowne. The second called Robert was made earle of F [...]fe and Menteith, also he was cre|ated duke of Albanie and ruled the realme of Scot|land Duke of Al|banie. Alexander Steward, sonne to king Robert the second. vnder the name of gouernour, for the space of fiftéene yeares. The third sonne named Alexander was earle of Buchquhane and lord of Baudzenot. The eldest daughter was maried to Iames that was the sonne and heire of William earle of Dow|glas. The second daughter was maried to Iohn Dunbar, brother to George of Dunbar earle of Iohn Dun|bar. March, and was made to the aduancement of his further fame earle of Murrey. He begot on hir one onelie daughter, that was maried to the Dowglas, and so Dowglas came to the earledome of Murrey. The third daughter was maried vnto Iohn Liou [...], that was after made lord of Glammis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Moreouer, the foresaid Robert that was the first of the Stewards which ware the crowne in Scot|land, maried Ewfame daughter to the earle of Ewfame. Rosse, and got on hir two sonnes, Walter earle of Atholl, and Dauid earle of Stratherne. This Wal|ter walter and Dauid sonnes to king Ro|bert. Robert duke of Albanie. Iames the first. sollicited Robert duke of Albanie, to slea Dauid Steward duke of Rothsaie. And after that Iames the first was returned home foorth of England, hée did what he could to mooue him to slea all the linage of the said duke still being in hope after the dispatch of his kinsmen to come to the crowne himselfe, which hope mooued him to procure his nephue Robert Steward, and Robert Graham his daughters son, Graime or Graham. to flea king Iames the first also, for the which crime the same Walter was after conuicted and destreied with all his sonnes. His brother Dauid earle of Buchquhane died without issue, and so the lands of both these brethren returned againe to the crowne, without anie memorie of their blood. Of Robert Steward duke of Albanie, came duke Murdo, who Duke Murd [...]. maried the earle of Lennox daughter, and got on hir thrée sonnes, Walter, Alexander, and Iames.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Duke Murdo himselfe with his two first sonnes were slaine at Striueling by king Iames the first, & the third brother Iames in reuenge thereof burnt Dunbertane, and was after chased into Ireland, where he deceassed without issue. Robert the third of King Robert the third. that name maried Annabill Drommond, daughter to sir Iohn Drommond of Strobhall knight, and got on hir Dauid and Iames. The first died in Falk|land, Dauid and Iames, sons to kings Ro|bert the third and the other atteined the crowne, and was called Iames the first, and maried the ladie Iane daughter to Iohn Beauford erle of Summerset in England. He had by hir two sonnes borne at one Iohn Beau|ford earle of Summerset. birth, Alexander and Iames. The first died yoong, the second atteined the crowne, named Iames the second. Iames the first had also six daughters, of the Iames the first and his issue. which the eldest was giuen in mariage to the Dol|phine of France, the second to the duke of Britaine, the third to the lord of Feir, the fourth to the lord of D [...]lkeith, the fift to the earle of Huntley, and the sixt had no succession. Iames the second maried Margaret daughter to the duke of Gelderland, and The duke of Gelders daughter. begot on hir thrée sonnes, and two daughters.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 The first succéeded him in the kingdome, and was called Iames the third: the second named Alexan|der Iames and Alexander. was duke of Albanie, and maried first the earle of Orkenies daughter, and got on hir Alexander, that was afterward bishop of Murrey, and then par|ting with hir went into France, where he maried the countesse of Bullogne, and begot on hir Iohn Steward duke of Albanie, that was gouernor of Scotland manie yéeres in the minoritie of Iames the fift. The third sonne, Iohn Steward was earle Duke of Al|banie the go|uernor of Scotland. The lord Boid. of Mar, whose chance was to be slaine in the Canno|gat in a bathfat. The first daughter of Iames the second, was maried to the lord Boid, who begot on EEBO page image 174 hir a sonne that was slaine by the lord Mongumrie, and a daughter that was maried to the earle of Cas|sels. After the death of the lord Boid, the husband of this first daughter of Iames the second, she was estsoones maried to the lord Hammilton, and by that The lord Hammilton. means was the house of the Hammiltons honored with the kings bloud. The other sister was maried to the lord Creichton, of whom came small succession Lord Creich|ton. Iames the third and his issue. woorthie to be mentioned. Iames the third maried Margaret daughter to the king of Denmarke. Of the which mariage was borne Iames the fourth, A|lexander that was bishop of saint Andrews & duke of Albanie, and Iohn Steward earle of Mar, but these two died without issue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Iames the fourth maried Margaret daughter to king Henrie the seuenth of England, and begot on Iames the fourth. hir Iames the fift, who marieng first the ladie Mag|dalen daughter to Francis the French king, had no issue by hir, for that she died in the yéere next after hir comming into Scotland, and then shortlie after the said Iames the fift maried the ladie Marie de Lorrein, duchesse of Lonuile, a widow, and by hir had he issue Marie quéene of Scotland, that tooke to husband Henrie Steward lord Dernlie, by whome she had issue Charles Iames, now king of Scotland. But to returne vnto Makbeth, in continuing the hi|storie, and to begin where I left, ye shall vnderstand that after the contriued slaughter of Banquho, no|thing prospered with the foresaid Makbeth: for in maner euerie man began to doubt his owne life, and Makbeths dread. durst vnneth appeare in the kings presence; and euen as there were manie that stood in feare of him, so likewise stood he in feare of manie, in such sort that he began to make those awaie by one surmized cauilla|tion His crueltie caused throgh feare. or other, whome he thought most able to worke him anie displeasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 At length he found such swéetnesse by putting his nobles thus to death, that his earnest thirst after bloud in this behalfe might in no wise be satisfied: for ye must consider he wan double profit (as hée thought) hereby: for first they were rid out of the way whome he feared, and then againe his coffers were inriched by their goods which were forfeited to his vse, whereby he might better mainteine a gard of armed men about him to defend his person from iniurie of them whom he had in anie suspicion. Fur|ther, to the end he might the more cruellie oppresse his subiects with all tyrantlike wrongs, he builded a strong castell on the top of an hie hill called Dun|sinane, situate in Gowrie, ten miles from Perth, The castell of Dunsinane builded. on such a proud height, that standing there aloft, a man might behold well neere all the countries of Angus, Fife, Stermond, and Ernedale, as it were lieng vnderneath him. This castell then being foun|ded on the top of that high hill, put the realme to great charges before it was finished, for all the stuffe necessarie to the building, could not be brought vp without much toile and businesse. But Makbeth be|ing once determined to haue the worke go forward, caused the thanes of each shire within the realme, to come and helpe towards that building, each man his course about.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At the last, when the turne fell vnto Makduffe thane of Fife to build his part, he sent workemen Makduffe thane of Fife. with all néedfull prouision, and commanded them to shew such diligence in euerie behalfe, that no occasi|on might bée giuen for the king to find fault with him, in that he came not himselfe as other had doone, which he refused to doo, for doubt least the king bea|ring him (as he partlie vnderstood) no great good will, would laie violent hands vpon him, as he had doone vpon diuerse other. Shortlie after, Makbeth comming to behold how the worke went forward, and bicause he found not Makduffé there, he was sore offended, and said; I perceiue this man will ne|uer Makbeth is offended with Makduffe. obeie my commandements, till he be ridden with a snaffle: but I shall prouide well inough for him. Neither could he afterwards abide to looke vp|on the said Makduffe, either for that he thought his puissance ouer great; either else for that he had lear|ned of certeine wizzards, in whose words he put Makbeths confidence in wizzards. great confidence (for that the prophesie had happe|ned so right, which the thrée faries or weird sisters had declared vnto him) how that he ought to take héed of Makduffe, who in time to come should seeke to de|stroie him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 And suerlie herevpon had he put Makduffe to death, but that a certeune witch, whome hee had in great trust, had told that he should neuer be slaine with man borne of anie woman, nor vanquished till the wood of Bernane came to the castell of Dunsi|nane. By this prophesie Makbeth put all feare out of his heart, supposing he might doo what he would, without anie feare to be punished for the same, for by the one prophesie he beléeued it was vnpossible for anie man to vanquish him, and by the other vnpossi|ble to slea him. This vaine hope caused him to doo manie outragious things, to the gréeuous oppression of his subiects. At length Makduffe, to auoid perill of life, purposed with himselfe to passe into England, to procure Malcoline Cammore to claime the crowne of Scotland. But this was not so secretlie deuised by Makduffe, but that Makbeth had know|ledge giuen him thereof: f [...]r kings (as is said) haue sharpe sight like vnto Ly [...], and long ears like vnto Ly [...]s eies and Midas. eares. Midas. For Makbeth had in euerie noble mans house, one slie fellow or other in fée with him, to re|ueale all that was said or doone within the same, by which slight he oppressed the most part of the nobles of his realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Immediatlie then, being aduertised whereabout Makduffe went, he came hastily with a great power into Fife, and foorthwith besieged the castell where Makduffe dwelled, trusting to haue found him therein. They that kept the house, without anie re|sistance opened the gates, and suffered him to enter, mistrusting none euill. But neuerthelesse Makbeth Makbeths crueltie vsed against Mak|duffs familie. most cruellie caused the wife and children of Mak|duffe, with all other whom he found in that castell, to be slaine. Also he confiscated the goods of Makduffe, proclamed him traitor, and confined him out of all Makduffe es|capeth into England vn|to Malcolme Commore. the parts of his realme; but Makduffe was alreadie escaped out of danger, and gotten into England vn|to Malcolme Cammore, to trie what purchase hée might make by means of his support, to reuenge the slaughter so cruellie executed on his wife, his chil|dren, and other friends. At his comming vnto Mal|colme, Makduffes words vnto Malcolme. he declared into what great miserie the e|state of Scotland was brought, by the detestable cruelties exercised by the tyrant Makbeth, hauing committed manie horrible slaughters and murders, both as well of the nobles as commons, for the which he was hated right mortallie of all his liege people, desiring nothing more than to be deliuered of that intollerable and most heauie yoke of thraldome, which they susteined at such a caitifes hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Malcolme hearing Makduffes woords, which he vttered in verie lamentable sort, for méere compassi|on and verie ruth that pearsed his sorowfull hart, be|wailing the miserable state of his countrie, he fet|ched Malcolme sigheth. a deepe sigh; which Makduffe perceiuing, began to fall most earnestlie in hand with him, to enter|prise the deliuering of the Scotish people out of the hands of so cruell and bloudie a tyrant, as Makbeth by too manie plaine experiments did shew himselfe to be: which was an easie matter for him to bring to passe, considering not onelie the good title he had, but also the earnest desire of the people to haue some oc|casion EEBO page image 175 ministred, whereby they might be reuenged of those notable iniuries, which they dailie susteined by the outragious crueltie of Makbeths misgouer|nance. Though Malcolme was verie sorowfull for the oppression of his countriemen the Scots, in ma|ner as Makduffe had declared; yet doubting whether he were come as one that merit vnfeinedlie as he spake, or else as sent from Makbeth to betraie him, he thought to haue some further triall, and therevp|on dissembling his mind at the first, he answered as followeth.

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I am trulie verie sorie for the miserie chanced to my countrie of Scotland, but though I haue neuer Malcolme Ca [...]ore his answer. so great affection to relieue the same, yet by reason of certeine incurable vices, which reigne in me, I am nothing méet thereto. First, such immoderate lust and voluptuous sensualitie (the abhominable foun|teine of all vices) followeth me, that if I were made king of Scots, I should séeke to defloure your maids and matrones, in such wise that mine intemperan|cie should be more importable vnto you, than the bloudie tyrannie of Makbeth now is. Héere vnto Makduffe answered: This suerlie is a verie euill Makduffes answer. fault, for manie noble princes and kings haue lost both liues and kingdomes for the same; neuerthelesse there are women enow in Scotland, and therefore follow my counsell. Make thy selfe king, and I shall conueie the matter so wiselie, that thou shalt be so sa|tisfied at thy pleasure in such secret wise, that no man shall be aware thereof.

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Then said Malcolme, I am also the most auariti|ous creature on the earth, so that if I were king, I should séeke so manie waies to get lands and goods, that I would slea the most part of all the nobles of Scotland by surmized accusations, to the end I might inioy their lands, goods, and possessions; and therefore to shew you what mischiefe may insue on you through mine vnsatiable couetousnes. I will re|hearse vnto you a fable. There was a for hauing a sore place on him ouerset with a swarme of flies, [...]able of a [...] that continuallie sucked out hir bloud: and when one that came by and saw this manner, demanded whe|ther she would haue the flies driuen beside hir, she an|swered no: for if these flies that are alreadie full, and by reason thereof sucke not verie egerlie, should be chased awaie, other that are emptie and fellie an hun|gred, should light in their places, and sucke out the residue of my bloud farre more to my greeuance than these, which now being satisfied doo not much an|noie me. Therefore saith Malcolme, suffer me to re|maine where I am, least if I atteine to the regiment of your realme, mine vnquenchable auarice may prooue such; that ye would thinke the displeasures which now grieue you, should séeme easie in respect of the vnmeasurable outrage, which might insue through my comming amongst you.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Makduffe to this made answer, how it was a far Couetous|nesse the root of all mischiefe. woorse fault than the other:

for auarice is the root of all mischiefe, and for that crime the most part of our kings haue béene slaine and brought to their finall end. Yet notwithstanding follow my counsell, and take vpon thée the crowne. There is gold and riches inough in Scotland to satisfie thy gréedie desire. Then said Malcolme againe, I am furthermore in|clined to dissimulation, telling of leasings, and all o|ther Dissimulation and deliting in lies. kinds of deceit, so that I naturallie reioise in nothing so much, as to betraie & deceiue such as put anie trust or confidence in my woords. Then sith there is nothing that more becommeth a prince than constancie, veritie, truth, and iustice, with the other laudable fellowship of those faire and noble vertues which are comprehended onelie in soothfastnesse, and that lieng vtterlie ouerthroweth the same; you sée how vnable I am to gouerne anie prouince or regi|on: and therefore sith you haue remedies to cloke and hide all the rest of my other vices, I praie you find shift to cloke this vice amongst the re [...]ue.

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Then said Makduffe: This yet is the woorst of all, and there I leaue thee, and therefore saie: Oh ye vn|happie Makduffes exclamation. and miserable Scotishmen, which are thus scourged with so manie and sundrie calamities, ech one about other! Ye haue one curssed and wicked ty|rant that now reigneth ouer you, without anie right or title, oppressing you with his most bloudie crueltie. This other that hath the right to the crowne, is so re|plet with the inconstant behauiour and manifest vi|ces of Englishmen, that he is nothing woorthie to inioy it: for by his owne confession he is not onelie auaritious, and giuen to vnsatiable lust, but so false a traitor withall, that no trust is to be had vnto anie woord he speaketh. Adieu Scotland, for now I ac|count my selfe a banished man for euer, without comfort or consolation: and with those woords the Makduffe wéepeth. brackish teares trickled downe his chéekes verie a|bundantlie.

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At the last, when he was readie to depart, Mal|colme tooke him by the sléeue, and said: Be of good Malcolme comforteth Makduffe. comfort Makduffe, for I haue none of these vices before remembred, but haue iested with thée in this manner, onelie to prooue thy mind: for diuerse times héeretofore hath Makbeth sought by this manner of meanes to bring me into his hands, but the more slow I haue shewed my selfe to condescend to thy motion and request, the more diligence shall I vse in accomplishing the same.
Incontinentlie héere vpon Makduffe & Malcolme [...]|brace ech o|ther. they imbraced ech other, and promising to be faith|full the one to the other, they fell in consultation how they might best prouide for all their businesse, to bring the same to good effect. Soone after, Makduffe repairing to the borders of Scotland, addressed his Makduffe writeth let|ters to his friends in Scotland. letters with secret dispatch vnto the nobles of the realme, declaring how Malcolme was confederat with him, to come hastilie into Scotland to claime the crowne, and therefore he required them, sith he was right inheritor thereto, to assist him with their powers to recouer the same out of the hands of the wrongfull vsurper.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time, Malcolme purchased such fa|uor at king Edwards hands, that old Siward earle Siward earle of Northam|berland. of Northumberland was appointed with ten thou|sand men to go with him into Scotland, to support him in this enterprise, for recouerie of his right. Af|ter these newes were spread abroad in Scotland, the nobles drew into two seuerall factions, the one ta|king The nobles of Scotland di|uided. part with Makbeth, and the other with Mal|colme. Héerevpon insued oftentimes sundrie bic ke|rings, & diuerse light skirmishes: for those that were of Malcolmes side, would not ieopard to ioine with their enimies in a pight field, till his comming out of England to their support. But after that Makbeth perceiued his enimies power to increase, by such aid as came to them foorth of England with his aduersa|rie Malcolme, he recoiled backe into Fife, there pur|posing Makbeth re|coileth. to abide in campe fortified, at the castell of Dunsinane, and to fight with his enimies, if they ment to pursue him; howbeit some of his friends ad|uised him, that it should be best for him, either to make some agréement with Malcolme, or else to flée Makbeth is counselled to flée into the Iles. with all speed into the Iles, and to take his treasure with him, to the end he might wage sundrie great princes of the r [...]alme to take his part, & reteine stran|gers, in whome he might better trust than in his owne subiects, which stale dailie from him: but he had such confidence in his prophesies, that he beléeued Makbeths trust in pro|phesies. he should neuer be vanquished, till Birnane wood were brought to Dunsinane; nor yet to be slaine with anie man, that should be or was borne of anie woman.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 EEBO page image 176 Malcolme following hastilie after Makbeth, came the night before the battell vnto Birnane wood, and when his armie had rested a while there to refresh them, he commanded euerie man to get a bough of Branches of trées. some trée or other of that wood in his hand, as big as he might beare, and to march foorth therewith in such wise, that on the next morrow they might come close|lie and without sight in this manner within view of his enimies. On the morrow when Makbeth beheld them comming in this sort, he first maruelled what the matter ment, but in the end remembred himselfe that the prophesie which he had heard long before that time, of the comming of Birnane wood to Dunsi|nane castell, was likelie to be now fulfilled. Neuer|thelesse, he brought his men in order of battell, and Makbeth fet|teth his men in order of bat|tell. Makbeth fle|eth, & is pur|sued of Mak|duffe. exhorted them to doo valiantlie, howbeit his enimies had scarselie cast from them their boughs, when Makbeth perceiuing their numbers, betooke him streict to flight, whom Makduffe pursued with great hatred euen till he came vnto Lunfannaine, where Makbeth perceiuing that Makduffe was hard at his backe, leapt beside his horsse, saieng;

Thou traitor, what meaneth it that thou shouldest thus in vaine follow me that am not appointed to be slaine by anie creature that is borne of a woman, come on there|fore, and receiue thy reward which thou hast deserued for thy paines, and therwithall he lifted vp his swoord thinking to haue slaine him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But Makduffe quicklie auoiding from his horsse, yer he came at him, answered (with his naked swoord in his hand) saieng:

It is true Makbeth, and now shall thine insatiable crueltie haue an end, for I am euen he that thy wizzards haue told thée of, who was neuer borne of my mother, but ripped out of her wombe: therewithall he stept vnto him, and slue him in the place.
Then cutting his head from his shoul|ders, he set it vpon a pole, and brought it vnto Mal|colme. Makbeth is slaine. This was the end of Makbeth, after he had reigned 17 yéeres ouer the Scotishmen. In the be|ginning of his reigne he accomplished manie woor|thie acts, verie profitable to the common-wealth (as ye haue heard) but afterward by illusion of the di|uell, he defamed the same with most terrible cruel|tie. He was slaine in the yéere of the incarnation, 1057, and in the 16 yéere of king Edwards reigne 1057. [...]. M. 1061. H. B. 8. H. B. Malcolme ouer the Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 MAlcolme Cammore thus recouering the relme (as ye haue heard) by support of king Edward, in the 16 yéere of the same Edwards reigne, he was crowned at Scone the 25 day of Aprill, in the yéere of our Lord 1057. Immediatlie after his coronati|on he called a parlement at Forfair, in the which he A parlement at Forfair. rewarded them with lands and liuings that had as|sisted him against Makbeth, aduancing them to fées and offices as he saw cause, & commanded that speci|allie those that bare the surname of anie offices or lands, should haue and inioy the same. He created manie earles, lords, barons, and knights. Manie of them that before were thanes, were at this time Thanes changed into earles. made earles, as Fife, Menteth, Atholl, Leuenor, Murrey, Cathnes, Rosse, and Angus. These were the first earles that haue béene heard of amongst the Scotishmen (as their histories doo make mention.) Manie new surnames were taken vp at this time amongst them, as Cauder, Lokart, Gordon, Sei|ton, Surnames. Lauder, Wawane, Meldrun, Schaw, Leir|mouth, Libertoun, Strachquhen, Cargill, Rattrey, Dundas, Cockbourne, Mirtoun, Menzeis, Aber|crummie, Listie, with manie other that had possessi|ons giuen them, which gaue names to the owners for the time. Others got their surnames by offices, as Steward, Durward, and Banerman. Also the pro|per names of manie valiant capteins were turned into generall surnames, as Kennedie, Graham, Haie, with diuerse other too long héere to rehearse. So that it came to passe then, as it hath doone manie times since, that new surnames haue worne the old out of vse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the foresaid parlement thus holden at Forfair, in the beginning of his reigne, there were manie holesome ordinances established, both apperteining to ciuill administration, and also to the ecclesiasticall iurisdiction. In reward also of Makduffes seruice, Makduffe earle of F [...] his aduance|ment. Priuileges granted vnto Makduffes linage. who (as ye haue heard) chieflie aided him to the attei|ning of the crowne, he honored him and his posteri|tie with thrée sorts of priuileges. First, that the earle of Fife for the time being, at the coronation of a king, should by his office set the crowne on the kings head. The second was, that when the king should giue battell to his enimies, the same earle should lead the vauntgard of his host. The third, that the linage of Makduffe should inioy regall authoritie and power within all their lands and roomes, as to appoint offi|cers and iudges for the hearing and determining of all matters and controuersies (treason onelie excep|ted) and that if anie of their men or tenants were called to answer in anie court out of their circuit, they might appeale to their owne iudges to be appoin|ted, as before is expressed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Iohannes Maior writeth in his chronicles, that the Iohannes Ma|ior. third priuilege, which Malcolme granted vnto this Makduffe and his posteritie, was this, that for eue|rie gentleman that anie of them should hap to kill by chancemedlie, and not vpon pretensed malice, for the summe of 24 marks he should redeeme his pu|nishment due for the same: & for the casuall slaugh|ter of a meaner person he should be fined at twelue marks. So that murtherers were woont to say, that if they were able to paie that summe to the Kinbot, they ought to be released of further punishment, by Makduffes priuilege. But this third priuilege, to|gither with the other two former grants, the said Maior sore reprooueth, and not without cause, as may appéere, considering the naturall inclination of that people vnto murther, which by this meanes nouri|shing secret hatred and malice in their harts, might vnder the cloke of casuall falling out, flea whom they lifted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 It was ordeined also at this parlement, that ba|rons which had liberties within themselues, should make gibbets, whereon men that deserued death Gibbets and draw-wels. should suffer execution: and also draw-wels, wherein women that were condemned should be drowned, according to the order of the ciuill lawes vsed in Scotland. Moreouer, all the lawes that Makbeth had Makbeths lawes abroga|ted. ordeined, were abrogated at this parlement. Thus whilest Malcolme was busied in setting orders a|mongst his subiects, tidings came that one Lugtake surnamed the foole, being either the sonne, or (as some Lugtake. write) the coosen of the late mentioned Makbeth, was conueied with a great number of such as had taken part with the said Makbeth vnto Scone, and there by their support receiued the crowne, as lawfull Lugtake crowned at Scone. inheritor thereto. To appease this businesse, was Makduffe earle of Fife sent with full commission in the kings name, who incountring with Lugtake at a village called Essen in Bogdale, flue him, and dis|comfited Lugtake is slaine. his whole power, ordering the matter with them in such wife, that afterwards there was no more trouble attempted in that behalfe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, the realme continued in peace certeine yeeres, till it chanced a great number of théeues and A band of théiues. robbers assembling themselues togither at Coc|bourne pethes, did much hurt, by robbing and spoi|ling the people in the countries of Mers and Lou|thian: howbeit, at length one Patrike Dunbar of Patrike Dunbar [...]an|quisheth the théiues and robbers of the countrie. Dunbar, by commandement of the king, fought with them, flue their capteine, with six hundred of his EEBO page image 177 companie, and tooke fourescore prisoners, the which he caused to be hanged. And thus hauing deliuered the countrie of those péelers, with losse of fortie of his owne men, he returned to the king, with the head of the capteine of that rout: so that for his manhood héerein shewed, he was made by the king earle of Patrike Dunbar earle of March. March, and for the maintenance of his estate, had the lands of Cockbourne Pethes giuen to him and his heires for euer, vpon this condition, that in times comming, the earles of March should purge Mers and Louthian of all théeues and robbers. In memo|rie whereof, he was commanded to beare in his armes a fellons head sprinkled with bloud. The head of a theefe or fellon giuen in arms

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Shortlie after he got knowledge, how there were certeine gentlemen that had conspired to slea him, & therefore taking occasion to go on hunting, where I conspiracie. this act should haue béene erecuted, he calleth the chiefe author of the conspiracie apart into a certeine vallie, which was closed on euerie side with thicke woods, and there brake the matter vnto him, in repro|uing him verie sharpelie, for that he had so traito|rouflie conspired his death, whose preseruation he ought chieflie to haue wished, considering the mani|fold benefits he had receiued at his hands. And here|with leaping from his horsse, drew his swoord, com|manding The manlie courage of K. Malcolme. the other likewise to draw his, that now ha|uing conuenient time and place thereto, they might trie the matter betwixt them, who should be thought most woorthie of life, by open force of knightlie prow|esse. The conspirator hearing these woords, as a man altogither astonished, fell downe vpon his knees at the kings féet; beseeching his grace of mercie for his wicked purpose and heinous offense: who séeing him thus penitent, bad him arise, and said;

I am content héerevpon to forgiue thee, so that thou be not of coun|sell heereafter in anie such traitorous practise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilest things passed thus in Scotland, great and maruellous chances came to passe within the realme of England. For after the death of king Edward, surnamed the Confessor, Harold the sonne of earle Goodwine tooke on him the kingdome. But Willi|am Sée more her|ot in England bastard duke of Normandie, pretending title to the crowne of England, at length inuaded the land, and sleaing Harold in field, made a full conquest of the realme, and was crowned king at London by Eldred archbishop of Yorke. Héere ye haue to vnder|stand, that king Edward in his life time had sent for his nephue Edward, the sonne of his brother Ed|mund Ironside, to come home foorth of Hungarie, whither (after his fathers deceasse) he and his brother Edwine had béene sent awaie, as in the historie of England it appéereth more at large. This Edward had married the daughter of the emperor Henrie, Wil. Malm. named Agatha, sister to the quéene of Hungarie, and not the king of Hungaries daughter, although the Scotish writers doo so affirme. By hir he had issue a sonne named Edgar, and two daughters, the one named Margaret, and the other Christen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Edward ment that his nephue the said Ed|ward should haue succeeded him, and (as some write) Hector Boct. he would in his life time haue resigned the crowne vnto him. But he (a thing woorthie of admiration) vtterlie refused it, and would not once meddle there|with during his vncles life time; & (as it chanced) he died, whilest his vncle king Edward was yet liuing. His sonne Edgar therefore, to whom it séemed that the crowne was due, when he saw the realme con|quered by the Normans, despairing to recouer it out of their hands, got a ship, and determined with his mother and sisters to passe ouer into Germanie to his friends and kinsfolke there: but by contrarie winds he was driuen to shore in the Forth, at a place called vnto this day the queenes ferrie. Malcolme be|ing The quéenes ferrie. at the same time at Dunfermeling, when he heard of the arriuall of this ship, and vnderstood what they were that were aboord in hir, he resorted thither with an honorable companie about him, to visit them for honors sake, vpon fauour he bare towards them, for that they were descended of that noble prince king Edward, in whome afore time he had found so much gentlenesse and friendship.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Finallie, when he vnderstood their estate, he brought them honie with him to his palace, shewing them all the loue and friendship he could deuise; and in the end considering the excellent beutie, wisdome, and noble qualities of the ladie Margaret, sister to Malcolme Cammore ma|rieth Marga|ret sister to Edgar Achel|ling. the same Edgar, he required of Agatha hir mother to haue hir in mariage, wherevnto Agatha gladlie condescended. Shortlie after, with an assemblie of all the nobles of Scotland, this mariage was made and solemnized after the octaues of Easter, in the yeare 1067, with all the ioy & triumph that might be 1067. H. B. deuised. K. William conqueror of England, being informed hereof, feared least this aliance betwixt Malcolme and Edgar might bréed some trouble and disquietnesse to his estate, sith the same Edgar had manie friends through all the parties of England. To preuent therefore the occasions of intestine trou|bles, he confined all the linage of the foresaid Edgar, by reason whereof, a great number of Englishmen Englishmen fled into Scot land. came into Scotland vnto king Malcolme, and ma|nie of them obteining liuings at his hands, remai|ned there continuallie during their liues, leauing to their posteritie their names & possessions. Amongst whome were these, Lindseie, Uaus, Ramseie, Lo|uell, Towhris, Prestoune, Sandlands, Bissart, Surnames of Englishmen in Scotland. Sowlis, Wardlaw, Marwell, with diuerse other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 There came diuerse also out of Hungarie with quéene Margaret, who likewise left their names to their families, which yet remaine euen vnto this Surnames of Hungari|ans. day, as Creichtoune, Fotringham, Giffart, Mel|uill, Borthwike, and others. Also there haue come at sundrie seasons out of France diuers surnames Surnames of Frenchmen. into Scotland, as Fraseir, Sinclare, Boswell, Mowtray, Mountgummerie, Campbell, Bois, Be|toun, or Betuin, Taillefer, and Bothwell, besides sundrie other which were but superfluous to rehearse at this time. ¶ But to the order of the historie. It is recorded by writers, that these (which at this time came out of England vnto Edgar) brought great quantitie of gold and siluer with them; also manie relikes of saints, and (amongst other) that blacke The blacke crosse. crosse which king Dauid gaue vnto the abbeie of Holie rood house in Louthian, which he founded at his owne charges. Shortlie after the proscription of these Englishmen, William the conqueror sent an herald at armes vnto king Malcolme, demanding William con|queror threat|neth king Malcolme. to haue Edgar deliuered into his hands, and threat|ning that if he refused to deliuer him, he would suer|lie fetch him, and that smallie for Malcolms com|moditie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But Malcolme, though he vnderstood that he should be sure of wars at K. Williams hands for his deniall; yet he declared plainelie to the herald, that Malcolms answere. his maisters request was vnreasonable, & therefore he minded not in anie wise to gratifie him therein. King William receiuing this answere from king Oven warre proclaimed by William con|queror. Northumber|land taketh part with K. Malcolme. Roger a Nor|man capteine or rather earle Roger (as I take it.) Sée in Eng|land. Malcolme, proclamed open warre against Scot|land. In the meane time all Northumberland tooke part with K. Malcolme, for that he was their earles sisters sonne. Wherevpon K. William sent a va|liant capteine, a Norman borne named Roger, to inuade Northumberland. Which Roger gathering a power of men, came hastilie into that countrie, howbeit he abode a short time there in honor, for by the Scots & Northumberland men his armie was discomfited, and he himselfe traitorouslie slaine by his owne souldiers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 EEBO page image 178 But king William nothing discouraged with The earle of Glocester. this ouerthrow: sent one Richard earle of Glocester (whome amongest all the Englishmen he had most in trust) with a mightie armie into Cumberland, Gospatrike saith Simon Dunel. against whome were sent the earles of March and Menteith, who defended the countrie right manlie from the inuasion of the said earle, so that he was not able to take anie aduantage of them. King William aduertised hereof, waxed woonderfull wroth, that no more good was doone against his eni|mies, wherevpon he sent a new power thither with all spéed, vnder the leading of his brother Odo, who was both bishop of Baieux, and earle of Kent. By Odo bishop of Baieux and earie of Kent. this last armie, the countrie of Northumberland was sore spoiled, and a great number both of Scots and Northumberlandmen discomfited and slaine. But as Odo was preparing to returne, there came Malcolme, with all the power he might make, and giuing an onset vpon his enimies, slue a great num|ber Malcolms enterprise a|gainst his eni|mies. of them, and recouered all the bootie which Odos men had got in the countrie, and so right ioifull of that victorie, returned into Scotland. King Wil|liam yet nothing abashed for these mishaps, sent his sonne called Robert, with a far greater power than Robert the sonne of Wil|liam conque|rour. Newcastell vpon Tine fortified. at anie time he had sent before, into Northumber|land, who remaining a long season in campe néere to the riuer of Tine, attempted no notable enter|prise, sauing that he repared and newlie fortified the towne of Newcastell, which standeth vpon the same riuer of Tine; and then at length a peace was concluded betwixt the two kings vnder these condi|tions, A peace con|cluded be|twixt William Conquerour, and Mal|colme Cam|more. that king Malcolme should inioy that part of Northumberland which lieth betwixt Twéed, Cum|berland, and Stainmoore, and to doo homage to the K. of England for the same. In the midst of Stain|moore there shall be a crosse set vp, with the king of Englands image on the one side, and the king of Scotlands on the other, to signifie that the one is march to England, and the other to Scotland. This crosse was called the roicrosse, that is, the crosse The roicrosse. of the kings. Moreouer, it was concluded that Waltheof or Uoldosius (as the Scotish writers Waltheof. name him) the sonne of Siward earle of Northum|berland should marie king Williams néece, borne Siward earle of Northum|berland. of his daughter, and to be frée from all paiments and exactions due to the king by anie maner of pre|rogatiue or means, for the space of twentie yeares next insuing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the necke of this peace thus concluded betwixt Rebellion in Galloway. the kings, happened new trouble in Scotland, by reason of intestine rebellion: for the people of Gal|loway, and the Iland men, rose in great numbers, and spoiled the borders of their neighbors, not spa|ring from slaughter in all parts, where they were anie thing resisted. Against these rebels was sent Walter the sonne of Fle|ance. by king Malcolme, Walter the sonne of Fleance (of whome there is mention made before) with a con|uenient armie, who at his comming into Gallo|way, first gaue the people of that countrie an ouer|throw, Makglaue. and slue their chiefe capteine Makglaue. Then afterwards fighting with them of the Iles, he subdued them in such wise, that all things were pa|cified euen at commandement. For which high prowes and diligence in this péece of seruice shewed, he was created by Malcolme high steward of the realme, so that afterwards both he and his posteri|tie euer since haue borne that surname, euen vnto Walter crea|ted high ste|ward of Scotland. these our daies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After the quieting of this businesse, there sprang a new tumult more dangerous than the former, for the Murreyland men, procuring them of Rosse and Cathnes, with diuers other to ioine with them in confederacie, did not onelie slea the kings seruants, A new rebel|lion in Mur|rey land. and those that were appointed vnder him to see iu|stice ministred, but through support of one Makcun|cane, whome they chose to be their capteine, they al|so wasted and destroied the kings possessions, with more crueltie than euer had béene heard of before. Wherefore to punish these traitorous attempts, Makduffe was sent with an armie into Mar. But Makduffe the traitors doubting least they should not be able to withstand his puissance, thought nothing more a|uailable than to stop him with monie: but in the meane time came the king himselfe in good season into Monimuske, where he was aduertised, that in maner all the north parts of Scotland with the Iles, were confederat with the Murreyland men against him. The king astonished something at these newes, vowed to giue the baronnie of Monimuske (which The kings vow. he vnderstood to be lands perteining to the crowne) vnto the church of saint Andrew in Fife, if it might please God to send him victorie ouer his enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At length comming vnto the water of Speie, he beheld his enimies on the further side, in greater number, and in better furniture for armor than he thought had béene possible to haue found in all Scot|land: Standard bearer. he perceiued also that his standard-bearer be|gan to shrinke, and not to shew the like cheerefull countenance as he ought to haue doone. Wherefore he pulled the banner from him, and gaue it to sir A|lexander Sir Alexan|der Carron. Carron, who with this his new office ob|teined sundrie faire lands and possessions, to him and to his heires for euer: but his surname was af|terwards changed, and called Skrimgeour; of the which is descended a noble house, continuing yet in great honor in the same surname and office. When A peace con|cluded. the king was once passed the water, and the armies on both sides readie to haue ioined, through media|tion of bishops and other vertuous men, the matter was taken vp, and peace made on these conditions; The submis|sion of gentle|men. That the commons that tooke part with the rebels, should returne home out of hand, and the gentlemen to submit themselues to the kings pleasure, their liues and lands saued. Howbeit manie of them were kept in perpetuall prison during their liues, and all their goods confiscated to the kings vse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 All ciuill trouble and commotion being thus quie|ted, King Mal|colme through exhortation of his wife, gi|ueth himselfe to deuotion. king Malcolme (speciallie by the good admo|nishment and exhortation of his wife quéene Mar|garet, a woman of great zeale vnto the religion of that time) gaue himselfe in maner altogither vnto much deuotion, and workes of mercie; as in dooing of almes déeds, by prouiding for the poore, and such like godlie exercises: so that in true vertue he was thought to excell all other princes of his time. To be briefe, herein there séemed to be in maner a cer|teine A godlie strife strife betwixt him, and that vertuous quéene his wife, which of them should be most feruent in the loue of God, so that manie people by the imitation of them were brought vnto a better life. Agatha and Agatha and Christine re|nounce the world. hir daughter Christine also, by the example of these two holie liuers, renounced the pompe of the court, and got them to a priuat and solitarie life, wherein they gaue themselues wholic to diuine contempla|tion. Furthermore, Malcolme by the setting on of the queene his wife, ceassed not to set his indeuor wholie to the aduancement of the christian religion, and to restore things that were decaied by the negli|gence of his predecessors. Therefore whereas before his time, there were but foure bishops sées in Scot|land, as saint Andrews, Glascow, Galloway, and Murthlake, and two of them, that is to say, saint Andrews and Murthlake remaining onelie in good Bishops seas restored and newlie crected by king Mal|colme. reparation (the other being decaied) he restored the other two to their former beauties, and furthermore erected two other of new, as Murrey and Cathnes, placing men of singular vertue and purenesse of life in the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 179 But to procéed. It is said, that such outragious ri|ot entred at this time, and began to grow in vse a|mong the Scotishmen, togither with the language and maners of the English nation (by reason that Riot and su|perfluous there brought into Scot|land. such a multitude of the same, flieng out of their countrie, were dailie receiued as then into Scot|land to inhabit there, as before is shewed) that di|uerse of the nobles perceiuing what discommoditie and decaie to the whole realme would insue of this The lamenta|non of the Scotish nobi|litie for the in|temperate surfetting be|gun to grow in vse in their countrie. intemperance, came to the king, lamenting gree|uouslie the case, for that this venemous infection spred so fast ouer the whole realme, to the peruer|ting and vtter remoouing of the ancient sobrietie of diet vsed in the same. Wherefore they besought him to prouide some remedie in time, before hope of re|dresse were past, that the people might be againe re|duced vnto their former frugalitie, who hitherto vsed not to eat but once in the day, and then desiring no The ancient sparenesse of diet amongst the Scots. superfluous meates and drinks to be sought by sea and land, nor curiouslie dressed or serued foorth with sawces, but onelie feeding to satisfie nature, and not their gréedie appetites.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Through this their sober fare, with the exercising of their bodies herewith in continuall trauell, they Sober fare cause of strength and hugenesse of bodie. grew more strong and greater of bodie, than their ofspring are found to be in these daies: for they were more in resemblance like vnto giants than vnto men of our time, with great and huge bodies, migh|tie armes and lims, pressing vpon their enimies like vnto fierce lions, bearing downe all before them, without dread of anie danger, for that they excéeded all humane strength and power. Herevpon king Malcolme tooke great paines to haue redressed this infectiue poison, and vtterlie to haue expelled it foorth of his realme. Howbeit the nature of man is so prone and readie to imbrace all kinds of vice, that Mans nature prone to vice. where the Scotish people before had no knowledge nor vnderstanding of fine fare or riotous surfet; yet after they had once tasted the swéet poisoned bait thereof, there was now no meane to be found to re|streine their licorous desires. ¶ And yet those corrup|ted abuses and riotous superfluities (which came in|to the realme of Scotland with the Englishmen) planted therein by the daies of king Malcolme, are not to be compared in excesse with things vsed in our time. For in those daies, as yet the nature of man was not so ouercome with the abuse of super|fluities, as it is now adaies; for then though they were gone from the ancient sparenesse of diet, they yet did not eat past twise a day, and had but two di|shes at a meale: but now the gréedie taste of mens The gréedie taste of mens infatiable lust. insatiable lust is such, that no kind of flesh, fish, fruit, or whatsoeuer may be gotten, is vnneth able to quench their gluttonous appetit & rauenous gorman|dizing; so that neither land, sea, nor aire, is left vn|sought to satisfie the same, as though they were wor|thie of most high commendation that may deuour most: wherein they may be iustlie compared to grée|die Men compa|red to wolues & coruorants. woolues and coruorants. But to bewaile that in words which cannot be amended in déeds, is but a follie: for the infection is so entered into the inner parts of the intrails, that neither with purging, cut|ting, nor searing, it may be holpen. Sooner shall you destroie the whole nation; than remooue this vice.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time whilest things passed thus in Scotland, king William the Conqueror died in the 21 yéere of his reigne, and after the incarnation 1087. About which time king Malcolme caused the 1086. H. B. old church of Durham to be plucked downe and buil|ded vp a new, beginning euen at the first floore. In The church of Durham built by king Mal|colme. Turgot. which season, one Egelwin or William (as the Sco|tish writers say) was bishop of that sée, and prior of the abbeie was one Turgot, who afterward was made bishop of saint Andrews, and wrote the liues of queene Margaret and Malcolme hir husband in the Scotish toong. Afterward he deceassed in saint Andrews, but his bodie was brought vnto Dur|ham, and there buried, bicause he was first prior ther|of. King Malcolme by persuasion of this Turgot, The church of Dunfermling builded also a church in Dunfermling, dedicated to the Trinitie, ordeining from thencefoorth that the The sepulture of the Sco|tish kings. common sepulture of the kings should be there, in like maner as it had béene afore time in the Ile of Iona at the abbeie of Colmekill.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Amongst other vertuous ordinances also, which were deuised and made by king Malcolme (through exhortation of his wife quéene Margaret) mentio|ned by Turgot in the booke which he wrote of their liues, this is not to be forgotten, that he abrogated that wicked law, established by king Ewin the third, appointing halfe a marke of siluer to be paid to King Ewins law abrogated or rather al|tered. the lord of the soile, in redemption of the womans chastitie, which is vsed to be paied yet vnto this day, and is called the marchets of woman: where other|wise by tenor of king Ewins law, the lord had the vse of their bodies all the first night after their ma|riage. King William surnamed the Red, the second William Ru|fus. sonne of king William the Conqueror, and succes|sor to him in the kingdome of England, not well contented nor pleased in his mind, that the Scots should imoy a great portion of the north parts of England, ancientlie belonging to his crowne as parcell thereof, he raised a great armie, and before anie denouncing of warre by him made, inuaded Northumberland, and tooke the castell of Anwike, The castell of Anwike woon by the Eng|lishmen. putting all such to the swoord as were found in the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 King Malcolme, to withstand such exploits at|tempted by his enimie, leuied a great host of his sub|iects, and comming with the same into Northum|berland, besieged the said castell of Anwike. And The castell of Anwike besie|ged by the Scots. now when the kéepers of the hold were at point to haue made surrender, a certeine English knight conceiuing in his mind an hardie and dangerous in|terprise, mounted on a swift horsse without armor or weapon, sauing a speare in his hand, vpon the point whereof he bare the keies of the castell, and so issued foorth at the gates, riding directlie towards the Scotish campe. They that warded, mistrusting no harme, brought him with great noise and clamour vnto the kings tent. Who hearing the noise, came foorth of his pauilion to vnderstand what the matter ment. The Englishman herewith couched his staffe, as though it had bene to the end that the king might receiue the keies which he had brought. And whilest all mens eies were earnest in beholding the keies, the Englishman ran the king through the left eie, An hardie enterprise. and suddenlie dashing his spurres to his horsse, esca|ped to the next wood out of all danger. The point of the speare entered so farre into the kings head, that immediatlie falling downe amongst his men, hée K. Malcolme is slaine. yeelded vp the ghost. This was the end of king Mal|colme in the midst of his armie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 It is said, that king William changed the name The name of the Percées had no such beginning, for they came foorth of Nor|mandie at the conquest. Erles of Nor|thumberland. K. Malcolme buried at Tinmouth, of this aduenturous knight, & called him Perse eie, for that he stroke king Malcolme so right in the eie, and in recompense of his seruice gaue him cer|teine lands in Northumberland: of whome those Percées are descended, which in our daies haue in|ioied the honorable title of earles of Northumber|land. The Scots after the slaughter of their king, brake vp their campe, and buried his bodie within the abbeie of Tinmouth in England. But his sonne Alexander caused it afterwards to be taken vp, and buried in Dunfermling before the altar of the Tri|nitie. At the same time was Scotland wounded with another mishap. For Edward the prince of Edward prince of Scot land died. Scotland, eldest sonne to king Malcolme, died of a EEBO page image 180 hurt which he receiued in a skirmish not farre from Anwike, and was buried in Dunfermling, the first of the bloud roiall that had his bones laid in that place. Quéene Margaret being aduertised of the death both of hir husband and sonne, as then lieng in Quéene Mar garet died. Edenburgh castell, hir disease increased through griefe therof so vehementlie, that within thrée daies after she departed out of this life, vnto an other more ioifull and blessed. King Malcolme was slaine in the yéere of our redemption 1092, on the 13 day of No|uember 1097. H. B. The Ides o [...] October H. B. Strange woonders. An huge tide. and in the 36 yéere of his reigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 In the same yéere, manie vncouth things came to passe, and were séene in Albion. By the high spring|tides which chanced in the Almaine seas, manie townes, castels, and woods were drowned, as well in Scotland as in England. After the ceassing of which tempest, the lands that sometime were earle Good|wins (of whome ye haue heard before) lieng not farre from the towne of Sandwich, by violent force and drift of the sea, were made a sand-bed, and euer s [...]|thens haue bene called Goodwins sands. The people Goodwins sands. haue thought that this vengeance came to that péece of ground being possessed by his posteritie, for the wicked slaughter of Alured, which he tratorouslie contriued. Moreouer sundrie castels and townes in Murrey land, were ouerthrowne by the sea tides. Such dreadfull thunder happened also at the same Thunder. time, that men and beasts were slaine in the fields, and houses ouerturned euen from their fundations. In Louthian, Fife, and Angus, trées and corne were Trées and corne burnt. burned vp by fire, kindled no man knew how, nor from whence.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the daies of this Malcolme Cammore, liued that famous historiographer Marianus a Scotish|man Marianus. borne, but professed a moonke in the monasterie of Fulda in Germanie. Also Veremond a Spanish priest, but dwelling in Scotland, florished about the Veremond. same time, and wrote the Scotish historie, whome Hector Boetius so much followeth. Malcolme had by his wife quéene Margaret (otherwise called for hir holinesse of life saint Margaret) six sonnes, Edward The sons of K. Malcolme Cammore. (as is said) was slaine: Etheldred, which died in his tender age, and was buried in Dunfermling: and Edmund which renounced the world, and liued an holie life in England: the other thrée were named Edgar, Alexander, and Dauid. There be that write how Edmund was taken, and put to death by his vncle Donald Bane, when he inuaded the king|dome, Do [...]ald Bane and vsurped the crowne, after the deceasse of his brother king Malcolme, and so then was Edgar next inheritor to the crowne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This Donald Bane, who (as before is mentioned) fled into the Iles to eschue the tyrannicall malice of Donald Bane fled into the I [...]es. Donald Bane returneth into Scotland. His couenant for the gift of the Iles to the king of Norwaie. Makbeth, after he once heard that his brother king Malcolme was dead, returned into Scotland by support of the king of Norwaie, vnto whom he coue|nanted to giue the dominion of all the Iles, if by his means & furtherance he might obteine the crowne of Scotland. Herevpon landing with an armie in the realme, he found small resistance, and so with little adoo receiued the crowne. For manie of the people abhorring the riotous maners and super [...]u|ous gormandizing brought in among them by the Englishmen, were willing inough to receiue this The respect that the people had to receiue Donald Bane for their king. Donald for their king, trusting (bicause he had béene brought vp in the Iles with the old customes and maners of their ancient nation, without fast of the English likerous delicats) they should by his seuere order in gouernement recouer againe the former temperance of their old progenitors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 As soone as Edgar Etheling brother to Queene K. Malco [...]ms sons sent for into England by Edgar their vncle. Margaret was aduertised that Donald Bane had thus vsurped the crowne of Scotland, he sent secret|lie for his three nephues, Edgar, Alexander, and Da|uid, with two sisters which they had, to come vnto him into England, where he had not kept them anie long while, but that a knight whose name was Or|gan Orgar or one Organ accused Ed|gar Etheling of tr [...]aion. or Orgar, accused him of treason, all [...]dging how he nourished his sisters sonnes and daughters within the realme, in hope to make them inheritors to the crowne: but the malice of this false surmize remained not vnpunished, for one of Edgars friends, taking in hand to darraine battell with Or|gan, in defense of Edgars innocencie, flue him Organ is slaine within lists. within lists. After that Donald had receiued the crowne at the abbeie of Scone, he perceiued that some of the nobles grudged at his preferment, shew|ing by some tokens that they had more affection vn|to king Malcolmes children, than vnto him: and therefore he cast out a woord amongst his familiars, Donald threatneth. that yer it were long the nobles should repent them of their dooing, if they applied not them selues the more to his opinion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Which woords being marked, and deepelie imprin|ted in some of their hearts, turned afterwards to his great displeasure. For shortlie after came Duncane Duncan Mal colms bastard sonne. the bastard sonne of king Malcolme out of England into Scotland, supported with an armie of men ap|pointed by king William the Red, to place him in the kingdome, and to expell Donald out of the same by force of armes, if he attempted anie resistance. Now when Donald approched with his puissance, in purpose to haue giuen battell, the most part of his people did forsake him, and drew vnto Duncans side, so that Donald thus abandoned of them that should have aided him, was constreined for his re|fuge to flee againe into the westerne Iles: and so Duncane then comming vnto Scone, receiued the crowne of Scotland. But for that he had béene trai|ned Duncane is crowned king of Scotland. the most part of his life in the warres both in England and France, he had small skill in ciuill go|uernement, iudging that thing onelie to stand with Duncane lac|keth skill in ciuill gouerne|ment. iustice, which was decided with speare and shield. By reason whereof Scotland was shortlie filled with new troubles and seditious diuisions.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Donald Bane being aduertised of all those things, that thereby happened in Scotland, sollicited Mak|pender erle of Mernes to take his part, and by some meanes to slea K. Duncane, which enterprise Mak|pender taking in hand, at length (in Menteth) ac|complished Makpender erie of Merns sleieth king Duncane. the same in the night season, when he had espied such aduantage and opportunitie of time, that not so much as one man was found to pursue him. But to say the truth, Duncane was so farre out of the peoples fauor, that more reio [...]sed than were sorie for his death. After he was thus dispatched, his vn|cle Donald Ba [...] is restored to the crowne. Donald was restored againe to the kingdome, chieflie by support of the forenamed Makpender, after his nephue the foresaid Duncane had reigned one yéere and an halfe, where Donald himselfe had reigned (before he was expelled by his said nephue) the space of six moneths, and now after he had reco|uered the kingdome, he continued in the regiment thereof thrée yéeres, not without great trouble and intestine commotions: for the most part of the lords maligning his aduancement, sought occasions dai|lie to depose him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time the Ilandmen made some stirre, neither did the warres with England ceasse, (though without anie great exploit or enterprise woorthie of remembrance) sauing a few light skir|mishes betwixt the parties, as occasion serued. At length came Magnus king of Norwaie with a Magnus K. of Norway co meth into the westerne Iles great fléet, and sailing about the westerne Iles, gar|nished all the strengths within them in most defen|sible wise, with men, munition, and vittels, vsurping the dominion as souereigne lord of the same Iles: and at the same time ordeiued those lawes and con|stitutions EEBO page image 181 which are vsed there amongst the inhabi|tants euen vnto these daies. The Scotishmen ha|uing great indignation, that the Iles being anci|entlie parcell of the crowne, should be thus aliena|ted from the same, sent orators vnto Edgar (who Edgar king Malcolmes son is sent for. was, as ye haue heard, the fourth sonne of king Malcolme) desiring him most instantlie to come in|to Scotland, to recouer his fathers heritage and crowne of Scotland out of the vsurpers hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Edgar taking deliberate aduise touching this re|quest, Edgar sen|deth messen|gers to Do|nald. first sent ambassadours vnto Donald, promi|sing that if he would be contented to restore vnto him the crowne, being due to him by lawfull succes|sion, he would gladlie reward him with great lord|ships and reuenues in Louthian: but Donald was so farre from minding to doo him reason in this be|halfe, that causing them which brought this message Donald slea|ech Edgars messengers. to be put in prison, he finallie slue them. Then Ed|gar by counsell of his vncle Edgar Etheling, pur|chasing an aid of men at the hands of king William Edgar is ai|ded by K. Wil|liam Rufus. Rufus, set forwards toward Scotland. At his com|ming to Durham, he was admonished by a vision in his sléepe, that if he tooke with him the banner of saint Cutbert, he should haue victorie. On the mor|row Saint Cut|berts banner. after, he came into the abbeie church, where first hearing diuine seruice, when the same was ended, he displaied the foresaid banner, and caused it to be borne before him in that iournie. Neuertheles king Donald met him with a mightie armie, and after K. Donald discomfited and chased in|to the Iles. K. Donald is taken. long fight, was chased into the Iles, where he was taken and brought vnto Edgar. ¶ Some say that when the battels were readie to haue ioined, his men beholding the banner of saint Cutbert spred a|gainst them, immediatlie forsooke him, so that he be|ing destitute of succour, fled, in purpose to haue sa|ued himselfe in some one of the westerne Iles: but being apprehended by the inhabitants, was brought (as is [...]aid) vnto Edgar, by whome he was (howsoe|uer the h [...]p of his taking chanced) cast immediatlie King Do|nald dieth in prison. into prison, wherein he shortlie after died. The victo|rie thus atchiued, Edgar went vnto Edenburgh, and from thence vnto Dunfermeling to visit the se|pultures o [...] his mother and brethren.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 AFterwards comming to the abbeie of Scone, and assembling the lords of the realme, he recei|ued Edgar. the crowne, and shortlie after was annointed by the archbishop of saint Andrews named Godrike, Edgaris crowned and annointed. in the yéere of our redemption 1101. For his mo|ther queene Margaret purchased a little before hir death of Urbane the pope, that from hencefoorth all A priuilege for the Sco|tish kings to be annointed. the kings of Scotland should be annointed. This priuiledge was confirmed afterwards by pope Iohn the second of that name. The first king that was annointed according to that grant, was this Edgar the first annointed king of Scot|land. The passage into the holie land. Edgar, in the yere aforesaid. About two yeers before this Edgar recouered th [...] the crowne of Scot|land, was that generall passage made into the holie land vnder Godfrie of Bullongne, and other christi|an princes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Amongst them, as one of the chiefe, Robert duke Robert duke [...] Normãdie. of Normandie went, and should haue béene created king of Ierusalem, had he not at the same time heard how his brother William Rufus the king of England was slaine by chance, through glansing of an arrow shot at a déere in the new forrest; and then hoping to succéed him in the kingdom of Eng|land, he preferred that honor to the other, wherein he saw to be more trauell than gaine. But at his com|ming home, he found that his yoongest brother Hen|rie Henrie Beau clerke king of England. surnamed Beauclerke, was placed in the king|dome of England, and so was duke Robert his hope frustrate of both the kingdomes, and that woorthilie (as most men thought) for that he refused so necessa|rie a dignitie, wherein he might haue serued the com|mon cause of the christian common-wealth. Unto Henrie Beauclerke in the second yere of his reigne Mauld kind Edgars sister. king Edgar maried one of his sisters called Mauld. The other named Marie he coupled with Eustace earle of Bullongne: in which mariage was borne Eustace earle of Bullongne. a daughter that was the onelie heire of the same Eustace in the countie of Bullongne, the which when she came to womans state, was maried vnto Ste|phan earle of March in England, and of Morteigne in France, nephue to Henrie Beauclerke by his sister. The king of England Henrie, had issue by quéene Mauld, two sonnes and two daughters, Wil|liam and Richard, Eufame and Mauld.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But now to returne to king Edgar, to shew some token of thanks towards saint Cutbert for his aid shewed, as was thought, in the battell against his vncle Donald, he gaue vnto the moonks of Durham the lands of Coldingham: and to the bishop of Dur|ham The lands of Coldingham. Canulph bi|shop of Dur|ham. called Canulph, he gaue the towne of Ber|wike. But for that the same bishop wrought after|wards treason against him, he lost that gift, and the king resumed that towne into his hands againe. I doo not find that Edgar had anie warres anie waie foorth during all the time of his reigne, a prince ra|ther reuerenced than dread amongst his subiects for Edgar rather reuerenced than dred. 1107. lo. Ma. 1109. H. B. Alexan|der. his singular equitie and vpright dealing. He depar|ted out of this life at Dundee, in the 9 yéere of his reigne, and after the birth of our Sauiour 1107.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 AFter the deceasse of this Edgar, succéeded his brother Alexander the fierce, so called for his ri|gorous valiancie in pursuing of théeues and rob|bers. In the beginning of his reigne, the inhabi|tants of Murrey land and Rosse, beholding him to be most an end in the church at his praiers, and di|uine seruice, after the maner of his parents, supposed he would prooue no great quicke iusticier [...] puni|shing offendors, and therevpon most presumptuous|lie Théeues of Murrey land and Rosse. they began to rob and reaue on ech side, not spa|ring to kill and slea all such as came in their hands, without respect to age or sex; insomuch that the yoong infants smiling vpon the murtherers, being about to execute their detestable crueltie, [...] by the The crueltie of théeues. swoord as well as the resisters: such rooted [...]lice re|mained in their beastlie harts, which vpon renewing their old grudges they now accordingle shewed. King Alexander therefore aduertised heereof; [...]ame into those parts with a competent armie, and appre|hending the chiefe authors and capteins; stroke off Execution. their heads. As he returned backe: thro [...] [...], there came a woman vnto him wéeping [...] la|mentable sort, who fell vpon hir knees at his féet, [...]e|séeching him to pitie hir case, hauing lost both hir hus|band & sonne, by the tyrannous crueltie of the mai|ster The earle of Mernes son. of Mernes, who for that they had called him be|fore a iudge in an action of debt, had slaine and mur|thered as well the one as the other. The king mooued with this detestable kind of iniurie, lighted from his horsse, and would not mount vp againe, till he had séene the author of that heinous trespasse hanged vp|on A righteous iusticier. a gibbet. After his comming into Gowrie, he tooke in hand to finish and make vp the castell of Ba|ledgar, The castell of Baledgar. the foundation whereof his brother Edgar had begun, that it might be an aid to chastise a sort of théeues and robbers which haunted the woods therea|bout, to the great disquietnes of all the countrie. He gaue also to the maintenance of that house certeine lands, which the earle of Gowrie had giuen him at the font stone, when he became his godfather.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilest he was thus busie about the furtherance of that woorke, diuerse of those théeues that were ac|customed to liue by robberies in those parts, percei|uing that this castell, which the king was about to build, should turne vnto their destruction, they con|spired Treason of conspirators to haue slaine the king. his death, and winning by rewards and pro|mises EEBO page image 182 the helpe of the kings chamberlaine to the ac|complishing of their traitorous and most diuclish practises, they entered one night through a priuie in|to his lodging, in purpose to haue slaine him as he slept in his bedchamber: but he by Gods prouidence hauing knowledge of their comming, started out of his bed, and caught a swoord which hoong néere at hand, wherewith he slue first his chamberlaine that had brought them in, and then dispatched six of the other traitors (which were alreadie entered his chamber) with singular force and manhood: the other fearing The kings manhood. least with the noise, his seruants that lodged within the house should haue beene raised, and so haue hasted to assaile them on the backs, fled in all haste possible. Neuerthelesse, such pursute was made after them, that manie of them were apprehended, & vpon their examination, being brought before the king, they de|clared plainlie how they were incouraged to woorke that treason which they had gone about, by sundrie great barons and gentlemen of the countrie. Final|lie, the matter was so handled with them, that they disclosed the names of those that had thus procured them to the treason. Wherevpon the king gathering an armie, he marched foorth to pursue them, but be|fore he came vnto the water of Spaie, the conspira|tors had gotten togither their power, & were lodged The water of Spaie. on the further side of the same water, to stop him from passing ouer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The king séeing them thus assembled to impeach his passage, sent his banner-man sir Alexander Car|ron Sir Alexan|der Carron The rebels are vanqui|shed. with a chosen part of his armie to passe the wa|ter, and to fight with his enimies, where, by the har|die onset of the said sir Alexander, they were quicklie put to flight, and manie of them that were taken in the chase suffered death, according as they had well deserued. The realme after this execution doone on these offendors, continued manie yéeres after in good tranquillitie. This Alexander Carron also for that he was séene in the kings sight that day to fight most manfullie, in sleaing diuerse of the rebels with a croo|ked swoord which he had in his hand (of which sort ma|nie were vsed in those daies) he was highlie rewar|ded at the kings hands, & euer after named Skrim|geour, Skrimgeour. that is, to say, An hardie fighter. He had also his armes increased with a rampant lion holding a crooked swoord, as is to be séene in the armes of his posteritie vnto this day. [...] Other there be that say he got the surname of Skrimgeour, bicause he slue an English man in a singular combat. The principall of this surname in our time held the constableship of Dundée, bearing in his armes a crooked swoord in fashion of an hooke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 After that king Alexander had appeased the intes|tine commotions thus within his realme, he set in hand to repare the abbeie of Scone, wherein he pla|ced The abbeie of Scone. regular can [...], [...]edieating the church in the ho|nor of the Trinitie, and saint Michaell. Not long af|ter this also, he chanced to come into saint Colmes Saint Col|mes Inch. Inch, where he was constreined to abide thrée daies togither through violent rage of weather and tem|pests: and bicause he found some reliefe of meate & drinke, by meanes of an heremit that dwelt within the same Inch, and kept a chappell there dedicated to saint Colme, he made of that chappell an abbeie of The abbeie of saint Colmes Inch builded. regular canons, in the honor of saint Colme, en|dowing it with sundrie lands and rents for the main|tenance of the abbat and conuent of that house. He also gaue to the church of faint Andrewes, the lands called the Boarrinke, so named, for that a great Lands na|med the Bo|arrinke. Bore tusks. bore was slaine vpon the said ground, that had doone much hurt in the countrie thereabout. The tusks of this bore doo hang in chaines vpon the stalles of the quier in saint Andrewes church afore the high altar, and are 16 inches in length, & foure inches in thicke|nesse. Moreouer, the abbeie of Dunfirmling was fi|nished The abbeie of Dunfirmling. by king Alexander, and endowed with sundrie lands and possessions.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Whilest king Alexander was thus occupied in Dauid bro|ther to king Alexander. building and reparing of religious houses, his bro|ther Dauid liued in England with his sister quéene Mauld, & through fauour which the king hir husband bare towards him, he obteined in marriage one Mauld, daughter vnto Woldosius, or rather Wal|theof earle of Huntington and Northumberland, be|got woldosius earle of Nor|thumberland and Hunting|ton. of his wife the ladie Iudith that was neece vnto king William the Conqueror. And for that the said Woldosius or Walthe of had no other issue to inhe|rit his lands, Dauid in right of his wife Mauld in|ioied the same, and was made earle of Huntington The lands of Huntington and Northum berland an|nexed to the crowne of Scotland. and Northumberland, and had issue by his wife a son named Henrie, by whome the lands of Huntington, and some part of Northumberland were annexed vn|to the crowne of Scotland, as after shall appéere. Mauld the daughter of king Henrie Beauclerke, was maried vnto Henrie the emperor, the fourth of that name. William, Richard, and Eufeme, the resi|due of the issue which the same Henrie Beauclerke had by his wife (surnamed for hir singular bounte|ousnesse, the good quéene Mauld) in comming foorth of France to repasse into England, perished in the sea by a tempest, to the great dolour of the king their father, and to all other his subiects of ech estate and degree. Their mother the said Mauld was before that The death of king Alexan|der. time departed out of this life. It was not long after, but that Alexander deceassed also, and was buried in Dunfirmling besides his fathers sepulture, in the 17 yéere of his reigne complet, and from the incarna|tion of Christ 1125 yéeres. 1124. H. B. The begin|ning of the Cummings.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 In the daies of this king Alexander, the kinred of the Cummings had their beginning, by one Iohn Cumming, a man of great prowesse and valiancie, obteining of the king in respect therof, certeine small portions of lands in Scotland. The house [...] of these Cummings rose in processe of time thus from a small beginning to high honor and puissance, by rea|son of the great possessions & ample reuenues which they afterwards atteined. At length (as often hap|neth) the importable height of this linage was the onelie cause of the decaie and finall ruine thereof, as in the sequele of this historie ye may at full perceiue. Also in the daies of king Alexander, the order of Knights of the Rhodes. White moonks knights of the Rhodes had their beginning, and like|wise the order of White moonks, the author whereof was one Nodobert. About the same time liued that holie man Richard de sancto Victore, a Scotishman Richard de sancto Victore borne, but dwelled for the more part of his time at Paris in France, where he died, & was [...]uried with|in the cloister of the abbeie of saint Uictor, being a brother of the same house.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 BUt now to procéed with the historie. After the de|ceasse Dauid. of Alexander the fierce and first of that Dauid is crowned king of Scotland. name, his brother Dauid came vnto Scone, and there receiued the crowne, as lawfull heire to his brother, for that he left no heire behind him. This Dauid, according to the example of his noble pa|rents; set his whole care about the due ministring of iustice, to the honor of almightie God, and the weale of his realme. He had no trouble by warres with anie forraine enimies, so long as king Henrie Beau [...]lorke liued. Therefore hauing opportunitie of such a quiet time, he rode about all the parts of his realme, and vsed to sit in hearing of iudgement him|selfe, speciallie concerning poore mens causes and matters; but the controuersies of the lords and ba|rons The care of king Dauid for the poore. he referred to the hearing of other iudges. If he vnderstood that anie man were indamaged by anie wrongfull iudgement, he recompensed the par|tie wronged, according to the value of his losse and A righteous iudge. EEBO page image 183 hinderance, with the goods of the iudge that pro|nounced the iudgement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Thus in the first years of his reigne he did manie things to the aduancement of the common-wealth, and banished such banketting cheare as was vsed a|mongst Banketting cheare bani|shed. his people after the example of the English|men, perceiuing the same to bréed a great weake|ning & decaie of the ancient stoutnesse of stomach, that was woont to remaine in the Scotish nation. He builded to the number of fiftéene abbeies, part of them in the beginning of his reigne before the King Dauid built 15 ab|b [...]es. warres were begun which he had with the English|men, and part after the same warres were ended. The names of those abbeies are as followeth: Holie The names of the abbeies builded by king Dauid. rood house, Kelso, Iedburgh, Melrosse, Newbottell, Holmecultrane, Dundranane, Cambuskenneth, Kinlois, Dunfirmling, Holme in Cumberland; also two nunries, the one at Carleill, and the other at north Berwike: with two abbeies beside New|castell, the one of saint Benedicts order, and the o|ther of white moonkes. He erected also foure bishop|rikes Foure bishops sees erected in Scotland. within his realme, Rosse, Brechin, Dunkeld, and Dublane, indowing them with rich rents, faire lands, and sundrie right commodious possessions. Moreouer he translated the bishops see of Murth|lake vnto Aberden, for sundrie aduised considerati|ons, augmenting it with certeine reuenues, as he thought expedient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 He was admonished (as the report goeth) in his sleepe, that he shuld build an abbeie for a religious or|der to liue in togither. Whervpon he sent for woorke|men into France and Flanders, and set them in hand to build this abbeie of canons regular, as he holie rood house builded. was admonished, dedicating it in the honor of a crosse (wherevnto he bare speciall deuotion) for that verie strangelie it slipped into his hands (on a time) as he was pursuing and following of a hart in the chase. But inough of these moonkish deuises. Manie prudent men blame greatlie the vnmea|surable liberalitie of king Dauid, the which he vsed towards the church, in diminishing so hugelie the re|uenues Liberalitie in king Dauid toward the church reproo|ued. of the crowne, being the cause that manie noble princes his successors haue come to their finall ends, for that they haue béene constreined through want of treasure to mainteine their roiall estates, to procure the fall of sundrie great houses, to possesse their lands and liuings; also to raise paiments and exactions of the common people, to the vtter impo|uerishment of the realme. And sometime they haue béene constreined to inuade England by warres, as desperat men, not caring what came of their liues. Otherwhiles they haue béene inforced to stampe naughtie monie, to the great preiudice of the com|mon-wealth. All which mischiefes haue followed since the time that the church hath béene thus inriched, and The church inriched, and the crowne impouerished. The sateng of King Iames the first. A sore saint. Io. Maior. 60000 pounds inlands gi|uen to the church. the crowne impouerished.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Therefore king Iames the first, when he came to king Dauid his sepulture at Dunfirmling, he said, that he was a sore saint for the crowne, meaning that he left the church ouer-rich, and the crowne too poore. For he tooke from the crowne (as Iohn Maior writeth in his chronicles) 60 thousand pounds Sco|tish of yéerelie reuenues, wherewith he indowed those abbeies. But if K. Dauid had considered how to nourish true religion, he had neither indowed churches with such riches, nor built them with such Superfluous possessions of the church. roialtie: for the superfluous possessions of the church (as they are now vsed) are not onelie occasion to e|uill prelats to liue in most insolent pompe & corrupt life, but an assured net to draw gold and siluer out of realms. But now to returne where I left, touching the historie, ye shall note that (as I said before) Da|uid had by his wife Mauld inheritor of part of Nor|thumberland, Cumberland, and Huntington, a sonne named Henrie, who maried the earle of War|rens daughter, a ladie of high parentage, as des|cended Earle of War|ren. of most noble bloud both French and Eng|lish. On whome he begat thrée sonnes, Malcolme, William, and Dauid; also thrée daughters, Adha|ma, The issue of Henrie. Margaret, and Mauld. But now in the meane time, whilest the estate of the common-wealth in Scotland stood in high felicitie, vnder the prospe|rous gouernement of king Dauid, there happened Quéene Mauld de|ceasseth. to him an heauie losse. For the queene his wife the foresaid Mauld deceassed in hir flourishing age, a woman of passing beautie and chastitie, which two points (as is thought) commend a woman aboue all the rest. King Dauid therefore tooke such griefe for hir death, that he would neuer after giue his mind to marie anie other, but passed the residue of his life without companie of all women. She was bu|ried in Scone, in the yeare of our Lord God 1132. 1132.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Whilest these things came thus to passe in Scot|land, Henrie Beauclerke king of England, caused all the nobles of his realme to take their oths, that after his deceasse they should receiue his daughter Mauld the empresse. Mauld the empresse for their souereigne ladie and quéene. She was as then returned into England; for hir husband the emperour was latelie before de|ceassed. King Dauid also tooke his oth, and there|fore when king Stephan (who vsurped the crowne of K. Stephan. England after king Henries deceasse against the said empresse) sent vnto king Dauid to come and doo his homage for the earledomes of Northumber|land, Homage is required. Cumberland, and Huntington (according as by his tenure he was bound to doo) with intimati|on that if he refused, king Stephan would inuade him with open warre; king Dauid answered, that he had giuen his saith once aforehand for those lands vnto the empresse Mauld, which he minded not to breake for the threatning words of anie new inuasi|ons. King Stephan moued with this answere, sent a The English men inuade Northumber|land. power of men to the borders of Northumberland, (which as then was vnder the dominion of the Scots) to make a rode vpon the inhabitants of that countrie. They that had the charge of this enter|prise, entering into the lands of their enimies, put all to fire and sword that came in their way. The Scots kindled with that displeasure, roded into The Scots make rodes into England England, and did the like displeasures and hurts there. For the yeare after, the earles of March, Menteth, and Angus entred into England with a The earle of Glocester Robert was against king Stephan, but there might be some other happilie vnto whome king Stephan had giuen that ti|tle. A resignation. great armie, against whome came the earle of Glo|cester, and giuing them battell at Northalerton, lost the field, and was taken prisoner himselfe, with diuers other nobles of England. King Stephan therefore, constreined to redéeme the captiues, gaue not onelie a great summe of monie for them; but also made resignation of all such title, claime, or in|terest, as either he or anie of his successors might make or pretend to the counties of Northumber|land and Cumberland. Howbeit his nobles were no sooner returned home, but that repenting him of that resignation, he gathered his puissance againe, K. Stephan repenteth. and entering into Northumberland, fought with the Scots that came foorth to resist him, and obteining the victorie, tooke a great part of the countrie into his possession.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 King Dauid, to redresse these iniuries, gathered a mightie armie, with deliberat mind, either to expell the Englishmen out of all the bounds of his domi|nions, or else to die in the féeld. But shortlie after, Thurstane archbishop of Yorke came vnto Rox|burgh, Roxburgh in old time Marken. A truce. called in those daies Marken, to treat for peace, where a truce was concluded for three mo|neths, with condition, that the Englishmen should deliuer vp the dominion, of Northumberland vnto the lord Henrie king Dauid his sonnes. But for so EEBO page image 184 much as this couenant was not performed on king Stephans side, king Dauid inuaded that part of the King Dauid inuadeth Northumber|land. King Ste|phan passeth vnto Rox|burgh. countrie which the Englishmen held, making great slaughter of all them that he found there about to resist him. King Stephan mooued herewith leuied his people, and came in puissant araie vnto Rox|burgh; but for that he had secret knowledge that some of the nobles in his armie sought his destruc|tion, he was constreined to returne without atchi|uing of anie woorthie enterprise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The yeare next insuing, a peace was talked vp|on, the archbishops of Canturburie and Yorke ap|pointed commissioners in the treatie thereof on the behalfe of king Stephan, and the bishops of Glas|cow, Aberden, and saint Andrews on the part of king Dauid. But Mauld quéene of England, the daughter of Eustace earle of Bullongne, and néece to king Dauid by his sister Marie, was the chiefest dooer in this matter, to bring them to agréement. The one of the kings, that is to say Stephan, laie at Duresme with his nobles; and the other, that is to say Dauid, lay at Newcastell, during all the time of this treatie, which at length sorted to the conclu|sion of a peace, on these conditions: that the coun|ties of Northumberland and Huntington should A peace. remaine in the gouernement of Henrie prince of Scotland, as heire to the same by right of his mo|ther; but Cumberland should be reputed as the in|heritance Couenants of agréement. and right of his father king Dauid. And for these lands and segniories the forenamed prince Henrie & his successors, princes of Scotland, should doo homage vnto king Stephan and his successors kings of England, for the time being.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 The peace thus ratified betwixt the two kings Homage. and their subiects, K. Stephan returned into Kent, and king Dauid repaired into Cumberland, where K. Stephan returneth. Carleill was repared by William Ru|fus king of England, a|bout the yeare of our Lord, 1092. he fortified the towne of Carleill with new walles and ditches. Thus passed the first thrée yeares of king Stephans reigne. In the fourth yeare came Mauld the empresse into England to claime the crowne thereof (as in the English historie more plainelie may appeare.) But whilest England was sore tor|mented with warres by contrarie factions of the no|bles for the quarels of these two persons, no small sorrow hapned to Scotland for the death of Henrie the prince of that land, and onelie sonne vnto-king Dauid, who died at Kelso, and was buried in the ab|beie The death of Henrie prince of Scotland. church there, in the yeare of our redemption, 1152. His death was greatlie bemoned aswell of his father the king, as of all other the estates and de|grées 1152. of the realme, for such singular vertue and no|ble conditions as appeared in him. But yet, for that he left issue behind him thrée sonnes and three daugh|ters (as before is mentioned) the realme was not Prince Hen|rie his issue. thought vnprouided of heires.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The king also being mortified from the world, tooke the death of his sonne verie patientlie, considering that all men are subiect vnto death by the law of na|ture, and are sure no longer to remaine here, than The lawes of nature. their day appointed by the eternall determination of him that giueth and taketh away life & breath when it pleaseth him, as by dailie experience is most ma|nifest. Therefore that king Dauid weied the losse of his sonne in such balance, it may appeare by an ora|tion which he made to his nobles, at what time (after his sonnes deceasse) they came to comfort him. For he perceiuing them to be right heauie and sorrow|full for the losse which he and they had susteined by the death of so towardlie a prince, that was to haue suc|céeded him, if God had lent him life thereto; in the end of a roiall feast, the which he made vnto those nobles that came thus to visit him, he began in this wise.

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How great your fidelitie and care is, which you An oration. beare towards me, although oftentimes heretofore I haue prooued it, yet this present day I haue recei|ued most ample fruit thereof: for now doo I plaine|lie sée, that you lament no lesse for the losse of my late decessed sonne, than if you had buried some one of your owne sonnes, and are therefore come to your great trauell and paine to comfort me, whome you estéeme to be sore afflicted for the ouer-timelie death of my said most obedient sonne. But to let passe for this time due yéelding of thanks to you for the same, till occasion and leasure may better serue thereto; this now may suffice, that I acknowledge my selfe to be so much beholden to you, that whatsoeuer thing I haue in the world, the same is readie to doo you pleasure. But concerning the cause of your com|ming hither, in shewing your courtesies therein, you shall vnderstand, that my parents, whom I trust to be in heauen, and (as saints) inioy the fruits of their vertuous trauels here taken on earth, did so instruct me from my tender youth, that I should woorship with all reuerence the most wise creator and pru|dent gouernor of all things; and to thinke that no|thing was doone by him in vaine, but that the same is prouided and ordeined to some good vse by his high and vnsearchable counsell. And therefore whilest day and night I haue and doo reuolue and call to remem|brance the precepts and instructions of my parents, whatsoeuer hath chanced either tuching aduersitie or His parents godlie instruc|tions. prosperitie, good hap or bad, the same hath séemed to me (at the first) receiuing all things with equall and thankefull mind, and interpreting them to the best, farre more light than they commonlie séeme to o|thers; and lesse they did disquiet me: so as with vse I haue learned at length, not onelie patientlie to beare all aduersities that may happen, but also to re|ceiue the same as things pleasant and euen to be de|sired. And verelie my hap hath beene to be greatlie exercised in this behalfe, for I haue first seene my fa|ther, more déere to me than anie earthlie treasure; Losse of friends. His father. and no lesse profitable than greatlie desired of all the people: and yet neither the loue of the people, nor of his kinsmen and friends might warrant him from this fatall necessitie of death. I haue knowen my His mother. mother right famous in the world for hir singular vertue to passe hence in like maner. My brethren His brethren. that were so louing, and againe so greatlie beloued of me; also my wife whome I esteemed aboue all o|ther His wife. creatures, are they not gone the same way, and compelled to beare deaths hard ordinance? So ve|relie standeth the case, that no man might yet at a|nie time auoid the violence of his force when he com|meth, Death cannot be dispensed with. for we all alike owe this life vnto him, as a due debt that must needs be paid. But this is to be receiued with a thankefull mind, in that the bounti|full beneuolence of our God hath granted that we shall be all immortall, if we our selues through vice, & as it were spotted with filthie diseases of the mind, doo not fall into the danger of eternall death. Where|fore of right (me thinke) I haue cause to reioise, that God by his singular fauour hath granted to me such a sonne, which in all mens iudgements was woor|thie to be beloued whilest he was here amongst vs, Why we ought to take the death of our children and friends patientlie. and to be wished for now, after he is departed from hence. But ought we to take it he anilie, that he to whome he belonged, and who had lent him vnto vs, should call for him againe, and take him that was his owne? For what iniurie is it, if (when I see oc|casion) I shall aske that againe, which you haue pos|sessed through my benefit as lent to you for a time? Neither doo I trust to want him long, if God shall be so mercifull vnto me, as I wish him to be: for I hope shortlie to be called hence by commandement of that most high king, and to be caried vp to rest among that fellowship of heauenlie spirits, where I EEBO page image 185 shall find my father and mother, my brethren, wife, and sonne in far better estate than here I knew them. Therefore that I may repeate it once againe, I reioise (I say) to haue obteined in my sonne, by the grace of the supernall God, that I am assured by faith, he is alreadie in that place to the which all we doo earnestlie wish that we may atteine, and doo in|deuour by all means, that when the time commeth in which our soules are to be loosed foorth of these fraile bodies of ours, as out of prisons, they may be found woorthie of that companie, in which our confi|dence is that he now most blissefullie is remaining. Except anie man may thinke that we are so enui|ous, that therefore we doo lament, because as yet we sticke fast ouerwhelmed and drowned in such fil|thie miers, and cumbred in such thornie thickets and bushes, out of the which he (being now deliuered of all cares) hath escaped. But let vs rather by follow|ing the footsteps of him and other vertuous persons that are gone afore vs, labor both day and night, that at length (through heauenlie fauour) we may come to the place where we doo reckon that by diuine power he is alreadie arriued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After that the king had made an end of his ora|tion, and thanks giuen to God for his bountifull magnificence, they rose from the table, and depar|ted to their lodgings, they all greatlie maruelling at the kings high prudence and godlie wisdome. Then was Malcolme, the eldest sonne of the before mentioned prince Henrie, proclamed in his place Malcolme the sonne of Hen|rie procla|med prince of Scotland. prince of Scotland, and conueied through the most parts of the realme by Duncane earle of Fife, and other of the nobles appointed to attend vpon and to receiue the oths of all the barons for their allegi|ance in his name. William the second sonne of prince Henrie was conueied into Northumberland by the foresaid nobles, and there proclamed and cre|ated Earle of Nor|thumberland. earle of that countrie. Then went king Da|uid himselfe vnto Carleill, where he met with Hen|rie the sonne of the empresse, who receiued the order of knighthood there at his hands. This was a little before that the same Henrie came to an agréement Henrie the [...]presse his sonne recei|ueth the order of knighthood. with king Stephan, whereby he was admitted to the possession of halfe the realme of England, and promised by oth of assurance (as the Scotish writers say) that he should neuer go about to take the coun|tries of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Hun|tington from the crowne of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Shortlie after was king Dauid taken with a sore disease and maladie, which continued with him to the end of his life. And so when he perceiued himselfe to wax faint and féeble, he required to be borne in to the church, where he receiued the sacrament of the Lords bodie and bloud, with most solemne reue|rence: and then being brought againe to his cham|ber, he called togither his nobles, and commending to them his yoong nephues, the sons of his son the forenamed prince Henrie, he kissed ech one of them after an other, most instantlie desiring them in the The exhorta|tion of king Dauid to his nobles. honor of almightie God, to séeke the preseruation of common quiet, to the aduancement of the publike weale. This doone, he departed out of this life in the 29 yeare of his reigne, or rather in the 30 yeare, if King Dauid departeth out of this life. he reigned 29 and two moneths, as Iohn Maior saith. His bodie was buried in Dunfirmeling, after the incarnation of Christ our Sauiour 1153 yeares. 1153.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 How farre this prince king Dauid excelled in no|ble vertues and sober conuersation of life, I haue thought it better to passe ouer with silence, than to go about in few words to comprehend that, where|in if I should spend much time, I were not able in anie wise woorthilie to performe. For where in such cases few things are slenderlie shewed, the residue may séeme to be omitted through fault of the writer. But yet this is not to be forgotten, that where his His singular pitie toward the poore. singular pitifull regard, which he had toward the re|liefe of the poore, passed all other his notable vertues, he purged his court also in such wise of all vicious rule and misordered customes, that his whole fami|lie King Dauids court. was giuen onelie to the exercise of vertue. No riotous banketting nor surfetting chéere was vsed amongst them, no lasciuious woord heard come forth of anie mans mouth, nor yet anie wanton signes shewed to prouoke sensuall lust or carnall concu|piscence. King Dauids seruants. All the woords, works, and whole demeanor of his seruants ténded to some conclusion: nothing mooued to stirre strife or sedition, but all things or|dered in such friendlie and peaceable sort, that the chaine of brotherly loue séemed to haue linked them all in one mind and will Such a rule was their mai|ster King Dauids example, a rule of godlie life. king Dauid vnto them and all other, to direct and frame a perfect and godlie life after.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 KIng Dauid being dead & buried (as is before said) Malcolme nephue to him by his son Hen|rie Malcolme succéeded in the estate. He was but 13 yéeres of age, when he began his reigne; but yet his modestie and vertuous conditions were such, that all men conceiued a good hope that he would prooue a right noble and woorthie prince. He was nourished and The educatio of king Mal|colme. brought vp in such vertue, euen from his infancie, that deliting in chast conuersation and cleannesse of bodie and mind, he liued single all the daies of his life, and without mariage: wherefore he was surna|med Malcolme the maid. About the time of his en|tring into the possession of the crowne, there was a A dearth. great derth through all the bounds of Scotland. And soone after followed a sore death both amongst men and beasts, though it was not perceiued that the disease whereof they died was anie thing conta|gious. A death not contagious.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Hereof did one Somerleid the thane of Argile Somerleid thane of Ar|gile goeth a|bout to make himselfe king. take occasion to attempt an higher enterprise than stood with the basenesse of his linage and estate: for considering that the one halfe of the realme was consumed by mortalitie, and the other halfe néere hand famished through lacke of food, he thought it an easie matter for him, now whilest the king was vnder yéeres of ripe discretion, to vsurpe the gouer|nance of the realme into his owne hands, and so as|sembling togither an huge companie of such as in hope of preie lightlie consented to his opinion, hée came forwards, to make as it were a full conquest, fleaing and spoiling all such in his way as went a|bout Somerleids crueltie. to resist him. But his presumptuous enterprise was shortlie repressed: for Gilcrist earle of Angus lieutenant of the kings armie, raised to resist So|merleids Gilcrist sent with an armie against So|merleid. attempts, incountred with him in battell, & slue 2000 of his men. Somerleid hauing receiued this ouerthrow, and escaping from the field, fled into Ireland, and so saued his life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Henrie the second of that name king of Eng|land, hearing that Malcolme had thus subdued his domesticall enimies, feared least he being imbolde|ned therewith, should now attempt somewhat a|gainst the Englishmen; and therefore by counsell of his nobles, he sent an herald vnto king Malcolme, commanding him to come vp to London, there to K. Malcolme summoned to doo homage. doo his homage vnto him, for the lands of Cumber|land, Northumberland, and Huntington, in maner and forme as his grandfather king Dauid had be|fore doone vnto his predecessor Henrie the first, with certificat, that if he failed, he would take from him all the said lands. King Malcolme obeied this com|mandement of king Henrie: but yet vnder condi|tion (as the Scotish writers affirme) that it should in no maner wise preiudice the franchises and liber|ties K. Malcolme goeth with king Henrie into France. of the Scotish kingdome. At the same time king Henrie had warres against Lewes the sixt, king of EEBO page image 186 France, and so passing ouer into that realme, con|streined king Malcolme to go with him in that ior|nie against his will, notwithstanding that he had a safe conduct fréelie to come and go. In this voiage king Henrie did much hurt to the Frenchmen, and at length besieged the citie of Tholouse. Tholouse be|sieged. King Henries meaning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In all which enterprises he had Malcolme present with him, to the end that Malcolme might incurre such hatred and displeasure of the Frenchmen, that therby the bond betwixt them and the Scots might finallie be dissolued. But in the end king Henrie ha|uing lost diuers of his noble men by sicknesse, re|turned into England, and then licenced king Mal|colme to returne home into Scotland; who at his comming home, sent the bishop of Murrey, and one of his secretaries vnto the sée of Rome, as ambassa|dors Ambassadors sent to Rome. vnto the pope, which as then hight Engenius the third of that name, to recognise the obedience which he owght to the Romane sée. Shortlie after al|so, there was a parlement holden at Scone, where king Malcolme was sore rebuked by his lords, in A parlement at Scone. K. Malcolme reprooued by his nobles. K. Malcolmes excuse. that he had borne through his owne follie, armor a|gainst the Frenchmen their old confederate friends and ancient alies: but king Malcolme excused the matter with humble woords, saieng he came vn|warilie into king Henries hands, and therefore might not choose but accomplish his will and plea|sure at that time; so that hée supposed verelie the French king would take no great displeasure with his dooings, when he once vnderstood the truth of the matter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Henrie hauing perfect vnderstanding of this grudge betwixt the Scotish lords and their king, thought to renew the same with more displeasure, and therevpon sent for king Malcolme to come vn|to Yorke, to a parlement which he held there, where K. Malcolme gorth to Yorke at his comming he was burdened with a right grie|uous complaint surmized against him by king Hen|rie, for that he should reueale vnto the Frenchmen all the secrets of the English armie, when he was with him in France, at the aboue remembred iour|nie, alledging the same to be sufficient matter, for the which he ought to forfeit all the lands which hée held of the crowne of England, as Cumberland, Northumberland, and Huntington. And though Fond dealing and not likelie to be true. king Malcolme by manie substantiall reasons de|clared those allegations to be vntrue and vniustlie forged, yet by king Henries earnest inforcing of the matter, sentence was giuen against him, by the ge|nerall consent of all the estates there in that parle|ment Sentence gi|uen against K. Malcolme at Yorke. assembled. And moreouer, to bring king Mal|colme in further displeasure with the nobles, king Henrie gaue notice vnto them, before king Mal|colme returned backe into his countrie, how he had of his owne accord renounced all his claime, right, title, and interest, which he had to the foresaid lands, supposing by this means to make king Malcolme farre more odious to all his lieges and subiects, than euer he was before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Malcolme therefore, vpon his returne into his countrie, not vnderstanding anie thing of that sub|till contriued policie and slanderous report, was besieged within the castell of Bertha by the thane of K. Malcolme is besieged. Ernedale, and diuerse others. But after it was knowne how euill king Malcolme had beene vsed, and most vntxulie slandered, they desired pardon of their offense, as induced thereto by vntrue reports, which once being granted, they brake vp their siege, and euer after continued in faithfull allegiance like true and most obedient subiects. But king Mal|colme sore mooued for that he was thus iniuriouslie handled by king Henrie, first desiring restitution to Open warres proclamed against the Englishmen. be made of all such things as had béene wrongfullie taken from him, and so deteined by th' Englishmen, proclamed open warres against them. At length, af|ter sundrie harmes doone, as well on the one part as A conclusion of agreement the other, they came to a communication in a cer|teine appointed place, not far from Carleill, where (to be briefe) it was finallie concluded, that K. Mal|colme should receiue againe Cumberland and Hun|tington: but for Northumberland, he should make a plaine release thereof vnto king Henrie, and to his successors for euer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 For the which agréement he ran so farre into the K. Malcolme hated of his people. hatred of his people, that he might neuer after find means to win their fauor againe; but doubting least if they should stirre anie rebellion against him, they might become an easie preie vnto the Englishmen, Feare of out|ward enimies causeth quiet|nesse at home. they remained quiet for a time. Howbeit shortlie af|ter, there arose another péece of trouble, though lesse in outward apperance, by reason of the small power remaining in the author, yet dangerous inough, considering it was within the realme it selfe. One Angus as then the thane of Galloway, perceiuing Angus the thane of Gal|loway raiseth a commotion: vpon what oc|casion writers make not anie mention. he might not by secret practise atchiue his purposed intent (whatsoeuer the same was) determined by o|pen force to assaie what luckie succes fortune would send him; hoping that those which through feare sate as yet still, would assist him in all his attempts, so soone as they saw anie commotion raised by him to occasion them thereto. Herevpon he assembled to|gither a great companie: but before he could worke Angus dis|comfited by Gilcrist. anie notable feat, to make anie account of, Gilcrist earle of Angus (whose faithfull valiancie was before manifestlie approoued in the suppression of Somer|leids rebellion) discomfited his power, in thrée sun|drie bickerings, & chased Angus himselfe into Whi|terne, where is a place of sanctuarie priuileged for Whiterne [...] place of sanc|tuarie. the safegard of all offendors that flie thereto for suc|cor in the honor of saint Ninian.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Malcolme then, for that he durst not breake the Angus besie|ged in whi|terne. franchises of that place, set a band of men of warre round about it, to watch that he should by no means escape awaie; so that at length wearied as it had bene with long siege, he yéelded himselfe to the king, Angus yéel|deth himselfe to the king. who taking his sonne to pledge for his good abearing in time to come, licenced him to go whither it should please him: but the most part of his lands and li|uings were confiscat to the kings vse. Wherevpon Angus be|came a ca|non. when he saw he might not mainteine his estate as he had doone before, he became a canon in Holie rood house, and there ended his life (as it is reported.) It was not long after the pacifieng of this trouble, but A rebellion mooued by the Murreis. Gildo captein of the rebels. that a new rebellion was raised: for the Murrey land men, by the prouocation of their capteine called Gildo, wasted with fire and sword the countries of Rosse, Bowgewall, or Bongdale, Mar, Gareoch, Buchquhane, and the Mernes, in more cruell sort than anie forreine & most barbarous nation would The crueltie of the rebels. haue doone; insomuch that when the king sent diuers of his seruants vnto them to vnderstand the cause of their rebellious dooings, they slue those messengers, contrarie to the law of nations.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 To punish such iniurious attempts, the aboue na|med Gilcrist was sent with an armie into Murrey Gilcrist dis|comfited by the Murreis. land: but the rebels nothing discouraged with the knowledge of his approoued prowesse, met him in the field, and put him to flight. Héere vpon the king him|selfe, supposing that his presence was néedfull to in|courage his people after this ouerthrow, came with a farre greater power than he had sent foorth before, with displaied banner, ouer the riuer of Speie, néere to the mouth whereof he fought with the enimies, and in the end (after fore and long fight continued with great slaughter and bloudshed) he gaue them the o|uerthrow, and in reuenge of their cruelties shewed The Mur|reies are o|uerthrowen. in time of this their rebellion, and to giue example to all other his subiects that should go about to attempt EEBO page image 187 the like, he commanded that none of those of Mur|rey land should be saued (women, children, and aged persons onelie excepted) but that all the residue of that generation shuld passe by the edge of the sword. Thus the Murrey land men being destroied accor|ding to his commandement thorough all parts of the realme, he appointed other people to inhabit their roomes, that the countrie should not lie wast without habitation.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In this meane time, Somerleid the thane of Ar|gile, who (as ye haue heard) was fled ouer into Ire|land, The Mur| [...]ies destroied vpon trust of the hatred into the which Mal|colme was run, with the most part of all his nobles and commons, through this slaughter of his people, and namelie of them of Murrey land, he thought to Somerleid returneth in|to Scotland. assaie fortunes chance once againe, and so therevpon returned with certeine Kernes and naked men into Scotland. But this last enterprise of his came to a more vnluckie end than the first, for being vanqui|shed Somerleid vanquished at Renfrow. Somerleid is hanged. in battell at Renfrow, he lost the most part of all his men, and was taken prisoner himselfe, and after hanged on a gibbet, by commandement of the king, according to that he had iustlie merited. Mal|colme hauing thus subdued his aduersaries, and be|ing King Mal|colmes sisters maried. now in rest and quiet, he set his mind wholie to gouerne his realme in vpright iustice, and hauing two sisters mariable, he coopled the elder named Margaret with Conon duke of Britaine, and the yoonger called Adhama he maried with Florens earle of Holland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After this, there was a councell holden at Scone of all the Scotish nobilitie, where when they were as|sembled togither in the councell-chamber, Arnold [...] parlement at Scone. archbishop of saint Andrewes stood vp, and by a verie pithie oration, tooke vpon him to aduise the king to change his purpose touching his vow, which (as ap|péered) The oration of Arnold bi|shop of saint Andrewes. he had made to liue chast. He declared vnto him by manie weightie reasons, that it was not on|lie necessarie for him and his realme, that he should take a wife (by whome he might raise vp séed to suc|céed him in the posséssion of the crowne) but also that he might not choose a more perfect state of life (consi|dering the office wherein he was placed) than ma|trimonie, being instituted, not by this law-maker Matrimonie instituted by God. or that, but by God himselfe, who in no one of all his ordinances might erre or be deceiued. Againe for pleasure, he affirmed how nothing could be more de|lectable to him, than to haue a woorthie ladie to his The pleasure of mariage. The commo|dities by a [...]. bedfellow, with whome he might conferre all the con|ceits of his hart, both of griefe and gladnesse, she be|ing a comfort vnto him as well in weale as in wo, an helpe both in sicknesse & health, redie to asswage anger, and to aduance mirth, also to refresh the spi|rits being wearied or in anie wise faint through stu|dious trauell and care of mind.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Then shewed he what an aid children were vnto Children an aid. their parents, namelie to kings, how in peace they might gouerne vnder them, to the great commodi|tie of the common-wealth, and in warre supplie their roomes as lieutenants in defense of their countries, to the no small terror of the enimies. Wherefore sith men are not borne onelie for their owne weale, but Men not borne for them [...]. also for the profit of their friends, and commoditie of their countrie; it could not be chosen, but that he ought to persuade with himselfe to alter his purpo|sed intention, concerning the obseruance of chastitie, and to take a wife to the great ioy and comfort of his subiects, sith it was commendable both before God Commenda|ble before God and man. and man, and so necessarie withall and profitable, as nothing might be more. But these and manie other most weightie reasons could nothing mooue his con|stant K. Malcolme might not be persuaded to take a wife. mind, hauing euen from his tender yéeres affi|anced his virginitie vnto Christ, trusting that God would so prouide, that the realme should not be desti|tute of conuenient heires, when the time came that it should please his diuine maiestie to take him hence to his mercie from amongst his subiects. Thus brake vp that councell without anie effect of the pur|pose for the which it was called.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Shortlie after it chanced that king Malcolme fell sicke, continuing so a long time, by reason whereof he sought meanes to conclude a peace with Henrie A peace con|cluded with England. The Abbeie of saint An|drewes buil|ded. king of England; which being brought to passe, he set woorkemen in hand to laie the foundation of saint Rewles abbeie, which afterwards bare the name of saint Andrewes. When he had finished this house, be|ing a goodlie péece of woorke, and verie costlie, as may appéere at this day by the view thereof, he assig|ned foorth certeine rents for the sustentation of the canons, whome he placed there of the order of saint Augustine, not so largelie as serued for the mainte|nance of superfluous cheere, but yet sufficient for their necessarie finding: by reason whereof, the ca|nons Supers [...]ous rents of ab|beies, prouo|cations to in|ordinate lusts. of that abbeie liued in those daies in most ser|uent deuotion, hauing no prouocations at all to in|ordinate lusts and sensuall pleasures; but onelie gi|uen to diuine contemplation, without respect to a|uarice, or inlarging the possessions and reuenues of their house. He founded also the abbeie of Couper of the Cisteaux order, and indowed it with manie faire The abbeie of Couper founded. The death of king Mal|colme. A comet. lands and wealthie possessions. Finallie, being vexed with long infirmitie, he departed out of this life at Iedburgh the 12 yeere of his reigne. A certeine co|met or blasing starre appéered 14 daies togither be|fore his death, with long beames verie terrible to be|hold. His bodie was buried at Dunfermling, after the incarnation 1185 yéeres. In the daies of this 1185. Roger arch|bishop of yorke the popes legat. Malcolme, Roger archbishop of Yorke, constituted the popes legat, could not be suffered to enter into Scotland, bicause he was a man highlie defamed for his couetous practising to inrich himselfe by vn|lawfull meanes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 AFter Malcolme succeeded his brother Willi|am, surnamed for his singular iustice, the Lion. william sur|named the Lion. Ambassadors sent to the king of Eng|land. Shortlie after his coronation, he sent ambassadors vnto Henrie king of England, requiring him, that according to iustice, he would restore vnto him the earledome of Northumberland, sith it apperteined by good and lawfull interest vnto his inheritance. King Henrie answered the messengers, that if king King William is required to d [...] homage. William would come vnto London, and there doo his homage for Cumberland and Huntington, he should be assured to haue all things so ordered, as he reasonablie could wish or demand. Héerevpon king K. Williams request for the restitution of Northumber|land. The answer of king Hen|rie. William went into England, and so came to Lon|don, and after he had doone his homage for Cumber|land and Huntington, he required the restitution of Northumberland. But king Henrie made answer as then, that forsomuch as the same was annexed to the crowne, he might not without the assent of all the estates of his realme make restitution thereof. Notwithstanding, in the next parlement, he pro|mised to cause the matter to be proponed: and if it came to passe that his demand were found to stand with reason, he would doo therein according to con|science, when time expedient should serue thereto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 About the same season, king Henrie passed ouer into Normandie with an armie, and caused king King Henrie saileth into Normandie. King William with manie nobles of Scotland went with king Henrie ouer into France. William, with manie other nobles of Scotland, to go with him in that iournie. For K. William would not disobeie his commandement at that present, in hope to atteine in quiet and peaceable manner his sute touching the restitution of Northumberland (as the Scotish writers doo affirme) but in the end, after he had continued a long time with king Henrie, and perceiued no comfort to recouer his lands, he got li|cence with much adoo to returne home: and so com|ming backe into England, passed through the realme EEBO page image 188 with his nobles into Scotland, where he applied his whole indenour to vnderstand the state of the com|mon-wealth of his subiects, and speciallie he tooke or|der in most diligent wise, to punish eruelties doone by theeues and robbers, which vndoubtedlie was one K. Williams sale of iustice. of the most profitable acts that he could deuise to ac|complish at that present, considering the state of his realme, as it then stood. For if the damages & skathes committed by théeues and robbers were equallie pondered with the hurts and hinderances which dai|lie Scotland more indaina|ged by dome|sticall théeues than by fo|raine enimies. grow by open warre against anie forren nation, it may well appéere, that more harme ariseth, & more heinous cruelties are exercised against the poore and miserable commons and innocent people, by such as liue by rapine & spoiling at home, than by anie out|ward enimies, be they neuer so fierce and strong in the field. And therefore the prudent consideration of this prince was no lesse to be commended, in that he sought to represse the licentious outrage of such ar|rand théeues and priuie murtherers, than if he had slaine manie thousands of forren enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 When he had once clensed the realme of those mis|gouerned Ambassadors sent to king Henrie. persons, he sent estsoones his ambassadors to king Henrie, requiring (as before) to haue Nor|thumberland restored vnto him, with notice giuen, that if he might not haue it with fauour, he would as|saie to recouer it by force. King Henrie perceiuing that he must either satisfie king Williams request, Sée more thereof in England. either else haue open warres with the Scots, by ad|uise of his nobles, restored to king William so much of Northumberland as his grandfather K. Malcolme had in possession. King William accepted the offer, but so, as he protested that he receiued not that part in full recompense of the whole which was due vnto A portion of Northumber|land restored to the Scots. King William receiued a peece of Nor|thumberland with his right saued to the re|sidue. King Henrie repenting him sel [...]e of that which he had deliuered to the Scots seeketh new occasions of warre. Warres with England. him (so saie the Scotish writers) but so as his entier right might alwaies be saued as well to the residue as to that which was then restored. Within few yéeres after, king Henrie féeling what hinderance it was for him to forbeare the commodities of those lands, which were thus deliuered vp to the Scotish kings vse, repented him of that bargaine: and there|fore to find some occasion to recouer the same again, he procured his subiects that dwelled vpon the bor|ders, to make forreies into the lands perteining to the Scots, so to prouoke them to battell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Complaint of these iniuries being brought vnto the warden of the Scotish borders, by such Scots as had lost such goods as were taken awaie by the Eng|lishmen, he sent to demand restitution; but forsomuch as he could haue no towardlie answer, he got togi|ther a great number of men, the which entering into the English ground, did much hurt on ech side where they came. At the same time was king Henrie in France, and therefore the Englishmen thought it sufficient to defend themselus as well as they might without attempting anie notable enterprise in re|uenge of the displeasures doone by the Scots. Har|uest was also at hand, and there vpon they ceassed on either part from further inuasions, till the winter season, which passed also without anie exploit atchi|ued, woorthie to be remembred; sauing certeine small rodes made by the Scots into the English bor|ders, as they saw occasion to serue thereto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 But in the summer next following, king Willi|am raised a mightie armie, and came with the same King William inuadeth Cumberland. into Cumberland, the right wing of the which armie was led by Gilcrist, whose approoued valiancie often shewed in the time of king Malcolme, had aduanced him to marie with the kings sister. The left wing was assigued vnto the conduct of one Rowland the kings coosen, who was also lieutenant of the horsse|men. The middle ward or battell the king himselfe led. The Englishmen, to the intent they might haue time and leasure to assemble their power, sent vnto king William, offering vnto him, not onelie large The offers of the English|men. summes of monie, if he would returne backe with his armie without further inuasion, but also redresse of all maner of iniuries and wrongs, if anie such on their behalfe were to be prooued. But king William for answer héerevnto declared, that he had not be|gun The answer of king Wil|liam. the warre for anie desire he had to monie; nei|ther had he first giuen the occasion, as one that was euer willing to liue vpon his owne: so that if they could be contented to restore Northumberland being his rightfull heritage, he was not so desirous of bloud, but that he would gladlie ceasse from all fur|ther attempts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The Englishmen hauing receiued this answer, to the end they might protract the time in sending still to and fro, till they might espie some occasion to woorke such feates as they had imagined, addressed foorth other ambassadors vnto king William, with diuerse faire offers and golden promises. In the meane time, to take the Scotishmen at some aduan|tage, they conueie their whole power in the night season néere vnto the place where the same Scotish|men laie in campe, & diuiding themselues into two The English men séeke by policie to van|quish the Scots. parts, the one was appointed to abide in the fields, till the sunne were vp, and then to shew themselues to the enimies, to traine them foorth to battell: the o|ther companie was laid closelie in a vallie not farre off, to take the aduantage as they saw their time. In the morning about the rising of the sunne, those that were appointed to procure the skirmish, approched so néere to the enimies campe, till they came euen with|in sight of them. The Scots amazed with the strang|nesse of the thing, for that they had not heard before of anie assemblie of the Englishmen, at the first were some what afraid: but anon incouraging one another, they boldlie issued forth vpon their enimies, who of purpose (at the first) made but weake resi|stance, and at length fled amaine, to the intent to The English men retire of purpose. cause the Scotishmen to breake their arraie of bat|tell in pursuing them, which they did so egerlie, that they left their king but slenderlie garded with a The kingle [...] but weakelie garded. small companie about him. Then the ambushment lieng in the vallie, brake foorth vpon him, according to the order before appointed, and in the meane time, the other that fled cast themselues about, and manlie abode their enimies, so earnestlie laieng it to their charge, that in fine they droue them backe, and con|streined them to flee in good earnest, which they them|selues had but onelie counterfeited to doo before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King William perceiuing his people thus dis|comfited, The Scots constreined to flée. and himselfe inclosed on ech side amongst his enimies, after he had assaied to breake foorth on some side from amongst them, when he saw his inde|nour could by no meanes preuaile, and that the eni|mies King William yéeldeth him|selfe prisoner. made onelie at him, he yéelded himselfe. There was not much bloud spilled on either side at this bic|kering, for the one part in the beginning of the fraie (as ye haue heard) fleeing of set purpose to the place where their ambush laie, escaped without much hurt; and the other, scared by the breaking foorth of the am|bush, abode the brunt but a small while, returning immediatlie towards the king; and then perceiuing they could doo no good, they made the best shift they could ech man for himselfe, to escape the enimies hands. The king being thus taken of his enimies, King William conueied into Normandie. was conueied to king Henrie ouer into Norman|die, where he was as then remaining. The yéere that king William was thus taken, was after the birth of our Sauiour Christ 1174, and the ninth of king 1174. Williams reigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 ¶ Other writers report the maner of his taking, Discord of writers. not altogither agréeable with that which we haue héere aboue remembred, who declare how K. Willi|am, after he had wasted all Cumberland, came into EEBO page image 189 Northumberland, not ceassing till he came to An|wike, where he staied for a time to haue had battell: but in the meane while the Englishmen laie close to|gither without noise or appearance, in such wise that no Scotishman could haue vnderstanding where they were. At length king William wearied with long tarieng thus at Anwike, and seeing no enimies to appéere, determined to woorke some exploit yet be|fore his returne, and there vpon sent foorth the most part of all his armie abroad into the countrie, to for|reie the same, kéeping no great companie about him, till the returne of the other thus sent foorth. Wherevpon incontinentlie a great ambushment of Englishmen came vpon him with counterfeited Scotish ensignes, and were not once suspected for Englishmen, till the king was compassed in by them on ech side, and so finallie taken and led awaie yer a|nie Scotishman wist thereof, saue a few which were left (as is said) with him for the time. In déed Wil|helmus Wilhelmus Paruus. Paruus, a canon sometime in the abbeie of Bridlington in Yorkeshire, in that his booke which he writes of the Norman kings of England, affirmes how there were not manie more than about three score horssemen with king William, while he was thus taken; and that the Englishmen were not past foure hundred horssemen, which tooke vpon them that enterprise; whose capteins (as he reciteth) were Capteins of the English|men. these: Robert de Stuteuill, Ranulfe de Glanuill, Bernard de Ballioll, and diuerse other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The same author writeth, that after the taking of the king, there rose a mutinie amongst the Scots: W. Paruus. for whereas the Irish Scots bare a naturall grudge against the English Scots, yet whilest the king was present amongst them, they durst not vtter their malicious intentions: but now that he was thus ta|ken from them, so manie of the English Scots as fell into the hands of the Irish, paid déerelie for the bargaine, being cruellie murthered and slaine: so that the residue were constreined to get them out of the waie into castels and towers, where they might be receiued. But now it is to be considered, that bi|cause there was no great slaughter made at the ta|king of king William, the warres notwithstanding continued betwixt England and Scotland: for the two before specified chiefteins Gilcrist and Rowland stoutlie withstood the Englishmen, and beat them Gilcrist and Rowland re|sist the Eng|lishmen. backe as they enterprised to enter into Cumber|land. At length a peace was taken, during the time that king William remained in captiuitie; vnder these conditions, that Northumberland should conti|nue vnder the dominion of the Englishmen, and Northumber|land vnder the Englishmen. Cumberland (with the earledome of Huntington) to remaine (as before) vnder the gouernance of the Scotishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Immediatlie vpon the taking of king William thus at Anwike, his brother Dauid earle of Hun|tington, thorough licence of king Henrie came into Dauid earle of Huntington. Scotland, to haue the gouernement of the realme, till the king his brother might be redeemed. So soone therefore as he had once established the realme in good quiet and iustice, he sent Richard the bishop of saint Andrewes, with diuerse other noble men, ouer into Normandie, to take order there with K. Hen|rie for the ransome of the king his brother, which was agréed in this manner. First, it was accorded, that king William should become and acknowledge The king of Scots dooth [...]altie to the king of Eng|land for Scot|land. Rog. Houed. Matth. West. himselfe to be the king of Englands liege man, a|gainst all men for the realme of Scotland and his o|ther lands; and for the same should doo fealtie to the said king of England, as to his liege souereigne lord, in like sort as other his liege people were accusto|med to doo. And further, he should also doo fealtie vnto the lord Henrie, the king of Englands sonne, (sa|uing alwaies the faith which he owght the king his father.) And in like manner it was couenanted and agréed, that all the prelats of Scotland, and their suc|cessors, The prelats of Scotland doo fealtie to the king of England. The earles and lords doo homage vnto him. should recognise their woonted subiection to the church of England, and doo fealtie to the king of England, so manie of them as he should appoint. And likewise the earle and barons of Scotland, and their heires for their part, should doo their homage and fealties vnto the said king of England, and to the lord. Henrie his sonne, so manie as therevnto should be required.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Moreouer, the king of Scots should paie for his King William ransomed. redemption one hundred thousand pounds sterling, the one halfe to be paid in hand: and for sure pai|ment of the other halfe, the earledomes of Cumber|land, Huntington, and Northumberland should be deliuered vnto king Henrie in pledge or mortgage, till the time that the same summe was paid. And for the more suertie of these couenants, and that the Scots should mooue no warre against the English|men, foure of the strongest castels within Scotland, Foure castels deliuered to the English|men in pledge. that is to saie, Berwike, Edenburgh, Koxburgh, & Striueling, were deliuered into the Englishmens hands. These things being thus ordered the eight day of December 1175. & the king restored home, there followed a new stirre in Scotland, for Gilbert 1175. Gilbert of Galloway re|belieth. of Galloway, a right cruell and most mischiefous person, purposing to conquer the crowne by force, made great slaughter of all them that withstood his desire. And because his brother reprooued his doo|ings, he put out his eies, and cut off his hands. A|gainst this Gilbert was Gilcrist sent with an ar|mie by the king. There was fought a sore battell betwixt them, for the most part of those that followed Gilberts commandement, were desperat fellowes, such commonlie as for murder and other heinous crimes by them committed were in danger of the lawes, and therefore vpon hope of pardon desired Gilbert of Galloway vanquished by Gilcrist. a change; but yet in the end, Gilcrist with multitude wan the field of them, and slue more in the chase than in the battell. Gilbert himselfe escaped and got ouer into the Ile of Man, and fled from thence into Ireland. Wilhelmus Paruus reporteth this matter Wilhelmus Paruus. somewhat otherwise, as thus: In the armie of king William (saith he) when he was taken neere vnto Anwike, were two brethren, Gilbert and Uared, that were lords of Galloway, hauing there with them a great retinue of their countriemen. These were the sonnes of Fergusius, sometime lord of that prouince; after whose deceasse the king of Scots that is superiour lord thereof, diuided the countrie be|twixt these two brethren. But Gilbert the eldest bro|ther found himselfe much griened to haue anie part of those lands (which were his fathers) giuen from him; yet doubting punishment at the kings hands, he durst not attempt anie thing against his brother, till it fortuned the king to be taken. And then deli|uered of the feare which had staied his mischiefous purpose, he taketh his brother at vnwares, and cru|ellie murdered him, after no common maner; but rather martyred him in beastlie wise, so to satisfie the instinct of his diuelish nature. And immediatlie after inuading the vpper countries, he exerciseth great slaughter of men on each hand. But his bro|ther had a sonne called Rowland, which proouing a valiant yoong gentleman, boldlie resisted his vncles rage, with the assistance and aid of his fathers friends. And thus was Scotland brought into trou|ble (as Wilhelmus Paruus recordeth) till by the fore|said Gilcrist the murderer was expelled, as before is expressed. In the yeare following tame Hugo car|dinall of saint Angelo as legat from the pope into Hugh cardi|nall of saint Angelo the popes legat. England, with authoritie to reforme the English churches, in such cases as were thought requisit; and after he had made an end there, to doo the like in EEBO page image 190 Scotland. When he had therefore finished with Eng|land, he cited all the bishops of Scotland to appeare The bishops of Scotland summoned to a conuocation at Northamp ton. before him at a day prefixed at Northampton. They came according to his appointment, and being as|sembled there in consistorie, he went about in most earnest wise to persuade them to receiue the archbi|shop of Yorke for their metropolitane. But one Gil|bert a yoong man, howbeit sigularlie well learned, and for his holinesse of life much commended (as Hector Boetius writeth) being sent of purpose by king William vnto this conuocation, to foresée that Gilbert a learned man defended the liberties of Scotland. nothing were concluded in the same, preiudiciall to the ancient liberties and franchises of the realme of Scotland, did argue so stifflie to the contrarie, that the cardinall left off the pursute of such maner of matter, and brake vp that councell without deter|mination of anie thing to the pupose in that behalfe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 This Gilbert that thus defended the cause and li|berties of the Scotish clergie, was afterwards made bishop of Cathnes, and finallie after his de|parture Gilbert bishop of Cathnes. out of this transitorie life, registred for his supposed perfect holinesse of life among the number of saints. The chiefest eause that mooned the Sco|tish cleargie to withdraw their obedience from the primasie of Yorke, was the dissention and conti|nuall enimitie betwixt the two nations for superiori|tie in temporall causes. The same yeare that this councell was holden at Northampton, sundrie vn|keth woonders were séene in Albion. On Midsum|mer Woonders. day being the feast day of the natiuitie of saint Iohn the Baptist, there fell such a storme of haile, that it killed manie shéepe and small cattell: people Haile. that were out of houses, and from vnder couert anie where abroad, were beaten to the earth with vio|lence of that storme. The sunne in September a|bout noonetide was darkened for the space of two The sun darkened. houres togither, without anie eclipse or cause na|turall by interposition of clouds. In Yorkeshire Thunder. was such terrible thunder with strange lightening, that manie abbeies and churches were consumed with the fire.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 About this season, the abbeie of Arbroth was built The founda|tion of the ab|beie of Ar|broth, or A|birbrothoke. in most magnificent wise, and indowed with lands and reuenues in such ample sort, that few houses within the bounds of Albion might compare there|with. The church was dedicated in the yeare of Grace 1178, by king William, in honor of Thomas 1178. Becket archbishop of Canturburie, with whome (as is said) he had great familiaritie in time of his yoong yeares. At the same time the abbeie of Hadington The abbeie or nunrie of Ha|dington foun|ded. was founded by Adhama the mother of king Wil|liam, and shortlie after she had built it, she died. Not long after, king William sent as ambassadors Iohn bishop of saint Andrews, and Reignald abbat of Ar|broth Ambassadors to the pope. vnto pope Alexander the third, to present vnto him his obeisance, according as he thought stood with his duetie. The pope séeming to reioise there|at, A rose of gold. sent shortlie after vnto the king a rose of gold, filled with balme, and certeine new priuileges con|cerning the libertie of the church of Scotland. At the same time Gilcrist, hauing his wife in suspicion Gilcrist mur|thereth his wife vpon su|spicion and adulterie. The kings indignation a|gainst Gil|crist. of adulterie, droue hir out of doores, and afterwards strangled hir in a village called Manis, not past a mile from Dundée. The king (for that she was his sister) tooke such indignation therewith, that he sei|zed vpon all his lands and goods, purposing to haue put him to death if he might haue got him into his hands: but when he saw he could not be found, he proclamed him traitor, and raced his castell (where|in Gilcrist pro|clamed trai|tor. he had dwelled) quite to the ground, in such wise that vnneth remaineth anie token at this day where it stood. This Gilcrist had a brother that hight Bre|dus, who before this mischance had got the lands of Bredus the brother of Gilcrist. Ogiluie: of whome the house of the Ogiluies tooke their beginning, that after came to great authori|tie The house of the Ogiluies in the court, though at this time (through Gil|crists offense) his whole familie was néere hand de|stroied. About this time also, the queene, king Wil|liam his wife, deceassed. A daughter which he had by hir, named Adhama, he gaue in mariage vnto the earle of Laon: but he himselfe after the deceasse of this his first wife maried Emengard, daughter to The earle of Laon. Richard vicount of Beaumount that was sonne to a daughter of king William the Conquerour. By Emengard. 1186. this mariage and aliance, the peace was newlie confirmed betwixt England and Scotland, in such wise, that neither part might receiue anie rebels to The peace confirmed with Eng|land. the other, by means whereof Gilcrist, that before was fled into England, was constreined to returne into Scotland, disguised in poore wéed, with two of his sonnes, and there passed foorth his life a long time The misera|ble state of Gilcrist. in great miserie amongest the woods and in out pla|ces, vnknowen to anie man what he was, by rea|son of his poore and simple habit. Somewhat before The castell of Edenburgh restored. the aboue remembred mariage, Henrie king of England at the motion of Hugh bishop of Durham rendered vp the castell of Edenburgh into K. Wil|liam his hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 About this time the Souldane named Saladine prospered hugelie against the christians in the holie Saladine the Souldane. land, making such cruell slaughter of them, that to heare thereof, all christian hearts were mooued to pitifull commiseration and dolorous teares: in so much that Henrie king of England vowed to go thither with an armie to relieue the common neces|sitie King Henries purpose to go into the holie land against the Saracens hindered by rebellion of his sonne. of the christian publike weale, and had gone in deed, if he had not béene hindered by the conspira|cie of his sonne, whome latelie before he had caused to be crowned king, that went about to vsurpe the sole administration to himselfe now in his fathers life time. About the same time William went with an armie into Rosse, against Makulzen and Mak|bein, Makulzen and Mak|bein capteins of pirats. two capteins of the westerne Iles, which vsed vpon occasion to passe ouer into Rosse, Cathnes and Murrey land, spoiling and wasting those countries; & when they heard of anie power comming against them, they would streight returne to their ships, and repasse againe into the Iles. But at this time, the king had sent foorth a nauie to burne all those ves|sels, wherein the robbers had passed ouer and had left at anchor, by reason whereof when they were inclosed in on euerie side by the king, and taken pri|soners, Death on the whéele. they after had suffered death on the whéele, according to the maner of the ciuill law.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The king in his returne from this iournie, came Abirbrothoke is builded. by the abbeie of Abirbrothoke, to view the woorke of that house, how it went forwards, commanding them that were ouerséers and maisters of the works to spare for no costs, but to bring it vp to perfection, and that with most magnificence. After his depar|ture from thence, he tooke the way toward Bertha, Gilcrist del|uing clods. and by aduenture espied where Gilcrist was del|uing vp turfes, togither with his two sonnes. And though he knew not what they were, yet he mufed to sée two such goodlie yoong men, as by resemblance they appeared to be, to be thus occupied in such toi|ling and base labour. Incontinentlie herewith Gil|crist with his bald head came afore him, and falling downe on his knees at the kings féet, said:

If there Gilcrist asketh pardon of the king in vn|knowne ha|bit. be anie mercie in thée (most ruthfull prince) for them that are brought through their offenses into extreme miserie, hauing suffered condigne punishment for the same; I beséech thée for the loue that Christ had to all sinfull people, not sparing to shed his most preti|ous bloud for their redemption, to haue some pitie & compassion on me, & these my pooré & miserable sons, which with me haue suffered much griefe and penu|rie, not hauing deserued the same by anie crime by
EEBO page image 191 them committed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At the last, when king William had inquired of Gilcrist decla|reth what he is. him what he was, and how it chanced he fell into such kind of miserie, the teares came so fast tricke|ling from his eies, that of a long time he was not a|ble to declare his owne name. At length being come to himselfe, he said:

I am Gilcrist (noble prince) the most sorrowfull creature on earth, which (alas) put my hands in thy bloud, and was therefore disheri|ted of all my lands, and banished with these my two sonnes out of thy realme, wherevpon we remai|ned in England for a time, till through proclama|tion made against outlawes, I was constreined to come hither againe with my said sonnes, where we haue liued by roots all the summer season, and now in the winter are glad to get our liuing with trauell of hand thus in digging and deluing of clods. Ther|fore if anie ruth or pitie haue place in thy heart, or that thine indignation be qualified, haue mercie on our sorrowfull estate, and remit the offense, wherby thou maiest not onelie purchase great honor and fame by example of pitie, being highlie renowmed for that vertue amongest all nations, but also win great merit afore God, for shewing thy selfe the fol|lower of Christ, the giuer of all mercie, grace, and peace.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The king mooued by these woords, and remembring the good seruice which Gilcrist had imploid so often|times afore in defense of the realme; and againe pi|tieng his case, to consider from what degrée of ho|nor The king ta|keth Gilcrist to his fauour, and restoreth vnto him his lands. he was fallen into the déepest bottome of ex|treme miserie, he tooke him wholie to his fauour, and not onelie forgaue him his former offenses, but also restored vnto him, and to his sonnes, all such lands as sometimes apperteined vnto them, except so much as the king had alreadie giuen vnto the abbeie of A|birbrothoke. Gilcrist euer after perseuered in due obedience to his prince. And forsomuch as his eldest sonne deceassed before him without heires, & that his yoonger sonne, by reason of some impediment which he had, was vnméet for mariage, he gaue the most Gilcrists gift vnto the house of Abirbro|thoke. part of his lands after his owne deceasse vnto the said house of Abirbrothoke. His yoonger sonne also, no lesse well affectionated towards the same house, gaue the residue of his lands therevnto. The father and both his sonnes are buried before the altar of S. Katharine within the church of this abbeie, as the superscription of their toomes sheweth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Though king William was earnestlie occupied in the aduancing forward of the building of Abir|brothoke, yet did he not forget his dutie in the admi|nistration of his lawes; but diligentlie caused iustice to be executed, to the punishing of the wicked, and the rewarding of them that well deserued. He made also sundrie new laws for the restreining of théeues Laws deuised by king Wil|liam against théeues. and oppressors of the people, so rigorous, that they might be in feare to heare him named. Further|more, where as the church of Scotland was subiect to the church of Yorke, he obteined of pope Clement the third of that name, letters of exemption for his clergie, whereby the church of Scotland (within the which were conteined the bishops sées of saint An|drews, Glasco, Dunkeld, Dublaine, Brighne, A|berden, Murrey, [...]osse, and Cathnesse) was declared exempt from all other forrein iurisdictions, except onelie from that of the see of Rome, so as it might not be lawfull from thenceforth for any that was not of the realme of Scotland, to pronounce sentence of interdiction or excommunication, or otherwise to deale in iudgement of ecclesiasticall causes, except such one as the apostolike sée of Rome should speci|allie appoint, and send thither with legantine power. The date of the said bull or letters of exemption thus obteined was at the popes palace of Laterane, the third Ides of March, and first yéere of the said pope Clements gouernment. Shortlie after, to wit in the yéere 1198, died Henrie king of England, after The death of Henrie king of England. whom succéeded his second sonne Richard: for Hen|rie his eldest sonne deceassed before his father.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 King Richard, after his coronation, prepared him selfe to passe with an armie into the holie land, and K. Richard. therefore made peace with all his neighbors, that no trouble should follow to his realme by reason of his absence: and herevpon to keepe the Scots in friend|ship, rather by beneuolence than by feare, he rendred into their hands the castels of Roxburgh, Berwike, The castels of Roxburgh, Berw [...]ke, and Sterlin [...] ren|dred to king William. and Sterling: and moreouer that part of Northum|berland which his father had taken from king Wil|liam when he tooke him prisoner. He also deliuered the eariedomes of Huntington & Cumberland; but vnder condition, that all the castels and holds within them, should be in the kéeping of his capteins and souldiors, such as he should appoint. He released to king William also the residue of such summes of monie as were due for the foure castels laid to gage, ten thousand pounds onelie excepted, which he recei|ued in hand at that present towards the charges of his iournie. When king William had thus receiued Earle of Hun|tington. Scots with king Richard in the holie land. his lands and castels by surrender, he made his bro|ther Dauid earle of Huntington, who therevpon doo|ing his homage vnto king Richard, according to the old ordinance deuised by king Malcolme the first, went with him also in that voiage with fiue hun|dred Scotishmen, or rather fiue thousand (as the translator of Hector Boetius saith) if no fault be in the printer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 As the christian armie laie at siege before the ci|tie The siege of Acres. Oliuer a Sco|tishman. of Acres, otherwise called Acon, it chanced that one Oliuer a Scotishman borne, was within the towne reteined in seruice among the Saracens; for being conuict of felonie in his natiue countrie he was banished out of the same, and fled to the Sara|cens, remaining so long amongst them, that he had learned their toong verie perfectlie, so that as then few knew what countriman he was. It fortuned that this Oliuer had one of the gates in kéeping, on that side the towne where was but a single wall, without trenches, or anie other fortification. He hap|pened by some good aduenture to espie amongst the watch of those that were of the retinue of Dauid earle of Huntington, one of his owne kinsmen na|med Iohn Durward, with whom of long time before Iohn Dur|ward. he had béene most familiarlie acquainted; and incon|tinentlie he called to the same Durward, desiring vnder assurance to talke with him. After certeine communication, for that this Oliuer had not as yet vtterlie in his heart renounced the christian faith, he appointed with Durward to giue entrie at a cer|teine houre vnto earle Dauid, and to all the christi|an Earle Dauid entered the citie [...]con. armie, vpon condition that earle Dauid would sée him restored againe vnto his land and heritage in Scotland. The houre set, earle Dauid came with a great power of men to the gate before rehersed, where he was suffered to enter according to appoint|ment, and incontinentlie with great noise and cla|mour brake into the midst of the citie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the morning betimes, king Richard percei|uing the citie thus woone, entred the same, and short|ly after wan a tower, which the Saracens for a while manfullie defended. Thus was the citie of Acres woone from the Saracens, chieflie by means of the Scotishmen. But now touching their returne from this voiage (for sith in other places more large men|tion is made of such exploits as were atchiued there|in, I passe ouer to make anie longer discourse there|of in this place) ye shall vnderstand, that in that strei|nable tempest, in the which king Richards nauie was dispersed in his comming homewards (as in EEBO page image 192 the historie of England is more at large expressed) the ship also that earle Dauid was in, chanced to be throwne on land on the coasts of Aegypt, where be|ing taken prisoner, and led into Alexandria, at length Earle Dauid taken prisoner He is re|deemed. he was redéemed by certeine merchants of Uenice, and first conucied vnto Constantinople, and after vnto Uenice, where he was bought out & redéemed by the English merchants, and in the end suffered to depart home. At his comming into Flanders, hée hi|red a vessell at Sluis, therwith to returne into Scot|land; but being loosed a little off from the shore, such a He went to Scotland. vehement tempest suddenlie arose, that droue him, not without great danger of life, néere to the coasts of Norwaie and Shetland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Here in the midst of this extreame ieopardie (as hath béene reported) after he had made a vow to Arriued at Dundee. build a church in the honor of the virgin Marie, if he might escape that danger of seas, he arriued at length in Taie water beside Dundée, not far from saint Nicholas chappell, without either rudder or tackle. The place where he arriued before that time hight Alectum, but he as then changed the name, and called it Dundee, which signifieth as though ye The name of Dundée. should say, The gift of God. When his brother the king heard that he was returned, supposing long time before, that he had béene dead, he came spéedi|lie vnto Dundée to welcome him home, shewing himselfe most glad of his returne, insomuch that he caused publike processions to be celebrate through Procession was holden. the realme, to giue God thanks that had thus resto|red his brother home into his countrie. Earle Da|uid, according as he had vowed, builded a church in the field commonlie called the wheat field, and dedi|cating A church bu [...]t. it in honor of the virgin Marie, made it a pa|rish church. At a parlement also holden after this at Dundée, licence was granted vnto him to build an abbie in what place it shuld please him within Scot|land, and to indow it with lands and rents as hée should thinke good. There were also manie priuile|ges Priuileges granted to the towne of Dundée. granted the same time vnto Dundée, which in|dure to this day.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Earle Dauid not refusing the grant and beneuo|lence of the king his brother, builded an abbeie cal|led The abbeie of Lundoris. Lundoris, for moonks of the order of saint Be|net. One thing there is much to be woondered at, as a strange singularitie. For whereas that house standeth in a vallie, inclosed on each side with wood and water, by reason whereof there is great abun|dance of adders; yet dooth no man catch hurt by anie of them, insomuch that ye shall see yong children play Adders with|out hurt. and run vp and downe amongst a great number of them, without anie skath or hurt following vnto them thereof. In this meane while, Richard king of England (who also in his returne out of the holie land was taken prisoner by the emperour of Al|maine) was deliuered for a great summe of monie, and so returned into his countrie. King William hearing of king Richards returne into England, to K. Richards returne into England. congratulate the same, tooke his brother earle Da|uid with him, and came vnto London, where, in to|ken of ioy, that he had vnfeinedlie conceiued for his safe comming home, after all troubles and dangers which he had passed, he gaue vnto him two thousand markes sterling, for that he knew at what great The gift of king william to king Ri|chard. charges he had béene, aswell for furnishing of his voiage, as also for redéeming of his libertie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 By these friendlie points of humanitie shewed, there followed great amitie and loue betwixt these two kings. But king William fell sicke in Eng|land, and as it often happeneth, such as were vnquiet persons, desirous to be deliuered of all feare of lawes, were streight way put in an vntrue beliefe, that he was dead: and causing it to be bruted abrode, A brute raised that the king was dead. began to exercise all kind of misdemeanors by inua|ding the poore and simple people, with spoilings and slaughters in all parts. But after it was certeinlie Herald thane of Cathnes succourer of rebels. knowne, that the king was not onelie aliue, but al|so recouered of his infirmitie, and comming home|wards, those raskals and wicked rebels withdrew vnder the conduct of one Herald the thane of Cath|nes, and erle of Orkenie, vnto the vttermost bounds of Scotland. Howbeit the king pursued them in such diligent and earnest maner, that he apprehended the most part of them in Cathnes, and commanded iustice to be doone on them, in such wise, that mercie Iustice not destitute of mercie. was not yet wanting: for such as were thought to be after a sort giltlesse, were pardoned, and the other punished, euerie one according to the measure of his offenses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 But the principall leader of them, that is to say, the forenamed Herald, for that time escaped into the westerne Iles, but shortly after, returning to Cath|nes, he was taken and brought to the king, who cau|sed The thane of Cathnes taken. Seuere pu|nishment. his eies first to be put out, then gelded, and lastlie to be hanged on a paire of gallowes. Also all those of his linage that were men, were likewise gelded, that no succession should follow of so wicked a wéed. In the yeere next insuing was more dearth felt in Scotland, than euer was heard of before: for a Great dearth measure of barlie, in Scotish called a boll, was sold for fiue crownes; and yet in the yéere next following, accounting from the natiuitie of our Sauior 1199, was more plentifull abundance than euer had béene 1199 séene afore. The same yéere king Williams wife Er|mengard was deliuered of a yoong sonne named A|lexander. Alexander the prince of Scotland. The same yeere also died Richard king of England, & his brother Iohn succeeded in his place. About thrée yéeres after this, was the foresaid Alex|ander the kings sonne created prince of Scoltand. And the same yéere came a legat from the pope sent A legat sent from the pope. to K. William, presenting vnto him a sword, with a sheath & hilts of gold set full of rich pretious stones. He presented vnto him also a hat or bonet, made in maner of a diademe of purple hue, in token (as it A hat. should meane) that he was defender of the church. Defender of the church. Manie indulgences and priuileges were granted at the same time by the pope, for the libertie of the church of Scotland. It was ordeined also the same time, that saturdaie should be kept as holidaie from Saturday af|ter noone to be kept holie. noone forward, and great punishment appointed for them that transgressed this ordinance, in dooing a|nie bodilie worke from saturdaie at noone, vntill mondaie in the morning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 After this, king William returned againe into King william did homage to king Iohn of England. England to doo his homage vnto king Iohn, for the lands of Cumberland, Huntington, and Northum|berland. Immediatlie wherevpon king Iohn willed him to passe with him into France, to make warres against the Frenchmen. And bicause he refused so to doo, king Iohn made claime to all the foresaid lands as forfeited to the crowne of England, and caused a great bootie of goods to be fetched out of the same: so that open warres had immediatlie followed, if the English lords had not compelled K. Iohn to make restitution of all the goods so taken; bicause they thought it not expedient in anie wise to haue wars with the Scots at the same time, being alreadie in trouble with the Frenchmen. In the winter follow|ing, the frost was so vehement, & continued so long, that till mid March, no plough might be put into the ground. Ale was frozen in such wise within houses, Ale sold by weight. and cellers, that it was sold by weight. Such a great snow fell also therewith, that beasts died in manie places in great numbers. Moreouer, from the Twelfthtide till Februarie, there was euerie day Earthquakes verie terrible earthquakes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 After the end of winter, king Iohn hauing made an end of his warres with France, began to build EEBO page image 193 a castell in Northumberland ouer against Berwike, vpon purpose to haue some quarell to fall out with the Scots. King William being aduertised thereof, sent his ambassadors vnto king Iohn, requiring him to desist from such attempts, and not to séeke a|nie occasion of new trouble: but forsomuch as he re|ceiued no towardlie answer againe from K. Iohn, he assembled a power, & comming to the castell which king Iohn had caused to be builded, he ouerthrew A castell ouer|throwne. the same, and raced it to the earth. King Iohn sore offended herewith, raised a mightie armie, and came towards Scotland, but at his comming to the bor|ders, he found his aduersarie king William readie to receiue him by battell, if he had come forward; howbeit through mediation of prudent men, the matter was taken vp betwixt them, so that on ei|ther A peace esta|blished a [...] york betwixt the kings Iohn and William. side the armies were dissolued, & both the kings repairing to Yorke, established a peace there, with these conditions, that Margaret and Isabell daugh|ters to king William, after the tearme of 9 yéeres then next insuing were once expired, should be cou|pled The couenãts of the peace. in mariage with Henrie and Richard the sons of king Iohn, vpon this paction and couenant, that if the one died, the other should succéed to the crowne. For the which it was couenanted, that king Willi|am should giue a right large dower. Also the castell which king Iohn had builded, and king William raced, it was agréed that it should remaine so defa|ced, and neuer after againe to be repared. For the sure performance of these articles thus betwixt the Scotish hosta|ges deliuered to king Iohn. two kings concluded, nine noble men of Scotland were appointed to be deliuered as hostages vnto king Iohn. In that assemblie there at Yorke, King William also surrendered into the hands of king Iohn, the lands of Cumberland, Hunting|ton, and Northumberland; to the intent he should as|signe A surrender made to a vse. those lands againe vnto his sonne prince Alex|ander, and he to doo homage for the same, according to the maner and custome in that case prouided, for a knowledge and recognition that those lands were holden of the kings of England, as superior lords of the same. During the abode of these two kings at Yorke, there was brought vnto them a child of sin|gular beautie, sonne and heire to a gentleman of great possessions in those parties, being sore vexed with diuerse and sundrie diseases; for one of his eies was consumed & lost through an issue which it had of corrupt and filthie humors, the one of his hands was dried vp; the one of his féet was so taken, that he had no vse thereof; and his toong likewise that he could not speake. The physicians that saw him thus troubled with such contrarie infirmities, iudged him incurable. Neuerthelesse, king William making a crosse on him, restored him immediatlie to health. A child healed by K. William. By reason whereof, manie beleeued that this was doone by miracle, through the power of almightie God, that the vertue of so godlie a prince might bée notified to the world.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 After his returne from Yorke into Scotland, he indowed the churches of Newbottell, Melros, Holie Churches in|dowed by king William. rood house, Dunfirmling, and Aberden, with manie faire possessions, as the letters patents made therof by him beare manifest testimonie. He also erected one new bishops see called Argile, giuing therto suf|ficient The erection of the sée of Argile. lands towards the maintenance and susten|tation thereof. After this, comming vnto the towne of Bertha, he had not remained there manie daies, The towne of Bertha drow|ned by inun| [...]ation. but there chanced such a floud, by reason of the rising and inundation of the two riuers, Taie & Almond, that through violence of the streme the towne wals were borne downe, and much people in the towne drowned, yer they could make anie shift to saue themselues, insomuch that though the king with his The king in danger of browning. wife, and the most part of his familie escaped out of that great danger and ieopardie, his yongest sonne yet named Iohn, with his nursse and twelue other women perished, and twentie other of his seruants Iohn ye kings son drowned. beside. Héere was heard such clamor, noise, & lamen|table cries, with bitter rorings and dreadfull shri|kings, as is vsed in time when anie towne is sud|denlie taken and surprised by the enimies: for as the cõmon prouerbe witnesseth; Fier & water haue no mercie: and yet of these two, water is more ter|rible and dangerous: for there is no force or wit of man able to resist the violence of inundations, where they suddenlie breake in.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 King William, after that the towne of Bertha The towne of Perth builded was thus destroied and ouerflowed with water, be|gan the foundation of an other towne, which was af|ter called Perth, by a man of that name that owght the ground where the same towne was builded. Fur|thermore, to aduance the dignitie and augmentation of this towne, the king granted sundrie beneficiall Fréedome granted to the towne of Perth. priuileges and freedoms thereto, that it might the soo|ner rise in riches and wealth. The first foundation thereof was laid after the incarnation of our Saui|our 1210 yéeres, but the name was changed after|wards, and called saint Iohns towne, which name it beareth euen vnto this day. About the same time Saint Iohns towne. Gothred moo|ued a rebellion in Cathnes. there rose estsoones new trouble in Cathnes, for one Gothred the sonne of Makuilzen (of whose rebellion ye haue heard before) spoiled with often incursions and rodes the countrie of Rosse, and other bounds there abouts. His companie increased dailie more His companie increaseth. and more, by repaire of such number of rebels as came vnto him out of Lochquhaber, & the westerne Iles. King William, to represse these attempts, sent foorth the earles of Fife and Atholl, with the thane of The earles of Fife and A|tholl sent a|gainst him. The rebels o|uerthrowne. Gothred ta|ken and be|headed. Buchquhane, hauing six thousand in their companie, the which incountering with the enimies in set bat|tell, gaue them the ouerthrow, and taking Gothred their chiefe capteine prisoner, brought him vnto the king, who caused both him and diuerse other which were likewise taken prisoners, to lose their heads. Gothred himselfe was sore wounded, before he was taken; so that if his takers had not made the more spéed in the conueieng of him to the king, he had died of his hurts before execution had thus béene doone on him accordinglie as was appointed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 About this time arose the dissention and variance The dissenti|on betwixt the pope and king Iohn. The cause. betwixt Iohn king of England, and pope Innocent the third, for that the English cleargie refused to aid the said Iohn with such summes of monie as he de|manded of them. Shortlie after, William king of Scotland, worne with long age, departed out of this The death of king William. world at Striueling, in the 74 yéere of his age, and in the 49 yéere of his reigne, and after the incarnati|on of Christ 1214 yéeres. He was buried in Aber|brothoke, 1214. before the high altar within the quier. The yéere afore his death, two comets or blasing starres Two blazing starres. appéered in the moneth of March, verie terrible to be|hold; the one did shine before the rising of the sunne, and the other before the going downe thereof. The yéere next following, there was a cow in Northum|berland A monstrueus calte. that calued a verie monstruous calfe; for the head and necke resembled a verie calfe in déed, but the residue of the bodie was like vnto a colt. In the winter after, there were séene also two moones in the Two moones. firmament, the one being seuered from the other, and in shape naturallie horned, as ye see the moone in hir increasing or waning. King William in his life The abbeie of Balmernocht founded. time founded the abbeie of Balmernocht, but his wife quéene Ermengard indowed it with lands and possessions after his deceasse. In the 46 yéere of this king Williams reigne, two moonks of the Trinitie order were sent into Scotland by pope Innocent, to whome king William gaue his palace roiall in A|berden, to conuert the same into an abbeie for them EEBO page image 194 to inhabit: and was in mind to haue giuen them manie other bountifull gifts, if he had liued anie lon|ger time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 AFter the deceasse of king William, his sonne Alexander the second of that name succeeded, Alexan|der. and was crowned at Scone with all due solemnitie; which being finished, he went vnto Abirbrothoke, Alexander the second is crowned at Scone. A time of mourning. where he remained 14 daies, in attending the fune|rall obsequies of his father, and commanded that no publike plaies nor great feasts should be vsed or kept in all that yéere, to the intent the death of his father might be lamented through the whole realme. The king himselfe, and all his seruants also, were clothed in mourning weed, during the space of one whole yéere. The first parlement which he called, was hol|den at Edenburgh, in the which he confirmed all the A parlement at Edenburgh acts and ordinances deuised by his father: and fur|ther appointed that all such as had borne offices vn|der Confirmation of officers. him, should still inioy the same. Namelie he com|manded that William Wood bishop of Dunblaine should still continue lord chancellor, and Alane of Galloway high constable, which is an office of most The office of the constable. honor & reputation next to the king, as he that hath power of life and death, if anie man draw bloud of an other by violence within two miles of the court.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 When this parlement was ended, bicause the old queene his mother determined to remaine, during the residue of hir life, in the place where that holie woman queene Margaret sometime led hir life, he gaue vnto hir towards the maintenance of hir e|state, the castels & townes of Forfair, with the lands The lands of Forfair giuen to the old quéene. A princelie appointment. and possessions to the same belonging. He also ap|pointed certeine sage and most graue personages, to be chosen foorth as iudges, which should be resident in euerie citie and good towne of his realme, for the hea|ring and due determining of all quarrels and mat|ters in controuersie betwixt partie and partie. In this meane time great dissention rose betwixt Iohn king of England, and his barons, by reason whereof Dissention be|twixt king Iohn and his nobles. great warres insued, as in the English historie dooth appéere. The barons made sute both to the French king, & to the king of Scots for aid, so that at length Lewes the French kings sonne came ouer to sup|port them, whereof when king Alexander was aduer|tised, he likewise came with an armie through Eng|land King Alexan|der passeth to London. vnto London, causing his souldiers by the waie to absteine from dooing anie kind of damage to the people. By his comming things were partlie quie|ted for a time, and shortlie after that he had commu|ned with Lewes touching sundrie affaires pertei|ning to both the realmes, they passed the seas with ten vessels ouer into France, leauing their powers behind them to assist the English lords.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The French king aduertised thereof, came downe to Bullongne, where finding his son and king Alex|ander, he renewed the ancient bond of amitie be|twixt France and Scotland, with the same Alexan|der, The league betwixt France and Scotland re|newed. according to the couenants of the old league, with this addition; that neither prince should receiue the enimies of the others realme, nor to marrie with anie stranger, the one not making the other priuie thereto. These things being ratified, king Alexander The best ap|prooued wri|ters affirme that Lewes went not ouer into France, till after the death of king Iohn. Lewes and king Alexan|der accurssed. A councell at Rome. and Lewes returned into England: shortlie where|vpon, king Iohn died, more through anguish of mind and melancholie, than by force of anie other naturall disease. His son Henrie, the third of that name, suc|céeded him. And in the meane time had the pope ac|curssed both Lewes, and king Alexander, with all those that fauoured their cause against king Iohn, which cursse was pronounced in a generall councell, which was holden at Rome by pope Innocent, there being present foure hundred and twelue bishops, and eight hundred abbats. King Alexander after the de|ceasse of king Iohn, returning homewards with his armie, thought he might haue passed quietlie with|out King Alexan|der returneth into his coun|trie. anie annoiance by the waie, through meanes whereof he lost a certeine number of his men, being suddenlie inuaded by such Englishmen, as watched their time to take the Scots at some aduantage, in straieng abroad out of order: with which iniurie king Alexander was so mooued, that he spoiled and harri|ed all the countries by the which he passed, till he was entered within the confines of his owne dominion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Shortlie after, Cardinall Gualo came into Eng|land furnished with the popes authoritie, to denounce Cardinall Gualo. the excommunication aboue remembred, against Lewes and Alexander, with all their fautors, where|vpon he accurssed not onelie the foresaid persons, but also interdicted all the places where they came, inso|much that in the end Lewes was constreined to buy an absolution with no small summes of monie, of that auaricious cardinall Gualo: and after vpon a|gréement also made with king Henrie, he returned into France. Not long after came K. Henrie with Lewes retur|neth into France. King Henrie inuadeth Scotland. an armie into Scotland, sore indamaging the coun|trie: but so soone as he was aduertised that king A|lexander had assembled all the power of his realme to giue him battell, he retired with all spéed into England. The king of England had in his armie at Ex codice an|tiquo S. Alba|ni, written by Mat. Paris (as I take it.) the same time 1200 men of armes, verie perfectlie appointed and furnished with armor and weapon as was requisit, and the king of Scots but onelie fiue hundred. But of footmen there were in the Scotish armie 60000 able personages well appointed, with axes, speares, and bowes, readie to die and liue with their prince, constantlie beléeuing, that to lose this present life héere in his defense, was an assured waie to be saued in an other world.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 After that king Henrie was gone backe into England, king Alexander followed after him into King Alexan|der in Nor|thumberland. Northumberland, where he ouerthrew & beat downe manie castels and strengths, which the Englishmen held. Then marching through the countrie vnto Car|leill, Carleill woon by the Scots. he wan that citie, and garnished it with his peo|ple. After this, laieng siege vnto Norham castell, when he had continued at the same a certeine time, and perceiued how he lost but his trauell, he left it, and returned home with great honor and triumph for his other atchiued enterprises in that iournie. King Henrie being once aduertised that king Alexander had broken vp his campe, incontinentlie got eftsoons his people togither, and comming to Berwike, wan Berwike woon by king Henrie. both the towne and castell. After entring into Scot|land, he burned and spoiled the countrie alongst by the sea coasts, till he came as farre as Hadington, Hadington. putting all such to the swoord as were found in the waie; women, préests, and children onelie excepted. He assaied to haue woone the castell of Dunbar, but missing his purpose there, he returned into England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time, the auaritious prelat Gualo, vpon trust to purchase some large portion of monie in Scotland, put the same vnder processe of interdi|cting, & namelie he accurssed king Alexander most Scotland in|terdicted. terriblie, for that he had inuaded England, and (as he alleged) spoiled churches as well as prophane pla|ces. These cursses so inflamed the hearts of the Scotishmen with hatred against the Englishmen, that the same was not like to haue ended without the vtter destruction and ruine of both their realms. Neuerthelesse at length, by the diligent trauell of the bishops of Yorke and Salisburie, which came Bishops of yorke and Salisburie. vnto king Alexander to treate an agreement, a fi|nall peace was concluded, vnder these conditions. First it was agréed, that king Alexander should A peace con|cluded. render the citie of Carleill into the Englishmens hands, and king Henrie the towne of Berwike vnto the Scots. The whole dominion of Cumber|land The condi|tions. to remaine vnto king Alexander, with the one EEBO page image 195 halfe of Northumberland, to the Recrosse. And fur|ther, that king Alexander should be absolued of the censures of the church, which Gualo the cardinall had denounced against him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Thus the two kings being accorded, the two fore|said bishops comming vnto Berwike, absolued king Alexander, and deliuered his realme of interdiction, by such authoritie as they had procured of the cardi|nall Gualo. But yet the same cardinall, not min|ding to depart with emptie hands, summoned all the prelats of Scotland to appeare before him at The cleargie of Scotland summoned by cardinall Gualo to come to Anwike. Anwike, there to receiue their full absolution, to the intent by such means to trouble them, till they had disburssed to his vse some large portion of mo|nie. Sundrie of them which loued quietnesse more than contention, satisfied his mind; but others refu|sed vtterlie so to doo, taking great indignation that spirituall causes were thus dispatched for monie, Sale of spiri|tuall promo|tions. and ecclesiasticall preferments bought and sold, no otherwise than secular possessions and prophane dig|nities. Incontinentlie therevpon Gualo cited them to Rome, supposing that rather than to take vpon The Scotish cleargie cited to Rome. them so long a iournie, they would haue compoun|ded with him at his pleasure. Notwithstanding they being nothing in doubt thereof, went vnto The com|plaint of the Scotish clear|gie to the pope Rome, and at their comming thither, made vnto the pope their complaint in most gréeuous maner, of the insufferable iniuries attempted in England and Scotland, by his most couetous legat the fore|said Gualo: by reason of which complaint, and of The auarice of Cardinall Gualo. sundrie such letters & informations as dailie came out of England and Scotland, from other bishops & abbats, conteining right gréeuous accusations, con|cerning the insatiable auarice of Gualo, the pope re|uoked him home to Rome, to make answere in his presence vnto such matters as were laid to his charge.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 At his returne thither, for so much as he was not able to discharge himselfe of such manifest crimes Cardinall Gualo con|demned in a summe of mo|nie. The Scotish bishops absol|ued. Dauid earle of Hunting|ton deceassed. wherewith he was burdened, the pope condemned him in a great summe of monie, to be paid as a fine for his trespasse and transgressions. And those Sco|tish bishops, which were come for their absolution, were absolued by the pope, and suffered to depart in peace. In this meane time, Dauid earle of Hun|tington, brother to William late king of Scots, (of whome ye haue heard before how he went in the iournie made by the christian princes into the holie 1219. land) deceassed, and was buried within an abbeie in England. Henrie king of England, after he came to yeares of perfect discretion, shewed himselfe to be In interview betwixt the kings of England and Scotland. more desirous of peace than of warres. Where|vpon at Yorke there was a meeting appointed be|twixt him and king Alexander, where mutuall ali|ance was accorded betwixt them on this wise. Iane the sister of king Henrie was promised to be giuen Mariages concluded. in mariage to king Alexander, and two sisters of king Alexanders were despoused vnto two great princes of the English nobilitie. These mariages were thus concluded in the yeare of our Lord, 1220.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the yeare next following, came a legat into Scotland from pope Honorius, with buls to gather a summe of monie towards the furnishing foorth of Alegat sent from pope Honorius for a collection. an armie against the Turks or rather Saracens. This legat was a cardinall, and named Egidius, who hauing purchased no small quantitie of coine both of the cleargie and laitie of Scotland, spent the same in riot and outragious insolencie, making his excuse at his returne to Rome, how it was taken Alegats ex|cuse. from him by certeine Brigants and robbers. With|in short while after, was an other legat with sem|blable commission sent into Scotland from the fore|said pope. But king Alexander, being aduertised An other le|gat. of his comming, called a councell, in the which one of the bishops (as should séeme) tooke great indigna|tion, to sée how couetousnesse reigned in most shame|full wise amongest the Romish legats, and spake in maner as followeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6

Albeit sundrie considerations there are which An oration of a bishop. might stay me from vttering such things as be most preiudiciall to the common-wealth, yet (most noble prince) when I consider thine humanitie, faith, and constancie, giuen to nothing more than to the de|fense and weale of thy true liege people, I cannot but (for the zeale I beare to common libertie) de|clare Tyrannie in|tollerable. the truth. For sith all maner of tyrannie is intollerable, yea euen that which is exercised by kings or princes descended by lineall succession to their rightfull heritage: much more is that tyran|nie Men of base linage. to be detested, which is exercised by men of vile and base linage. Therefore, if the sundrie and ma|nifest wrongs doone to vs these manie yeares now passed, had come by the popes themselues, the same might somewhat more sufferablie haue béene borne: but sith naughtie & vile persons, of base birth and ob|scure linage, promoted to benefices and ecclesiasti|call dignities onelie for their wicked and horrible vi|ces, haue not onelie interdicted our realme, with|out lawfull commission; but haue also consumed in maintenance of their wanton and insolent vices, that monie which they gathered in our countrie by the popes authoritie, vnder colour of raising an ar|mie to go against the Turks and Infidels; I am of this opinion, that their curssed auarice ought to haue no further place amongest faithfull people, speciallie amongest vs, whose simplicitie and humblenesse they haue in contempt. In the yeares passed, ye com|plained The Scots sore offended against Gua|lo. of the iniuries doone by Gualo, when he had put your realme vnder the censure of interdicting, and the most part of your prelats vnder the cursse; because they would not answer him with monie, ac|cording to his couetous demands, wherewith he might mainteine his outragious lusts. Which Gualo also (as should appeare) by most certeine coniectures, was of such a diuelish nature, that though he were sent to treate a concord betwixt the Englishmen The practise of Gualo. and Scots; yet to satisfie his auaritious desire, he ministred such occasion of warre betwixt them, that both the realmes (had not the matter béene the soo|ner taken vp) were at a point to haue entered so far into malitious hatred the one against the other, that it was not like that anie peace would haue taken place, till the one or both had béene vtterlie destroi|ed. But since these heinous and terrible déeds are manifest inough; to what end should I here remem|ber them, sith the same cannot be doone without your great griefe and displeasure? Moreouer, after we were deliuered of this Gualo, shortlie after com|meth another, one shewing himselfe to come foorth of the same shop; for in conuersation of life he was to be iudged no whit better, but rather woorse: for after that he had got vp amongest vs of this realme large summes of monie, vnder pretense of redéeming the christian prisoners out of the Saracens hands, and waging of new armies against them; he wasted the same monie in riotous lust and insolencie, feining, when it was gone, that it was béereft him by Bri|gants. Therefore sith we haue had experience, and are alreadie sufficientlie taught by the dooings of the two fore-remembred legats, to our heauie griefs and no small damages; we may be woorthilie repu|ted vnwise and verie fooles in déed, if we now admit the third. For it is not to be thought, that this new legat shall vse the matter in anie better sort, than his fellowes haue doone before him. And verelie, if anie man shuld demand of me, what I thinke ought to be doone in this matter, I doo for my part protest, The bishops oration. that neither this legat, nor anie other in times to EEBO page image 196 come, ought to be receiued within this realme, con|sidering how the same hath béene wasted & robbed by their continuall exactions. If there be anie amongst you that hath more monie than he knoweth which way well to spend, he may (in the name of God) be|stow it vpon the poore, rather than to the vse of such vicious legats, as order it in such sort, that all men haue cause to thinke whatsoeuer commeth into their hands, is but cast away and clearelie lost.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 These words of this bishop (whatsoeuer he was) Legats can|not be recei|ued. were liked so well of all the councell, that the legat could not be receiued into the realme. After the breaking vp of this councell, the mariage was con|summat betwixt king Alexander and Ione, sister to Henrie king of England; also betwixt Hubert de Burgh high iustice of England, and Margaret sister to king Alexander, by reason of which mariages, the peace was confirmed with the Englishmen, and as it had beene sealed vp for a more full and certeine as|surance. Peace confir|med with the Englishmen. Gilespie Rosse are rebell. Shortlie after followed ciuill warres in Scotland, by the motion of one Gilespie Rosse, who hauing liued most licentiouslie in riotous outrage, at length arreared open warre against the king, and first sleaing diuerse such of his companions as had kept him companie aforetime in his lewd misde|meanors, for that they refused now to sticke to him in this rebellious enterprise, he went with the resi|due that offered to take his part vnto the towne of Enuernes, which he tooke and burned, with diuerse other places being of the kings possessions, till at Enuernes burned by Gi|lespie Rosse. Iohn Cu|min earle of Buchquhane. Gilespie Rosse behea|ded. length Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquhane com|ming against him with an armie deliuered to him by the king, pursued the said Gilespie in such earnest wise, that finallie he tooke him with two of his sons, and striking off all their thrée heads, sent the same to the king as a witnesse how he had sped.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 This businesse being thus quieted, an other insued after this maner: The men of Cathnes sore offen|ded New trouble. with their bishop named Adam, for that vpon re|fusall to pay their tithes he had accurssed them, fell vpon him within his owne house, and first scour|ging him with rods, at length set fire vpon him and Adam bishop of Cathnes slaine by the people of that countrie. burnt him within his owne kitchen. Which act be|ing reported to the king, as then soiourning at E|denburgh, he hasted foorth with all speed to punish the offendors, not ceassing till he had taken foure hun|dred of them, all the which number he caused to be Streight exe|cution. hanged; and for that he would haue no succession to come of such a wicked séed, he appointed all their sons to lose their stones. The place where they were so gel|ded, The stonie hill. The earle of Cathnes lo|seth his lands is called euen to this day the stonie hill. The earle of Cathnes, for that he neither succoured the bishop in time of néed, nor yet sought to punish the offendors that did this cruell déed, was depriued of his earledome, and the lands belonging to the same. King Alexan|der commen|ded of the pope The pope highlie commended king Alexander for this punishment taken of them, that had so cruellie murthered their bishop.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 After this, king Alexander comming vnto Aber|den, gaue manie large gifts and priuileges therevn|to, The priuile|ges of Aber|den. although the same before this time inioied sun|drie notable commodities and endowments giuen and confirmed by other kings his predecessors. The buls which were granted by sundrie popes concer|ning the liberties of the churches in Scotland, were committed by the king to the custodie of one Gilbert The archde|con of Mur|rey. archdeacon of Murrey, who succéeded next after the foresaid Adam in the sée of Cathnesse. In the third yeare after, as king Alexander with his mother Er|mingard were sitting at their banket on the twelfe day in Christmas, otherwise called Yule, the earle of Cathnes, hauing good opportunitie thereto, pre|sented himselfe before the king, and besought him of grace and pardon for his passed offense. King Alexander taking rush & pitie of him, restored him The earle of Cathnes is pardoned and restored to his lands. (vpon his fine to be paied in maner as was agréed betwixt them) vnto all his former honors, lands and possessions. Neuerthelesse the offense that was par|doned by man, was afterward punished by the iust iudgement (as some thought) of almightie God: for The earle of Cathnes is murthered by his seruants. he was slaine as he lay in bed one night by his own meniall seruants, whome he had roughlie intreated, as the fame went. The house also wherein he was thus slaine, was likewise set on fire and burnt ouer him, that no man should haue suspiciion of his slaugh|ter, but that it might séeme as though it had come by some sudden aduenture.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 About this time, or somewhat before, there came The first com|ming of blacke friers into Scotland. into Scotland (sent by saint Dominicke) certeine blacke friers, of which order the same Dominicke was the first author. These men that were first sent by him, liued according to his institution, more per|fectlie than such as followed: for as it often happe|neth, althings commonlie from a good beginning fall into woorse estate, so that the successors of those men declined from all good religion, into most insolent a|buses and misorders, and so continuing in vicious liuing the space of thrée hundred yeares, at length were perfectlie reformed into a better rule, by a frier named Iohn Adamson, that proceeded doctor in the Iohn Adam|son. profession of diuinitie in the vniuersitie of Aberden, at the same time that Hector Boetius the Scotish thronographer proceeded there in the same facultie. On the same maner, about the selfe same time, were sent into Scotland, as well as into all other parts The first comming of friers minor [...] of the christian world, friers minors, of saint Fran|cis his order. Manie of them also after his deceasse fell to dissolute liuing, kéeping no such streict rules, as both he prescribed, and also obserued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 But now to returne to the residue of the historie. The Scotish people inioied peace a long time after the appeasing of the trouble in Cathnes, till time that Alane lord of Galloway and constable of Scot|land The death of Alane lord of Galloway. departed out of this life; and for that he had di|uided his lands before his death amongest his three daughters, his bastard sonne gathered an armie of 10000 men, in hope to atteine the possession of His bastard sonne raiseth a commotion. Galloway by force of armes; but at length, after he had wrought much scath in the countrie by his vio|lent inuasion, he was slaine with fiue thousand of those that tooke his part, by the earle of March, and The earle of March. Walter Steward of Dunwald, which was sent against him with a power. The eldest daughter of the aboue mentioned Alane of Galloway, was gi|uen in mariage vnto Roger Quincie earle of Win|chester, Roger Quin|cie earle of winchester constable of Scotland. who after his father in lawes deceasse, was made constable of Scotland, which office continued in the hands of his succession, till king Robert the second his daies; in whose time this Roger of Quin|cies posteritie was disherited and extinguished, for certeine offenses committed against the kings maiestie, and then afterwards the office of the con|stable was giuen to the Haies of Arroll. The second The diuision of the lands of Galloway. daughter of the foresaid Alane was maried vnto Iohn Bal [...]ioll; & the third to the earle of Albemarle. Thus was the lordship of Galloway diuided into thrée, by reason whereof the inhabitants of that coun|trie, taking displeasure therewith, cleaued vnto the aboue mentioned bastard, till he was vanquished and slaine, as before ye haue heard. This trouble being appeased thus within the realme, K. Alexan|der was aduertised of great diuision rising betwixt king Henrie of England and his nobles, and there|fore to helpe towards an agréement betwixt them, K. Alexander goeth into England. he went to London with his wife quéene Iane, and Isabell his sister. Through his earnest diligence, all the debates and quarels were remooued, and the parties throughlie accorded. Which being doone, he EEBO page image 197 maried Isabell his sister vnto the earle of Norfolke, Isabell the sister of king Alexander maried to the earle of Norfolke. Iane quéene of Scotland deccasseth. and in the meane time his wife quéene Iane deceas|sed, without leauing anie issue behind hir, which chance caused the king hir husband to returne with great griefe and lamentation into Scotland. In the yeare next following, which was after the incar|nation 1239, king Alexander (because he had no succession begot of his bodie) maried at Rocksburgh the daughter of Ingelram lord of Coucie, a virgine 1239, king Alexan|der marieth the daughter of the lord of Coucie. Iohn Cumin earle of An|gus departeth this life. of excellent beautie named Marie, on whome he got a sonne named Alexander, which succeeded after his deceasse in the gouernement of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 About the same time, Iohn Cumin earle of An|gus, being sent in ambassage to Lewes the French king, died by the way. Also at Hadington was hol|den a roiall tornament, where knights and esquiers aduanced themselues by valiant prowesse to win ho|nor: neuerthelesse the end of all that pleasure and pastime ended in sorow. For Patrike Cumin earle of Atholl was slaine within his lodging in the night, Patrike earle o [...] Atholl murthered. and the house set on fire and burned ouer him, to the intent no suspicion should rise, but that it happened by some euill misfortune, and negligence of fire. But yet was Iohn Bissart, with Walter Bissart his Iohn Bissart suspected. vncle shrewdlie suspected for the matter, insomuch that though no euident proofe could be had against him, yet were they banished the realme, and lost all their goods by confiscation to the kings vse. After these things were thus passed, a conuocation was A conuoca|tion of the cleargie at saint Iohns towne. called of the cleargie at saint Iohns towne. In the which were diuerse prouinciall ordinances and sta|tutes, made by consent of the king and nobles of the realme, which were obserued in the church of Scotland vnto these late daies. About the same time also, one Somerleid thane of Argile, the sonne of that Somerleid of whome ye haue heard before, Somerleid thane of Ar|gile rebelleth. following his fathers steps, rebelled against the king, sore indamaging by rodes & forages the parts bordering vpon the confines of his countrie of Ar|gile, till at length the earle of March brought him to the brinke of such extreme necessitie, that he was Somerleids humble sub|mission. faine to yéeld himselfe, with a cord about his necke in token of submission; and being so brought before the king, obteined pardon of his heinous offense.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the same season, Henrie king of England, prouoked by the setting on of such seditious per|sons remaining in his court, as trusted by wars to aduance their priuat gaine (during which time law and iustice haue no place) began to build a castell iust A castell be|gun to be buil|ded by king Henrie a|gainst Ber|wike. Matth. Paris disagréeth frõ the Scotish writers tou|ching the oc|casion of this warre, as in the English chronicles ye may read. against Berwike, in the same place where the o|ther was begun afore by king Richard, which (as before is shewed) was raced and throwen downe by king William, by the articles of agréement with couenant that it should neuer be builded vp againe. This attempt of the Englishmen had ministred sufficient occasion of warre, if the nobles of Eng|land (considering that the building vp of this castell was contrarie to their bond and promised faith) had not staied the woorke, and so therevpon that begin|ning of new trouble betwixt the English and Sco|tish nations for that present ceassed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the yeare following came ambassadors forth Ambassadors foorth of France. of France into Scotland, declaring that K. Lewes was readie to passe forward on that iournie, which he had taken in hand to make into Iewrie, and there|fore desired aid of king Alexander, to support him in those warres against Gods enimies. With these ambassadors were sent ouer into France, certeine Scotishmen that went with Lewes king of France into Aegypt. chosen bands of men of warre vnder the leading of Patrike earle of March, Dauid Lindseie of Glen|neske, and Walter Steward of Dundonald, thrée capteins of great wisdome, and perfect experience in feats of chiualrie. The most part of all those Scotishmen, that thus went foorth in that iournie, perished in Aegypt either on the sword or by sicke|nesse, so that few or none of them returned home a|gaine. From henceforth, king Alexander liued not long: but falling into a sore and grieuous sickenesse The death of king Alexan|der the second. 38. Io. Ma. but that cannot be. within a certeine Ile called Carnere, not sar distant from the coast of Argile, deceassed in the same Ile shortlie after, in the 51 yeare of his age, the 35 of his reigne, and of our redemption 1249, his bodie (ac|cording as he had commanded in his life time) was buried in Melrosse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 AFter that Alexander the second was thus dead Alexan|der. and buried, his sonne Alexander the third of that name, not passing nine yéeres of age, was pro|clamed king. There was no small adoo on the daie Alexander the third crowned of his coronation amongest the nobles, for that by reason of the obseruation of starres, it was iudged An infortu|nate [...]y. to be an infortunate daie for him to receiue the dia|deme. And againe some held opinion, how he ought to be made knight first, before he were crowned; so that thus they were at strife togither, in such ear|nest maner, that it was doubted, least this conten|tion would haue bred some great inconuenience, had not the earle of Fife preuented the same, in cau|sing The earle of Fife preuen|teth the occa|sion of further troubles. vpon a sudden the crowne to be set vpon the kings head, being placed in the marble chaire, accor|ding to the custome, without regard to the friuolous allegations of them that spake to the contrarie. When the solemnitie was ended, there came before him an Hillandman (for so they call such as inhabit The saluta|tion of an Hil|land man. the mounteine countries of Scotland) who in a kind of méeter of the Irish language, saluted him as king, thus: Bennach dere Albin Alexander, mak Alax, mak William, mak Henrie, mak Dauid, and so foorth (reciting in maner of a genealogie or pede|grée, all the kings in order of whome he was descen|ded, till he came vp to Gathelus the first beginner of the Scotish name & nation.) The woords in Eng|lish are as followeth:

Haile king of Albine, Alexan|der the sonne of Dauid, the sonne of Alex, the sonne of William, the sonne of Henrie, the sonne of Da|uid, and so foorth as before.
This Hilland Scot was highlie rewarded by the king for his labour, accor|ding as was thought requisite.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the second yéere of his reigne, king Alexan|der (or rather such as had the gouernement of the realme vnder him) assembled togither all the pre|lates and barons of the realme at Dunfirmling, and there ordeined to take vp the bones of his grand|mother quéene Margaret, which being doone, he cau|sed The transla|tion of quéene Margarets bones. them to be put into a shrine of siluer, the 21 day of Iulie, and minding to place the same where it re|steth at this present, as it was borne foorth toward that place, when the bearers came against the se|pulchre of hir husband king Malcolme, they were not able to remooue the relikes anie further, till by the councell (as is said) of an aged man that was then & there present, they tooke vp the bones of the same Malcolme also, and bare them foorth with hirs to the place aforesaid, where they after rested in great veneration of the people. Such as were appointed gouernors (during the minoritie of king Alexan|der) doubting least the tender yéeres of their soue|reigne might imbolden the enimies of the relme to attempt some inuasion, sent ambassadors vnto Hen|rie They were a [...] fianced in the daies of king Alexander the faire, as in the English chro|nicle it may appeare. king of England, requiring that the peace might be ratified anew with him and his people, and fur|ther to make a motion of mariage to be had betwixt king Alexander and a daughter of king Henries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shortlie after, vpon this motion, both the kings met at Yorke with a great number of lords, as well spirituall as temporall of both the realmes, where king Alexander (according to the promise before that An interuiew of the kings of England and Scotland. time made) maried the ladie Margaret daughter to the forenamed king Henrie, on saint Stephans day EEBO page image 198 in Christmasse, with all solemnitie and ioifull mirth 1250. that might be deuised. The charges whereof were borne partlie by king Henrie, & partlie by the arch|bishop, who in feasting those princes spent right libe|rallie. At length, king Alexander after he had sola|ced himselfe in the companie of his father in law king Henrie a certeine time, returned into Scot|land with his new maried wife. During the mino|ritie of K. Alexander, the realme of Scotland was gouerned in great prosperitie by the nobles: but after his comming to ripe age, he was informed of certeine extortions doone by some of the péeres of his realme against the poore people, and therevpon determined to sée redresse therein. Amongst other there were accused of such trangression, the earles Complaint made of the Cumins. of Menteith, Atholl, and Buchquhane, with the lord of Strabogie, which were of one surname, that is to saie, of the Cumins. These being summoned to ap|peare before the iustices, with one Hugh Aberneth, and other of their complices, vpon their contempt so to doo, were proclamed traitors, and as the Scotish The Cumins put to the horne. men tearme it, put to the horne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The foresaid lords mooued with this displeasure, purposed to reuenge the same, and assembling their powers in secret wise, tooke the king at Kinrossie, and brought him vnto Striueling, where they kept The king ta|ken by the Cumins. him as captiue in ward a long time after. Through which aduenture much harme insued, by reason of misruled persons, that wrought manie oppressions a|gainst the people, in hope to escape the due punish|ment for their mischiefous acts prouided, sith the king who should haue séene iustice ministred, was holden in captiuitie by his presumptuous aduersa|ries. But of this matter ye maie see more in the English chronicles, about the 39 yéere of Henrie the third. The house of the Cumins was in those daies of great power within the realme, both in multi|tude The great power of the Cumins. Thirtie and two knights of one sur|name. The height of great families the cause of|tentimnes of their fall. of ofspring, riches, lands, possessions, and main|rent. There were at the same time to the number of 32 knights of that surname within the realme, all men of faire possessions and reuenues. But as it of|ten happeneth, that men of great possessions and do|minion are had in suspicion with the prince, whereby the same is for the more part the cause of their ruine and fall, speciallie when they presume too farre vpon their high power: so it chanced here. For within a short time after that the king was thus taken (as be|fore is shewed) the chiefe author of the whole conspi|racie, that is to saie, the lord Walter earle of Men|teith, who was highest in authoritie among all those The earle of Menteith is poisoned. Cumins, was poisoned (as was thought) by his owne wife, through which mischance the residue of the Cumins were so exanimated, that obteining their pardon, for all offenses passed of the king, they The king set at libertie. did set him againe at libertie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 This woman did thus make awaie hir husband the erle of Menteith through instigation of an Eng|lishman called Iohn Russell, as by coniectures it was suspected; namelie, for that refusing to marrie Iohn Russell an English|man. with anie of the Scotish nobilitie, she tooke the said Russell to husband, though in estate to be compared with hirs, he was iudged a match farre vnméet, and therevpon constreined to flie with him into Eng|land, she died there in great miserie. About this time pope Urbane the fourth of that name instituted the The feast of Corpus Chri sti instituted. The first com|ming of the Carmelite friers. feast of Corpus Christi, to be celebrated each yéere on the thursday after Trinitie sundaie. The Carme|lite friers came at this time into Scotland, and erec|ted a chappell of our ladie without the walles of saint Iohns towne, which the bishop of Donkeld appoin|ted them, therein to celebrate their seruice. It was also said, that in this season a moonke of Melrosse A part of the holie crosse found. was admonished in a dreame, where he should find a part of the holie crosse, not far from Peplis in Lou|thian, inclosed in a case ingrauen with the title of S. Nicholas. And not farre from the same was like|wise found a stone chest, right cunninglie wrought and ingrauen, wherein were found certeine bones wrapped in silke, but whose bones the same were it was not knowne. As soone as the case was opened, within the which the crosse was included, manie mi|racles were wrought (as it was then beléeued.) King Alexander for deuotion hereof, builded an abbeie in honor of the holie crosse, in the same place where that péece of the crosse was so found. In this abbeie after|wards An abbeie built. there were moonks inhabiting of the order of the Trinitie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Not long after, the two kings of England and An interuiew Matth. Paris writeth that in the yeare 1256, both K. Alexander & his wife came into England to visit king Henrie, whom they found at woodstoke, as in the Eng lish chronicles further ap|peareth. Scotland met togither at Warke castell, accompa|nied with a great number of the nobles and gentle|men of both their realmes, for the redresse of cer|teine misorders committed betwixt the borderers. Such reformation also was here deuised, and re|compense made on either side, that both the realms continued afterwards in more perfect tranquillitie for a certeine space, than euer was séene in anie kings daies before that time. In this season was the church of Glasco finished in that perfection as it stands to be séene at this day, right sumptuouslie builded, for the most part at the charges of Willi|am bishop of that sée, who liued not long after the fi|nishing of the said worke. In the yéere following, which was the yéere after the birth of our Sauiour 1262. 1263, there fell a great dearth through both the realmes of England and Scotland, by reason of the A great derth wet haruest preceding, so that the corne and graine was quite marred and corrupted before it could be got beside the ground.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Acho king of Norwaie, being informed how the Acho king of Norwaie. Scots were thus oppressed with famine and other miseries, by report of them that made the same more than it was in deed, supposed to find time and occasion sit for his purpose, to subdue them wholie to his dominion. Herevpon, preparing an armie and a fléet of ships conuenient for such an enterprise, he landed with the same in the westerne Iles, on Lam|mas day otherwise called Petri ad Vincula. Those Iles continued vnder subiection of the Norwegi|ans The westerne Iles vnder subiection of the Danes & Norwegians. and Danes, from king Edgars time vnto the daies of this Acho. From thence the said Acho with a mightie power of his Danes and Norwegians came ouer into Aran and Bute, which are two Iles, and onelie at that time amongst all the residue were vnder the dominion of Scots. But Acho hauing quicklie subdued them at his pleasure, in hope of Acho landed in Albion. more prosperous successe, transported his whole ar|mie ouer into Albion, and landed with the same on the next coasts, where after he had besieged the ca|stell of Aire a certeine time, hée tooke the same, and The castell of Aire besieged and woone. began to waste and spoile all the countrie therea|bouts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Alexander being sore astonied with these King Alexan|ders purpose to inféeble his enimies force. newes, for that he was yoong, and not able (as it was doubted) to resist the force of his enimies, imboldened vpon such frequent victories as they had atchiued, thought best to prolong the time by colour of some treatie for a peace, that waie to diminish the enimies force, by long soiorning in campe without triall of anie battell. Héerevpon were ambassadors sent vnto Ambassadors sent to Acho. Acho, of the which one amongst them appointed ther|to, being well languaged and wise, at their first com|ming before him spake in this manner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6

Were it not that our king & nobles of the realme The oration of one of the ambassadors. (by an ancient custome obserued euen from the be|ginning) doo vse first to séeke redresse of all iniuries receiued, before they offer to be reuenged with the swoord; ye should not now behold orators sent vnto you to talke of concord, but a mightie armie in ordi|nance EEBO page image 199 of battell comming towards you to giue the onset. We are of that opinion, that we neuer get so much gaines by victorie of the enimies, no though they haue robbed and spoiled our confines, but that Peace to be preferred be| [...]ore warres. we account it much better to haue peace, if we may haue restitution of wrongs doone to vs, by some ma|ner of honest meanes. For what greater follie may be, than to séeke for that by fier and swoord, which may be purchased with faire and quiet woords? Neuerthe|lesse, when our iust desires and reasonable motions are refused of the enimies, when we find them not willing to haue peace (for the obteining whereof all warres ought to be taken in hand) but rather that Wherefore warres ought to be mooued. their onelie séeking is to haue warres, not respecting the quarrell: we are readie to rise wholie togither in reuenge of such contempts with all possible speed and violence against our aduersaries. We are sent there|fore from our king and souereigne, to inquire what The cause of their message. occasion you haue thus to inuade his realme and sub|iects, in violating that peace and league, which hath béene obserued and kept betwixt vs and your nati|on, the space of this hundred yéeres, and not onelie to take from him his two Iles of Bute and Aran, but also to inuade the maine land of his dominions, with such crueltie, as neither consideration of age or person séemeth to be had; but that women, children, and feeble old persons haue passed by the swoord, as well as those that haue stood at resistance with wea|pon in hand against you. What heinous offense haue the Scotishmen at anie time committed either a|gainst you or anie other (whose reuengers ye may séeme to be) that they should deserue to haue such cru|eltie shewed against them? What furious ire hath mooued you to burne the churches of God and his Burning of [...]hurches. saints, with the murther of his people that flee into the same for safegard of their liues? But if you dread not God that gouerneth all things (by his diuine pro|uidence) which heere in this world we sée; if ye dread not the saints nor vengeance to come on you by the punishment of the righteous God: ye ought yet to dread the two most puissant kings of Albion, alied togither in bond of amitie and mariage, which shall come against you with such puissance, that ye shall not be able to resist the same. Therefore sith ye may depart with honor, we on the behalfe of him from whome we are sent, doo admonish you, that better it is for you to redresse such iniuries as ye haue alreadie doone, and therewith to repaire home, than to aduen|ture to be brought vnto such desperate ends, that when ye shall be constreined to séeke for mercie, the same in no wise will be granted vnto you.
¶ These woords were spoken by the ambassadors, vpon pur|pose to put some terror into the hart of this hardie king Acho.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Neuertheles he was abashed so little therwith, that he answered them in this manner. Your beliefe is King Achos answer.

(I perceiue) ye ambassadors, to abash vs with your fierce and awfull words, supposing vs so weake har|ted, that we should leaue off our enterprise through your menacing threats: but ye are farre deceiued suerlie if your imagination be such. And where ye ex|aggerate our iniuries doone to you in taking from you certeine Iles, we perceiue you are not méet nor indifferent persons to be chosen for iudges in that cause, neither doo we mind to learne of you, what we ought to estéeme right or wrong in such behalfe. If ye desire further to know and vnderstand the cause why we haue inuaded Aran and Bute, we saie and af|firme, that not onelie those two Iles perteine to vs and our people by good title and ancient right of inhe|ritance, but also all the other Iles of Scotland, as we are able by firme euidences sufficiently to proue. And therfore are we now come to take presentlie so The cause of Achos com|ming into Scotland. much in value out of Scotland, as ye haue taken in issues and profits out of those Iles in times past from vs. Shew then to your king, that we feare neither his menacing woords, nor yet anie other violence that he can shew against vs. Notwithstanding, if he be more desirous of peace than of battell, and lus|teth to auoid the spoiling and burning of his townes, and slaughter of his people; or if he desired not to sée the vtter extermination of his realme afore his eies, command him to send vnto vs foorthwith ten thou|sand marks sterling for the fruits of our lands taken His demand. vp and receiued by him and his elders in times past, and further that he make a cleare resignation of all claime or title that he may séeme to pretend vnto the said Iles, in such sort that the same may passe vn|der our dominion in perpetuitie without anie con|tradiction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 When king Alexander had heard what the answer of his enimie was, he was therewith sore mooued, & perceiuing no waie to eschue the battell, but that he should be constreined to trie fortunes chance, he assembled togither an armie of fortie thousand men, King Alexan|der assembleth his power. that though he were not able to match his enimies in prowesse, he might yet passe them in number. He diuided his host into thrée battels. In the right wing The ordering of the Scotish host. Alexander Steward lea|der of the right wing. Patrike Dunbar cap|teine of the left wing. The king in the middle ward. was Alexander Steward, a very valiant knight, ne|phue to that Alexander which indowed the abbeie of Paslie. He had with him all the men that came foorth of Argile, Leueno [...], Atholl, and Galloway. In the left wing was Patrike Dunbar, hauing with him the men of Louthian, Fife, Mers, Berwike, and Stri|ueling shire. In the middle ward was the king him|selfe, with all the remnant people of the other parts of Scotland, to succour the wings when danger ap|péered. These battels were ordered in such arraie, that euerie band had a capteine assigned to them of their owne language, to exhort them to manhood, thereby to win praise and honor.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At his entring into the confines of Conningham, where he came first within sight of his enimies, he called his people togither, and exhorted them to doo King Alexan|der exhorteth his people to doo vali antlie. their dutifull indeuors like hardie and valiant men, against those enimies that inuaded their countrie without anie iust cause or title of warre, and to put their trust in almightie God, desiring him to grant victorie vnto that part, which had most right and iu|stest cause of battell. He further shewed how neces|sarie it was for them to behaue themselues valiant|lie, and how much it stood them in hand to fight with manlie courages, in defense of their wiues, children, liberties, and lands, hauing no hope of suertie of life Hope of suer|tie in what point it rested. but in the valiant vsing of their able hands, so that their whole safegard rested in this point, either to vanquish their enimies with manhood, or else to liue The necessi [...] of the cause. in seruile bondage as their slaues and miserable thrals, and to suffer their wiues and daughters to be abused at their lust and pleasure. He willed them therefore to consider, that not onelie he, but all Scot|land should sée them fight that day, noting both their manhood & cowardise. But sith their cause was iust, and mooued onlie in defense of their natiue countrie and ancient liberties, he trusted they would shew the more hardinesse and courage, namelie against them Séekers of bloud & spoile. that sought onelie bloud and spoile. These with other the like woords king Alexander vttered with bold spirit, to incourage his people. And on the other part Achos exhor|tation to his people. king Acho likewise thought it expedient to vse some exhortation vnto his armie, that they should not be afraid of the great number and huge multitude of the Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The chiefest point to incourage them to doo vali|antlie, Hope of spoile incourageth men of warre. he supposed was the hope of spoile, and there|fore he put them in remembrance, how by victorie not onelie all such riches as the Scots had brought thither with them (which could not be small) but also EEBO page image 200 all the whole substance and treasure of the realme to be at their commandement, yea and the realme it selfe, if they minded to inioy it: so that this was the day which they had so much desired, wherein suffici|ent opportunitie was offered to shew what reward should follow to ech man for his good and valiant ser|uice. But for that high enterprises and famous ex|ploits might neuer be atchiued without extreme ieo|pardie, High enter|prises atchi|ued with ex|treme perill. it behooued them to atteine to these so great commodities by persing thorough, and ouerthrow|ing by dint of swoord the arraied battels of their eni|mies, which how easie a matter it should be for them to bring to passe, such as well considered the circum|stances, might soone coniecture. For through dearth and famine which so long hath reigned amongst the Scotish people, their bodies and forces (saith he) are so woonderfullie inféebled, that they appeere to repre|sent rather shadowes than full personages of men able to make resistance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Againe, in consideration how necessarie it was for euerie man to fight without fainting, sith they were inuironed on ech part without meane to es|cape, he desired them, that if it so fell out, that they should chance to be ouercome (which as he trusted should not come to passe) that in such misaduenture they would yet sell their liues déerelie, and not to die vnreuenged. Thus hauing opened vnto them what prosperous hap followed by victorie, and what danger by the ouerthrow, he thought to haue sufficientlie in|structed them to put all feare aside, and to doo what lay in their vttermost forces to vanquish the enimies. The kings on either side, hauing thus exhorted their The ordering of the battels. people to doo their indeuors, they arraie their battels. Acho disposed all his best souldiers and whole force of his armie in the middle ward, for that he had knowledge how the Scotish king was placed in the middle battell of his people: wherefore he supposed, that if he might ouerthrow and vanquish that part where the king stood, he should easilie then put the re|sidue to flight. His wings (bicause he had not num|ber sufficient to furnish them fullie) were arraied The battels ioine. more weakelie in slender and thin ranks: but yet at the first incounter there was a terrible fight betwixt them, especiallie where the two kings fought: for they preassed still with great violence on that part where they saw anie danger, not ceassing to exhort & incourage their men to stand to the bargaine with manlie stomachs, so that on either side these two The valiancie of the kings. kings plaied the parts of verie valiant capteins.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Acho with a band of verie hardie souldiers assaied sundrie times to perse and disorder the battell where king Alexander fought: notwithstanding he had so great number of people there with him, that he stuf|fed The great number of Scotishmen. euen the ranks with fresh men where he saw it néedfull. Also betwixt the wings, there was no lesse crueltie shewed on either side in the beginning of the battell, till at length the Norwegians, perceiuing themselues ouerpressed with multitude, and compas|sed in on euerie side, did somewhat begin to shrinke, and first those in the left wing, constreined to breake The left wing of the Norwe|gians are put to flight. their order, fell to running awaie. Alexander Ste|ward therfore, that had the leading of the right wing of the Scots, hauing pursued the enimies a certeine space, and slaine Achos nephue, a man of high repu|tation Achos nephue is slaine. and authoritie amongst the Norwegians, cau|sed the retreat to be sounded, and gathering his men againe into araie, brought them against the enimies of the middle ward, where was hard hold betwixt the two kings, the battell continuing with great slaugh|ter on both parts, and vncerteine a long while to whe|ther part the victorie would incline: but the Norwe|gians being now assailed on the backs by a new The maine battell of the Norwegians fléeth. power of their enimies, at length they began to flee amaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time, the left wing of the Scots, whereof one Patrike had the leading, was in great The left wing of the Scots, in danger. danger, by reason the capteine himselfe was sore wounded, and thereby all the companies in the same wing sore discomforted: but after they once beheld how the middle ward of their enimies was put to flight, they recouered new courages, and with great force caused their aduersaries, with whom they were matched, to giue backe also: and so were the Danes and Norwegians chased by the Scots, with verie The Danes and Norwe|gians chased by the Scots. cruell slaughter through all Cunningham, not ceas|sing from the pursute of the enimies, till night made an end of that daies woorke. King Acho with a few o|ther escaped out of danger, and comming to the cas|tell of Aire, which (as ye haue heard) he had woone be|fore, he was there informed of an other losse which he had susteined: for his fléet conteining the number of an hundred and fiftie ships, were so beaten with an outragious tempest, that there were not past foure of all that number saued, the residue being drowned The losse of Achos ships by tempest. and broken against the rocks and cliffes. The mari|ners also, being constreined to come on land for safe|gard of their liues, were slaine by the people of the The losse of the mariners. countrie, so that few of them or none at all escaped.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Acho being thus abashed with these two infortu|nate mischances, aswell for the losse and discomfi|ture Acho fléeth in|to Orkneie. of his armie by land, as for the perishing of his nauie on the seas, got him vnto those foure ships that were saued, and sailed with them about the coast, till he arriued in Orkneie. In this battell, which was fought at Largis on the third day of August, in the yeere 1263, there were slaine of Danes and Norwe|gians 24 thousand, and of Scots about fiue thou|sand. 1263. Thus saith Hector Boetius. But Fourdon sée|meth Iohn Fourdon. not to agrée altogither héerewith, who writing of this inuasion made by the Norwegians into Scotland, saith, that they were but twentie thousand men of warre in all, imbarked in foure score ships, which comming to the new castell of Aran, besieged as well the said castell of Aran, as the castell of Bute, and tooke them both, spoiling also the churches alongst the sea coast, and after arriuing at Largis in Cunningham, on the feast of the natiuitie of our ladie, lost the most part of their vessels, which were drowned togither with thousands of men in the same. The residue that got to land, incountring with the Scots led by Alexander Steward of Dondo|nald, were discomfited, put to flight, chased & drow|ned in the sea, into the which they were driuen. Amon|gest other that were slaine, a nephue of king Acho was one, a yoong gentleman of great valiancie, and sore lamented of his vncle. Acho had much adoo to es|cape himselfe, he was so egerlie pursued of his eni|mies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Thus haue I thought good to shew the diuersitie of writers in this behalfe, that it may appéere how things are sometimes amplified by Boetius, to ad|uance the glorie of his countriemen, further per|haps than by the simple veritie of those that did write before him, may in some points be well auer|red. But now to procéed. King Acho at his comming into Orkneie, sent into Norwaie and Denmarke for a new armie, prouiding ships & all other things Acho prepa|reth to make a new inuasion into Scot|land, but dieth before his pro|uision was readie. necessarie, to haue made a new inuasion into Scot|land against the next spring: but for that he himselfe departed out of this life in the beginning of the yéere next following, all that purueiance and great prepa|ration was dashed, and came to none effect. The same day that Acho deceassed, that is to saie, the 21 day of Ianuarie, Alexander prince of Scotland, the Alexander prince of Scotland, as eldest sonne to the king is borne. eldest son of king Alexander, whome he begot on his wife quéene Margaret, the sister of Henrie king of England, was borne, to the great reioising of the people. For the people conceiued double ioy & glad|nesse EEBO page image 201 héereof, bicause that both a new prince was borne, and that enimie dead which sought the destruc|tion of the whole realme. After the deceasse of king Acho, his sonne Magnus succéeded him, a verie faith|full prince, and one that had the feare of God before his eies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the second yeere of his reigne, be sent his am|bassadors (of whome the chiefe was the chancellor of Ambassadors sent from Magnus K. of Norwaie to king Alexan|der. Norwaie) vnto king Alexander, whome they found at saint Iohns towne, and there signified vnto him, that king Magnus their maister would willinglie giue ouer all his title, right, and claime vnto Aran and Bute, so that the residue of the Iles might re|maine in quiet possession of him and his successors in time comming. Héerevnto was answer made by king Alexander, that the Iles by right of old inheri|tance perteined vnto him and his progenitors kings of Scotland, and therefore he might not make anie agréement with the Danes or Norwegians, till he had recouered the full possession of the same Iles. The ambassadors being dispatched and sent awaie In time of the trouble be|twixt the sons of Malcolme Cammore and their vncle Donald Bane Magnus K. of Norwaie the son of O|l [...] subdued these Iles. Richard South [...]ell. with this answer, incontinentlie Alexander Ste|ward of Pasteie, and Iohn Cumin were sent with an armie ouer into Man, which Ile they then recoue|red (though not without bloud) foorth of the hands of the Danes and Norwegians, who had kept the same in possession now for the space of 167 yéeres passed, but not without so [...]e alteration and trouble, as may appeere by the annales of Richard Southwell, a wri|ter (as should seeme) well instructed in matters as well touching Scotland, and the north parts, as also concerning the state of the out Iles. And therefore that the same may the better appéere to the readers, I haue thought it not impertinent to set downe what I haue read in the same Southwell, touching the kings, or rather viceroies of Man, and those Iles which for a season (as should séeme in déed) were sub|stituted by the kings of Norwaie, though it may al|so appéere, that sometime there was a certeine succes|sion in them, as from the father to the sonne, & from the brother to the brother, &c: in manner as if it had beene by waie of inheritance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the daies of king Iohn therefore (as saith the foresaid Southwell) one Gothred reigned as king in Man. And in the yeere 1228, one Reginald being [...]thred king of Man. Reginald. 1228. Olaue, or O|lauus. king of those Iles, was murthered by wicked per|sons, & then his brother Olaue reigned in his place. In the yéere 1230, the king of Norwaie appointed one Husbac, the sonne of Osmund (surnamed Ha|con) to gouerne the said Iles called Sodorenses, 1230. Husbac. Insulae Sodo| [...]enses. Olauus and Godredus. Bute. Husbac slaine. that is to say, the Ile of Man, & the other Iles there abouts the coasts of Scotland; the which Husbac, to|gither with two other capteins Olaue and Godred, surnamed Don, came by sea, and arriued at Bute, where they wan the castell: but Husbac was slaine with a stone that was throwne downe vpon him. And then after this, the foresaid Olaue and Godred came vnto the Ile of Man, where they diuided the kingdome of the Iles betwixt them, so as Olaue Olauus and Godredus di|uide the king|dome of the Iles betwixt them. had Man alotted to him for his part, and Godred the other Iles. But after that Godred was also slaine, Olaue gouerned both in Man, and in all the other Iles (those excepted which the sonnes of Somerleid held in possession.) In the yéere 1237, in the moneth of Maie, Alane king of Man, the sonne of Godred, 1237. Alane. & brother to Reginald, departed this life, after whose deceasse his sonne Harold succéeded him, and reig|ned Harold. 12 yéeres, being but 14 yeeres of age when he began his reigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeere 1247, Haco king of Norwaie sent for Harold king of Man to come vnto his coronati|on, 1247. Harold passeth into Norway. who comming thither, was honorablie receiued, and obteined king Hacos daughter in mariage: but as he returned from thence, in the yéere 1249, Is drowned in his returne. togither with his wife, they perished in the seas by a 1249. Reginald. He began to reigne the sixt of Maie. yuarus. Harold. tempest on the coasts of Ireland. Then succéeded his brother Reginald, who reigned but 27 daies, for he was slaine the first of Iune the same yéere, by the ser|uants of a knight called Yuarus. Then Harold the sonne of Godred Don gouerned Man one yéere, be|ing remooued by the king of Norwaie: & after him Magnus the sonne of Olaue began his reigne ouer Magnus. Man & the other Iles, by consent of the Manskemen themselues. But in the yeere 1254, one Yuarus was 1254. yuarus. ordeined king, or rather viceroy of those Iles, & go|uerned the same, till the foresaid Magnus king of Norwaie resigned his title to all the said Iles vnto king Alexander (as ye haue heard) who placed his lieutenants there, of whome the first was called Go|dred Lieutenant of bailife of the Ile of Man vnder the Scots. mac Mares, the second Alane. And after him Maurice Okarsaire succéeded; and then followed one that was the kings chaplaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For the time of the resignation made, I follow Hector Boetius, by reason of some contrarietie which appeareth in Southwell in the account of the yeares assigned to the reignes of those Iland kings, if you confer the same with the time of the foresaid resig|nation. But now to the matter. The lieutenant ap|pointed to haue the rule of those Iles, now that they were thus come into the hands of the Scots, was bound by his office to be readie with thirteene ships, and fiue hundred mariners to come to the aid of the Scots, at all times when he should thereto be requi|red. After this, were the earles of Atholl, Carrike, and March, Alexander Steward, with the thanes of Argile, and Lennos, sent with a puissant armie The westerne Iles recoue|red out of the hands of the Norwegians vnto the other of the westerne Iles, the which those that were greatest, they brought with much a doo vnder the obeisance of the crowne of Scotland, the residue submitted themselues.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Magnus king of Norwaie informed hereof, sent The chancel|lor of Nor|waie ambassa|dor to King Alexander. e [...]tsoones his chancellor in ambassage vnto king A|lexander, to trie if he might by treatie recouer a|gaine those Iles: and if he might not bring that to passe, yet to compound with him for a yeerelie tri|bute. The first motion of the chancellor would in no wise be heard, therefore surceassing to spend anie longer time about it, they fell in communication touching the second, which tooke effect at length in The release of Magnus king of Nor|waie to the Scotish Iles. this wise. King Magnus by his letters vnder his great seale, renounced and gaue ouer his right or claime that he had or might haue, both for him and his successors to all the Iles of Scotland. And king Alexander for this resignation was agreed to paie the said king of Norway, foure thousand marks sterling, togither with a pension or tribute of an hundred marks by yeare. And for the more confir|mation A pear [...]lie pension. of loue and amitie betwixt the two kings and their people, Margaret the daughter of king Alexander, being not past one yeares of age, was Margaret K. Alexanders daughter. promised in mariage vnto Hauigo, the sonne of king Magnus, the same mariage to be consummat when she came to yeares mariable. Further, in place where the greatest slaughter of Danes and Norwegians had béene made, it was couenanted that an hospitall should be erected & founded there, for the sustentation of poore folks.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 About this season, there were great warres in England betwixt king Henrie and his barons, of Warre in England. whome the chiefe was Simon Mountfort earle of Leicester, and diuerse other. K. Henrie being not well able to withstand his aduersaries attempts, re|quested King Henrie required aid of the Scots. K. Alexander to send him some aid of Scots to subdue the rebels of his realme, that had arrea|red warres against him. Herevpon shortlie after, was Alexander Cumin, with fiue thousand chosen Alexander Cumin sent into Eng|land. men, sent by king Alexander into England, who right valiantlie bare themselues in that war which EEBO page image 202 king Henrie held against his barons, whereof in the English chronicle ye may read more at large. In these daies (as the translator of Hector Boetius hath written) that notable and most famous outlaw Ro|bin Robin Hood and little Iohn his companion. Hood liued, with his fellow little Iohn, of whome are manie fables and merie iests deuised and soong amongst the vulgar people. But Iohn Maior wri|teth that they liued (as he dooth gesse) in the daies of king Richard the first king of England, 1198.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the yeare next and immediatlie following, after that Henrie king of England had subdued his domesticall enimies, there came a legat from pope Clement the fourth, requiring him to haue a collec|tion of monie in Scotland towards the charges of A legat from pope Clement leuieng an armie against the Saracens. But this legat was not receiued into the realme, but com|manded to shew his message vpon the borders. He The legats demand. demanded therfore of euerie parish-church in Scot|land foure marks sterling, and of euerie abbeie foure score marks. And to the end he might the sooner pur|chase fauor to the furtherance of his purpose, he de|uised by the way certeine statutes and ordinances right profitable to be vsed in the realme of Scotland, as he iudged. But king Alexander for answer here|vnto The answer of king Alex|ander to the legats mes|sage. alledged, that the Scots minded not to receiue anie statutes or decrées, other than such as were or|deined by the pope, or some generall councell: for by a generall rule; The more precepts, the more offen|dors are alwaies found. And as touching the request The more pre|cepts the more offendors. made for the collection of so great summes of mo|nie, it was not thought necessarie, that so much coine should go foorth of the realme: neuerthelesse if it were thought expedient, he would be contented to send foorth at his owne proper costs and charges, a number of armed men to go with the christian ar|mie against the Turks: but for monie otherwise foorth, the realme would not depart with anie, least it should be wastfullie spent, or taken by the way of théeues, as it had béene aforetime.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Henrie king of England praised much the wise|dome King Alex|anders wise|dome praised by king Hen|rie. of king Alexander for this his answer, as he declared shortlie after by his sonne prince Edward, who came to visit his sister the queene, and his bro|ther in law king Alexander at Roxsburgh, where they met him; for ye must vnderstand that K. Hen|rie had also learned by experience to be wise in that behalfe, as well as others. King Alexander yet af|ter A thousand marks sent to the pope. this sent vnto the pope a thousand marks in sil|uer: and vnto Lewes the French king, that requi|red his aid in that iournie which he made into Affrike against the Saracens there, a thousand souldiers, Scotish cap|teins sent in|to Affrike. vnder the leading of the earles of Carrike & Atholl, Iohn Steward brother of Alexander Steward, A|lexander Cumin, Robert Keth, George Durward, Iohn Quincie, & William Gordon. All these going ouer with K. Lewes into Affrike, died there, either vpon the enimies sword, or by the intemperat heat of that countrie (whereto they had not béene accu|stomed) in the yeare after the incarnation 1270. The 1270. Thomas earle of Car|rike. earle of Carrike, whose name was Thomas, peri|shing thus amongst the residue in Affrike, left no inheritor behind him to inioy his lands, sauing a daughter named Martha, being then about fiftéene yeares of age. This yoong ladie, chancing to ride on Martha daughter to the earle of Carrike. hunting in the woods for pastime and solace, as the vse is, fortuned by aduenture to méet with a noble yoong man one Robert Bruse the sonne and heire to Robert Bruse the lord of Anandale in Scotland, and Robert Bruse. Cleueland in England, begot of Isabell the second daughter of Dauid earle of Huntington. The la|die immediatlie became so inamored of this yoong Robert Bruse maried to Martha daughter to the earle of Carrike. gentleman, that she led him with hir home vnto Carrike, where (without making hir friends priuie to the matter) she maried him in all hast, least anie man should be about to hinder hir determined pur|pose. Of this mariage was borne that Robert Bruse which afterwards (through want of heires of the linage of king Alexander) atteined the crowne of Scotland. As soone as Alexander was aduerti|sed King Alexan|der displeased with the fore|said Martha. hereof, he tooke such indignation that she should bestow hir selfe so lightlie vpon one whom she neuer saw before, that he seized hir castell of Turneberie into his hands, with all hir other lands and posses|sions, as it were by escheat, for that she had maried without his consent. Notwithstanding, within short while after he tooke pitie on hir case, and for an easie composition of monie which she paied for hir mari|age, restored to hir againe all hir lands and liuings, suffering hir to inioy hir husband without anie more trouble or vexation. In the third yeare after, the Robert Bruse that was after king of Scot|land is borne. 1274. said ladie was deliuered of the afore-remembred Robert Bruse that was after king of Scotland. And the same yeare, which was the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour 1274, Dauid the second son of king Alexander deceassed; and the third yeare af|ter, the brethren of Edward king of England came into Scotland to visit the quéene their sister, & their King Alexan|der with his wife the quéene came to London. brother in law the K. & after did attend them in their iournie to London, whither they went to be present at the coronation of the foresaid Edward, as then returned foorth of Affrike after the deceasse of his fa|ther king Henrie, to take vpon him the gouerne|ment of the kingdome descended vnto him by right of inheritance. He was crowned the same yeare on the day of the assumption of our ladie in August, with great solemnitie and triumph.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 At the same time there was a Norman in king Edwards court, of such passing strength of bodie, A Norman of passing strength. Ferquhard a Scotishman ouerthrew the said Norman. that he ouerthrew all men with whome he wrestled, till at length one Ferquhard a Scotishman borne, of the countrie of Rosse, descended of noble paren|tage, vanquished him to his great praise & aduance|ment in honor: for king Alexander in guerdon of so woorthie a déed there doone in the presence of so hono|rable an assemblie, gaue vnto him the earledome of Rosse for euermore. Of this Ferquhard succéeded fiue earles all of his surname, but the sixt earle was named William Rosse, otherwise Leslie, in whose The earle|dome of Rosse giuen to wil|liam Rosse alias Leslie. sonne the seuenth earle failed the dignitie of that house for fault of succession. At the same time prince Alexander king Alexanders sonne did homage vnto king Edward for the earledome of Huntington, as the Scotish writers doo testifie. Shortlie after that king Alexander was returned foorth of England at The death o [...] quéene Mar|garet. that time into Scotland, his wife quéene Margaret deceassed, and was buried in Dunfirmling. She bare by him two sonnes, Alexander and Dauid, and one daughter named Margaret, the which (according to the assurance before made) was maried about three yeares after hir mothers deceasse, vnto Hani|go, The mariage of Margaret king Alexan|ders daugh|ter. or rather Aquine king of Norwaie, and deceas|sed in the second yeare after the solemnization of the mariage, leauing behind hir a daughter named also Margaret.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But before this hap fell so out, euen immediatlie after the death of quéene Margaret the mother, hir The death of Dauid sonne to king Alex|ander. The mariage of Alexander prince of Scotland. yoonger sonne Dauid deceassed: by reason whereof, king Alexander being carefull of his succession, pro|cured a mariage for his elder sonne prince Alexan|der, with the earle of Flanders his daughter, the which being brought into Scotland, was maried vn|to the said prince in Iedwoorth, on the sunday after the feast of saint Martine in winter, in the yeare of our Lord 1279. The feast of this mariage was 1279. holden with great triumph and solemnitie continu|allie for the space of fiftéene daies togither. This yeare a number of the Scotish nobilitie, which had attended the ladie Margaret into Norwaie were lost EEBO page image 203 by shipwracke, as they would haue returned backe againe to Scotland after the consummation of hir mariage there with king Hanigo or Aquine. Shortlie after, by the force of deaths dreadfull dint, two greeuous losses chanced vnto king Alexander, the one following in the necke of another. For first his eldest sonne prince Alexander, being not past twentie yeares of age, departed out of this world, without leauing anie issue behind him; and not long after, his daughter Margaret queene of Norwaie deceased also, leauing behind hir one onelie daughter (as before is mentioned) being as yet but an infant.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the same yeere was a generall councell holden at Lions, the pope and a great multitude of the prelats of christendome being there assembled. To this councell were summoned to appeare all the prouincials, wardens, and ministers of the begging friers. And for that there were so manie sundrie orders of them, each man deuising of his owne braine some new alteration; all those orders were reduced into the foure orders, which after by the church of Rome were approued and allowed. A generall commandement was also giuen, that no man should go about to begin anie new forme of such vaine superstitious orders, which appoint themselues to eschue labor, to the end they may liue in pleasure, lust & idlenes, vpon the trauell of other mens browes. In this mean time, after that the christian armie was returned home out of Affrike, by reason of a truce concluded with the Soldan, the same Soldan (that truce notwithstanding) ceassed not to make great slaughter and inuasions vpon those christian men that remained behind. The christian princes sore mooued herewith, made their apprests for a new expedition into the holie land. The Scots gaue the tenth penie of all their lands, or rather (as some bookes say) the furtherance of this iornie: notwithstanding through such enuie and contentions as rose amongst the said princes, that iornie brake, to the great damage and preiudice of the christian faith.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 King Alexander hauing lost his wife and children, in maner as is before expressed, not onelie hee himselfe, but also all Scotland was in great pensiueness and sorrow, each man by a certeine foreiudgement and misgiuing in mind, doubting the mishap that might thereof insue. But yet did king Alexander, by the aduise of his nobles, in hope of new issue, marie the daughter of the earle of Champaigne in France, named Iolant. The mariage was celebrated at Iedburgh with great feasting and triumph: but that ioy and blithnese indured not long after. For the same yeere on the 18 day of Aprill, as he was gallopping vpon a fierce horsse at Kingorne, forcing him in his race somewhat rashlie, he was thrown ouer the west cliffe towards the sea by a woonderfull misfortune, so rudelie, that he brake his necke, and so therewith immediatlie died in the 42 yeere of his reigne. He was buried at Dunfirmling, in the yeere after the incarnation 1290. It is said, that the daie before the kings death, the earle of March a little before night, demanded of one Thomas Liermont, otherwise named Thomas the rimer, or (as the translator of Hector Boetius saith) Thomas Ersilton (who in those daies was reputed for a noble prophesier) or (as we may call him) a soothsaier, what weather they should haue on the morow? To whome the said Thomas answered, that on the morrow [before noone] should blow the sorest wind and tempest that euer was heard of in Scotland at anie time before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 On the morrow when the skie appeared cleare and bright, without a cloud or anie other figure of foule weather, and that it drew neere vnto the midst of the daie, and no wind heard from anie side, but all calme and quiet, the earle of March sent for the forenamed Thomas, and told him that he had mistaken his marks, in prophesieng of anie such notable tempest as he had spoken of the night before, considering it prooued so lithe a daie, without appearance of anie tempest to insue. This Thomas said little thereto, sauing that he said it was not yet past noone. And incontinentlie herevpon came a post to the castell gate of Dunbar, where this earle of March as then laie, bringing woord of the kings sudden death, as before is recited. Then said the prophesier: That is the scathfull wind and dreadfull tempest, which shall blow such calamitie and trouble to the whole state of the whole realme of Scotland. This Thomas was a man in great admiration of the people; shewing sundrie things, as they afterward chanced: howbeit they were euer hid and inuolued vnder the veile of darke and obscure speeches.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Manie strange woonders and vnketh fights were seene in the daies of this Alexander the third. In the 17 yeere of his reigne, there was such an infinit number of woormes through all the parties of Albion, that not onelie the leaues and fruits of trees, but also flowres & herbs in gardens were eaten vp and consumed with them. And in the same yeere, the waters of Forth and Taie rose with such high tides in flowing ouer the banks, that manie towns and villages were drowned, to the great destruction both of men and beasts. In the 20 yere of his reigne, there was a comet or blasing starre seene of a meruellous quantitie, shining euerie day toward the south, euen about noone daies. On the Epiphanie day next after, rose to great winds, with stormes of such vnmeasurable great hailestones, that manie townes were throwne downe by violence thereof. In the meane time, rose through the vehement rage of winds, a sudden fire, in manie bounds within the realme of Scotland, that did much hurt to buildings and edifices, burning vp steeples with such force of fire, that the belles were in diuerse places melted, as though it had beene in a fornace. Amongest other, those of the abbeie of Abirbrothoke were most pretious, which were as then consumed togither with the steeple wherein they hoong. The townes of Aberden and Perth were burned the same time: also part of Lainrike, with the temple, and all the townes and villages in Clow, a part of Angus: and likewise manie townes and other buildings in Louthian, and in diuers other parts of the realme, too long here to rehearse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the 31 yeere of his reigne, was the first comming of the pestilence into Scotland, with great mortalitie of the people, where it had not bene heard that euer this sicknesse had come within that realme before hat time. In the solemnization of the second mariage of king Alexander, as the bridegroom (according to the manner) led the bride in a danse, a great number of lords and ladies following them in the same danse, there appeared to their sight as it were closing vp the hindermost of the dansers, a creature resembling death, all naked of flesh & lire, with bare bones right dreadfull to behold. Through which spectacle, the king and the residue of all the companie were so astonied, and put in such fright & feare, that they had quickly made an end of their danse for that time. In the daies of this Alexander the third, liued sundrie great clearkes. Amongst other, Michaell Scot was reputed for an excellent physician, and for his singular practise & knowledge in that profession was no lesse esteemed and had in high fauour with Edward king of England, than with king Alexander, during his life time. EEBO page image 204

Francis Thins addition, to this marke.) This Alexander made manie healthfull and good lawes, whereof most by the negligence of men, and longnesse of time are worne away; so that things so profitablie by him deuised, séeme rather by report to haue béene ordeined, than that they are by cu|stome The lawes of Alexander the third. practised. He diuided the kingdome into foure parts, through which he made his progresse almost euerie yéere, remaining about thrée moneths in e|uerie place, there to sit in iudgement, and to heare the complaints of the poore, at what time the meanest person might haue frée accesse vnto him. As often as he went into anie prouince to giue sentence of law, he commanded the gouernor of that place to re|ceiue him with a chosen companie; and when he de|parted thence, to bring him to the borders of his iu|risdiction, where he was honorablie receiued of the next gouernors. The which trauelling about his realme he vsed, to the end that he might know all his nobilitie, and that he might also be knowne of all others. During which time of his progresse, no great traine or multitude of courtiers did follow him; bicause he would not charge his people in recei|uing of them; and for that cause also abated and re|streined the troope of horssemen which followed the nobilitie, and brought them into a certeine & meane number, bicause he supposed that the multitude of horsses (whereof in warre there was no vse) were néedlesse deuourers of meat. Further, he forbad his people to trauell by sea for gaine or merchandize, when he considered that through the vnskilfulnes of failing, the rashnesse that men vsed in committing themselues to the seas, and the rapine of pirats, ma|nie men were lost, and their goods spoiled: whereby the merchants were driuen to extreame pouertie. Which precept when it had continued almost a whole yéere, and by manie mens spéeches was reprehen|ded as dangerous and hurtfull to the weale publike, at the length there arriued such plentie of strange merchandize in Scotland, that the abundance and cheapenesse thereof did excéed the memorie of anie former age. But yet to take order with and for the benefit of the merchants, he forbad his people to buie anie thing brought in by strangers, but such as were merchants of his land, and that all the other people should buie of them such things as they néeded.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Alexander the third, being in such miserable Scotland without a K. and gouernor. wise deceassed, as before is specified, the realme re|mained in great discomfort, by reson he had neither left anie issue behind him to succéed in the gouerne|ment thereof, neither taken order in his life time by testament, or otherwise, for anie other to supplie the roome of a gouernor, so that hereof insued such infi|nit Mischiefes insuing for lacke of a king. misorders, by the presumption of wicked and vn|gratious persons, the which vpon hope to escape vn|punished (bicause iustice was like to want due pro|cesse) ceassed not to attempt manie vnlawfull acts, to the grieuous oppression of the people: which mis|ruled demeanors and disordered enterprises of those outragious persons, when such as had anie zeale to the wealth of their countrie vnderstood dailie to mul|tiplie and increase, they thought it apperteined to their duties to prouide some remedie in due time, and there vpon called a councell togither, wherein after sundrie consultations had, and manie matters debated touching the rule of the realme, it was fi|nallie Six gouer|nors chosen to haue the rule of Scotland. agréed, that six gouernors should be elected and chosen, of the which thrée should haue the administra|tion and rule of the north parts, and these were Wil|liam Fraser bishop of saint Andrews, Duncane earle of Fife, & Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquane. The other thrée were appointed to the gouernance of the south countries, that is to say, Robert bishop of Glascow, sir Iohn Cumin (a man of high estima|tion for his wisdome and experience as well in mat|ters concerning peace as warre) and Iames high steward of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But in the meane time Edward king of Eng|land, surnamed Longshanks, cast in his mind, how he might make some conquest of Scotland, now the same was thus destitute of an head to gouerne it. And for that he well vnderstood that the daughter of How can this be true, when K. Edward had a wife at that time? but ver [...]e the Scotish wri|ters shew themselues o|uercome with too much ma|lice in most things which they write in the defamatiõ of K. Edward. Norwaie (of whom before ye haue heard) was right inheritor to the crowne of Scotland, though she were but verie yoong in yéeres, & not able for mari|age: yet to compasse his purpose that waies foorth, he sent his ambassadors vnto the lords of Scotland, requiring to haue hir to wife, and the realme with|all, as due vnto hir by good title and right of inheri|tance. The lords, after long deliberation herein had, consented to his desire, vnder these conditions, that the realme should remaine in all freedoms and liber|ties, without anie kind of seruile subiection, in the same maner and state as it was vsed in the daies of king Alexander last deceassed, and other his noble progenitors: and if it chanced, that no issue came of this mariage to succéed them, then shuld the crowne returne by remainder ouer to the next heirs of king Alexander, without anie claime or pretext of title to be made by king Edward, or anie of his successors in time to come.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Immediatlie herewith, two noble knights, sir Iohn Scot of Albawore, and sir Iames Wemis, were sent into Norwaie to fetch the bride ouer into Scotland: but before their comming thither, shee was deceassed, & so they returned backe into Scot|land againe without effect of their errand. And thus The daughter of Norwaie deceassed. by means of hir death, all amitie betwixt English|men and Scots ceassed. Then began to insue great trouble and businesse in Scotland, by reason of the The conten|tion betwixt the kinsmen of K. Alexander for the crown. Sée more of this matter in the English histories. contention which sprang betwixt the kinsmen of king Alexander, for the title and claime which they se|uerallie made and pretended to the crowne. There were thrée chieflie that séemed by néerenesse of bloud to haue most right, and therefore made most earnest sute in their claime: Iohn Balioll, Robert Bruse, and Iohn Hastings. This Robert Bruse was sonne to the son of that Robert Bruse, which maried Isa|bell The ancestors of Robertle Bruse. the yoongest daughter to Dauid earle of Hun|tington, on whom he got a son named also Robert, that maried the inheritor of Carrike, as we haue shewed before, whose sonne this Robert Bruse was, The line of the Balioll with his title to the crowne. that now claimed the crowne. Iohn Balioll came of Margaret, eldest daughter to the foresaid Dauid earle of Huntington: for Alane lord of Galloway, which maried the said Margaret, begot on hir two daughters, of the which the eldest named Deruogill, was giuen in mariage vnto sir Iohn Balioll, father vnto this Iohn Balioll, that thus made claime to the crowne: alledging that forsomuch that he was come of the eldest daughter of earle Dauid, the bro|ther of king William, he ought by reason to be re|puted as next heire to the same king William, sith none other person aliue approched so néere vnto him in bloud.

Fr. Thin.Here I thinke it conuenient before any more be spoken of this historie, to interlace somewhat (be|sides that which is alredie spoken, being here in part repeated (of the descent of this Deruogill, the daugh|ter of Alane lord of Galloway, beginning the same somewhat higher, in this sort. In the reigne of Wil|liam K. of Scots, which began in the yere of Christ 1160, as saith Lesleus, lib. 6. pag. 226, Fergusius Buchanan. gouernor of Galloway left two sons, Gilbert, and Ethred, who after the death of their father, fell at va|riance Wil. Paruus nameth him Utred. for the lands of Galloway, to be diuided be|twixt them in equall portions. This brall comming to the eares of king William, he was desirous to EEBO page image 205 quench those flames of vnkindnesse betwéene the said brethren, and for that cause with indifferencie (as he supposed) he ment to pacifie and satisfie each part, by diuiding the inheritance equallie betwéene them. But Gilbert highlie taking this partition in grudge (bicause he was eldest, & that the whole inhe|ritance belonged to him) did with like hatred pursue both the king and his brother, the one as enuious a|gainst him, and the other as an vnequall iudge, in gi|uing his right from him. Wherfore when king Wil|liam was taken prisoner of the Englishmen, this Gilbert being of bold spirit (and now by the kings mishap out of all danger, being deliuered from the Of this mat|ter though not so [...] is somewhat in|treated before, pag. 275. The crueltie of one brother [...]o another. feare of anie law) began to vtter his conceiued ha|tred till this time couertlie concealed. For vpon the sudden, he tooke his brother prisoner, put out his eies, cut out his toong, and not contented with a simple death (to be giuen vnto him at one instant) did most miserablie a long time togither put him to paine, by dismembring th [...] seuerall parts of his bodie, before he should die. After which wretched fact against his owne brother, he ioined himselfe to the English na|tion, and taking preies on the borders, he did vnna|turallie and traitorouslie (as it were an vtter eni|mie to his [...]untrie) [...]age against his owne citizens, with all kind of murther and slaughter of battell. In which he did such harme, and so great oppression, as if he had not bene resisted by his nephue Rowland (ga|thering a strong power to him of such common peo|ple as remained stedfast in dutifull obedience to the imprisoned king) he had vtterlie spoiled all the coun|tries adioining to England, or else would wholie haue brought them into his subiection. For this Rowland a lustie yoong gentleman, bold of spirit, in|dued with noble strength of mind and bodie, did not onelie beat downe the force of his vncle, but did ma|nie times (and that sometimes most happilie) fight with the English, when they spoiled his natiue soile, or that he made anie inuasion into their borders.

At length when king William was deliuered of restreint, and returned into Scotland, this Gilbert (notwithstanding all his former euils) by the media|tion of his friends, found fauor in the king, and was pardoned of all his offenses, but yet so as he promi|sed to make recompense of all such damages as he had committed; for the sure performance whereof, he found sufficient pledges to the king. But Gilbert shortlie after departing this life, they which had ser|ued vnder him, giuen by continuall vse vnto theft and blood, did yéeld themselues to the fauourable pro|tection of the king of England, either for inconstan|cie of mind, or feare of punishment, being touched with remorse of conscience for the euill which they had before committed. These men thus shadowed vn|der the wings of England, did againe take armes a|gainst their countrie, vnder the conduct of Gilpa|trike, Henrie Kennedie, and Samuell, who before Gilpatrike & other spoile Scotland. had béene authors and executors to Gilbert, of all such euils as were by him performed. Against whom was Rowland sent with an armie, who in a set bat|tell slue the capteine, and a multitude of both kinds of the common people. They which escaped the con|flict, did flie to the refuge of one Gilcombe, capteine Gilco [...]be spoile [...]h his countrie. of such persons as liued vpon spoile and pilfering, who by continuance of followers, & increase of peo|ple, were now growne to some number, & did wan|der ouer all Louthian, robbing & spoiling in eue [...]e place where they set foot: and not so content, did from thence passe into Galloway, where this [...]ilcombe tooke in hand the defense of Gilberts cause (now vt|terlie Maketh him|selfe lord of Gallowaie. forsaken of all men) vnder colour whereof, he not onelie challenged the inheritance belonging to Gilbert, but also behaued himselfe as chiefe lord of all Galloway. At length incountering with this Rowland in the kalends of October (the third mo|neth after the companie of this Gilbert was be|fore dispersed) this Gilcombe was valiantlie slaine, with the greatest number of his followers, by the Gilcombe slaine. said Rowland, on whose part there was verie few missing.

The king of England highlie [...]ffended therwith (bicause the yere before they had sworne themselues to serue faithfullie vnder him against their owne bloud) came in haste with a maine armie to Carleill to séeke reuenge thereof. Which when William king of Scots vnderstood, he laboured by all the meanes he could, to appease the king of Englands displea|sure, and to reconcile this Rowland vnto him. In the end the king of Scots wrought so with the Eng|lish, that Rowland was admitted to come to Car|leill to the presence of the king of England; the which Rowland re|stored to the fauour of the king of Eng|land. Rowland did accordinglie. At what time before the king of England, refelling the slanderous accusati|ons of his aduersaries (and further declaring that he had doone nothing either rashlie, or vniustlie against his and the common wealths enimie) he was hono|rablie by the English king suffered to depart from Carleill. These things thus doone, & king William returned into Scotland, he called to remembrance the continuall constancie and good seruice, which E|thred the father of Rowland had manie times doone to him and to the realme; there withall not forget|ting the woorthie exploits which this Rowland had of late performed for the common wealth: for which considerations he woorthilie recompensed the said Rowland, in bestowing on him the whole countrie of Galloway. And further (although he did not me|rit Rowland made lord of Gallowaie. the same by reason of his fathers euils) yet the king mildlie considering, that the sonne was not to beare the offense of the father (but hoping by this vn|deserued liberalitie, to bind him faithfullie to serue him) did giue the lands of Carrike vnto the sonne of Carr [...]e giuen to the sonne of Gilbert. the said Gilbert. All which William Paruus reporteth to haue happened in the yéere of Christ 1183.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Rowland being thus made lord of Galloway, Rowland con|stable of Scot land. maried the sister of William Mooruill constable of Scotland, who dieng without issue, obteined the same o [...]fice by inheritance in right of his wife, from whome did issue Alane lord of Galloway, and con|stable Alane lord of Galloway, & constable of Scotland. of Scotland, by inheritance from his mother, a valiant gentleman, and such a person as for his no|table seruice (imploied in Ireland on the behalfe of Iohn king of England) was rewarded by the said king with honorable and rich reuenues: for which by the permission of William king of Scotland, he pro|fessed himselfe the liege man of Iohn king of Eng|land, and sware fealtie vnto him. This Alane (as is before said) maried Margaret the elder daughter of Dauid earle of Huntington, of whome he raised thrée daughters, whereof the eldest being Dornagill, was maried to Balioll, the second to Bruse: in right of which Dornagill, the sonne of this Balioll challenged the crowne of Scotland, as descended from the el|der sister.) On the other side Robert Bruse, albeit he The title of Robert Bruse was descended of the yoongest daughter to earle Da|uid, yet was he come of the first issue male, for his fa|ther was first borne, and therefore if king William had deceas [...]ed without issue, the crowne had descen|ded to him: for which consideration he mainteined that he ought now to be preferred. Hastings also for Hastings. his part, bicause he was come of the yoongest daugh|ter of king Dauid, maried to his father Henrie Ha|stings, wanted not allegations to propone, why he ought to be admitted. Beside these, there were other also, that made claime to the crowne of Scotland, and had matter sufficient to mainteine their sute. This controuersie being brought before the gouer|nors, was at sundrie times argued with much con|tention, EEBO page image 206 not without the assistance of the nobles fa|uoring the parties, as occasion of friendship or kin|red mooued them, namelie Balioll and Bruse had no small number that leaned vnto their parts, by rea|son whereof, the gouernors were in doubt to procéed to anic definite sentence in the matter, least if they The doubt of the gouernors declared one of them king, an other would attempt to vsurpe the crowne by force.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Héere vpon they iudged it best to referre the deci|sion of all this whole matter to some mightie king, which was of puissance able to constreine the parties repugnant to obeie his sentence. Heerevnto was none thought so méet as Edward king of England, and therfore they chose him. [Of whose faith and loue Fr. Thin. Buchanan. towards them, they did not anie whit mistrust, bi|cause Alexander the last king of Scots had found the father of this Edward, both a louing father in law to himselfe, and vpright tutor to his realme. Wherevnto also they ioined this cause of hope in king Edward, for that the said Edward had of late before tried the fauor of the Scots towards him, by a singular testi|monie, in that they so easilie consented to ioine the heire of Scotland with the son of the said Edward.] Wherevpon king Edward tooke this charge vpon him, as competent iudge, & promised by a certein day to come vnto Berwike, willing that their councell might be assembled there against that time. At his comming thither, at the day assigned, and hauing heard what could be said on ech part, and throughlie The title doubtfull. considering at length their allegations, he perceiued the same doubtfull, and required a longer time to dis|cusse the truth by good aduise of counsell: and there|fore required to haue twelue Scotishmen, the best learned and most skilfull lawiers of all the realme to be associat with twelue Englishmen, which he pro|mised to choose foorth of the most perfect and wisest clerks that might be found within all his domini|ons, to the intent that by their ripe and aduised deba|ting of the matter, the truth might appeere, according to the which he minded to giue sentence, without fa|uor either of one part or other. [Before which he tooke Fr. Thin. Buchanan. The nobles sweare to stand to the or|der of king Edward. a solemne oth of the ambassadors of Scotland, and such nobles as were there to stand to his definitiue sentence, further therevpon requiring a writing to be made, sealed with the seales of the same nobles.] After when all such matters and proofes as were pro|poned by the parties, alledged by them for furthe|rance of their titles were put in writing, as matter of record, he returned backe againe into England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶ Héere the Scotish writers report, that king Ed|ward This report of the Scotish writers smel|leth altogither of malice con|ceiued against him, for that he scourged them so [...]ore for their vntruths. vsed himselfe nothing vprightlie in this mat|ter, but accordinglie (as it often happeneth) had the eies of his conscience blinded, vpon hope to gaine somewhat by this credit thus to him committed. But how vniustlie he is s [...]andered in this behalfe, I leaue to the indifferent readers to consider, by conferring that which the Scots doo write thereof, with that which is to be found in our English historie. But to procéed as we find it in the Scotish writers. King Edward to be satisfied in knowledge of the truth, sent into France for men learned and of great ex|perience in the lawes, that he might haue their opi|nions in the demands of the parties for their doubt|full rights. But (saith Hector Boetius) he first com|manded them in no wise to agree vpon anie resolute point, but rather to varie in opinions, that when the plée should séeme doubtfull by reason of their con|trarietie in deciding thereof, he might the better vn|der that colour, giue iudgement with which partie he thought most expedient to serue his purpose.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Howbeit the most part of the lawiers iudged with Respect of persons in de|ciding contro|uersies is not to be conside|red. Robert Bruse, both for the woorthines of his person, and also for that he was come of the first issue male. But some there were that gaue sentence with Iohn Balioll, for that he was descended of the eldest sister. King Edward supposing this to be the time most conuenient for his purposed inteution to conquer the realme of Scotland, returned to Berwike, where he had appointed the 24 learned men before specified, to be present, that finall sentence might be giuen, ac|cording as he had before promised. When he was come thus vnto Berwike, and the foresaid 24 lear|ned K. Edward co [...]th to Ber [...]ike. lawiers assembled as assistants with him, and the parties appéering before him in a chamber proui|ded for the purpose, he caused the doores to be suerlie The purpose of king Ed|ward, as the Scots doo vntrue re|port. kept, and the entries stronglie warded, that no man might come in or out, but by his appoi [...]ment and [...] cence. His purpose was to make him king, that would be sworne to hold the crowne of Scotland of him, as superior lord thereof. And bicause he knew that Robert Bruse was a man of singular manhood and wisedome, he thought best to assaie him first, [...] if he found him not conformable to his purpose, then he minded to trie what the Balioll [...] doo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 When Robert Bruse had throughlie hear [...] king The answer of Robert Bruse. Edwards motion, he answered that he [...] the li|bertie of his countrie, more than his priuate pro [...]|ment, and therefore minded not to deliuer h [...] coun|trie (which euen to that day had béene [...]ée) into the bondage and seruitude of the Englishmen. King Edward perceiuing his stoutnesse of stomach, brake off with him, and fell in talke with the Balioll, who had such blind desire to atteine the crowne, that he passed not whether he inioied the same in libertie o [...] seruitude, so he might haue it. Héerevpon when this Balioll had giuen his faith by assured oth vnto king The Balioll promiseth to doo homage to king Edward Edward, that he would doo homage vnto him for the realme of Scotland, and acknowledge to hold the same of him as superior lord, king Edward gaue sentence with him, to haue most right to the crowne and realme of Scotland, now thus in controuersie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 It is said, that the earle of Glocester, a man of great prudence and authoritie in England (séeing The saieng of the earle of Glocester (as the Scots write, but not like to be true.) King Ed|ward was no man so to be dealt with. the Balioll thus made king, and Robert Bruse with|out reason put backe) spake in this sort to king Ed|ward: Oh king, remember what is doone by thée this day, sparing to giue righteous sentence in this mat|ter; for though the same be now couered and hid, it shall be reuealed, when the great iudge that searcheth consciences, and the secrets of euerie mans mind, shall cause thée to answer for it at the dreadfull day of that vniuersall iudgement: thou hast now giuen sentence on a king, but then shall iudgement be gi|uen on thée. Shortlie after, Iohn Balioll went in great arraie vnto Scone, where he was crowned Iohn Balioll crowned king of Scotland. king of Scotland on saint Andrewes day, in the yeere from the incarnation 1292. In the yeere next 1292. insuing, on saint Stephans day in Christmasse, he came to Newcastell vpon Tine, and there did ho|mage Iohn Balioll dooth homage to king Ed|ward. So say the Scotish wri|ters, but how trulie, read more héereof in England. vnto king Edward for the realme of Scot|land, contrarie to the mind and consent of all his no|bles, for that by this meanes, he séemed to submit his realme (which had remained in freedome vnto those daies) into the seruitude of the Englishmen: but small felicitie succéeded therof.* And héere it appee|reth by Buchanan, that the nobilitie of Scotland, which held with Balioll, did also their homage: for be|ing farre from home, they durst not contend against the power of two kings. Whereof some taking it gréenous [...]ie in their hart, dissembled with the present [...]me, and couered their anger vnder the cinders of a faire countenance, which yet in the end burst out, notwithstanding this painted shew. For the declara|tion and proofe whereof, there was shortlie after occa|sion offered to Makduffe, by the death of the earle of Fife, being (in the time when there was no king) made one of the sir gouernors of the realme: for this earle was not onelie killed by these of [...] EEBO page image 207 (which familie did then greatlie flourish in riches and authoritie within Scotland) but the brother also of she said earle was called into law by the Abirnethi|ans, for whome the king in assemblie of the states did giue sentence against the other. This Mak [...]e after the land whereof the contention grew was so adiud|ged, supposing therein the king to be more vniust a|gainst him than was cause, and that the king was not so seuere a reuenger of his brothers death, as he hoped that he would be; forsooke the Balioll, and ap|pealed to the king of England, before whom he com|mensed his sute against Balioll. The deciding where|of was appointed to be holden at London, where was an assemblie or parlement of the nobilitie, after the English manner, amongst whome this Balioll had his place also.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The parlement begun and Balioll there summo|ned Iohn Balioll king of Scots an|swered a [...]uts cõmensed a|gainst him in the parlement of England as an inferior person should. or cited, would haue answered by his proctor or attornie: but this (not being allowed) Balioll was compelled to rise out of his seat, and to defend his cause himselfe in an inferior place. Which contume|lie when he durst not at anie time redresse, secretlie he still bare in mind, vntill fit oportunitie might an|swer the reuenge thereof. But when he would, and then could not deliuer himselfe of such disgrace; he returned home with a mind of deadlie anger, rol|ling mounteins of choler therein, who still bending himselfe on euerie side to satisfie his anger, dwelled on this point; how he might reconcile the hearts of his subiects: and offend the state of the English. Whilest Balioll with this meditation was feeding his hot stomach, a fit means was now offered to performe his desire, by reason of the wars newlie growen betweene England and France, as after shall appeare. For vpon this occasion of wars, king Edward of England commanded this Balioll by tenure of his land, & tenure of his homage, to come with all the power he could prepare to aid him in his warres against the king of France.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Iohn Bali [...]l incontinentlie herewith be|came repentant, in that he had indangered himselfe Iohn Balioll repenteth him thus by dooing his homage; and therevpon sent his ambassadors to king Edward, as then soiourning at London, to renounce his act touching the same homage, alledging that for somuch as it was doone without the aduise of the thrée estates of Scotland, it was of no strength in it selfe, and not méete to be obserued being doone by force; for which cause he would renounce his friendship and aliance, aswell Fr. Thin. for manie other iniuries doone vnto him and his; as for that he would séeke to restore his countrie to his former libertie. Which message when none of the better sort durst take in hand to execute, a certeine moonke (or as other haue the abbat of Alberbrethie) caried these letters into England, vpon the receit whereof, king Edward answered the ambassadors Ambassadors into England (whom he tawnted with innumerable contumelies) that since we perceiue (saith he) your king will not come vnto vs; we intend shortlie to come vnto him, wherewith the ambassadors departed. Butus (saith Buchanan) could scarselie returne home in safetie: being at his returne into Scotland rather had in contempt of his owne people, than anie iot reueren|ced for such an ambassage.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After this, king Edward the better to accomplish his purpose against the Scots, found means to con|clude The league renewed be|twixt France and Scot|land. a peace with the king of France, and for the more confirmation of the same peace, the French kings daughter was giuen in mariage vnto king Edward his sonne. Nuerthelesse (as saith the Sco|tish chronicle) he purposed (when he had wrought his will once against the Scots) to inuade France as flercelie as before, notwithstanding anie bond of amitie or mariage by him contracted. After this, he procured the friendship of Robert Bruse, and vpon promise (as it is to be thought) to make him king, the same Robert deliuered into king Edward his hands all such castels as he held in Scotland. Iohn Balioll the Scotish king, vnderstanding that king Edward minded to make a conquest vpon him, sent Ex chron. A|bindon, as I take it. William bishop of saint Andrews, and Matthew bishop of Dunkeld, with sir Iohn Sowlis, and sir Ingram Umfraiuile into France, to renew the an|cient league betwixt him and Philip the fourth, as then king of France; which accordinglie was doone: and for the more corroboration thereof, the eldest daughter of Charles earle of Uallois and Aniou, brother to king Philip, was promised in mari|age vnto Edward Balioll, the sonne of king Iohn, which Edward should inioy lands' of yearelie tents & reuenues to the summe of fiftéene hundred pounds sterling, in places not of the demesnes belonging to the crowne, as Ballieuille, Dampiere, Harecourt, and Horneie, which his father held in France with Lanarke, Ki [...]on, Maldeseie, Cuningham, and the castell of Dundee, with the appurtenances in Scot|land: and hereto was annexed a prouiso, that if those seigniories and places exceeded the value of fiftéene hundred pounds of yearelie reuenues, then should the surplusage remaine to the K. of Scotland: but if the same amounted not to that summe, then should the said king make them good, and supplie the same with other rents in Scotland, or otherwise, as should be thought méet. And further, the said summe of fiftéene hundred pounds in yearlie rent was assigned as it were the dower of the said ladie, to inioy to hir selfe during hir life after hir husbands deceasse, if hir hap were to suruiue him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In consideration whereof, king Philip couenan|ted to content and pay vnto king Iohn in name of Hector Boe|tius. Abindon. the mariage monie, the summe of 40000 crownes, or (as other write) 25000 pounds Turnois. The char|ter conteining the articles, couenants, and agrée|ments of this mariage and league aboue mentio|ned, beareth date at Paris, the 23 day of October, in the yeare of our Lord 1295. And the letters pro|curatorie made by king Iohn to the said bishop of 1295. saint Andrewes, & the other his associats, bare date at Striueling, the third nones of Iulie the same yeare. Shortlie herevpon, king Iohn was aduer|tised The gentle|men of Fife and Louthian sent to Ber|wike to de|fend it against the English|men. that king Edward purposed to come and be|fiege Berwike; wherefore by aduise of his nobles he sent the most part of all the lords and gentlemen of Fife and Louthian vnto Berwike, to defend the towne against the enimie, if he came to besiege it. The Englishmen came not onelie with a mightie power by land, but also with a great nauie by sea to|wards the said towne of Berwike. Of whose com|ming English ships taken at Ber|wike. the Scots being aduertised, came foorth a|gainst those that approched by sea, tooke 17 of their ships, and chased awaie the residue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 King Edward rather prouoked than feared with this misaduenture, came with a farre greater puis|sance than before, to renew the siege: but when he Berwike be|sieged. perceiued his purpose tooke not so spéedie effect as he hoped it should haue doone, he deuised how to take this towne by some slightfull policie. Héerevpon he feined as though he would haue broken vp his siege, The policie of king Edward to win Ber|wike. and so raising his campe, withdrew a little from the towne, and then hauing prouided banners and en|signes, resembling altogither such as diuerse noble men in Scotland vsed, he suddenlie returned toward the towne, euerie one of his souldiers wearing a acrosse of saint Andrewes aboue on their harnesse, after the manner of the Scotishmen. There were al|so sent before vnto the towne, certeine Scots that serued the king of England, which gaue knowledge to the capteins within the towne, that their lord king EEBO page image 208 Iohn was comming with [...] to their s [...]|cors. The Scots that were within the towne, belee|uing it had béene most true, [...] the [...] came foorth against [...] ( [...] the [...] supposed) to The Scots deceiued and intrapped. haue receiued him with all ioy [...].

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 But when they [...] Englishmen, they perceiued both by their language and habit what they were: but this was not before the Englishmen were hard at the gate [...], so that then the Scotishmen would haue fled [...]aoke to haue got into the towne a|gaine, the Englishmen pursued them so fast at the The crueltie of the Eng|lishmen. héeles, that they entered the gates with them, and so tooke the towne with great slaughter as well of the souldiers and men of warre, as also of women, chil|dren Berwike is woon [...]. and aged persons, without all r [...]th or compassi|on, so that they left not one creature aliue of the Scotish bloud within all that towne. Thus was The 29 of March being good friday. 1295. H. B. The abun|dance of bloud [...]led. S [...]reames augmented with bloud. Berwike woone the 30 day of March, in the yéere 1296. Such abundance of bloud was spilled tho|rough all parts of the towne (as the Scotish chroni|cles testifie) that where at the [...]allingtide the water was not able to driue about the [...], some of the same mils yet, were now at a low water set on gate, by reason the streames were so hugelie augmented with bloud. There were slaine aboue seuen thousand persons that day, with the greatest part of all the no|bles and gentlemen of Fife and Louthian.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Iohn hearing of this slaughter of his people at Berwike, in great desire to be auenged, gathered The Scots discomfited at Dunbar. his power, and sent the same foorth against king Ed|ward, with whome they met not farre from Dunbar, and there incountring with him in battell, the Sco|tish host was discomfited, the most part of the Scots being either slaine or taken. The earles of March and Menteth, with 70 knights, fled to the castell of Dun|bar, but they were besieged so streictlie by the Eng|lish power, inuiro [...]ng the castell on ech side, that in the end they were constreined for lacke of vittels to The castell of Dunbar ren|dered to king Edward. yéeld themselues to king Edward, on condition to haue their liues saued, which couenant was not ob|serued; as the Scotish writers affirme: for king Edward hauing got them into his hands, caused them foorthwith to be put to death. It was reported that Robert Bruse vpon secret conference had with Robert Bruse occasion of the ouerthrow of Scots at Dunbar. king Edward before this battell at Dunbar, sollici|ted all his friends in the Scotish armie, to flée vpon the first ioining, which the residue perceiuing, were so discomforted, that incontinentlie they threw awaie both armor and weapon, and so were vanquished without resistance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Truth it is, that after this victorie, Robert Bruse Robert Bruse submitteth himselfe to K. Edward. submitted himselfe vnto king Edward, requiring him to performe his promise touching the right which he had to the crowne of Scotland: howbeit he recei|ued no answer to his liking touching that request: for K. Edward had no lesse desire to inioy the king|dome of Scotland, than Bruse, as the Scotish wri|ters affirme. Therefore to cast off Robert Bruse concerning his demand, he answered thus, as is said; Beléeuest thou that we haue nothing else a doo The answer of king Ed|ward to Ro|bert Bruse. but to conquere realmes, and to deliuer them ouer againe vnto thee? Robert Bruse hereby perceiuing the subtile meaning of K. Edward, returned right sorrowfull vnto his lands in England, hauing great indignation in his mind, that he had obeied king Edwards requests: but yet considered with him|selfe that he must suffer for the time, till occasion serued to reuenge the iniuries receiued, which he minded to doo, and that in most cruell maner, as af|terwards it will appeare. King Edward after he The castels o [...] Eden|burgh and Striueling woone. King Iohn priuen into the castell of For [...]arre. had thus woone the castell of Dunbar, got likewise both the castels of Edenburgh and Striueling, and pursued king Iohn, till he had constreined him to take for his refuge the castell of Forfaire. Herewith Iohn Cu [...] [...]ord of Strab [...]gie came to king Ed|ward, and was swo [...]ne his [...]ge man.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Sh [...]e after, by a politi [...] practise of the same Iohn C [...]n, king Iohn with his sonne Edward came to M [...]rus, where perceiuing himselfe vn|wiselie to be fallen into the hands of king Edward, through fea [...] of death which he doubted by reason of Iohn [...] king of Scot|land resigneth all his right to king Ed|ward. the men [...]g words of king Edward, he suffered himselfe to be spoiled of all his kinglie abiliments, and with a white wand in his hand (as the maner is) presented himselfe before king Edward, resigning there vnto him all his right and title which he had to the crowne of Scotland, vtterlie renouncing the same both for him and his heires for euer. Hereof was a charter made in most sufficient wise, confir|med A charter. with the hand and seale of king Iohn, and other the nobles of Scotland substantiallie as might be deuised, bearing date the fourth yeare of his reigne. After this, king Edward assembled all the Homage of the barous of Scotland to king Edward lords and barons of Scotland at Berwike, where he caused them to be sworne his liege men, and to doo homage vnto him as to their souereigne lord and supreme gouernor. Which William Dowglasse (a Fr. Thin. man of noble birth and famous for his déeds) refu|sed to doo, and for his obstinacie was cast into prison, where after a few yeares he ended his life. And for The holds of Scotland de|liuered into king Edward his hands. the more suertie of their allegiance, he constreined them to surrender into his hands all the strengths & holds of the realme, both as well those that stood on the sea coasts, as also such other as were situat in the inner parts of the countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 These things doone, and order taken in each be|halfe as was thought requisit for the quiet kéeping of the countrie, he sent king Iohn and his sonne Iohn Bali|oll kept as prisoner in England. Edward Balioll vnto London, where they were kept in strong ward; till at length he suffered the said king Iohn to returne into Scotland: but lea|uing still his sonne in pledge behind him, least he should attempt anie new rebellion after his depar|ture; which after was deliuered at the request of the pope. King Iohn vpon his returne into Scotland, He returneth into Scot|land. perceiuing that he was in the hatred both of his lords and commons, he withdrew againe of his owne accord into England, forsaking wholie the He renoun|ceth the admi|nistration of Scotland. administration of the Scotish dominion, and final|lie went ouer into Normandie to his ancient inhe|ritance and lands there, where at length falling blind, and wasting away by long age, he departed out of this world in the castell Galliard, leauing He returneth into France, and deceasseth in castell Gal|liard. those lands which he possessed on that side the sea, vn|to his sonne Edward Balioll, who being released out of captiuitie, was come ouer to his father be|fore his deceasse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 In the meane time, king Edward hauing well in King Ed|ward his purpose to in|uade France. remembrance the warres which he had intended to make against France, had be not bin staied through the businesse of Scotland, purposed now to pursue the same with all diligence; & therefore garnishing all the strengths & forts in Scotland to withstand the Scots, if they attempted anie rebellion against him in his absence, he appointed Hugh Cressing|ham regent there, whilest he should be occupied in Hugh Cres|singham re|gent of Scot|land. France, which Cressingham before was treasuror. Then hauing prouided a great nauie of ships, he passed ouer into France, trusting that the Scots would not s [...]ur, sith they had of late susteined so ma|nie ouerthrows and sore losses one after an other by the last wars: but tyrannie is of such a nature, that by no kind of prouision it may anie long time be suerlie defended. For those people that be oppressed King Ed|ward [...]e|ned by the Scotish wri|ters of tyran|nie. by anie tyrannicall seruitude, will not faile to séeke to deliuer themselues from the yoke of that impor|table burden when soeuer opportunitie of time and occasion serueth. Therefore the lords of Scotland EEBO page image 209 hauing knowledge that king Edward was passed The Scotish [...] a [...]semble at Striue|ling. ouer the seas, they got them all togither straight|waies, and assembled in councell at Striueling, where by generall agréement, twelue noble men were chosen to be gouernors of Scotland, euerie Twelue go u [...]rnors [...] in Scot|land. one in their limits appointed, that they might the better prouide to resist the enimie. Amongest these gouernors, Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquhan was principall, a man of great wisedome and singular knowlege in all affaires, as well of peace as of war. This earle of Buchquhan raised a mightie armie, Iohn Cumin. and with the same entered into Northumberland, where he wasted with fier and sword all that coun|trie. After this, he laid siege to Carleill, but he wan nothing there, the towne was so well defended. In William Wal|las [...] beginneth to war fa|mous. that season also, the fame of William Wallase be|gan to spring, a yoong gentleman of so huge stature and notable strength of bodie, with such skill and knowledge in warlike enterprises, and hereto of such hardinesse of stomach in attempting all maner of dangerous exploits, that his match was not anie where lightlie to be found. He was sonne to one Sir Andrew Walias [...] knight father to William Wallase. sir Andrew Wallase of Cragie, knight, and from his youth bare euer an inward hatred against the English nation. Sundrie notable feats also he wrought against the Englishmen in defense of the Scots, and was of such incredible force at his com|ming to perfect age, that of himselfe alone, without all helpe, he would not feare to set vpon thrée or foure Englishmen at once, and vanquish them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 When the fame therefore of his woorthie acts was notified thorough the realme, manie were put in good hope, that by his means the realme should be deliuered from the seruitude of the Englishmen within short time after. And herevpon a great num|ber of the Scotish nation as well of the n [...]bilitie as other, were readie to assist him in all his enterprises. By reason whereof he might not easilie be intrapped nor taken of the Englishmen, that went about to haue got him into their hands. At length, when oc|casion serued to vse the helpe of such a notable chief|teine, he was chosen by generall consent of the Sco|tishmen as gouernour vnder Iohn Ballioll, to deli|uer his countrie from bondage of the English na|tion. At the same time manie abbeies & spirituall be|nefices [...]bbeies of Scotland in Englishmens han [...]s. in Scotland were in Englishmens hands. Neuerthelesse, this William Wallase by commis|sion had of William Fraser bishop of saint An|dr [...]ws, auoided and put them foorth of all parts of Scotland, leauing neither temporall nor spiri|tuall person of their bloud within that realme. For shortlie after, by publike authoritie, he receiued the armie that Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquhan had led before, and constreined those Scots that fauored king Edward, to obeie his commandements, in renouncing all such faith and promise as they had giuen or made vnto him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 This doone, he passed foorth with great puissance Castels woon by William Wallase. against the Englishmen, that held sundrie castels within Scotland, and with great hardinesse & man|hood he wan the castels of Forfair, Dundée, Brechen and Mountros, sleaing all such souldiers as he found within them. Wallase now ioifull of this his prospe|rous successe, and hearing that certeine of the chie|fest capteins and officers of those Englishmen that Dunoter woon by William Wallase. kept the castell of Dunoter, were gone foorth to con|sult with other Englishmen of the forts next to them adioining, came sudenlie to the said castell, & tooke it, not leauing a man aliue of all those whome he found as then within it. Then after he had furnished that hold with his owne soldiers in most defensible wise, be went to Aberden. The towne he found in maner void of all the inhabitants, but the castell was so [...]onglie garnished with men and munition, that considering it might not be woone without great murder, he raised from thence, and returned into Angus. King Edward as then being in France, hearing of these exploits atchiued by this Wallase Hugh Cres|singham sent into Scotland his aduersarie, sent diuerse noble capteins vnto his lieutenant Hugh Cressingham, with an armie into Scotland to redresse the matter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Wallase in the meane time had laid siege vnto the castell of Couper, but now being aduertised of the comming of this armie against him, he raised his siege, & went to Striueling to defend the bridge there, that Hugh Cressingham with his armie shuld not passe the same, according as the report went his intent was to doo. Heere incountring with the enimies, the third Ides of September, he obteined a Hugh Cres|singham slaine at Striueling and his armie discomfited by William Wal|lase. The castell of Couper ren|dred to Wal|lase. verie woorthie victorie, for he slue not onelie the fore|said Cressingham with a great part of his armie be|ing passed the riuer, but also forced the residue to flee, in such sort, that a great number of them were drow|ned, and few escaped awaie with life. Thus hauing gotten the vpper hand of his enimies héere at Stri|ueling, he returned againe to the siege of Couper, which shortlie after vpon his returne thither, was rendred vnto him by those that were within in gar|rison. There were manie of the Scotish nobilitie the same time, that sent vnto him, offering to leaue the king of Englands part, and to aid him with monie and vittels, if he would onelie receiue them into fa|uour, wherevnto he granted. By which meanes, sun|drie other castels were yéelded vnto him, the which af|ter he had garnished with men, munition, and vit|tels (according as was thought requisit) he brake vp his campe, and went with sundrie of his most faith|full friends vnto the castell of Striueling.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Afterwards perceiuing that through scarsitie of corne, great dearth arose on each side within the Dearth in Scotland. The policie of Wallase to relieue the peoples lacke in time of dearth. realme of Scotland, he deuised which way he might best relieue the peoples necessitie and lacke in that behalfe, and herevpon he determined to passe with a mightie armie into England, and to soiourne there the most part of the winter, in susteining the whole number of his men of warre on such prouision as they might find within the bounds of their enimies Disobedien [...] punished. countrie. He commanded therefore that all the Scots, appointed to go with him in that iournie, should be readie at a certeine day and place prefired. But diuers of the northerne Scots (as they of Aber|den and other) for that they disobeied his comman|dements set foorth by letters and proclamations, were hanged as rebels and traitors to their coun|trie. By whose example, other being put in feare, his Wallase inua|deth Nor|thumberland. commandements were the better obeied, so that ha|uing got togither an huge host of men, he entered with the same into Northumberland [...]asting and spoiling the countrie euen vnto New [...]astell. Thus putting the enimies in great feare and terror of his awfull name, he brought his armie backe againe in|to Scotland, loden with spoile and glorie of their prosperous atchiued iournie. They entred into Eng|land Fr. Thin. (as Io. Maior writeth) about the feast of All saints, and remained there till Candlemas after, li|uing still vpon the spoile of the Englishmens goods.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Edward king of England, being informed of the K Edwards message vnto Wallase. great slaughter of his people, and what damage the Scots had doone in Northumberland, returned in great displeasure out of France into England, and sent his ambassadors vnto Wallase, sore menacing him, for that he had inuaded his realme in such cru|ell wise in his absence, which he durst (as he sent him word) full little haue doone, if he had béene at home The answer of wallase to K. Edwards message as the Scots doo write. himselfe. Wallase herevnto answered, that he had taken the aduantage for the atchiuing of his inter|prise, touching the inuasion of England, in like sort as king Edward had doone for the conquest of Scot|land, EEBO page image 210 at such time as he was chosen by the nobles of the realme as indifferent iudge in decision of the right and lawfull title of the parties that stroue and were at contention for the crowne. And further, to the end it might appeare vnto king Edward, that he inuaded England in defense of his owne natiue countrie, and that he was fullie bent to imploie his whole indeuor to deliuer the same from all maner of subiection to any forreine power, and to reuenge the iniuries doone to them by the Englishmen in times past; he willed the English ambassadors to de|clare from him vnto king Edward, that he purpo|sed to hold his Easter in England (if God afforded him life) and that in despite of king Edward, and all such as would beare armor against him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And vndoubtedlie according to his promise he Wallase en|tred England with an armie of 30000 men. kept his day: for assembling togither an armie of 30000 men, he entred into England at the time be|fore appointed, where king Edward was readie with an armie vpon Stanesmoore, double in num|ber to the Scots, to giue them battell: but when the time came that both parties were readie to haue ioi|ned, the Englishmen withdrew, hauing no lust (as should seeme) to fight with the Scots at that time) who perceiuing them to giue backe, incontinentlie would haue rushed foorth of their rankes to haue pursued in chase after them: but Wallase (doubting least the Englishmen had ment some policie, and saieng (as writeth Io. Ma. lib. 4. cap. 14.) that it was honor inough for him that he had inforced so mightie a prince in his owne countrie to forsake the field) caused the Scots to kéepe togither in order of bat|tell, and so preseruing them from the deceitfull ma|lice of their enimies, brought them backe into Scot|land with liues and honors saued, besides the infinit spoiles and booties which they got in this iornie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 But as in the beginning all men were glad to support Wallase in all exploits and enterprises which he tooke in hand, so afterward when his fame began to wax great, to the derogation of other mens re|nowmes, such as were farre his superiors in birth and linage, that fauor which manie bare him at the first, was now turned into enule, hauing no small indignation, that a man of so base parentage should so surmount them in all honor and dignitie. Those that enuied him most, were of the Cumins bloud, Wallase is enuied. and Robert Bruse. King Edward being aduertised of this enuious grudge, and new sedition amongst the nobles of Scotland, had secret conference by his agents with the chiefest amongst those that thus en|uied the high glorie of Wallase, and vpon trust of such practise as was concluded by reson of the same K. Edward inuadeth Scotland. conference, he came with a mightie armie into Scotland, and at Falkirke met with this Wallase, who mistrusting no guile, had raised a power to re|sist him: but now being come in sight of the Eng|lishmen, Wallase rai|seth a power to resist him. there rose a right odious contention be|twixt the head capteins, who should haue the leading of the vantgard, which is reputed a most high honor Strife for the leading of the vantgard. among the Scotishmen. And among other, Iohn Steward, and Iohn Cumin, thought scorne, that Wallase a man of so low beginning, should be pre|ferred before them in that honour: but on the other part, Wallase considering that the charge of the whole was giuen vnto him by agréement and con|sent of the thrée estates, thought it no reason that he should giue place to anie of them, though vnto his face, as saith Iohn Maior, the lord Steward had be|fore vpbraided him with his pride, comparing him to an owle, which from his originall had begged a feather of euerie bird, and being now inriched with abundance of feathers, did aduance himselfe aboue all other birds.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 In the meane time came the Englishmen vpon them right fiercelie, before the Scotish chiefteins (hauing their brests filled with more malice one a|gainst another, than with desire to defend their coun|trie against their enimies) could bring their men in|to anie perfect araie. Herewith at the comming to the point of ioining, the Cumins with their retinues fled out of the field, and left the residue of the Scots The Cumins fled. in all the danger. Robert Bruse seruing that day a|mong the Englishmen, fetched a compasse about an hill, and came on the backs of the Scots, so that they were in maner compassed in, and beaten downe on each side: yet Wallase left nothing vndoone that might perteine to the dutie of a valiant capteine. But at length, all his indeuors notwithstanding, the Scots (ouerset with multitude of enimies, as the Scotish writers affirme) were slaine in such huge numbers, that he was constreined to draw out of the field, which such small remnants as were left a|liue. The Englishmen pursued fiercelie after him, & The Scots discomfited at Falkirke. namelie one valiant capteine named Frere Brian Iaie, a templer, whome Wallase perceiuing to be within his danger, stepped foorth vnto him, and slue Frere Brian Iaie slaine by the hands of William Wallase. him there in sight (as it is said) of all the English ar|mie. Which valiant act of Wallase caused the Eng|lishmen somewhat to staie, for doubt of further pe|rill by their vnwise pursute likelie to befall them. In this infortunate battell, were slaine on the Nobles of Scotland slaine at the battell of Falkirke. Scotish side, Iohn Steward of Bute, with his Brandans (for so they name them that are taken vp to serue in the warres foorth of the Stewards lands) Makduffe earle of Fife, with sir Iohn Gra|ham, whose death was much lamented by Wallase, as one whome he highlie estéemed for his great ex|perience in warlke knowledge. Manie other noble and valiant men died in this conflict, whose names would be too long to rehearse. This battell was stri|ken Marie Mag|dalens day prosperous for the English|men to fight a|gainst Scots. on Marie Magdalens daie, in the yéere of our Lord 1298, and therefore the Englishmen haue hol|den it euer since an happie day for to fight against the Scots.

Fr. Thin. Iohn Maior lib. 4. cap. 14. Buchan. lib. 8. Lesleus epis. Ross. li. 6. p. 235. Conference betwéene Wal lase & Bruse. When William Wallase was passed the riuer Carran, where he might defend himselfe, and gather his dispersed people, Bruse desired to speake vnto him, which Wallase did not denie. Wherevpon each of them (drawing alone by themselues without any arbitrers to the bankes of the riuer, in such place as it was narowest, and they might without anie com|panie best heare one another; Bruse began to say as followeth.

I doo much muse, thou most valiant of all men, what came into thy mind to be caried away by the vncerteine fauor of the common people, and to stand against the mightiest king of our age, suppor|ted with the greatest forces of the Scots: and dailie to offer thy selfe to euerie danger, and that for no re|ward assured to thée for all thy labors. For if thou shouldest ouercome king Edward, the Scots will neuer aduance thée to the kingdome, and if thou be ouercome, there resteth no refuge for thée, but onelie the mercie of thine enimie. And doost thou not sée the Cumins, and mée, and the most of the nobilitie, to follow the English faction? Neither doost thou con|sider the malice of the princes conceiued against thée? Looke vnto thy selfe, and thou hast but a few of the nobles thy partakers, and a small number of the commons (which are more vncerteine than the wind) to follow thée, whose fortune is now almost o|uerthrowne.
All these words Iohn Maior suppo|seth that Robert Bruse did speake, to serch the mind of Wallase, whether he ment to aspire to the crowne or no: being in deed rather contented that Wallase had left the field, than otherwise to reduce him to the part of king Edward.

To whome Wallase answered in this sort.

The end of all my trauell was not to atteine the king|dome; EEBO page image 211 for my birth and fortune neither did or could deserue it, and my mind did neuer desire it: but the negligent slouth of thée (to whome the right of that diademe doth apperteine, and who doth greedilie hunt therafter) made my citizens (perceiuing themselues destitute of faithfull gouernors) to follow me, and caused me (when I saw them in that miserie, rather butcherlie torne, than in honest seruitude to be op|pressed) to séeke for libertie. Which suerlie I had ob|teined for them and you, if the nobilitie had not so e|uillie striued against me, refrained themselues for comming into the field, and had but sent their hinds (which till their land) foorth to the battell, at which time I had scarse 10000 men, & those of cõmon sort. Trulie if the princes had not béene impediment thereto, I could haue brought foorth to fight a hun|dred thousand bold and chéerefull souldiers. But now in truth I perceiue the hatred of the nobles against me this day. Wherefore if thou pretend to possesse the kingdome, I giue thée faithfull warning, especiallie to beware of the Cumins: who if they had more re|garded the glorie of their countrie, than of secret ma|lice to others, would not so wickedlie haue forsaken the field, what hate soeuer they had conceiued against me. If they haue giuen their faith to the king of England, they are not bound to kéepe it: in a wic|ked promise no oth is to be performed. I am now wearie of my life, and rather desire to die, than to liue in this sort, to see the miserie of my beloued coun|trie. Wherefore imbrace you this thraldome (which is so much estéemed of you) to whome filthie seruitude with ease séemeth more pleasant, than honest libertie with danger: for I had rather choose willing death with fréedome (in which I meane to spend my bloud) than to doo as you haue doone, because the loue of my countrie shall not depart from my hart, before the life of my bodie depart from his office.
Which being said, Bruse burst foorth in teares, considering the no|bilitie of the mind of Wallase, although perhaps he nothing misliked the misfortune of the man, as doub|ting the end of all his pretense to be, to atteine to the crowne. This being thus doone, they both depart to their companies. By which conference (saith Leslee bishop of Rosse) this good was wrought to Scot|land (to recompense the ouerthrow of Falkirke) that Wallase partlie by the bitternesse of his woords, and partlie for the loue of his countrie, did now draw Bruse from the English, to take part with the Scots.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But notwithstanding all these valiant spéeches of Wallase, when he considered the infortunat discom|fiture 1298. by him so treacherouslie receiued, he came to Perth, and there vttering by complaint the iniuri|ous enuie of the nobles against him, he renounced and discharged himselfe of all the authoritie which had Wallase re| [...]nceth his [...]ice. béene committed to his hands, touching the gouer|nance of the realme, and went into France, as saith Lesleus. But Iohannes Maior saith, that he neuer came there, although he will not flatlie denie it. The same time, Philip king of France, the fourth of that Philip king [...] France. name, and surnamed le Bea [...], hauing great ruth in his hart for the miserable calamities thus chanced to his ancient confederat friends the Scots, and that chieflie for the quarrell of France, sent his ambassa|dors vnto Edward king of England, who had latelie before maried his daughter, requiring that there might be some peace or abstinence of warre granted. At his request therefore a truce was taken betwixt the Scots and Englishmen, to indure from the feast [...] truce. of All saints, till the feast of Pentecost next follow|ing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Scots in the meane time sore oppressed by rea|son of long warres, sent ambassadors to pope Boni|face, Scotish am|bassadors sent to pope Boni|face. in presenting a verie gréeuous complaint vnto him, for the great affliction doone to them by king Edward, who was fullie bent by iniurious meanes (as they alledged) to conquer their realme, and there|fore they besought him to constreine king Edward by vertue of his prerogatiue, which he pretended to haue ouer the realme of England, to stand to his or|der in deciding the right concerning the liberties of Scotland, which might no other waies be determi|ned, but by intollerable damage falling to the people through blind desire and couetous ambition of the nobles, contending for the crowne. The pope (as is said) after he had by good and deliberat aduise heard The opinion of the pope. the matter, gaue sentence with the Scots, that they had iust cause of warres in defense of the liberties of their countrie, against K. Edward and his fautors. ¶ But for this matter, looke in the English chroni|cles, where it shall well appéere, that the pope by these letters of king Edward, was fullie satisfied of his superioritie ouer Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Scots somewhat recomforted héerewith, shortlie héerevpon chose Iohn Cumin to their gouer|nor, Iohn Cumin the yoonger elected gouer|nor of Scot|land. An armie of Englishmen sent into Scotland. in purpose to trie with the Englishmen for their liberties. Whereof king Edward being aduertised, sent foorthwith an armie into Scotland, which passed through the countrie to saint Iohns towne, with great damage of those that were adiudged rebels to king Edwards empire. All the countrie in manner vnto Forthrie, at this season was subiect to the Eng|lishmen, sauing such few of the inhabitants, as liued within the woods, hauing more regard to the ancient liberties of their countrie, than to anie desire of pre|seruing their goods or liues. Iohn Cumin therefore, desirous to redresse this heauie miserie and lamenta|ble case of his countrie, admitted Simon Fraser fellow with him in the administration of the warres against the Englishmen, and therewith gathering an armie of eight thousand hardie men of warre, set|teth in hand to reuenge the iniurious dooings of the enimies, chasing out of the realme all such officers King Ed|wards offi|cers chased out of Scot|land. with their seruants, as king Edward had placed in anie roomes within the bounds of Scotland; and such as resisted, he pursued in most cruell wise, not spa|ring to put them vnto the swoord in all places, where he might find them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Edward sore kindled in displeasure with these attempts of such desperat persons, raised an Scotland a|gaine inuaded armie of thirtie thousand men, and sent the same in|to Scotland, vnder the leading of a verie stout and valiant capteine, named Radulph or Rafe Confraie. Radulph Cõ|fraie. I remember not that anie of the Eng|lish nobilitie [...]are this sur|name in those daies, where|fore I thinke it was the lord Iohn Segraue. Iohn Cumin and Simon Fraser. This Radulph at his comming into Scotland, tooke small regard to the ordering of his field, but diuided his armie into thrée parts, euerie part conteining ten thousand men, and appointed them to passe foorth to forraie the countrie, and to meet altogither at Ro| [...]in, in such sort and time as he prescribed. Iohn Cu|min and Simon Fraser being aduertised héereof, gathered their powers togither, to the number of seuen or eight thousand men, and determined to trie the chance of battell with one part of the English ar|mie first, trusting that if they happened to haue the vpper hand of one of the thrée parts, the other two would be the more easie to deale with. The Scotish capteins resolued thus vpon that point, exhorted their people to remember how they were to fight in defense of their wiues, their children, their goods, and liberties of their countrie, against such as sought to bring them into [...]hraldome and vile seruitude.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 With which woords the Scots were so imboldened, that minding either to die or to win the victorie, they gaue the onset so fiercelie on their enimies, that the first battell of the Englishmen was quicklie ouer|throwen The first bat|tell of the Englishmen ouerthrowne. and vanquished. But scarselie had they ga|thered the spoile, when an other part of the English|men came vpon them with more fiercenesse than the EEBO page image 212 other before: neuerthelesse, the Scots incouraged with their fresh woone victorie, got themselues spée|dilie The second battell ouer|come. into arraie, & receiued their enimies with such incredible manhood, that they had quickly got the vp|per hand of these also. But scarse had they made an end with this second battell, when the third part was at hand readie to charge them, being now sore infee|bled, what thorough wearinesse and wounds recei|ued in the two former incounters, besides the want of such of their numbers as were slaine: yet by ex|hortation of their capteins, and the valiant presence of the officers of bands beside, they rushed foorth on their enimies with such earnest forwardnesse to re|ceiue them, that after a verie sharpe bickering, they put the whole number of them to flight. Few of the Englishmen had escaped the Scotishmens hands, had they not béene so wearied with continuall fight, that they were not able to follow anie great waie in the chase.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 This victorie fell to the Scots in manner as is be|fore rehearsed, vpon saint Matthewes day, in the The third battell of the Englishmen vanquished at Roslin. yéere after the birth of our Sauiour 1302. The glo|rie of this victorie was great, considering that thir|tie thousand Englishmen well furnished, & through|lie appointed for warre, should be thus in one day 1302. vanquished with an handfull of Scotishmen. For as The matter is amplfied by the Scots to the vtter|most. their histories make mention, they passed not eight thousand at the most: and therefore all men supposed that it came to passe by the singular fauour and grace of almightie God. But yet the Scots did not long inioy the benefits of so notable a victorie. For king Edward hearing of this discomfiture of his people The great preparation of king Edward to inuade the Scots. at Roslin, gathered a mightie armie of English|men, Gascoigns, Irishmen, and such Scots as tooke his part, and hauing all his furniture and puruei|ance readie both by sea and land, he set forward with the same to inuade the Scots on ech side. The Scots perceiuing they were not of puissance able to resist his inuasion, withdrew to their strengths: by means The Scots withdraw to their holds. The English armie passeth through Scot land from the south parts to the north. whereof the English armie passed through all Scot|land, euen from the south parts to the north, & found few or none to make resistance, except Wallase, and such as followed his opinion, which were fled to the mounteins and woods, to eschue the malice of the Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 It is said, that king Edward required by a mes|senger sent vnto this Wallase, that if he would come in and be sworne his liege man and true subiect, he K. Edward sendeth vnto Wallase. should haue at his hands great lordships and posses|sions within England, to mainteine his port as was requisit to a man of verie honorable estate. But Wallase refused these offers, saieng that he Wallase refu|seth the offers of K. Edward preferred libertie with small reuenues in Scotland, before anie possession of lands in England, were the same neuer so great; considering he might not inioy them, but vnder the yoke of bondage. The ca|stell of Sterling at the same time was in the kée|ping of one sir William Uthred knight, who would not render it to king Edward by anie summons or other meanes, till after three moneths siege he was constreined to giue it ouer vnder these conditi|ons; The castell of Sterling ren|dred. That all persons being within the castell, should depart by safe conduct with bagge and baggage at their pleasure. Neuerthelesse king Edward caused the said sir William Uthred to be conueied to Lon|don, This Uthred the Scotish bookes name Olifes. where he remained as prisoner manie yeeres af|ter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Sundrie other castels were taken by force the same time by king Edward, and all such as resisted, being found within anie of them, slaine without mercie or ransome. Amongest other, the castell of Urquhard in Murrey land was taken by force, and The castell of Urquhard ta|ken by force. not one left aliue that was found in the same (one gentlewoman onelie excepted) who being great with child, was in that respect preserued. She was the wife of Alexander Boyis, lord of that house, though by reason she was got into poore apparell, the Eng|lishmen tooke hir but for some other woman of mea|ner estate. She therefore with hir life saued, being suffered to depart, got hir ouer into Ireland, where the was deliuered of a son, that was named at the font-stone Alexander, who when Scotland was reco|uered out of the Englishmens hands, came to king Robert le Bruse, requiring him to be restored vnto his fathers heritage, being as then in the occupation of other possessors. King Robert doubtfull what to doo héerein, for he thought it neither conuenient that a prince should take lands or possessions from noble men, which had béene giuen to them in reward of their manhood, shewed in defense of the realme; nei|ther iudged he it reason to kéepe him from his right|full inheritance that had lost his father, his friends, and all his whole substance in the like cause and qua|rell by iniurie of the common enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Wherefore to qualifie the matter, he deuised this meane: he gaue vnto this Alexander Boyis certeine other lands in Mar, nothing lesse in value (cons