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1.2. Lawes made by king Makbeth set foorth according to Hector Boetius.

Lawes made by king Makbeth set foorth according to Hector Boetius.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _HE that is within orders of the Liberties of them that haue taken or|ders. church, shall not be compelled to answere before a temporall iudge, but be remitted to his or|dinarie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The tenth part of all fruits that in|crease Tithes to be paid to the church. on the ground, shall be giuen to the church, that God may be woorshipped with oblations and praiers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that continueth obstinatlie in the Persons ac|cursed. cursse of the church by the space of one EEBO page image 172 whole yeare, contemning to be reconci|led, shall be reputed enimie to the common|wealth: and if he perseuere with indurat mind the space of two yeares, all his goods shall be forfeited.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that taketh the order of knighthood, The order of knighthood. shall take an oth to defend ladies, virgins, widows, orphans, and the communaltie. And he that is made king, shall be sworne in semblable maner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The eldest daughter shall inherit hir fa|thers Eldest daugh|ters. lands, as well as the eldest sonne should, if the father leaue no sonne behind him. And if anie woman marie with the lord of the soile, she shall lose hir heritage.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 No man shall inioy anie lands, rents, The kings gift. offices, or other possessions, but onelie by gift and grant of the king.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 No office shall go by inheritance, but shall still remaine at the kings free disposi|tion, No offices to go by inheri|tance. as shall stand with his pleasure to as|signe it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 No man shall sit as iudge in anie tem|porall court without the kings commis|sion Iudges. authorizing him thereto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All conuentions, offices, and acts of iu|stice, shall passe in the kings name.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that is reteined or becommeth a sworne man to anie other person saue one|lie Reteiners. to the king, shall lose his life for it, and euerie man shall be bound to defend the king against all other creatures.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that raiseth the kings liege people, shall lose life, goods, and lands, and so shall Raisers of the kings people, or vnlawfull assemblies. they doo that assemble togither by his pro|curement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that attendeth anie man to the church, market, or to anie other publike [...]aiters vpon other men. assemblie, as a reteiner, shall suffer death, except he haue liuing at his hands, on whome he so attendeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A horsse kept by anie of the commons or husbandmen to anie other vse than for til|lage Kéeping of horsses. and laboring or the earth, shall be for|feited to the king by escheat.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Counterfeit fooles, minstrels, iesters, Counterset [...]ooles, with minstrels and such like. and these kind of iuglers, with such like idle persons, that range abroad in the countrie, hauing no speciall licence of the king, shall be compelled to learne some sci|ence or craft to get their liuing; if they re|fuse so to doo, they shall be drawen like hors|ses in the plough and harrows.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Though the sonne chance to be put in possessiõ of his fathers lands by the kings Possession of lands. licence, during the life of his father; yet shall the same lands be forfeited to the king if his father be afterwards conuicted of treason committed against the kings person.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All such women, that are maried to a|nie lord or baron (though she haue no issue Dowrie of wiues. by him) shall yet haue the third part of his lands after his deceasse, and the remanent shall go to his heires.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All maner of lords and great barons, shall not contract matrimonie with other, Mariage of lords and barons. vnder paine of death, speciallie if their lands and roomes lie neere togither.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All armour and weapon borne to other Bearing of armour. effect than in defense of the king & realme in time of wars, shall be confiscated to the kings vse, with all other mooueable goods of the partie that herein offendeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Such as be appointed gouernors, or (as I may call them) capteins, that buy with|in Capteins. those limits, where their charges lie, anie lands or possessions, shall lose both B [...]ng of lands. lands, & possessions, and the monie which they haue paid for the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And if anie of the said capteins or go|uernors marie their sonnes or daughters vnto anie maner of person that dwelleth within the bounds of their roomes, they shall lose their office: neither shall it be lawfull for anie of their sonnes or coperte|ners to occupie the same office.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 These and the like commendable lawes Mak|beth Makbeths counterfeit zeale and e|quitie. caused to be put as then in vse, gouerning the realme for the space of ten yeares in equall iustice. But this was but a counterfet zeale of equitie shew|ed by him, partlie against his naturall inclination to purchase thereby the fauour of the people. Shortlie after, he began to shew what he was, in stead of e|quitie practising crueltie. For the pricke of consci|ence Makbeths guiltie consci|ence. (as it chanceth euer in tyrants, and such as at|teine to anie estate by vnrighteous means) caused him euer to feare, least he should be serued of the same cup, as he had ministred to his predecessor. The woords also of the thrée weird sisters, would not out of his mind, which as they promised him the kingdome, so likewise did they promise it at the same time vnto the posteritie of Banquho. He willed therefore the same Banquho with his sonne named Fleance, to come to a supper that he had prepared for them, which was in déed, as he had deuised, pre|sent Makbeths deuise to [...]ea Banquho a [...] his sonne. death at the hands of certeine murderers, whom he hired to execute that déed, appointing them to meete with the same Banquho and his sonne with|out the palace, as they returned to their lodgings, and there to slea them, so that he would not haue his house slandered, but that in time to come he might cleare himselfe, if anie thing were laid to his charge vpon anie suspicion that might arise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 It chanced yet by the benefit of the darke night, that though the father were slaine, the sonne yet by Banquho is slaine, but his sonne esca|peth. the helpe of almightie God reseruing him to better fortune, escaped that danger: and afterwards ha|uing some inkeling (by the admonition of some friends which he had in the court) how his life was sought no lesse than his fathers, who was slaine not by chancemedlie (as by the handling of the matter Fleance Banquhos sonne fléeth into Wales. Makbeth woould haue had it to appeare) but euen vpon a prepensed deuise: wherevpon to auoid fur|ther perill he fled into Wales. ¶ But here I thinke it shall not much make against my purpose, if (ac|cording to th' order which I find obserued in the Sco|tish historie) I shall in few words rehearse the originall line of those kings, which haue descended The line of the Scotish kings. from the foresaid Banquho, that they which haue in|ioied the kingdome by so long continuance of des|cent, from one to another, and that euen vnto these our daies, may he knowen from whence they had their first beginning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Fleance therefore (as before is said) fled into Wales, where shortlie after by his courteous and a|miable behauiour, he grew into such fauor and esti|mation with the prince of that countrie, that he might vnneath haue wished anie greater; at length also he came into such familiar acquaintance with the said princes daughter, that she of courtesie in the EEBO page image 173 end suffered him to get hir with child; which being [...] de| [...]reth the [...]ce of [...] his daughter. [...]ce is [...]. [...] the sonne of Fle|ance. once vnderstood, hir father the prince conceiued such hatefull displeasure towards Fleance, that he final|lie flue him, & held his daughter in most vile estate of seruitude, for that she had consented to be on this wise defloured by a stranger. At the last yet, she was deliuered of a sonne named Walter, who within few yeares prooued a man of greater courage and valiancie, than anie other had commonlie béene found, although he had no better bringing vp than His bringing up. (by his grandfathers appointment) among the bafer sort of people. Howbeit he shewed euer euen from his infancie, that there reigned in him a certeine The stout sto|mach appea| [...]ng in wal|ter from his childhood. stoutnesse of stomach, readie to attempt high enter|prises.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 It chanced that falling out with one of his com|panions, after manie tawnting words which passed betwixt them, the other to his reproch obiected that he was a bastard, and begotten in vnlawfull bed; where|with being sore kindled, in his raging furie he ran vpon him and slue him out of hand. Then was he glad to flée out of Wales, and comming into Scot|land walter fléeth into Scot|land. to séeke some friendship there, he happened into the companie of such Englishmen, as were come thither with quéene Margaret, and behaued himselfe Saint Mar|garet. so soberlie in all his demeanours, that within a while he was highlie esteemed amongest them. Not long after by such means atteining to the degrée of high walter sent w [...]h an armie to [...]unt re|bels. reputation, he was sent with a great power of men into the westerne Iles, into Galloway, & other parts of the realme, to deliuer the same from the tyrannie and iniurious oppression there exercised by diuers misgouerned persons; which enterprise according to his commission he atchiued, with such prudent poli|cie and manhood, that immediatlie vpon his returne walter made [...]rd steward of Scotland. to the court, he was made lord steward of Scotland, with assignement to receiue the kings rents and duties out of the parts of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Walter Steward had a sonne named Ala|ne Steward, who went after with Godfreie of Bul|logne duke of Loraine, & Robertduke of Norman|die Alane Ste|ward. sonne to king William the bastard that conque|red England, into the holie land, at what time they The iournie into the holie land. Alexander Steward. walter Ste|ward. with other westerne princes made the great iournie thither, in the yeare 1099. Alane had issue Alexan|der Steward, that founded the abbeie of Pasleie of saint Benedicts order. Walter Steward, whose va|liancie was well notified at the battell of Largis, as hereafter shall be shewed, was the sonne of the said Alexander. The same Walter had issue two sons, Alexander Steward the sonne of wal|ter. Robert Ste|ward. the one named Alexander, fought right valiantlie in defense of his father at the foresaid battell; and the other named Robert Steward got the lands of Ter|bowtoune, and maried the heire of Crukeistoune, from whom descended the earles of Leuenor and Dernlie. Moreouer, the aboue mentioned Alexan|der Steward that founded Pasleie, had diuerse mo sonnes, as Iohn and Iames, with sundrie other. Iohn Ste|ward and Iames Ste|ward. Howbeit they tooke new surnames by the name of those lands, vnto the which they succéeded. The afore recited Iohn Steward, after the death of his brother Iames, maried the heire of Bonkill a virgine of great beautie, and had by hir Walter Steward that walter inhe|ritor of Bon|kill, &c. inherited the lands of Bonkill, Ran [...]rew, Rothes|saie. Bute, and Stewatoune, after that his father the forenamed Iohn was slaine at Falkirke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 He maried Margerie Bruce daughter to king Ro|bert Bruce, by whome he had issue king Robert the second of that name. This Robert the second tooke King Robert the second. to wife one Isabell Mure, a damsell of right excel|lent beautie, she was daughter to sir Adham Mure knight, and brought foorth issue, thrée sonnes and Iohn Ste ward other|wise named Robert. thrée daughters. The eldest sonne hight Iohn Ste|ward otherwise named Robert, who succéeded im|mediatlie after his fathers deceasse in gouernance of the crowne. The second called Robert was made earle of F [...]fe and Menteith, also he was cre|ated duke of Albanie and ruled the realme of Scot|land Duke of Al|banie. Alexander Steward, sonne to king Robert the second. vnder the name of gouernour, for the space of fiftéene yeares. The third sonne named Alexander was earle of Buchquhane and lord of Baudzenot. The eldest daughter was maried to Iames that was the sonne and heire of William earle of Dow|glas. The second daughter was maried to Iohn Dunbar, brother to George of Dunbar earle of Iohn Dun|bar. March, and was made to the aduancement of his further fame earle of Murrey. He begot on hir one onelie daughter, that was maried to the Dowglas, and so Dowglas came to the earledome of Murrey. The third daughter was maried vnto Iohn Liou [...], that was after made lord of Glammis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Moreouer, the foresaid Robert that was the first of the Stewards which ware the crowne in Scot|land, maried Ewfame daughter to the earle of Ewfame. Rosse, and got on hir two sonnes, Walter earle of Atholl, and Dauid earle of Stratherne. This Wal|ter walter and Dauid sonnes to king Ro|bert. Robert duke of Albanie. Iames the first. sollicited Robert duke of Albanie, to slea Dauid Steward duke of Rothsaie. And after that Iames the first was returned home foorth of England, hée did what he could to mooue him to slea all the linage of the said duke still being in hope after the dispatch of his kinsmen to come to the crowne himselfe, which hope mooued him to procure his nephue Robert Steward, and Robert Graham his daughters son, Graime or Graham. to flea king Iames the first also, for the which crime the same Walter was after conuicted and destreied with all his sonnes. His brother Dauid earle of Buchquhane died without issue, and so the lands of both these brethren returned againe to the crowne, without anie memorie of their blood. Of Robert Steward duke of Albanie, came duke Murdo, who Duke Murd [...]. maried the earle of Lennox daughter, and got on hir thrée sonnes, Walter, Alexander, and Iames.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Duke Murdo himselfe with his two first sonnes were slaine at Striueling by king Iames the first, & the third brother Iames in reuenge thereof burnt Dunbertane, and was after chased into Ireland, where he deceassed without issue. Robert the third of King Robert the third. that name maried Annabill Drommond, daughter to sir Iohn Drommond of Strobhall knight, and got on hir Dauid and Iames. The first died in Falk|land, Dauid and Iames, sons to kings Ro|bert the third and the other atteined the crowne, and was called Iames the first, and maried the ladie Iane daughter to Iohn Beauford erle of Summerset in England. He had by hir two sonnes borne at one Iohn Beau|ford earle of Summerset. birth, Alexander and Iames. The first died yoong, the second atteined the crowne, named Iames the second. Iames the first had also six daughters, of the Iames the first and his issue. which the eldest was giuen in mariage to the Dol|phine of France, the second to the duke of Britaine, the third to the lord of Feir, the fourth to the lord of D [...]lkeith, the fift to the earle of Huntley, and the sixt had no succession. Iames the second maried Margaret daughter to the duke of Gelderland, and The duke of Gelders daughter. begot on hir thrée sonnes, and two daughters.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 The first succéeded him in the kingdome, and was called Iames the third: the second named Alexan|der Iames and Alexander. was duke of Albanie, and maried first the earle of Orkenies daughter, and got on hir Alexander, that was afterward bishop of Murrey, and then par|ting with hir went into France, where he maried the countesse of Bullogne, and begot on hir Iohn Steward duke of Albanie, that was gouernor of Scotland manie yéeres in the minoritie of Iames the fift. The third sonne, Iohn Steward was earle Duke of Al|banie the go|uernor of Scotland. The lord Boid. of Mar, whose chance was to be slaine in the Canno|gat in a bathfat. The first daughter of Iames the second, was maried to the lord Boid, who begot on EEBO page image 174 hir a sonne that was slaine by the lord Mongumrie, and a daughter that was maried to the earle of Cas|sels. After the death of the lord Boid, the husband of this first daughter of Iames the second, she was estsoones maried to the lord Hammilton, and by that The lord Hammilton. means was the house of the Hammiltons honored with the kings bloud. The other sister was maried to the lord Creichton, of whom came small succession Lord Creich|ton. Iames the third and his issue. woorthie to be mentioned. Iames the third maried Margaret daughter to the king of Denmarke. Of the which mariage was borne Iames the fourth, A|lexander that was bishop of saint Andrews & duke of Albanie, and Iohn Steward earle of Mar, but these two died without issue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Iames the fourth maried Margaret daughter to king Henrie the seuenth of England, and begot on Iames the fourth. hir Iames the fift, who marieng first the ladie Mag|dalen daughter to Francis the French king, had no issue by hir, for that she died in the yéere next after hir comming into Scotland, and then shortlie after the said Iames the fift maried the ladie Marie de Lorrein, duchesse of Lonuile, a widow, and by hir had he issue Marie quéene of Scotland, that tooke to husband Henrie Steward lord Dernlie, by whome she had issue Charles Iames, now king of Scotland. But to returne vnto Makbeth, in continuing the hi|storie, and to begin where I left, ye shall vnderstand that after the contriued slaughter of Banquho, no|thing prospered with the foresaid Makbeth: for in maner euerie man began to doubt his owne life, and Makbeths dread. durst vnneth appeare in the kings presence; and euen as there were manie that stood in feare of him, so likewise stood he in feare of manie, in such sort that he began to make those awaie by one surmized cauilla|tion His crueltie caused throgh feare. or other, whome he thought most able to worke him anie displeasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 At length he found such swéetnesse by putting his nobles thus to death, that his earnest thirst after bloud in this behalfe might in no wise be satisfied: for ye must consider he wan double profit (as hée thought) hereby: for first they were rid out of the way whome he feared, and then againe his coffers were inriched by their goods which were forfeited to his vse, whereby he might better mainteine a gard of armed men about him to defend his person from iniurie of them whom he had in anie suspicion. Fur|ther, to the end he might the more cruellie oppresse his subiects with all tyrantlike wrongs, he builded a strong castell on the top of an hie hill called Dun|sinane, situate in Gowrie, ten miles from Perth, The castell of Dunsinane builded. on such a proud height, that standing there aloft, a man might behold well neere all the countries of Angus, Fife, Stermond, and Ernedale, as it were lieng vnderneath him. This castell then being foun|ded on the top of that high hill, put the realme to great charges before it was finished, for all the stuffe necessarie to the building, could not be brought vp without much toile and businesse. But Makbeth be|ing once determined to haue the worke go forward, caused the thanes of each shire within the realme, to come and helpe towards that building, each man his course about.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At the last, when the turne fell vnto Makduffe thane of Fife to build his part, he sent workemen Makduffe thane of Fife. with all néedfull prouision, and commanded them to shew such diligence in euerie behalfe, that no occasi|on might bée giuen for the king to find fault with him, in that he came not himselfe as other had doone, which he refused to doo, for doubt least the king bea|ring him (as he partlie vnderstood) no great good will, would laie violent hands vpon him, as he had doone vpon diuerse other. Shortlie after, Makbeth comming to behold how the worke went forward, and bicause he found not Makduffé there, he was sore offended, and said; I perceiue this man will ne|uer Makbeth is offended with Makduffe. obeie my commandements, till he be ridden with a snaffle: but I shall prouide well inough for him. Neither could he afterwards abide to looke vp|on the said Makduffe, either for that he thought his puissance ouer great; either else for that he had lear|ned of certeine wizzards, in whose words he put Makbeths confidence in wizzards. great confidence (for that the prophesie had happe|ned so right, which the thrée faries or weird sisters had declared vnto him) how that he ought to take héed of Makduffe, who in time to come should seeke to de|stroie him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 And suerlie herevpon had he put Makduffe to death, but that a certeune witch, whome hee had in great trust, had told that he should neuer be slaine with man borne of anie woman, nor vanquished till the wood of Bernane came to the castell of Dunsi|nane. By this prophesie Makbeth put all feare out of his heart, supposing he might doo what he would, without anie feare to be punished for the same, for by the one prophesie he beléeued it was vnpossible for anie man to vanquish him, and by the other vnpossi|ble to slea him. This vaine hope caused him to doo manie outragious things, to the gréeuous oppression of his subiects. At length Makduffe, to auoid perill of life, purposed with himselfe to passe into England, to procure Malcoline Cammore to claime the crowne of Scotland. But this was not so secretlie deuised by Makduffe, but that Makbeth had know|ledge giuen him thereof: f [...]r kings (as is said) haue sharpe sight like vnto Ly [...], and long ears like vnto Ly [...]s eies and Midas. eares. Midas. For Makbeth had in euerie noble mans house, one slie fellow or other in fée with him, to re|ueale all that was said or doone within the same, by which slight he oppressed the most part of the nobles of his realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Immediatlie then, being aduertised whereabout Makduffe went, he came hastily with a great power into Fife, and foorthwith besieged the castell where Makduffe dwelled, trusting to haue found him therein. They that kept the house, without anie re|sistance opened the gates, and suffered him to enter, mistrusting none euill. But neuerthelesse Makbeth Makbeths crueltie vsed against Mak|duffs familie. most cruellie caused the wife and children of Mak|duffe, with all other whom he found in that castell, to be slaine. Also he confiscated the goods of Makduffe, proclamed him traitor, and confined him out of all Makduffe es|capeth into England vn|to Malcolme Commore. the parts of his realme; but Makduffe was alreadie escaped out of danger, and gotten into England vn|to Malcolme Cammore, to trie what purchase hée might make by means of his support, to reuenge the slaughter so cruellie executed on his wife, his chil|dren, and other friends. At his comming vnto Mal|colme, Makduffes words vnto Malcolme. he declared into what great miserie the e|state of Scotland was brought, by the detestable cruelties exercised by the tyrant Makbeth, hauing committed manie horrible slaughters and murders, both as well of the nobles as commons, for the which he was hated right mortallie of all his liege people, desiring nothing more than to be deliuered of that intollerable and most heauie yoke of thraldome, which they susteined at such a caitifes hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Malcolme hearing Makduffes woords, which he vttered in verie lamentable sort, for méere compassi|on and verie ruth that pearsed his sorowfull hart, be|wailing the miserable state of his countrie, he fet|ched Malcolme sigheth. a deepe sigh; which Makduffe perceiuing, began to fall most earnestlie in hand with him, to enter|prise the deliuering of the Scotish people out of the hands of so cruell and bloudie a tyrant, as Makbeth by too manie plaine experiments did shew himselfe to be: which was an easie matter for him to bring to passe, considering not onelie the good title he had, but also the earnest desire of the people to haue some oc|casion EEBO page image 175 ministred, whereby they might be reuenged of those notable iniuries, which they dailie susteined by the outragious crueltie of Makbeths misgouer|nance. Though Malcolme was verie sorowfull for the oppression of his countriemen the Scots, in ma|ner as Makduffe had declared; yet doubting whether he were come as one that merit vnfeinedlie as he spake, or else as sent from Makbeth to betraie him, he thought to haue some further triall, and therevp|on dissembling his mind at the first, he answered as followeth.

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I am trulie verie sorie for the miserie chanced to my countrie of Scotland, but though I haue neuer Malcolme Ca [...]ore his answer. so great affection to relieue the same, yet by reason of certeine incurable vices, which reigne in me, I am nothing méet thereto. First, such immoderate lust and voluptuous sensualitie (the abhominable foun|teine of all vices) followeth me, that if I were made king of Scots, I should séeke to defloure your maids and matrones, in such wise that mine intemperan|cie should be more importable vnto you, than the bloudie tyrannie of Makbeth now is. Héere vnto Makduffe answered: This suerlie is a verie euill Makduffes answer. fault, for manie noble princes and kings haue lost both liues and kingdomes for the same; neuerthelesse there are women enow in Scotland, and therefore follow my counsell. Make thy selfe king, and I shall conueie the matter so wiselie, that thou shalt be so sa|tisfied at thy pleasure in such secret wise, that no man shall be aware thereof.

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Then said Malcolme, I am also the most auariti|ous creature on the earth, so that if I were king, I should séeke so manie waies to get lands and goods, that I would slea the most part of all the nobles of Scotland by surmized accusations, to the end I might inioy their lands, goods, and possessions; and therefore to shew you what mischiefe may insue on you through mine vnsatiable couetousnes. I will re|hearse vnto you a fable. There was a for hauing a sore place on him ouerset with a swarme of flies, [...]able of a [...] that continuallie sucked out hir bloud: and when one that came by and saw this manner, demanded whe|ther she would haue the flies driuen beside hir, she an|swered no: for if these flies that are alreadie full, and by reason thereof sucke not verie egerlie, should be chased awaie, other that are emptie and fellie an hun|gred, should light in their places, and sucke out the residue of my bloud farre more to my greeuance than these, which now being satisfied doo not much an|noie me. Therefore saith Malcolme, suffer me to re|maine where I am, least if I atteine to the regiment of your realme, mine vnquenchable auarice may prooue such; that ye would thinke the displeasures which now grieue you, should séeme easie in respect of the vnmeasurable outrage, which might insue through my comming amongst you.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Makduffe to this made answer, how it was a far Couetous|nesse the root of all mischiefe. woorse fault than the other:

for auarice is the root of all mischiefe, and for that crime the most part of our kings haue béene slaine and brought to their finall end. Yet notwithstanding follow my counsell, and take vpon thée the crowne. There is gold and riches inough in Scotland to satisfie thy gréedie desire. Then said Malcolme againe, I am furthermore in|clined to dissimulation, telling of leasings, and all o|ther Dissimulation and deliting in lies. kinds of deceit, so that I naturallie reioise in nothing so much, as to betraie & deceiue such as put anie trust or confidence in my woords. Then sith there is nothing that more becommeth a prince than constancie, veritie, truth, and iustice, with the other laudable fellowship of those faire and noble vertues which are comprehended onelie in soothfastnesse, and that lieng vtterlie ouerthroweth the same; you sée how vnable I am to gouerne anie prouince or regi|on: and therefore sith you haue remedies to cloke and hide all the rest of my other vices, I praie you find shift to cloke this vice amongst the re [...]ue.

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Then said Makduffe: This yet is the woorst of all, and there I leaue thee, and therefore saie: Oh ye vn|happie Makduffes exclamation. and miserable Scotishmen, which are thus scourged with so manie and sundrie calamities, ech one about other! Ye haue one curssed and wicked ty|rant that now reigneth ouer you, without anie right or title, oppressing you with his most bloudie crueltie. This other that hath the right to the crowne, is so re|plet with the inconstant behauiour and manifest vi|ces of Englishmen, that he is nothing woorthie to inioy it: for by his owne confession he is not onelie auaritious, and giuen to vnsatiable lust, but so false a traitor withall, that no trust is to be had vnto anie woord he speaketh. Adieu Scotland, for now I ac|count my selfe a banished man for euer, without comfort or consolation: and with those woords the Makduffe wéepeth. brackish teares trickled downe his chéekes verie a|bundantlie.

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At the last, when he was readie to depart, Mal|colme tooke him by the sléeue, and said: Be of good Malcolme comforteth Makduffe. comfort Makduffe, for I haue none of these vices before remembred, but haue iested with thée in this manner, onelie to prooue thy mind: for diuerse times héeretofore hath Makbeth sought by this manner of meanes to bring me into his hands, but the more slow I haue shewed my selfe to condescend to thy motion and request, the more diligence shall I vse in accomplishing the same.
Incontinentlie héere vpon Makduffe & Malcolme [...]|brace ech o|ther. they imbraced ech other, and promising to be faith|full the one to the other, they fell in consultation how they might best prouide for all their businesse, to bring the same to good effect. Soone after, Makduffe repairing to the borders of Scotland, addressed his Makduffe writeth let|ters to his friends in Scotland. letters with secret dispatch vnto the nobles of the realme, declaring how Malcolme was confederat with him, to come hastilie into Scotland to claime the crowne, and therefore he required them, sith he was right inheritor thereto, to assist him with their powers to recouer the same out of the hands of the wrongfull vsurper.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time, Malcolme purchased such fa|uor at king Edwards hands, that old Siward earle Siward earle of Northam|berland. of Northumberland was appointed with ten thou|sand men to go with him into Scotland, to support him in this enterprise, for recouerie of his right. Af|ter these newes were spread abroad in Scotland, the nobles drew into two seuerall factions, the one ta|king The nobles of Scotland di|uided. part with Makbeth, and the other with Mal|colme. Héerevpon insued oftentimes sundrie bic ke|rings, & diuerse light skirmishes: for those that were of Malcolmes side, would not ieopard to ioine with their enimies in a pight field, till his comming out of England to their support. But after that Makbeth perceiued his enimies power to increase, by such aid as came to them foorth of England with his aduersa|rie Malcolme, he recoiled backe into Fife, there pur|posing Makbeth re|coileth. to abide in campe fortified, at the castell of Dunsinane, and to fight with his enimies, if they ment to pursue him; howbeit some of his friends ad|uised him, that it should be best for him, either to make some agréement with Malcolme, or else to flée Makbeth is counselled to flée into the Iles. with all speed into the Iles, and to take his treasure with him, to the end he might wage sundrie great princes of the r [...]alme to take his part, & reteine stran|gers, in whome he might better trust than in his owne subiects, which stale dailie from him: but he had such confidence in his prophesies, that he beléeued Makbeths trust in pro|phesies. he should neuer be vanquished, till Birnane wood were brought to Dunsinane; nor yet to be slaine with anie man, that should be or was borne of anie woman.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 EEBO page image 176 Malcolme following hastilie after Makbeth, came the night before the battell vnto Birnane wood, and when his armie had rested a while there to refresh them, he commanded euerie man to get a bough of Branches of trées. some trée or other of that wood in his hand, as big as he might beare, and to march foorth therewith in such wise, that on the next morrow they might come close|lie and without sight in this manner within view of his enimies. On the morrow when Makbeth beheld them comming in this sort, he first maruelled what the matter ment, but in the end remembred himselfe that the prophesie which he had heard long before that time, of the comming of Birnane wood to Dunsi|nane castell, was likelie to be now fulfilled. Neuer|thelesse, he brought his men in order of battell, and Makbeth fet|teth his men in order of bat|tell. Makbeth fle|eth, & is pur|sued of Mak|duffe. exhorted them to doo valiantlie, howbeit his enimies had scarselie cast from them their boughs, when Makbeth perceiuing their numbers, betooke him streict to flight, whom Makduffe pursued with great hatred euen till he came vnto Lunfannaine, where Makbeth perceiuing that Makduffe was hard at his backe, leapt beside his horsse, saieng;

Thou traitor, what meaneth it that thou shouldest thus in vaine follow me that am not appointed to be slaine by anie creature that is borne of a woman, come on there|fore, and receiue thy reward which thou hast deserued for thy paines, and therwithall he lifted vp his swoord thinking to haue slaine him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But Makduffe quicklie auoiding from his horsse, yer he came at him, answered (with his naked swoord in his hand) saieng:

It is true Makbeth, and now shall thine insatiable crueltie haue an end, for I am euen he that thy wizzards haue told thée of, who was neuer borne of my mother, but ripped out of her wombe: therewithall he stept vnto him, and slue him in the place.
Then cutting his head from his shoul|ders, he set it vpon a pole, and brought it vnto Mal|colme. Makbeth is slaine. This was the end of Makbeth, after he had reigned 17 yéeres ouer the Scotishmen. In the be|ginning of his reigne he accomplished manie woor|thie acts, verie profitable to the common-wealth (as ye haue heard) but afterward by illusion of the di|uell, he defamed the same with most terrible cruel|tie. He was slaine in the yéere of the incarnation, 1057, and in the 16 yéere of king Edwards reigne 1057. [...]. M. 1061. H. B. 8. H. B. Malcolme ouer the Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 MAlcolme Cammore thus recouering the relme (as ye haue heard) by support of king Edward, in the 16 yéere of the same Edwards reigne, he was crowned at Scone the 25 day of Aprill, in the yéere of our Lord 1057. Immediatlie after his coronati|on he called a parlement at Forfair, in the which he A parlement at Forfair. rewarded them with lands and liuings that had as|sisted him against Makbeth, aduancing them to fées and offices as he saw cause, & commanded that speci|allie those that bare the surname of anie offices or lands, should haue and inioy the same. He created manie earles, lords, barons, and knights. Manie of them that before were thanes, were at this time Thanes changed into earles. made earles, as Fife, Menteth, Atholl, Leuenor, Murrey, Cathnes, Rosse, and Angus. These were the first earles that haue béene heard of amongst the Scotishmen (as their histories doo make mention.) Manie new surnames were taken vp at this time amongst them, as Cauder, Lokart, Gordon, Sei|ton, Surnames. Lauder, Wawane, Meldrun, Schaw, Leir|mouth, Libertoun, Strachquhen, Cargill, Rattrey, Dundas, Cockbourne, Mirtoun, Menzeis, Aber|crummie, Listie, with manie other that had possessi|ons giuen them, which gaue names to the owners for the time. Others got their surnames by offices, as Steward, Durward, and Banerman. Also the pro|per names of manie valiant capteins were turned into generall surnames, as Kennedie, Graham, Haie, with diuerse other too long héere to rehearse. So that it came to passe then, as it hath doone manie times since, that new surnames haue worne the old out of vse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the foresaid parlement thus holden at Forfair, in the beginning of his reigne, there were manie holesome ordinances established, both apperteining to ciuill administration, and also to the ecclesiasticall iurisdiction. In reward also of Makduffes seruice, Makduffe earle of F [...] his aduance|ment. Priuileges granted vnto Makduffes linage. who (as ye haue heard) chieflie aided him to the attei|ning of the crowne, he honored him and his posteri|tie with thrée sorts of priuileges. First, that the earle of Fife for the time being, at the coronation of a king, should by his office set the crowne on the kings head. The second was, that when the king should giue battell to his enimies, the same earle should lead the vauntgard of his host. The third, that the linage of Makduffe should inioy regall authoritie and power within all their lands and roomes, as to appoint offi|cers and iudges for the hearing and determining of all matters and controuersies (treason onelie excep|ted) and that if anie of their men or tenants were called to answer in anie court out of their circuit, they might appeale to their owne iudges to be appoin|ted, as before is expressed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Iohannes Maior writeth in his chronicles, that the Iohannes Ma|ior. third priuilege, which Malcolme granted vnto this Makduffe and his posteritie, was this, that for eue|rie gentleman that anie of them should hap to kill by chancemedlie, and not vpon pretensed malice, for the summe of 24 marks he should redeeme his pu|nishment due for the same: & for the casuall slaugh|ter of a meaner person he should be fined at twelue marks. So that murtherers were woont to say, that if they were able to paie that summe to the Kinbot, they ought to be released of further punishment, by Makduffes priuilege. But this third priuilege, to|gither with the other two former grants, the said Maior sore reprooueth, and not without cause, as may appéere, considering the naturall inclination of that people vnto murther, which by this meanes nouri|shing secret hatred and malice in their harts, might vnder the cloke of casuall falling out, flea whom they lifted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 It was ordeined also at this parlement, that ba|rons which had liberties within themselues, should make gibbets, whereon men that deserued death Gibbets and draw-wels. should suffer execution: and also draw-wels, wherein women that were condemned should be drowned, according to the order of the ciuill lawes vsed in Scotland. Moreouer, all the lawes that Makbeth had Makbeths lawes abroga|ted. ordeined, were abrogated at this parlement. Thus whilest Malcolme was busied in setting orders a|mongst his subiects, tidings came that one Lugtake surnamed the foole, being either the sonne, or (as some Lugtake. write) the coosen of the late mentioned Makbeth, was conueied with a great number of such as had taken part with the said Makbeth vnto Scone, and there by their support receiued the crowne, as lawfull Lugtake crowned at Scone. inheritor thereto. To appease this businesse, was Makduffe earle of Fife sent with full commission in the kings name, who incountring with Lugtake at a village called Essen in Bogdale, flue him, and dis|comfited Lugtake is slaine. his whole power, ordering the matter with them in such wife, that afterwards there was no more trouble attempted in that behalfe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, the realme continued in peace certeine yeeres, till it chanced a great number of théeues and A band of théiues. robbers assembling themselues togither at Coc|bourne pethes, did much hurt, by robbing and spoi|ling the people in the countries of Mers and Lou|thian: howbeit, at length one Patrike Dunbar of Patrike Dunbar [...]an|quisheth the théiues and robbers of the countrie. Dunbar, by commandement of the king, fought with them, flue their capteine, with six hundred of his EEBO page image 177 companie, and tooke fourescore prisoners, the which he caused to be hanged. And thus hauing deliuered the countrie of those péelers, with losse of fortie of his owne men, he returned to the king, with the head of the capteine of that rout: so that for his manhood héerein shewed, he was made by the king earle of Patrike Dunbar earle of March. March, and for the maintenance of his estate, had the lands of Cockbourne Pethes giuen to him and his heires for euer, vpon this condition, that in times comming, the earles of March should purge Mers and Louthian of all théeues and robbers. In memo|rie whereof, he was commanded to beare in his armes a fellons head sprinkled with bloud. The head of a theefe or fellon giuen in arms

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Shortlie after he got knowledge, how there were certeine gentlemen that had conspired to slea him, & therefore taking occasion to go on hunting, where I conspiracie. this act should haue béene erecuted, he calleth the chiefe author of the conspiracie apart into a certeine vallie, which was closed on euerie side with thicke woods, and there brake the matter vnto him, in repro|uing him verie sharpelie, for that he had so traito|rouflie conspired his death, whose preseruation he ought chieflie to haue wished, considering the mani|fold benefits he had receiued at his hands. And here|with leaping from his horsse, drew his swoord, com|manding The manlie courage of K. Malcolme. the other likewise to draw his, that now ha|uing conuenient time and place thereto, they might trie the matter betwixt them, who should be thought most woorthie of life, by open force of knightlie prow|esse. The conspirator hearing these woords, as a man altogither astonished, fell downe vpon his knees at the kings féet; beseeching his grace of mercie for his wicked purpose and heinous offense: who séeing him thus penitent, bad him arise, and said;

I am content héerevpon to forgiue thee, so that thou be not of coun|sell heereafter in anie such traitorous practise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilest things passed thus in Scotland, great and maruellous chances came to passe within the realme of England. For after the death of king Edward, surnamed the Confessor, Harold the sonne of earle Goodwine tooke on him the kingdome. But Willi|am Sée more her|ot in England bastard duke of Normandie, pretending title to the crowne of England, at length inuaded the land, and sleaing Harold in field, made a full conquest of the realme, and was crowned king at London by Eldred archbishop of Yorke. Héere ye haue to vnder|stand, that king Edward in his life time had sent for his nephue Edward, the sonne of his brother Ed|mund Ironside, to come home foorth of Hungarie, whither (after his fathers deceasse) he and his brother Edwine had béene sent awaie, as in the historie of England it appéereth more at large. This Edward had married the daughter of the emperor Henrie, Wil. Malm. named Agatha, sister to the quéene of Hungarie, and not the king of Hungaries daughter, although the Scotish writers doo so affirme. By hir he had issue a sonne named Edgar, and two daughters, the one named Margaret, and the other Christen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Edward ment that his nephue the said Ed|ward should haue succeeded him, and (as some write) Hector Boct. he would in his life time haue resigned the crowne vnto him. But he (a thing woorthie of admiration) vtterlie refused it, and would not once meddle there|with during his vncles life time; & (as it chanced) he died, whilest his vncle king Edward was yet liuing. His sonne Edgar therefore, to whom it séemed that the crowne was due, when he saw the realme con|quered by the Normans, despairing to recouer it out of their hands, got a ship, and determined with his mother and sisters to passe ouer into Germanie to his friends and kinsfolke there: but by contrarie winds he was driuen to shore in the Forth, at a place called vnto this day the queenes ferrie. Malcolme be|ing The quéenes ferrie. at the same time at Dunfermeling, when he heard of the arriuall of this ship, and vnderstood what they were that were aboord in hir, he resorted thither with an honorable companie about him, to visit them for honors sake, vpon fauour he bare towards them, for that they were descended of that noble prince king Edward, in whome afore time he had found so much gentlenesse and friendship.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Finallie, when he vnderstood their estate, he brought them honie with him to his palace, shewing them all the loue and friendship he could deuise; and in the end considering the excellent beutie, wisdome, and noble qualities of the ladie Margaret, sister to Malcolme Cammore ma|rieth Marga|ret sister to Edgar Achel|ling. the same Edgar, he required of Agatha hir mother to haue hir in mariage, wherevnto Agatha gladlie condescended. Shortlie after, with an assemblie of all the nobles of Scotland, this mariage was made and solemnized after the octaues of Easter, in the yeare 1067, with all the ioy & triumph that might be 1067. H. B. deuised. K. William conqueror of England, being informed hereof, feared least this aliance betwixt Malcolme and Edgar might bréed some trouble and disquietnesse to his estate, sith the same Edgar had manie friends through all the parties of England. To preuent therefore the occasions of intestine trou|bles, he confined all the linage of the foresaid Edgar, by reason whereof, a great number of Englishmen Englishmen fled into Scot land. came into Scotland vnto king Malcolme, and ma|nie of them obteining liuings at his hands, remai|ned there continuallie during their liues, leauing to their posteritie their names & possessions. Amongst whome were these, Lindseie, Uaus, Ramseie, Lo|uell, Towhris, Prestoune, Sandlands, Bissart, Surnames of Englishmen in Scotland. Sowlis, Wardlaw, Marwell, with diuerse other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 There came diuerse also out of Hungarie with quéene Margaret, who likewise left their names to their families, which yet remaine euen vnto this Surnames of Hungari|ans. day, as Creichtoune, Fotringham, Giffart, Mel|uill, Borthwike, and others. Also there haue come at sundrie seasons out of France diuers surnames Surnames of Frenchmen. into Scotland, as Fraseir, Sinclare, Boswell, Mowtray, Mountgummerie, Campbell, Bois, Be|toun, or Betuin, Taillefer, and Bothwell, besides sundrie other which were but superfluous to rehearse at this time. ¶ But to the order of the historie. It is recorded by writers, that these (which at this time came out of England vnto Edgar) brought great quantitie of gold and siluer with them; also manie relikes of saints, and (amongst other) that blacke The blacke crosse. crosse which king Dauid gaue vnto the abbeie of Holie rood house in Louthian, which he founded at his owne charges. Shortlie after the proscription of these Englishmen, William the conqueror sent an herald at armes vnto king Malcolme, demanding William con|queror threat|neth king Malcolme. to haue Edgar deliuered into his hands, and threat|ning that if he refused to deliuer him, he would suer|lie fetch him, and that smallie for Malcolms com|moditie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But Malcolme, though he vnderstood that he should be sure of wars at K. Williams hands for his deniall; yet he declared plainelie to the herald, that Malcolms answere. his maisters request was vnreasonable, & therefore he minded not in anie wise to gratifie him therein. King William receiuing this answere from king Oven warre proclaimed by William con|queror. Northumber|land taketh part with K. Malcolme. Roger a Nor|man capteine or rather earle Roger (as I take it.) Sée in Eng|land. Malcolme, proclamed open warre against Scot|land. In the meane time all Northumberland tooke part with K. Malcolme, for that he was their earles sisters sonne. Wherevpon K. William sent a va|liant capteine, a Norman borne named Roger, to inuade Northumberland. Which Roger gathering a power of men, came hastilie into that countrie, howbeit he abode a short time there in honor, for by the Scots & Northumberland men his armie was discomfited, and he himselfe traitorouslie slaine by his owne souldiers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 EEBO page image 178 But king William nothing discouraged with The earle of Glocester. this ouerthrow: sent one Richard earle of Glocester (whome amongest all the Englishmen he had most in trust) with a mightie armie into Cumberland, Gospatrike saith Simon Dunel. against whome were sent the earles of March and Menteith, who defended the countrie right manlie from the inuasion of the said earle, so that he was not able to take anie aduantage of them. King William aduertised hereof, waxed woonderfull wroth, that no more good was doone against his eni|mies, wherevpon he sent a new power thither with all spéed, vnder the leading of his brother Odo, who was both bishop of Baieux, and earle of Kent. By Odo bishop of Baieux and earie of Kent. this last armie, the countrie of Northumberland was sore spoiled, and a great number both of Scots and Northumberlandmen discomfited and slaine. But as Odo was preparing to returne, there came Malcolme, with all the power he might make, and giuing an onset vpon his enimies, slue a great num|ber Malcolms enterprise a|gainst his eni|mies. of them, and recouered all the bootie which Odos men had got in the countrie, and so right ioifull of that victorie, returned into Scotland. King Wil|liam yet nothing abashed for these mishaps, sent his sonne called Robert, with a far greater power than Robert the sonne of Wil|liam conque|rour. Newcastell vpon Tine fortified. at anie time he had sent before, into Northumber|land, who remaining a long season in campe néere to the riuer of Tine, attempted no notable enter|prise, sauing that he repared and newlie fortified the towne of Newcastell, which standeth vpon the same riuer of Tine; and then at length a peace was concluded betwixt the two kings vnder these condi|tions, A peace con|cluded be|twixt William Conquerour, and Mal|colme Cam|more. that king Malcolme should inioy that part of Northumberland which lieth betwixt Twéed, Cum|berland, and Stainmoore, and to doo homage to the K. of England for the same. In the midst of Stain|moore there shall be a crosse set vp, with the king of Englands image on the one side, and the king of Scotlands on the other, to signifie that the one is march to England, and the other to Scotland. This crosse was called the roicrosse, that is, the crosse The roicrosse. of the kings. Moreouer, it was concluded that Waltheof or Uoldosius (as the Scotish writers Waltheof. name him) the sonne of Siward earle of Northum|berland should marie king Williams néece, borne Siward earle of Northum|berland. of his daughter, and to be frée from all paiments and exactions due to the king by anie maner of pre|rogatiue or means, for the space of twentie yeares next insuing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the necke of this peace thus concluded betwixt Rebellion in Galloway. the kings, happened new trouble in Scotland, by reason of intestine rebellion: for the people of Gal|loway, and the Iland men, rose in great numbers, and spoiled the borders of their neighbors, not spa|ring from slaughter in all parts, where they were anie thing resisted. Against these rebels was sent Walter the sonne of Fle|ance. by king Malcolme, Walter the sonne of Fleance (of whome there is mention made before) with a con|uenient armie, who at his comming into Gallo|way, first gaue the people of that countrie an ouer|throw, Makglaue. and slue their chiefe capteine Makglaue. Then afterwards fighting with them of the Iles, he subdued them in such wise, that all things were pa|cified euen at commandement. For which high prowes and diligence in this péece of seruice shewed, he was created by Malcolme high steward of the realme, so that afterwards both he and his posteri|tie euer since haue borne that surname, euen vnto Walter crea|ted high ste|ward of Scotland. these our daies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After the quieting of this businesse, there sprang a new tumult more dangerous than the former, for the Murreyland men, procuring them of Rosse and Cathnes, with diuers other to ioine with them in confederacie, did not onelie slea the kings seruants, A new rebel|lion in Mur|rey land. and those that were appointed vnder him to see iu|stice ministred, but through support of one Makcun|cane, whome they chose to be their capteine, they al|so wasted and destroied the kings possessions, with more crueltie than euer had béene heard of before. Wherefore to punish these traitorous attempts, Makduffe was sent with an armie into Mar. But Makduffe the traitors doubting least they should not be able to withstand his puissance, thought nothing more a|uailable than to stop him with monie: but in the meane time came the king himselfe in good season into Monimuske, where he was aduertised, that in maner all the north parts of Scotland with the Iles, were confederat with the Murreyland men against him. The king astonished something at these newes, vowed to giue the baronnie of Monimuske (which The kings vow. he vnderstood to be lands perteining to the crowne) vnto the church of saint Andrew in Fife, if it might please God to send him victorie ouer his enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At length comming vnto the water of Speie, he beheld his enimies on the further side, in greater number, and in better furniture for armor than he thought had béene possible to haue found in all Scot|land: Standard bearer. he perceiued also that his standard-bearer be|gan to shrinke, and not to shew the like cheerefull countenance as he ought to haue doone. Wherefore he pulled the banner from him, and gaue it to sir A|lexander Sir Alexan|der Carron. Carron, who with this his new office ob|teined sundrie faire lands and possessions, to him and to his heires for euer: but his surname was af|terwards changed, and called Skrimgeour; of the which is descended a noble house, continuing yet in great honor in the same surname and office. When A peace con|cluded. the king was once passed the water, and the armies on both sides readie to haue ioined, through media|tion of bishops and other vertuous men, the matter was taken vp, and peace made on these conditions; The submis|sion of gentle|men. That the commons that tooke part with the rebels, should returne home out of hand, and the gentlemen to submit themselues to the kings pleasure, their liues and lands saued. Howbeit manie of them were kept in perpetuall prison during their liues, and all their goods confiscated to the kings vse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 All ciuill trouble and commotion being thus quie|ted, King Mal|colme through exhortation of his wife, gi|ueth himselfe to deuotion. king Malcolme (speciallie by the good admo|nishment and exhortation of his wife quéene Mar|garet, a woman of great zeale vnto the religion of that time) gaue himselfe in maner altogither vnto much deuotion, and workes of mercie; as in dooing of almes déeds, by prouiding for the poore, and such like godlie exercises: so that in true vertue he was thought to excell all other princes of his time. To be briefe, herein there séemed to be in maner a cer|teine A godlie strife strife betwixt him, and that vertuous quéene his wife, which of them should be most feruent in the loue of God, so that manie people by the imitation of them were brought vnto a better life. Agatha and Agatha and Christine re|nounce the world. hir daughter Christine also, by the example of these two holie liuers, renounced the pompe of the court, and got them to a priuat and solitarie life, wherein they gaue themselues wholic to diuine contempla|tion. Furthermore, Malcolme by the setting on of the queene his wife, ceassed not to set his indeuor wholie to the aduancement of the christian religion, and to restore things that were decaied by the negli|gence of his predecessors. Therefore whereas before his time, there were but foure bishops sées in Scot|land, as saint Andrews, Glascow, Galloway, and Murthlake, and two of them, that is to say, saint Andrews and Murthlake remaining onelie in good Bishops seas restored and newlie crected by king Mal|colme. reparation (the other being decaied) he restored the other two to their former beauties, and furthermore erected two other of new, as Murrey and Cathnes, placing men of singular vertue and purenesse of life in the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 179 But to procéed. It is said, that such outragious ri|ot entred at this time, and began to grow in vse a|mong the Scotishmen, togither with the language and maners of the English nation (by reason that Riot and su|perfluous there brought into Scot|land. such a multitude of the same, flieng out of their countrie, were dailie receiued as then into Scot|land to inhabit there, as before is shewed) that di|uerse of the nobles perceiuing what discommoditie and decaie to the whole realme would insue of this The lamenta|non of the Scotish nobi|litie for the in|temperate surfetting be|gun to grow in vse in their countrie. intemperance, came to the king, lamenting gree|uouslie the case, for that this venemous infection spred so fast ouer the whole realme, to the peruer|ting and vtter remoouing of the ancient sobrietie of diet vsed in the same. Wherefore they besought him to prouide some remedie in time, before hope of re|dresse were past, that the people might be againe re|duced vnto their former frugalitie, who hitherto vsed not to eat but once in the day, and then desiring no The ancient sparenesse of diet amongst the Scots. superfluous meates and drinks to be sought by sea and land, nor curiouslie dressed or serued foorth with sawces, but onelie feeding to satisfie nature, and not their gréedie appetites.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Through this their sober fare, with the exercising of their bodies herewith in continuall trauell, they Sober fare cause of strength and hugenesse of bodie. grew more strong and greater of bodie, than their ofspring are found to be in these daies: for they were more in resemblance like vnto giants than vnto men of our time, with great and huge bodies, migh|tie armes and lims, pressing vpon their enimies like vnto fierce lions, bearing downe all before them, without dread of anie danger, for that they excéeded all humane strength and power. Herevpon king Malcolme tooke great paines to haue redressed this infectiue poison, and vtterlie to haue expelled it foorth of his realme. Howbeit the nature of man is so prone and readie to imbrace all kinds of vice, that Mans nature prone to vice. where the Scotish people before had no knowledge nor vnderstanding of fine fare or riotous surfet; yet after they had once tasted the swéet poisoned bait thereof, there was now no meane to be found to re|streine their licorous desires. ¶ And yet those corrup|ted abuses and riotous superfluities (which came in|to the realme of Scotland with the Englishmen) planted therein by the daies of king Malcolme, are not to be compared in excesse with things vsed in our time. For in those daies, as yet the nature of man was not so ouercome with the abuse of super|fluities, as it is now adaies; for then though they were gone from the ancient sparenesse of diet, they yet did not eat past twise a day, and had but two di|shes at a meale: but now the gréedie taste of mens The gréedie taste of mens infatiable lust. insatiable lust is such, that no kind of flesh, fish, fruit, or whatsoeuer may be gotten, is vnneth able to quench their gluttonous appetit & rauenous gorman|dizing; so that neither land, sea, nor aire, is left vn|sought to satisfie the same, as though they were wor|thie of most high commendation that may deuour most: wherein they may be iustlie compared to grée|die Men compa|red to wolues & coruorants. woolues and coruorants. But to bewaile that in words which cannot be amended in déeds, is but a follie: for the infection is so entered into the inner parts of the intrails, that neither with purging, cut|ting, nor searing, it may be holpen. Sooner shall you destroie the whole nation; than remooue this vice.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time whilest things passed thus in Scotland, king William the Conqueror died in the 21 yéere of his reigne, and after the incarnation 1087. About which time king Malcolme caused the 1086. H. B. old church of Durham to be plucked downe and buil|ded vp a new, beginning euen at the first floore. In The church of Durham built by king Mal|colme. Turgot. which season, one Egelwin or William (as the Sco|tish writers say) was bishop of that sée, and prior of the abbeie was one Turgot, who afterward was made bishop of saint Andrews, and wrote the liues of queene Margaret and Malcolme hir husband in the Scotish toong. Afterward he deceassed in saint Andrews, but his bodie was brought vnto Dur|ham, and there buried, bicause he was first prior ther|of. King Malcolme by persuasion of this Turgot, The church of Dunfermling builded also a church in Dunfermling, dedicated to the Trinitie, ordeining from thencefoorth that the The sepulture of the Sco|tish kings. common sepulture of the kings should be there, in like maner as it had béene afore time in the Ile of Iona at the abbeie of Colmekill.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Amongst other vertuous ordinances also, which were deuised and made by king Malcolme (through exhortation of his wife quéene Margaret) mentio|ned by Turgot in the booke which he wrote of their liues, this is not to be forgotten, that he abrogated that wicked law, established by king Ewin the third, appointing halfe a marke of siluer to be paid to King Ewins law abrogated or rather al|tered. the lord of the soile, in redemption of the womans chastitie, which is vsed to be paied yet vnto this day, and is called the marchets of woman: where other|wise by tenor of king Ewins law, the lord had the vse of their bodies all the first night after their ma|riage. King William surnamed the Red, the second William Ru|fus. sonne of king William the Conqueror, and succes|sor to him in the kingdome of England, not well contented nor pleased in his mind, that the Scots should imoy a great portion of the north parts of England, ancientlie belonging to his crowne as parcell thereof, he raised a great armie, and before anie denouncing of warre by him made, inuaded Northumberland, and tooke the castell of Anwike, The castell of Anwike woon by the Eng|lishmen. putting all such to the swoord as were found in the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 King Malcolme, to withstand such exploits at|tempted by his enimie, leuied a great host of his sub|iects, and comming with the same into Northum|berland, besieged the said castell of Anwike. And The castell of Anwike besie|ged by the Scots. now when the kéepers of the hold were at point to haue made surrender, a certeine English knight conceiuing in his mind an hardie and dangerous in|terprise, mounted on a swift horsse without armor or weapon, sauing a speare in his hand, vpon the point whereof he bare the keies of the castell, and so issued foorth at the gates, riding directlie towards the Scotish campe. They that warded, mistrusting no harme, brought him with great noise and clamour vnto the kings tent. Who hearing the noise, came foorth of his pauilion to vnderstand what the matter ment. The Englishman herewith couched his staffe, as though it had bene to the end that the king might receiue the keies which he had brought. And whilest all mens eies were earnest in beholding the keies, the Englishman ran the king through the left eie, An hardie enterprise. and suddenlie dashing his spurres to his horsse, esca|ped to the next wood out of all danger. The point of the speare entered so farre into the kings head, that immediatlie falling downe amongst his men, hée K. Malcolme is slaine. yeelded vp the ghost. This was the end of king Mal|colme in the midst of his armie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 It is said, that king William changed the name The name of the Percées had no such beginning, for they came foorth of Nor|mandie at the conquest. Erles of Nor|thumberland. K. Malcolme buried at Tinmouth, of this aduenturous knight, & called him Perse eie, for that he stroke king Malcolme so right in the eie, and in recompense of his seruice gaue him cer|teine lands in Northumberland: of whome those Percées are descended, which in our daies haue in|ioied the honorable title of earles of Northumber|land. The Scots after the slaughter of their king, brake vp their campe, and buried his bodie within the abbeie of Tinmouth in England. But his sonne Alexander caused it afterwards to be taken vp, and buried in Dunfermling before the altar of the Tri|nitie. At the same time was Scotland wounded with another mishap. For Edward the prince of Edward prince of Scot land died. Scotland, eldest sonne to king Malcolme, died of a EEBO page image 180 hurt which he receiued in a skirmish not farre from Anwike, and was buried in Dunfermling, the first of the bloud roiall that had his bones laid in that place. Quéene Margaret being aduertised of the death both of hir husband and sonne, as then lieng in Quéene Mar garet died. Edenburgh castell, hir disease increased through griefe therof so vehementlie, that within thrée daies after she departed out of this life, vnto an other more ioifull and blessed. King Malcolme was slaine in the yéere of our redemption 1092, on the 13 day of No|uember 1097. H. B. The Ides o [...] October H. B. Strange woonders. An huge tide. and in the 36 yéere of his reigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 In the same yéere, manie vncouth things came to passe, and were séene in Albion. By the high spring|tides which chanced in the Almaine seas, manie townes, castels, and woods were drowned, as well in Scotland as in England. After the ceassing of which tempest, the lands that sometime were earle Good|wins (of whome ye haue heard before) lieng not farre from the towne of Sandwich, by violent force and drift of the sea, were made a sand-bed, and euer s [...]|thens haue bene called Goodwins sands. The people Goodwins sands. haue thought that this vengeance came to that péece of ground being possessed by his posteritie, for the wicked slaughter of Alured, which he tratorouslie contriued. Moreouer sundrie castels and townes in Murrey land, were ouerthrowne by the sea tides. Such dreadfull thunder happened also at the same Thunder. time, that men and beasts were slaine in the fields, and houses ouerturned euen from their fundations. In Louthian, Fife, and Angus, trées and corne were Trées and corne burnt. burned vp by fire, kindled no man knew how, nor from whence.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the daies of this Malcolme Cammore, liued that famous historiographer Marianus a Scotish|man Marianus. borne, but professed a moonke in the monasterie of Fulda in Germanie. Also Veremond a Spanish priest, but dwelling in Scotland, florished about the Veremond. same time, and wrote the Scotish historie, whome Hector Boetius so much followeth. Malcolme had by his wife quéene Margaret (otherwise called for hir holinesse of life saint Margaret) six sonnes, Edward The sons of K. Malcolme Cammore. (as is said) was slaine: Etheldred, which died in his tender age, and was buried in Dunfermling: and Edmund which renounced the world, and liued an holie life in England: the other thrée were named Edgar, Alexander, and Dauid. There be that write how Edmund was taken, and put to death by his vncle Donald Bane, when he inuaded the king|dome, Do [...]ald Bane and vsurped the crowne, after the deceasse of his brother king Malcolme, and so then was Edgar next inheritor to the crowne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This Donald Bane, who (as before is mentioned) fled into the Iles to eschue the tyrannicall malice of Donald Bane fled into the I [...]es. Donald Bane returneth into Scotland. His couenant for the gift of the Iles to the king of Norwaie. Makbeth, after he once heard that his brother king Malcolme was dead, returned into Scotland by support of the king of Norwaie, vnto whom he coue|nanted to giue the dominion of all the Iles, if by his means & furtherance he might obteine the crowne of Scotland. Herevpon landing with an armie in the realme, he found small resistance, and so with little adoo receiued the crowne. For manie of the people abhorring the riotous maners and super [...]u|ous gormandizing brought in among them by the Englishmen, were willing inough to receiue this The respect that the people had to receiue Donald Bane for their king. Donald for their king, trusting (bicause he had béene brought vp in the Iles with the old customes and maners of their ancient nation, without fast of the English likerous delicats) they should by his seuere order in gouernement recouer againe the former temperance of their old progenitors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 As soone as Edgar Etheling brother to Queene K. Malco [...]ms sons sent for into England by Edgar their vncle. Margaret was aduertised that Donald Bane had thus vsurped the crowne of Scotland, he sent secret|lie for his three nephues, Edgar, Alexander, and Da|uid, with two sisters which they had, to come vnto him into England, where he had not kept them anie long while, but that a knight whose name was Or|gan Orgar or one Organ accused Ed|gar Etheling of tr [...]aion. or Orgar, accused him of treason, all [...]dging how he nourished his sisters sonnes and daughters within the realme, in hope to make them inheritors to the crowne: but the malice of this false surmize remained not vnpunished, for one of Edgars friends, taking in hand to darraine battell with Or|gan, in defense of Edgars innocencie, flue him Organ is slaine within lists. within lists. After that Donald had receiued the crowne at the abbeie of Scone, he perceiued that some of the nobles grudged at his preferment, shew|ing by some tokens that they had more affection vn|to king Malcolmes children, than vnto him: and therefore he cast out a woord amongst his familiars, Donald threatneth. that yer it were long the nobles should repent them of their dooing, if they applied not them selues the more to his opinion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Which woords being marked, and deepelie imprin|ted in some of their hearts, turned afterwards to his great displeasure. For shortlie after came Duncane Duncan Mal colms bastard sonne. the bastard sonne of king Malcolme out of England into Scotland, supported with an armie of men ap|pointed by king William the Red, to place him in the kingdome, and to expell Donald out of the same by force of armes, if he attempted anie resistance. Now when Donald approched with his puissance, in purpose to haue giuen battell, the most part of his people did forsake him, and drew vnto Duncans side, so that Donald thus abandoned of them that should have aided him, was constreined for his re|fuge to flee againe into the westerne Iles: and so Duncane then comming vnto Scone, receiued the crowne of Scotland. But for that he had béene trai|ned Duncane is crowned king of Scotland. the most part of his life in the warres both in England and France, he had small skill in ciuill go|uernement, iudging that thing onelie to stand with Duncane lac|keth skill in ciuill gouerne|ment. iustice, which was decided with speare and shield. By reason whereof Scotland was shortlie filled with new troubles and seditious diuisions.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Donald Bane being aduertised of all those things, that thereby happened in Scotland, sollicited Mak|pender erle of Mernes to take his part, and by some meanes to slea K. Duncane, which enterprise Mak|pender taking in hand, at length (in Menteth) ac|complished Makpender erie of Merns sleieth king Duncane. the same in the night season, when he had espied such aduantage and opportunitie of time, that not so much as one man was found to pursue him. But to say the truth, Duncane was so farre out of the peoples fauor, that more reio [...]sed than were sorie for his death. After he was thus dispatched, his vn|cle Donald Ba [...] is restored to the crowne. Donald was restored againe to the kingdome, chieflie by support of the forenamed Makpender, after his nephue the foresaid Duncane had reigned one yéere and an halfe, where Donald himselfe had reigned (before he was expelled by his said nephue) the space of six moneths, and now after he had reco|uered the kingdome, he continued in the regiment thereof thrée yéeres, not without great trouble and intestine commotions: for the most part of the lords maligning his aduancement, sought occasions dai|lie to depose him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time the Ilandmen made some stirre, neither did the warres with England ceasse, (though without anie great exploit or enterprise woorthie of remembrance) sauing a few light skir|mishes betwixt the parties, as occasion serued. At length came Magnus king of Norwaie with a Magnus K. of Norway co meth into the westerne Iles great fléet, and sailing about the westerne Iles, gar|nished all the strengths within them in most defen|sible wise, with men, munition, and vittels, vsurping the dominion as souereigne lord of the same Iles: and at the same time ordeiued those lawes and con|stitutions EEBO page image 181 which are vsed there amongst the inhabi|tants euen vnto these daies. The Scotishmen ha|uing great indignation, that the Iles being anci|entlie parcell of the crowne, should be thus aliena|ted from the same, sent orators vnto Edgar (who Edgar king Malcolmes son is sent for. was, as ye haue heard, the fourth sonne of king Malcolme) desiring him most instantlie to come in|to Scotland, to recouer his fathers heritage and crowne of Scotland out of the vsurpers hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Edgar taking deliberate aduise touching this re|quest, Edgar sen|deth messen|gers to Do|nald. first sent ambassadours vnto Donald, promi|sing that if he would be contented to restore vnto him the crowne, being due to him by lawfull succes|sion, he would gladlie reward him with great lord|ships and reuenues in Louthian: but Donald was so farre from minding to doo him reason in this be|halfe, that causing them which brought this message Donald slea|ech Edgars messengers. to be put in prison, he finallie slue them. Then Ed|gar by counsell of his vncle Edgar Etheling, pur|chasing an aid of men at the hands of king William Edgar is ai|ded by K. Wil|liam Rufus. Rufus, set forwards toward Scotland. At his com|ming to Durham, he was admonished by a vision in his sléepe, that if he tooke with him the banner of saint Cutbert, he should haue victorie. On the mor|row Saint Cut|berts banner. after, he came into the abbeie church, where first hearing diuine seruice, when the same was ended, he displaied the foresaid banner, and caused it to be borne before him in that iournie. Neuertheles king Donald met him with a mightie armie, and after K. Donald discomfited and chased in|to the Iles. K. Donald is taken. long fight, was chased into the Iles, where he was taken and brought vnto Edgar. ¶ Some say that when the battels were readie to haue ioined, his men beholding the banner of saint Cutbert spred a|gainst them, immediatlie forsooke him, so that he be|ing destitute of succour, fled, in purpose to haue sa|ued himselfe in some one of the westerne Iles: but being apprehended by the inhabitants, was brought (as is [...]aid) vnto Edgar, by whome he was (howsoe|uer the h [...]p of his taking chanced) cast immediatlie King Do|nald dieth in prison. into prison, wherein he shortlie after died. The victo|rie thus atchiued, Edgar went vnto Edenburgh, and from thence vnto Dunfermeling to visit the se|pultures o [...] his mother and brethren.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 AFterwards comming to the abbeie of Scone, and assembling the lords of the realme, he recei|ued Edgar. the crowne, and shortlie after was annointed by the archbishop of saint Andrews named Godrike, Edgaris crowned and annointed. in the yéere of our redemption 1101. For his mo|ther queene Margaret purchased a little before hir death of Urbane the pope, that from hencefoorth all A priuilege for the Sco|tish kings to be annointed. the kings of Scotland should be annointed. This priuiledge was confirmed afterwards by pope Iohn the second of that name. The first king that was annointed according to that grant, was this Edgar the first annointed king of Scot|land. The passage into the holie land. Edgar, in the yere aforesaid. About two yeers before this Edgar recouered th [...] the crowne of Scot|land, was that generall passage made into the holie land vnder Godfrie of Bullongne, and other christi|an princes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Amongst them, as one of the chiefe, Robert duke Robert duke [...] Normãdie. of Normandie went, and should haue béene created king of Ierusalem, had he not at the same time heard how his brother William Rufus the king of England was slaine by chance, through glansing of an arrow shot at a déere in the new forrest; and then hoping to succéed him in the kingdom of Eng|land, he preferred that honor to the other, wherein he saw to be more trauell than gaine. But at his com|ming home, he found that his yoongest brother Hen|rie Henrie Beau clerke king of England. surnamed Beauclerke, was placed in the king|dome of England, and so was duke Robert his hope frustrate of both the kingdomes, and that woorthilie (as most men thought) for that he refused so necessa|rie a dignitie, wherein he might haue serued the com|mon cause of the christian common-wealth. Unto Henrie Beauclerke in the second yere of his reigne Mauld kind Edgars sister. king Edgar maried one of his sisters called Mauld. The other named Marie he coupled with Eustace earle of Bullongne: in which mariage was borne Eustace earle of Bullongne. a daughter that was the onelie heire of the same Eustace in the countie of Bullongne, the which when she came to womans state, was maried vnto Ste|phan earle of March in England, and of Morteigne in France, nephue to Henrie Beauclerke by his sister. The king of England Henrie, had issue by quéene Mauld, two sonnes and two daughters, Wil|liam and Richard, Eufame and Mauld.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But now to returne to king Edgar, to shew some token of thanks towards saint Cutbert for his aid shewed, as was thought, in the battell against his vncle Donald, he gaue vnto the moonks of Durham the lands of Coldingham: and to the bishop of Dur|ham The lands of Coldingham. Canulph bi|shop of Dur|ham. called Canulph, he gaue the towne of Ber|wike. But for that the same bishop wrought after|wards treason against him, he lost that gift, and the king resumed that towne into his hands againe. I doo not find that Edgar had anie warres anie waie foorth during all the time of his reigne, a prince ra|ther reuerenced than dread amongst his subiects for Edgar rather reuerenced than dred. 1107. lo. Ma. 1109. H. B. Alexan|der. his singular equitie and vpright dealing. He depar|ted out of this life at Dundee, in the 9 yéere of his reigne, and after the birth of our Sauiour 1107.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 AFter the deceasse of this Edgar, succéeded his brother Alexander the fierce, so called for his ri|gorous valiancie in pursuing of théeues and rob|bers. In the beginning of his reigne, the inhabi|tants of Murrey land and Rosse, beholding him to be most an end in the church at his praiers, and di|uine seruice, after the maner of his parents, supposed he would prooue no great quicke iusticier [...] puni|shing offendors, and therevpon most presumptuous|lie Théeues of Murrey land and Rosse. they began to rob and reaue on ech side, not spa|ring to kill and slea all such as came in their hands, without respect to age or sex; insomuch that the yoong infants smiling vpon the murtherers, being about to execute their detestable crueltie, [...] by the The crueltie of théeues. swoord as well as the resisters: such rooted [...]lice re|mained in their beastlie harts, which vpon renewing their old grudges they now accordingle shewed. King Alexander therefore aduertised heereof; [...]ame into those parts with a competent armie, and appre|hending the chiefe authors and capteins; stroke off Execution. their heads. As he returned backe: thro [...] [...], there came a woman vnto him wéeping [...] la|mentable sort, who fell vpon hir knees at his féet, [...]e|séeching him to pitie hir case, hauing lost both hir hus|band & sonne, by the tyrannous crueltie of the mai|ster The earle of Mernes son. of Mernes, who for that they had called him be|fore a iudge in an action of debt, had slaine and mur|thered as well the one as the other. The king mooued with this detestable kind of iniurie, lighted from his horsse, and would not mount vp againe, till he had séene the author of that heinous trespasse hanged vp|on A righteous iusticier. a gibbet. After his comming into Gowrie, he tooke in hand to finish and make vp the castell of Ba|ledgar, The castell of Baledgar. the foundation whereof his brother Edgar had begun, that it might be an aid to chastise a sort of théeues and robbers which haunted the woods therea|bout, to the great disquietnes of all the countrie. He gaue also to the maintenance of that house certeine lands, which the earle of Gowrie had giuen him at the font stone, when he became his godfather.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilest he was thus busie about the furtherance of that woorke, diuerse of those théeues that were ac|customed to liue by robberies in those parts, percei|uing that this castell, which the king was about to build, should turne vnto their destruction, they con|spired Treason of conspirators to haue slaine the king. his death, and winning by rewards and pro|mises EEBO page image 182 the helpe of the kings chamberlaine to the ac|complishing of their traitorous and most diuclish practises, they entered one night through a priuie in|to his lodging, in purpose to haue slaine him as he slept in his bedchamber: but he by Gods prouidence hauing knowledge of their comming, started out of his bed, and caught a swoord which hoong néere at hand, wherewith he slue first his chamberlaine that had brought them in, and then dispatched six of the other traitors (which were alreadie entered his chamber) with singular force and manhood: the other fearing The kings manhood. least with the noise, his seruants that lodged within the house should haue beene raised, and so haue hasted to assaile them on the backs, fled in all haste possible. Neuerthelesse, such pursute was made after them, that manie of them were apprehended, & vpon their examination, being brought before the king, they de|clared plainlie how they were incouraged to woorke that treason which they had gone about, by sundrie great barons and gentlemen of the countrie. Final|lie, the matter was so handled with them, that they disclosed the names of those that had thus procured them to the treason. Wherevpon the king gathering an armie, he marched foorth to pursue them, but be|fore he came vnto the water of Spaie, the conspira|tors had gotten togither their power, & were lodged The water of Spaie. on the further side of the same water, to stop him from passing ouer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The king séeing them thus assembled to impeach his passage, sent his banner-man sir Alexander Car|ron Sir Alexan|der Carron The rebels are vanqui|shed. with a chosen part of his armie to passe the wa|ter, and to fight with his enimies, where, by the har|die onset of the said sir Alexander, they were quicklie put to flight, and manie of them that were taken in the chase suffered death, according as they had well deserued. The realme after this execution doone on these offendors, continued manie yéeres after in good tranquillitie. This Alexander Carron also for that he was séene in the kings sight that day to fight most manfullie, in sleaing diuerse of the rebels with a croo|ked swoord which he had in his hand (of which sort ma|nie were vsed in those daies) he was highlie rewar|ded at the kings hands, & euer after named Skrim|geour, Skrimgeour. that is, to say, An hardie fighter. He had also his armes increased with a rampant lion holding a crooked swoord, as is to be séene in the armes of his posteritie vnto this day. [...] Other there be that say he got the surname of Skrimgeour, bicause he slue an English man in a singular combat. The principall of this surname in our time held the constableship of Dundée, bearing in his armes a crooked swoord in fashion of an hooke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 After that king Alexander had appeased the intes|tine commotions thus within his realme, he set in hand to repare the abbeie of Scone, wherein he pla|ced The abbeie of Scone. regular can [...], [...]edieating the church in the ho|nor of the Trinitie, and saint Michaell. Not long af|ter this also, he chanced to come into saint Colmes Saint Col|mes Inch. Inch, where he was constreined to abide thrée daies togither through violent rage of weather and tem|pests: and bicause he found some reliefe of meate & drinke, by meanes of an heremit that dwelt within the same Inch, and kept a chappell there dedicated to saint Colme, he made of that chappell an abbeie of The abbeie of saint Colmes Inch builded. regular canons, in the honor of saint Colme, en|dowing it with sundrie lands and rents for the main|tenance of the abbat and conuent of that house. He also gaue to the church of faint Andrewes, the lands called the Boarrinke, so named, for that a great Lands na|med the Bo|arrinke. Bore tusks. bore was slaine vpon the said ground, that had doone much hurt in the countrie thereabout. The tusks of this bore doo hang in chaines vpon the stalles of the quier in saint Andrewes church afore the high altar, and are 16 inches in length, & foure inches in thicke|nesse. Moreouer, the abbeie of Dunfirmling was fi|nished The abbeie of Dunfirmling. by king Alexander, and endowed with sundrie lands and possessions.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Whilest king Alexander was thus occupied in Dauid bro|ther to king Alexander. building and reparing of religious houses, his bro|ther Dauid liued in England with his sister quéene Mauld, & through fauour which the king hir husband bare towards him, he obteined in marriage one Mauld, daughter vnto Woldosius, or rather Wal|theof earle of Huntington and Northumberland, be|got woldosius earle of Nor|thumberland and Hunting|ton. of his wife the ladie Iudith that was neece vnto king William the Conqueror. And for that the said Woldosius or Walthe of had no other issue to inhe|rit his lands, Dauid in right of his wife Mauld in|ioied the same, and was made earle of Huntington The lands of Huntington and Northum berland an|nexed to the crowne of Scotland. and Northumberland, and had issue by his wife a son named Henrie, by whome the lands of Huntington, and some part of Northumberland were annexed vn|to the crowne of Scotland, as after shall appéere. Mauld the daughter of king Henrie Beauclerke, was maried vnto Henrie the emperor, the fourth of that name. William, Richard, and Eufeme, the resi|due of the issue which the same Henrie Beauclerke had by his wife (surnamed for hir singular bounte|ousnesse, the good quéene Mauld) in comming foorth of France to repasse into England, perished in the sea by a tempest, to the great dolour of the king their father, and to all other his subiects of ech estate and degree. Their mother the said Mauld was before that The death of king Alexan|der. time departed out of this life. It was not long after, but that Alexander deceassed also, and was buried in Dunfirmling besides his fathers sepulture, in the 17 yéere of his reigne complet, and from the incarna|tion of Christ 1125 yéeres. 1124. H. B. The begin|ning of the Cummings.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 In the daies of this king Alexander, the kinred of the Cummings had their beginning, by one Iohn Cumming, a man of great prowesse and valiancie, obteining of the king in respect therof, certeine small portions of lands in Scotland. The house [...] of these Cummings rose in processe of time thus from a small beginning to high honor and puissance, by rea|son of the great possessions & ample reuenues which they afterwards atteined. At length (as often hap|neth) the importable height of this linage was the onelie cause of the decaie and finall ruine thereof, as in the sequele of this historie ye may at full perceiue. Also in the daies of king Alexander, the order of Knights of the Rhodes. White moonks knights of the Rhodes had their beginning, and like|wise the order of White moonks, the author whereof was one Nodobert. About the same time liued that holie man Richard de sancto Victore, a Scotishman Richard de sancto Victore borne, but dwelled for the more part of his time at Paris in France, where he died, & was [...]uried with|in the cloister of the abbeie of saint Uictor, being a brother of the same house.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 BUt now to procéed with the historie. After the de|ceasse Dauid. of Alexander the fierce and first of that Dauid is crowned king of Scotland. name, his brother Dauid came vnto Scone, and there receiued the crowne, as lawfull heire to his brother, for that he left no heire behind him. This Dauid, according to the example of his noble pa|rents; set his whole care about the due ministring of iustice, to the honor of almightie God, and the weale of his realme. He had no trouble by warres with anie forraine enimies, so long as king Henrie Beau [...]lorke liued. Therefore hauing opportunitie of such a quiet time, he rode about all the parts of his realme, and vsed to sit in hearing of iudgement him|selfe, speciallie concerning poore mens causes and matters; but the controuersies of the lords and ba|rons The care of king Dauid for the poore. he referred to the hearing of other iudges. If he vnderstood that anie man were indamaged by anie wrongfull iudgement, he recompensed the par|tie wronged, according to the value of his losse and A righteous iudge. EEBO page image 183 hinderance, with the goods of the iudge that pro|nounced the iudgement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Thus in the first years of his reigne he did manie things to the aduancement of the common-wealth, and banished such banketting cheare as was vsed a|mongst Banketting cheare bani|shed. his people after the example of the English|men, perceiuing the same to bréed a great weake|ning & decaie of the ancient stoutnesse of stomach, that was woont to remaine in the Scotish nation. He builded to the number of fiftéene abbeies, part of them in the beginning of his reigne before the King Dauid built 15 ab|b [...]es. warres were begun which he had with the English|men, and part after the same warres were ended. The names of those abbeies are as followeth: Holie The names of the abbeies builded by king Dauid. rood house, Kelso, Iedburgh, Melrosse, Newbottell, Holmecultrane, Dundranane, Cambuskenneth, Kinlois, Dunfirmling, Holme in Cumberland; also two nunries, the one at Carleill, and the other at north Berwike: with two abbeies beside New|castell, the one of saint Benedicts order, and the o|ther of white moonkes. He erected also foure bishop|rikes Foure bishops sees erected in Scotland. within his realme, Rosse, Brechin, Dunkeld, and Dublane, indowing them with rich rents, faire lands, and sundrie right commodious possessions. Moreouer he translated the bishops see of Murth|lake vnto Aberden, for sundrie aduised considerati|ons, augmenting it with certeine reuenues, as he thought expedient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 He was admonished (as the report goeth) in his sleepe, that he shuld build an abbeie for a religious or|der to liue in togither. Whervpon he sent for woorke|men into France and Flanders, and set them in hand to build this abbeie of canons regular, as he holie rood house builded. was admonished, dedicating it in the honor of a crosse (wherevnto he bare speciall deuotion) for that verie strangelie it slipped into his hands (on a time) as he was pursuing and following of a hart in the chase. But inough of these moonkish deuises. Manie prudent men blame greatlie the vnmea|surable liberalitie of king Dauid, the which he vsed towards the church, in diminishing so hugelie the re|uenues Liberalitie in king Dauid toward the church reproo|ued. of the crowne, being the cause that manie noble princes his successors haue come to their finall ends, for that they haue béene constreined through want of treasure to mainteine their roiall estates, to procure the fall of sundrie great houses, to possesse their lands and liuings; also to raise paiments and exactions of the common people, to the vtter impo|uerishment of the realme. And sometime they haue béene constreined to inuade England by warres, as desperat men, not caring what came of their liues. Otherwhiles they haue béene inforced to stampe naughtie monie, to the great preiudice of the com|mon-wealth. All which mischiefes haue followed since the time that the church hath béene thus inriched, and The church inriched, and the crowne impouerished. The sateng of King Iames the first. A sore saint. Io. Maior. 60000 pounds inlands gi|uen to the church. the crowne impouerished.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Therefore king Iames the first, when he came to king Dauid his sepulture at Dunfirmling, he said, that he was a sore saint for the crowne, meaning that he left the church ouer-rich, and the crowne too poore. For he tooke from the crowne (as Iohn Maior writeth in his chronicles) 60 thousand pounds Sco|tish of yéerelie reuenues, wherewith he indowed those abbeies. But if K. Dauid had considered how to nourish true religion, he had neither indowed churches with such riches, nor built them with such Superfluous possessions of the church. roialtie: for the superfluous possessions of the church (as they are now vsed) are not onelie occasion to e|uill prelats to liue in most insolent pompe & corrupt life, but an assured net to draw gold and siluer out of realms. But now to returne where I left, touching the historie, ye shall note that (as I said before) Da|uid had by his wife Mauld inheritor of part of Nor|thumberland, Cumberland, and Huntington, a sonne named Henrie, who maried the earle of War|rens daughter, a ladie of high parentage, as des|cended Earle of War|ren. of most noble bloud both French and Eng|lish. On whome he begat thrée sonnes, Malcolme, William, and Dauid; also thrée daughters, Adha|ma, The issue of Henrie. Margaret, and Mauld. But now in the meane time, whilest the estate of the common-wealth in Scotland stood in high felicitie, vnder the prospe|rous gouernement of king Dauid, there happened Quéene Mauld de|ceasseth. to him an heauie losse. For the queene his wife the foresaid Mauld deceassed in hir flourishing age, a woman of passing beautie and chastitie, which two points (as is thought) commend a woman aboue all the rest. King Dauid therefore tooke such griefe for hir death, that he would neuer after giue his mind to marie anie other, but passed the residue of his life without companie of all women. She was bu|ried in Scone, in the yeare of our Lord God 1132. 1132.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Whilest these things came thus to passe in Scot|land, Henrie Beauclerke king of England, caused all the nobles of his realme to take their oths, that after his deceasse they should receiue his daughter Mauld the empresse. Mauld the empresse for their souereigne ladie and quéene. She was as then returned into England; for hir husband the emperour was latelie before de|ceassed. King Dauid also tooke his oth, and there|fore when king Stephan (who vsurped the crowne of K. Stephan. England after king Henries deceasse against the said empresse) sent vnto king Dauid to come and doo his homage for the earledomes of Northumber|land, Homage is required. Cumberland, and Huntington (according as by his tenure he was bound to doo) with intimati|on that if he refused, king Stephan would inuade him with open warre; king Dauid answered, that he had giuen his saith once aforehand for those lands vnto the empresse Mauld, which he minded not to breake for the threatning words of anie new inuasi|ons. King Stephan moued with this answere, sent a The English men inuade Northumber|land. power of men to the borders of Northumberland, (which as then was vnder the dominion of the Scots) to make a rode vpon the inhabitants of that countrie. They that had the charge of this enter|prise, entering into the lands of their enimies, put all to fire and sword that came in their way. The Scots kindled with that displeasure, roded into The Scots make rodes into England England, and did the like displeasures and hurts there. For the yeare after, the earles of March, Menteth, and Angus entred into England with a The earle of Glocester Robert was against king Stephan, but there might be some other happilie vnto whome king Stephan had giuen that ti|tle. A resignation. great armie, against whome came the earle of Glo|cester, and giuing them battell at Northalerton, lost the field, and was taken prisoner himselfe, with diuers other nobles of England. King Stephan therefore, constreined to redéeme the captiues, gaue not onelie a great summe of monie for them; but also made resignation of all such title, claime, or in|terest, as either he or anie of his successors might make or pretend to the counties of Northumber|land and Cumberland. Howbeit his nobles were no sooner returned home, but that repenting him of that resignation, he gathered his puissance againe, K. Stephan repenteth. and entering into Northumberland, fought with the Scots that came foorth to resist him, and obteining the victorie, tooke a great part of the countrie into his possession.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 King Dauid, to redresse these iniuries, gathered a mightie armie, with deliberat mind, either to expell the Englishmen out of all the bounds of his domi|nions, or else to die in the féeld. But shortlie after, Thurstane archbishop of Yorke came vnto Rox|burgh, Roxburgh in old time Marken. A truce. called in those daies Marken, to treat for peace, where a truce was concluded for three mo|neths, with condition, that the Englishmen should deliuer vp the dominion, of Northumberland vnto the lord Henrie king Dauid his sonnes. But for so EEBO page image 184 much as this couenant was not performed on king Stephans side, king Dauid inuaded that part of the King Dauid inuadeth Northumber|land. King Ste|phan passeth vnto Rox|burgh. countrie which the Englishmen held, making great slaughter of all them that he found there about to resist him. King Stephan mooued herewith leuied his people, and came in puissant araie vnto Rox|burgh; but for that he had secret knowledge that some of the nobles in his armie sought his destruc|tion, he was constreined to returne without atchi|uing of anie woorthie enterprise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The yeare next insuing, a peace was talked vp|on, the archbishops of Canturburie and Yorke ap|pointed commissioners in the treatie thereof on the behalfe of king Stephan, and the bishops of Glas|cow, Aberden, and saint Andrews on the part of king Dauid. But Mauld quéene of England, the daughter of Eustace earle of Bullongne, and néece to king Dauid by his sister Marie, was the chiefest dooer in this matter, to bring them to agréement. The one of the kings, that is to say Stephan, laie at Duresme with his nobles; and the other, that is to say Dauid, lay at Newcastell, during all the time of this treatie, which at length sorted to the conclu|sion of a peace, on these conditions: that the coun|ties of Northumberland and Huntington should A peace. remaine in the gouernement of Henrie prince of Scotland, as heire to the same by right of his mo|ther; but Cumberland should be reputed as the in|heritance Couenants of agréement. and right of his father king Dauid. And for these lands and segniories the forenamed prince Henrie & his successors, princes of Scotland, should doo homage vnto king Stephan and his successors kings of England, for the time being.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 The peace thus ratified betwixt the two kings Homage. and their subiects, K. Stephan returned into Kent, and king Dauid repaired into Cumberland, where K. Stephan returneth. Carleill was repared by William Ru|fus king of England, a|bout the yeare of our Lord, 1092. he fortified the towne of Carleill with new walles and ditches. Thus passed the first thrée yeares of king Stephans reigne. In the fourth yeare came Mauld the empresse into England to claime the crowne thereof (as in the English historie more plainelie may appeare.) But whilest England was sore tor|mented with warres by contrarie factions of the no|bles for the quarels of these two persons, no small sorrow hapned to Scotland for the death of Henrie the prince of that land, and onelie sonne vnto-king Dauid, who died at Kelso, and was buried in the ab|beie The death of Henrie prince of Scotland. church there, in the yeare of our redemption, 1152. His death was greatlie bemoned aswell of his father the king, as of all other the estates and de|grées 1152. of the realme, for such singular vertue and no|ble conditions as appeared in him. But yet, for that he left issue behind him thrée sonnes and three daugh|ters (as before is mentioned) the realme was not Prince Hen|rie his issue. thought vnprouided of heires.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The king also being mortified from the world, tooke the death of his sonne verie patientlie, considering that all men are subiect vnto death by the law of na|ture, and are sure no longer to remaine here, than The lawes of nature. their day appointed by the eternall determination of him that giueth and taketh away life & breath when it pleaseth him, as by dailie experience is most ma|nifest. Therefore that king Dauid weied the losse of his sonne in such balance, it may appeare by an ora|tion which he made to his nobles, at what time (after his sonnes deceasse) they came to comfort him. For he perceiuing them to be right heauie and sorrow|full for the losse which he and they had susteined by the death of so towardlie a prince, that was to haue suc|céeded him, if God had lent him life thereto; in the end of a roiall feast, the which he made vnto those nobles that came thus to visit him, he began in this wise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

How great your fidelitie and care is, which you An oration. beare towards me, although oftentimes heretofore I haue prooued it, yet this present day I haue recei|ued most ample fruit thereof: for now doo I plaine|lie sée, that you lament no lesse for the losse of my late decessed sonne, than if you had buried some one of your owne sonnes, and are therefore come to your great trauell and paine to comfort me, whome you estéeme to be sore afflicted for the ouer-timelie death of my said most obedient sonne. But to let passe for this time due yéelding of thanks to you for the same, till occasion and leasure may better serue thereto; this now may suffice, that I acknowledge my selfe to be so much beholden to you, that whatsoeuer thing I haue in the world, the same is readie to doo you pleasure. But concerning the cause of your com|ming hither, in shewing your courtesies therein, you shall vnderstand, that my parents, whom I trust to be in heauen, and (as saints) inioy the fruits of their vertuous trauels here taken on earth, did so instruct me from my tender youth, that I should woorship with all reuerence the most wise creator and pru|dent gouernor of all things; and to thinke that no|thing was doone by him in vaine, but that the same is prouided and ordeined to some good vse by his high and vnsearchable counsell. And therefore whilest day and night I haue and doo reuolue and call to remem|brance the precepts and instructions of my parents, whatsoeuer hath chanced either tuching aduersitie or His parents godlie instruc|tions. prosperitie, good hap or bad, the same hath séemed to me (at the first) receiuing all things with equall and thankefull mind, and interpreting them to the best, farre more light than they commonlie séeme to o|thers; and lesse they did disquiet me: so as with vse I haue learned at length, not onelie patientlie to beare all aduersities that may happen, but also to re|ceiue the same as things pleasant and euen to be de|sired. And verelie my hap hath beene to be greatlie exercised in this behalfe, for I haue first seene my fa|ther, more déere to me than anie earthlie treasure; Losse of friends. His father. and no lesse profitable than greatlie desired of all the people: and yet neither the loue of the people, nor of his kinsmen and friends might warrant him from this fatall necessitie of death. I haue knowen my His mother. mother right famous in the world for hir singular vertue to passe hence in like maner. My brethren His brethren. that were so louing, and againe so greatlie beloued of me; also my wife whome I esteemed aboue all o|ther His wife. creatures, are they not gone the same way, and compelled to beare deaths hard ordinance? So ve|relie standeth the case, that no man might yet at a|nie time auoid the violence of his force when he com|meth, Death cannot be dispensed with. for we all alike owe this life vnto him, as a due debt that must needs be paid. But this is to be receiued with a thankefull mind, in that the bounti|full beneuolence of our God hath granted that we shall be all immortall, if we our selues through vice, & as it were spotted with filthie diseases of the mind, doo not fall into the danger of eternall death. Where|fore of right (me thinke) I haue cause to reioise, that God by his singular fauour hath granted to me such a sonne, which in all mens iudgements was woor|thie to be beloued whilest he was here amongst vs, Why we ought to take the death of our children and friends patientlie. and to be wished for now, after he is departed from hence. But ought we to take it he anilie, that he to whome he belonged, and who had lent him vnto vs, should call for him againe, and take him that was his owne? For what iniurie is it, if (when I see oc|casion) I shall aske that againe, which you haue pos|sessed through my benefit as lent to you for a time? Neither doo I trust to want him long, if God shall be so mercifull vnto me, as I wish him to be: for I hope shortlie to be called hence by commandement of that most high king, and to be caried vp to rest among that fellowship of heauenlie spirits, where I EEBO page image 185 shall find my father and mother, my brethren, wife, and sonne in far better estate than here I knew them. Therefore that I may repeate it once againe, I reioise (I say) to haue obteined in my sonne, by the grace of the supernall God, that I am assured by faith, he is alreadie in that place to the which all we doo earnestlie wish that we may atteine, and doo in|deuour by all means, that when the time commeth in which our soules are to be loosed foorth of these fraile bodies of ours, as out of prisons, they may be found woorthie of that companie, in which our confi|dence is that he now most blissefullie is remaining. Except anie man may thinke that we are so enui|ous, that therefore we doo lament, because as yet we sticke fast ouerwhelmed and drowned in such fil|thie miers, and cumbred in such thornie thickets and bushes, out of the which he (being now deliuered of all cares) hath escaped. But let vs rather by follow|ing the footsteps of him and other vertuous persons that are gone afore vs, labor both day and night, that at length (through heauenlie fauour) we may come to the place where we doo reckon that by diuine power he is alreadie arriued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After that the king had made an end of his ora|tion, and thanks giuen to God for his bountifull magnificence, they rose from the table, and depar|ted to their lodgings, they all greatlie maruelling at the kings high prudence and godlie wisdome. Then was Malcolme, the eldest sonne of the before mentioned prince Henrie, proclamed in his place Malcolme the sonne of Hen|rie procla|med prince of Scotland. prince of Scotland, and conueied through the most parts of the realme by Duncane earle of Fife, and other of the nobles appointed to attend vpon and to receiue the oths of all the barons for their allegi|ance in his name. William the second sonne of prince Henrie was conueied into Northumberland by the foresaid nobles, and there proclamed and cre|ated Earle of Nor|thumberland. earle of that countrie. Then went king Da|uid himselfe vnto Carleill, where he met with Hen|rie the sonne of the empresse, who receiued the order of knighthood there at his hands. This was a little before that the same Henrie came to an agréement Henrie the [...]presse his sonne recei|ueth the order of knighthood. with king Stephan, whereby he was admitted to the possession of halfe the realme of England, and promised by oth of assurance (as the Scotish writers say) that he should neuer go about to take the coun|tries of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Hun|tington from the crowne of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Shortlie after was king Dauid taken with a sore disease and maladie, which continued with him to the end of his life. And so when he perceiued himselfe to wax faint and féeble, he required to be borne in to the church, where he receiued the sacrament of the Lords bodie and bloud, with most solemne reue|rence: and then being brought againe to his cham|ber, he called togither his nobles, and commending to them his yoong nephues, the sons of his son the forenamed prince Henrie, he kissed ech one of them after an other, most instantlie desiring them in the The exhorta|tion of king Dauid to his nobles. honor of almightie God, to séeke the preseruation of common quiet, to the aduancement of the publike weale. This doone, he departed out of this life in the 29 yeare of his reigne, or rather in the 30 yeare, if King Dauid departeth out of this life. he reigned 29 and two moneths, as Iohn Maior saith. His bodie was buried in Dunfirmeling, after the incarnation of Christ our Sauiour 1153 yeares. 1153.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 How farre this prince king Dauid excelled in no|ble vertues and sober conuersation of life, I haue thought it better to passe ouer with silence, than to go about in few words to comprehend that, where|in if I should spend much time, I were not able in anie wise woorthilie to performe. For where in such cases few things are slenderlie shewed, the residue may séeme to be omitted through fault of the writer. But yet this is not to be forgotten, that where his His singular pitie toward the poore. singular pitifull regard, which he had toward the re|liefe of the poore, passed all other his notable vertues, he purged his court also in such wise of all vicious rule and misordered customes, that his whole fami|lie King Dauids court. was giuen onelie to the exercise of vertue. No riotous banketting nor surfetting chéere was vsed amongst them, no lasciuious woord heard come forth of anie mans mouth, nor yet anie wanton signes shewed to prouoke sensuall lust or carnall concu|piscence. King Dauids seruants. All the woords, works, and whole demeanor of his seruants ténded to some conclusion: nothing mooued to stirre strife or sedition, but all things or|dered in such friendlie and peaceable sort, that the chaine of brotherly loue séemed to haue linked them all in one mind and will Such a rule was their mai|ster King Dauids example, a rule of godlie life. king Dauid vnto them and all other, to direct and frame a perfect and godlie life after.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 KIng Dauid being dead & buried (as is before said) Malcolme nephue to him by his son Hen|rie Malcolme succéeded in the estate. He was but 13 yéeres of age, when he began his reigne; but yet his modestie and vertuous conditions were such, that all men conceiued a good hope that he would prooue a right noble and woorthie prince. He was nourished and The educatio of king Mal|colme. brought vp in such vertue, euen from his infancie, that deliting in chast conuersation and cleannesse of bodie and mind, he liued single all the daies of his life, and without mariage: wherefore he was surna|med Malcolme the maid. About the time of his en|tring into the possession of the crowne, there was a A dearth. great derth through all the bounds of Scotland. And soone after followed a sore death both amongst men and beasts, though it was not perceiued that the disease whereof they died was anie thing conta|gious. A death not contagious.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Hereof did one Somerleid the thane of Argile Somerleid thane of Ar|gile goeth a|bout to make himselfe king. take occasion to attempt an higher enterprise than stood with the basenesse of his linage and estate: for considering that the one halfe of the realme was consumed by mortalitie, and the other halfe néere hand famished through lacke of food, he thought it an easie matter for him, now whilest the king was vnder yéeres of ripe discretion, to vsurpe the gouer|nance of the realme into his owne hands, and so as|sembling togither an huge companie of such as in hope of preie lightlie consented to his opinion, hée came forwards, to make as it were a full conquest, fleaing and spoiling all such in his way as went a|bout Somerleids crueltie. to resist him. But his presumptuous enterprise was shortlie repressed: for Gilcrist earle of Angus lieutenant of the kings armie, raised to resist So|merleids Gilcrist sent with an armie against So|merleid. attempts, incountred with him in battell, & slue 2000 of his men. Somerleid hauing receiued this ouerthrow, and escaping from the field, fled into Ireland, and so saued his life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Henrie the second of that name king of Eng|land, hearing that Malcolme had thus subdued his domesticall enimies, feared least he being imbolde|ned therewith, should now attempt somewhat a|gainst the Englishmen; and therefore by counsell of his nobles, he sent an herald vnto king Malcolme, commanding him to come vp to London, there to K. Malcolme summoned to doo homage. doo his homage vnto him, for the lands of Cumber|land, Northumberland, and Huntington, in maner and forme as his grandfather king Dauid had be|fore doone vnto his predecessor Henrie the first, with certificat, that if he failed, he would take from him all the said lands. King Malcolme obeied this com|mandement of king Henrie: but yet vnder condi|tion (as the Scotish writers affirme) that it should in no maner wise preiudice the franchises and liber|ties K. Malcolme goeth with king Henrie into France. of the Scotish kingdome. At the same time king Henrie had warres against Lewes the sixt, king of EEBO page image 186 France, and so passing ouer into that realme, con|streined king Malcolme to go with him in that ior|nie against his will, notwithstanding that he had a safe conduct fréelie to come and go. In this voiage king Henrie did much hurt to the Frenchmen, and at length besieged the citie of Tholouse. Tholouse be|sieged. King Henries meaning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In all which enterprises he had Malcolme present with him, to the end that Malcolme might incurre such hatred and displeasure of the Frenchmen, that therby the bond betwixt them and the Scots might finallie be dissolued. But in the end king Henrie ha|uing lost diuers of his noble men by sicknesse, re|turned into England, and then licenced king Mal|colme to returne home into Scotland; who at his comming home, sent the bishop of Murrey, and one of his secretaries vnto the sée of Rome, as ambassa|dors Ambassadors sent to Rome. vnto the pope, which as then hight Engenius the third of that name, to recognise the obedience which he owght to the Romane sée. Shortlie after al|so, there was a parlement holden at Scone, where king Malcolme was sore rebuked by his lords, in A parlement at Scone. K. Malcolme reprooued by his nobles. K. Malcolmes excuse. that he had borne through his owne follie, armor a|gainst the Frenchmen their old confederate friends and ancient alies: but king Malcolme excused the matter with humble woords, saieng he came vn|warilie into king Henries hands, and therefore might not choose but accomplish his will and plea|sure at that time; so that hée supposed verelie the French king would take no great displeasure with his dooings, when he once vnderstood the truth of the matter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Henrie hauing perfect vnderstanding of this grudge betwixt the Scotish lords and their king, thought to renew the same with more displeasure, and therevpon sent for king Malcolme to come vn|to Yorke, to a parlement which he held there, where K. Malcolme gorth to Yorke at his comming he was burdened with a right grie|uous complaint surmized against him by king Hen|rie, for that he should reueale vnto the Frenchmen all the secrets of the English armie, when he was with him in France, at the aboue remembred iour|nie, alledging the same to be sufficient matter, for the which he ought to forfeit all the lands which hée held of the crowne of England, as Cumberland, Northumberland, and Huntington. And though Fond dealing and not likelie to be true. king Malcolme by manie substantiall reasons de|clared those allegations to be vntrue and vniustlie forged, yet by king Henries earnest inforcing of the matter, sentence was giuen against him, by the ge|nerall consent of all the estates there in that parle|ment Sentence gi|uen against K. Malcolme at Yorke. assembled. And moreouer, to bring king Mal|colme in further displeasure with the nobles, king Henrie gaue notice vnto them, before king Mal|colme returned backe into his countrie, how he had of his owne accord renounced all his claime, right, title, and interest, which he had to the foresaid lands, supposing by this means to make king Malcolme farre more odious to all his lieges and subiects, than euer he was before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Malcolme therefore, vpon his returne into his countrie, not vnderstanding anie thing of that sub|till contriued policie and slanderous report, was besieged within the castell of Bertha by the thane of K. Malcolme is besieged. Ernedale, and diuerse others. But after it was knowne how euill king Malcolme had beene vsed, and most vntxulie slandered, they desired pardon of their offense, as induced thereto by vntrue reports, which once being granted, they brake vp their siege, and euer after continued in faithfull allegiance like true and most obedient subiects. But king Mal|colme sore mooued for that he was thus iniuriouslie handled by king Henrie, first desiring restitution to Open warres proclamed against the Englishmen. be made of all such things as had béene wrongfullie taken from him, and so deteined by th' Englishmen, proclamed open warres against them. At length, af|ter sundrie harmes doone, as well on the one part as A conclusion of agreement the other, they came to a communication in a cer|teine appointed place, not far from Carleill, where (to be briefe) it was finallie concluded, that K. Mal|colme should receiue againe Cumberland and Hun|tington: but for Northumberland, he should make a plaine release thereof vnto king Henrie, and to his successors for euer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 For the which agréement he ran so farre into the K. Malcolme hated of his people. hatred of his people, that he might neuer after find means to win their fauor againe; but doubting least if they should stirre anie rebellion against him, they might become an easie preie vnto the Englishmen, Feare of out|ward enimies causeth quiet|nesse at home. they remained quiet for a time. Howbeit shortlie af|ter, there arose another péece of trouble, though lesse in outward apperance, by reason of the small power remaining in the author, yet dangerous inough, considering it was within the realme it selfe. One Angus as then the thane of Galloway, perceiuing Angus the thane of Gal|loway raiseth a commotion: vpon what oc|casion writers make not anie mention. he might not by secret practise atchiue his purposed intent (whatsoeuer the same was) determined by o|pen force to assaie what luckie succes fortune would send him; hoping that those which through feare sate as yet still, would assist him in all his attempts, so soone as they saw anie commotion raised by him to occasion them thereto. Herevpon he assembled to|gither a great companie: but before he could worke Angus dis|comfited by Gilcrist. anie notable feat, to make anie account of, Gilcrist earle of Angus (whose faithfull valiancie was before manifestlie approoued in the suppression of Somer|leids rebellion) discomfited his power, in thrée sun|drie bickerings, & chased Angus himselfe into Whi|terne, where is a place of sanctuarie priuileged for Whiterne [...] place of sanc|tuarie. the safegard of all offendors that flie thereto for suc|cor in the honor of saint Ninian.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Malcolme then, for that he durst not breake the Angus besie|ged in whi|terne. franchises of that place, set a band of men of warre round about it, to watch that he should by no means escape awaie; so that at length wearied as it had bene with long siege, he yéelded himselfe to the king, Angus yéel|deth himselfe to the king. who taking his sonne to pledge for his good abearing in time to come, licenced him to go whither it should please him: but the most part of his lands and li|uings were confiscat to the kings vse. Wherevpon Angus be|came a ca|non. when he saw he might not mainteine his estate as he had doone before, he became a canon in Holie rood house, and there ended his life (as it is reported.) It was not long after the pacifieng of this trouble, but A rebellion mooued by the Murreis. Gildo captein of the rebels. that a new rebellion was raised: for the Murrey land men, by the prouocation of their capteine called Gildo, wasted with fire and sword the countries of Rosse, Bowgewall, or Bongdale, Mar, Gareoch, Buchquhane, and the Mernes, in more cruell sort than anie forreine & most barbarous nation would The crueltie of the rebels. haue doone; insomuch that when the king sent diuers of his seruants vnto them to vnderstand the cause of their rebellious dooings, they slue those messengers, contrarie to the law of nations.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 To punish such iniurious attempts, the aboue na|med Gilcrist was sent with an armie into Murrey Gilcrist dis|comfited by the Murreis. land: but the rebels nothing discouraged with the knowledge of his approoued prowesse, met him in the field, and put him to flight. Héere vpon the king him|selfe, supposing that his presence was néedfull to in|courage his people after this ouerthrow, came with a farre greater power than he had sent foorth before, with displaied banner, ouer the riuer of Speie, néere to the mouth whereof he fought with the enimies, and in the end (after fore and long fight continued with great slaughter and bloudshed) he gaue them the o|uerthrow, and in reuenge of their cruelties shewed The Mur|reies are o|uerthrowen. in time of this their rebellion, and to giue example to all other his subiects that should go about to attempt EEBO page image 187 the like, he commanded that none of those of Mur|rey land should be saued (women, children, and aged persons onelie excepted) but that all the residue of that generation shuld passe by the edge of the sword. Thus the Murrey land men being destroied accor|ding to his commandement thorough all parts of the realme, he appointed other people to inhabit their roomes, that the countrie should not lie wast without habitation.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In this meane time, Somerleid the thane of Ar|gile, who (as ye haue heard) was fled ouer into Ire|land, The Mur| [...]ies destroied vpon trust of the hatred into the which Mal|colme was run, with the most part of all his nobles and commons, through this slaughter of his people, and namelie of them of Murrey land, he thought to Somerleid returneth in|to Scotland. assaie fortunes chance once againe, and so therevpon returned with certeine Kernes and naked men into Scotland. But this last enterprise of his came to a more vnluckie end than the first, for being vanqui|shed Somerleid vanquished at Renfrow. Somerleid is hanged. in battell at Renfrow, he lost the most part of all his men, and was taken prisoner himselfe, and after hanged on a gibbet, by commandement of the king, according to that he had iustlie merited. Mal|colme hauing thus subdued his aduersaries, and be|ing King Mal|colmes sisters maried. now in rest and quiet, he set his mind wholie to gouerne his realme in vpright iustice, and hauing two sisters mariable, he coopled the elder named Margaret with Conon duke of Britaine, and the yoonger called Adhama he maried with Florens earle of Holland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After this, there was a councell holden at Scone of all the Scotish nobilitie, where when they were as|sembled togither in the councell-chamber, Arnold [...] parlement at Scone. archbishop of saint Andrewes stood vp, and by a verie pithie oration, tooke vpon him to aduise the king to change his purpose touching his vow, which (as ap|péered) The oration of Arnold bi|shop of saint Andrewes. he had made to liue chast. He declared vnto him by manie weightie reasons, that it was not on|lie necessarie for him and his realme, that he should take a wife (by whome he might raise vp séed to suc|céed him in the posséssion of the crowne) but also that he might not choose a more perfect state of life (consi|dering the office wherein he was placed) than ma|trimonie, being instituted, not by this law-maker Matrimonie instituted by God. or that, but by God himselfe, who in no one of all his ordinances might erre or be deceiued. Againe for pleasure, he affirmed how nothing could be more de|lectable to him, than to haue a woorthie ladie to his The pleasure of mariage. The commo|dities by a [...]. bedfellow, with whome he might conferre all the con|ceits of his hart, both of griefe and gladnesse, she be|ing a comfort vnto him as well in weale as in wo, an helpe both in sicknesse & health, redie to asswage anger, and to aduance mirth, also to refresh the spi|rits being wearied or in anie wise faint through stu|dious trauell and care of mind.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Then shewed he what an aid children were vnto Children an aid. their parents, namelie to kings, how in peace they might gouerne vnder them, to the great commodi|tie of the common-wealth, and in warre supplie their roomes as lieutenants in defense of their countries, to the no small terror of the enimies. Wherefore sith men are not borne onelie for their owne weale, but Men not borne for them [...]. also for the profit of their friends, and commoditie of their countrie; it could not be chosen, but that he ought to persuade with himselfe to alter his purpo|sed intention, concerning the obseruance of chastitie, and to take a wife to the great ioy and comfort of his subiects, sith it was commendable both before God Commenda|ble before God and man. and man, and so necessarie withall and profitable, as nothing might be more. But these and manie other most weightie reasons could nothing mooue his con|stant K. Malcolme might not be persuaded to take a wife. mind, hauing euen from his tender yéeres affi|anced his virginitie vnto Christ, trusting that God would so prouide, that the realme should not be desti|tute of conuenient heires, when the time came that it should please his diuine maiestie to take him hence to his mercie from amongst his subiects. Thus brake vp that councell without anie effect of the pur|pose for the which it was called.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Shortlie after it chanced that king Malcolme fell sicke, continuing so a long time, by reason whereof he sought meanes to conclude a peace with Henrie A peace con|cluded with England. The Abbeie of saint An|drewes buil|ded. king of England; which being brought to passe, he set woorkemen in hand to laie the foundation of saint Rewles abbeie, which afterwards bare the name of saint Andrewes. When he had finished this house, be|ing a goodlie péece of woorke, and verie costlie, as may appéere at this day by the view thereof, he assig|ned foorth certeine rents for the sustentation of the canons, whome he placed there of the order of saint Augustine, not so largelie as serued for the mainte|nance of superfluous cheere, but yet sufficient for their necessarie finding: by reason whereof, the ca|nons Supers [...]ous rents of ab|beies, prouo|cations to in|ordinate lusts. of that abbeie liued in those daies in most ser|uent deuotion, hauing no prouocations at all to in|ordinate lusts and sensuall pleasures; but onelie gi|uen to diuine contemplation, without respect to a|uarice, or inlarging the possessions and reuenues of their house. He founded also the abbeie of Couper of the Cisteaux order, and indowed it with manie faire The abbeie of Couper founded. The death of king Mal|colme. A comet. lands and wealthie possessions. Finallie, being vexed with long infirmitie, he departed out of this life at Iedburgh the 12 yeere of his reigne. A certeine co|met or blasing starre appéered 14 daies togither be|fore his death, with long beames verie terrible to be|hold. His bodie was buried at Dunfermling, after the incarnation 1185 yéeres. In the daies of this 1185. Roger arch|bishop of yorke the popes legat. Malcolme, Roger archbishop of Yorke, constituted the popes legat, could not be suffered to enter into Scotland, bicause he was a man highlie defamed for his couetous practising to inrich himselfe by vn|lawfull meanes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 AFter Malcolme succeeded his brother Willi|am, surnamed for his singular iustice, the Lion. william sur|named the Lion. Ambassadors sent to the king of Eng|land. Shortlie after his coronation, he sent ambassadors vnto Henrie king of England, requiring him, that according to iustice, he would restore vnto him the earledome of Northumberland, sith it apperteined by good and lawfull interest vnto his inheritance. King Henrie answered the messengers, that if king King William is required to d [...] homage. William would come vnto London, and there doo his homage for Cumberland and Huntington, he should be assured to haue all things so ordered, as he reasonablie could wish or demand. Héerevpon king K. Williams request for the restitution of Northumber|land. The answer of king Hen|rie. William went into England, and so came to Lon|don, and after he had doone his homage for Cumber|land and Huntington, he required the restitution of Northumberland. But king Henrie made answer as then, that forsomuch as the same was annexed to the crowne, he might not without the assent of all the estates of his realme make restitution thereof. Notwithstanding, in the next parlement, he pro|mised to cause the matter to be proponed: and if it came to passe that his demand were found to stand with reason, he would doo therein according to con|science, when time expedient should serue thereto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 About the same season, king Henrie passed ouer into Normandie with an armie, and caused king King Henrie saileth into Normandie. King William with manie nobles of Scotland went with king Henrie ouer into France. William, with manie other nobles of Scotland, to go with him in that iournie. For K. William would not disobeie his commandement at that present, in hope to atteine in quiet and peaceable manner his sute touching the restitution of Northumberland (as the Scotish writers doo affirme) but in the end, after he had continued a long time with king Henrie, and perceiued no comfort to recouer his lands, he got li|cence with much adoo to returne home: and so com|ming backe into England, passed through the realme EEBO page image 188 with his nobles into Scotland, where he applied his whole indenour to vnderstand the state of the com|mon-wealth of his subiects, and speciallie he tooke or|der in most diligent wise, to punish eruelties doone by theeues and robbers, which vndoubtedlie was one K. Williams sale of iustice. of the most profitable acts that he could deuise to ac|complish at that present, considering the state of his realme, as it then stood. For if the damages & skathes committed by théeues and robbers were equallie pondered with the hurts and hinderances which dai|lie Scotland more indaina|ged by dome|sticall théeues than by fo|raine enimies. grow by open warre against anie forren nation, it may well appéere, that more harme ariseth, & more heinous cruelties are exercised against the poore and miserable commons and innocent people, by such as liue by rapine & spoiling at home, than by anie out|ward enimies, be they neuer so fierce and strong in the field. And therefore the prudent consideration of this prince was no lesse to be commended, in that he sought to represse the licentious outrage of such ar|rand théeues and priuie murtherers, than if he had slaine manie thousands of forren enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 When he had once clensed the realme of those mis|gouerned Ambassadors sent to king Henrie. persons, he sent estsoones his ambassadors to king Henrie, requiring (as before) to haue Nor|thumberland restored vnto him, with notice giuen, that if he might not haue it with fauour, he would as|saie to recouer it by force. King Henrie perceiuing that he must either satisfie king Williams request, Sée more thereof in England. either else haue open warres with the Scots, by ad|uise of his nobles, restored to king William so much of Northumberland as his grandfather K. Malcolme had in possession. King William accepted the offer, but so, as he protested that he receiued not that part in full recompense of the whole which was due vnto A portion of Northumber|land restored to the Scots. King William receiued a peece of Nor|thumberland with his right saued to the re|sidue. King Henrie repenting him sel [...]e of that which he had deliuered to the Scots seeketh new occasions of warre. Warres with England. him (so saie the Scotish writers) but so as his entier right might alwaies be saued as well to the residue as to that which was then restored. Within few yéeres after, king Henrie féeling what hinderance it was for him to forbeare the commodities of those lands, which were thus deliuered vp to the Scotish kings vse, repented him of that bargaine: and there|fore to find some occasion to recouer the same again, he procured his subiects that dwelled vpon the bor|ders, to make forreies into the lands perteining to the Scots, so to prouoke them to battell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Complaint of these iniuries being brought vnto the warden of the Scotish borders, by such Scots as had lost such goods as were taken awaie by the Eng|lishmen, he sent to demand restitution; but forsomuch as he could haue no towardlie answer, he got togi|ther a great number of men, the which entering into the English ground, did much hurt on ech side where they came. At the same time was king Henrie in France, and therefore the Englishmen thought it sufficient to defend themselus as well as they might without attempting anie notable enterprise in re|uenge of the displeasures doone by the Scots. Har|uest was also at hand, and there vpon they ceassed on either part from further inuasions, till the winter season, which passed also without anie exploit atchi|ued, woorthie to be remembred; sauing certeine small rodes made by the Scots into the English bor|ders, as they saw occasion to serue thereto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 But in the summer next following, king Willi|am raised a mightie armie, and came with the same King William inuadeth Cumberland. into Cumberland, the right wing of the which armie was led by Gilcrist, whose approoued valiancie often shewed in the time of king Malcolme, had aduanced him to marie with the kings sister. The left wing was assigued vnto the conduct of one Rowland the kings coosen, who was also lieutenant of the horsse|men. The middle ward or battell the king himselfe led. The Englishmen, to the intent they might haue time and leasure to assemble their power, sent vnto king William, offering vnto him, not onelie large The offers of the English|men. summes of monie, if he would returne backe with his armie without further inuasion, but also redresse of all maner of iniuries and wrongs, if anie such on their behalfe were to be prooued. But king William for answer héerevnto declared, that he had not be|gun The answer of king Wil|liam. the warre for anie desire he had to monie; nei|ther had he first giuen the occasion, as one that was euer willing to liue vpon his owne: so that if they could be contented to restore Northumberland being his rightfull heritage, he was not so desirous of bloud, but that he would gladlie ceasse from all fur|ther attempts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The Englishmen hauing receiued this answer, to the end they might protract the time in sending still to and fro, till they might espie some occasion to woorke such feates as they had imagined, addressed foorth other ambassadors vnto king William, with diuerse faire offers and golden promises. In the meane time, to take the Scotishmen at some aduan|tage, they conueie their whole power in the night season néere vnto the place where the same Scotish|men laie in campe, & diuiding themselues into two The English men séeke by policie to van|quish the Scots. parts, the one was appointed to abide in the fields, till the sunne were vp, and then to shew themselues to the enimies, to traine them foorth to battell: the o|ther companie was laid closelie in a vallie not farre off, to take the aduantage as they saw their time. In the morning about the rising of the sunne, those that were appointed to procure the skirmish, approched so néere to the enimies campe, till they came euen with|in sight of them. The Scots amazed with the strang|nesse of the thing, for that they had not heard before of anie assemblie of the Englishmen, at the first were some what afraid: but anon incouraging one another, they boldlie issued forth vpon their enimies, who of purpose (at the first) made but weake resi|stance, and at length fled amaine, to the intent to The English men retire of purpose. cause the Scotishmen to breake their arraie of bat|tell in pursuing them, which they did so egerlie, that they left their king but slenderlie garded with a The kingle [...] but weakelie garded. small companie about him. Then the ambushment lieng in the vallie, brake foorth vpon him, according to the order before appointed, and in the meane time, the other that fled cast themselues about, and manlie abode their enimies, so earnestlie laieng it to their charge, that in fine they droue them backe, and con|streined them to flee in good earnest, which they them|selues had but onelie counterfeited to doo before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King William perceiuing his people thus dis|comfited, The Scots constreined to flée. and himselfe inclosed on ech side amongst his enimies, after he had assaied to breake foorth on some side from amongst them, when he saw his inde|nour could by no meanes preuaile, and that the eni|mies King William yéeldeth him|selfe prisoner. made onelie at him, he yéelded himselfe. There was not much bloud spilled on either side at this bic|kering, for the one part in the beginning of the fraie (as ye haue heard) fleeing of set purpose to the place where their ambush laie, escaped without much hurt; and the other, scared by the breaking foorth of the am|bush, abode the brunt but a small while, returning immediatlie towards the king; and then perceiuing they could doo no good, they made the best shift they could ech man for himselfe, to escape the enimies hands. The king being thus taken of his enimies, King William conueied into Normandie. was conueied to king Henrie ouer into Norman|die, where he was as then remaining. The yéere that king William was thus taken, was after the birth of our Sauiour Christ 1174, and the ninth of king 1174. Williams reigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 ¶ Other writers report the maner of his taking, Discord of writers. not altogither agréeable with that which we haue héere aboue remembred, who declare how K. Willi|am, after he had wasted all Cumberland, came into EEBO page image 189 Northumberland, not ceassing till he came to An|wike, where he staied for a time to haue had battell: but in the meane while the Englishmen laie close to|gither without noise or appearance, in such wise that no Scotishman could haue vnderstanding where they were. At length king William wearied with long tarieng thus at Anwike, and seeing no enimies to appéere, determined to woorke some exploit yet be|fore his returne, and there vpon sent foorth the most part of all his armie abroad into the countrie, to for|reie the same, kéeping no great companie about him, till the returne of the other thus sent foorth. Wherevpon incontinentlie a great ambushment of Englishmen came vpon him with counterfeited Scotish ensignes, and were not once suspected for Englishmen, till the king was compassed in by them on ech side, and so finallie taken and led awaie yer a|nie Scotishman wist thereof, saue a few which were left (as is said) with him for the time. In déed Wil|helmus Wilhelmus Paruus. Paruus, a canon sometime in the abbeie of Bridlington in Yorkeshire, in that his booke which he writes of the Norman kings of England, affirmes how there were not manie more than about three score horssemen with king William, while he was thus taken; and that the Englishmen were not past foure hundred horssemen, which tooke vpon them that enterprise; whose capteins (as he reciteth) were Capteins of the English|men. these: Robert de Stuteuill, Ranulfe de Glanuill, Bernard de Ballioll, and diuerse other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The same author writeth, that after the taking of the king, there rose a mutinie amongst the Scots: W. Paruus. for whereas the Irish Scots bare a naturall grudge against the English Scots, yet whilest the king was present amongst them, they durst not vtter their malicious intentions: but now that he was thus ta|ken from them, so manie of the English Scots as fell into the hands of the Irish, paid déerelie for the bargaine, being cruellie murthered and slaine: so that the residue were constreined to get them out of the waie into castels and towers, where they might be receiued. But now it is to be considered, that bi|cause there was no great slaughter made at the ta|king of king William, the warres notwithstanding continued betwixt England and Scotland: for the two before specified chiefteins Gilcrist and Rowland stoutlie withstood the Englishmen, and beat them Gilcrist and Rowland re|sist the Eng|lishmen. backe as they enterprised to enter into Cumber|land. At length a peace was taken, during the time that king William remained in captiuitie; vnder these conditions, that Northumberland should conti|nue vnder the dominion of the Englishmen, and Northumber|land vnder the Englishmen. Cumberland (with the earledome of Huntington) to remaine (as before) vnder the gouernance of the Scotishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Immediatlie vpon the taking of king William thus at Anwike, his brother Dauid earle of Hun|tington, thorough licence of king Henrie came into Dauid earle of Huntington. Scotland, to haue the gouernement of the realme, till the king his brother might be redeemed. So soone therefore as he had once established the realme in good quiet and iustice, he sent Richard the bishop of saint Andrewes, with diuerse other noble men, ouer into Normandie, to take order there with K. Hen|rie for the ransome of the king his brother, which was agréed in this manner. First, it was accorded, that king William should become and acknowledge The king of Scots dooth [...]altie to the king of Eng|land for Scot|land. Rog. Houed. Matth. West. himselfe to be the king of Englands liege man, a|gainst all men for the realme of Scotland and his o|ther lands; and for the same should doo fealtie to the said king of England, as to his liege souereigne lord, in like sort as other his liege people were accusto|med to doo. And further, he should also doo fealtie vnto the lord Henrie, the king of Englands sonne, (sa|uing alwaies the faith which he owght the king his father.) And in like manner it was couenanted and agréed, that all the prelats of Scotland, and their suc|cessors, The prelats of Scotland doo fealtie to the king of England. The earles and lords doo homage vnto him. should recognise their woonted subiection to the church of England, and doo fealtie to the king of England, so manie of them as he should appoint. And likewise the earle and barons of Scotland, and their heires for their part, should doo their homage and fealties vnto the said king of England, and to the lord. Henrie his sonne, so manie as therevnto should be required.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Moreouer, the king of Scots should paie for his King William ransomed. redemption one hundred thousand pounds sterling, the one halfe to be paid in hand: and for sure pai|ment of the other halfe, the earledomes of Cumber|land, Huntington, and Northumberland should be deliuered vnto king Henrie in pledge or mortgage, till the time that the same summe was paid. And for the more suertie of these couenants, and that the Scots should mooue no warre against the English|men, foure of the strongest castels within Scotland, Foure castels deliuered to the English|men in pledge. that is to saie, Berwike, Edenburgh, Koxburgh, & Striueling, were deliuered into the Englishmens hands. These things being thus ordered the eight day of December 1175. & the king restored home, there followed a new stirre in Scotland, for Gilbert 1175. Gilbert of Galloway re|belieth. of Galloway, a right cruell and most mischiefous person, purposing to conquer the crowne by force, made great slaughter of all them that withstood his desire. And because his brother reprooued his doo|ings, he put out his eies, and cut off his hands. A|gainst this Gilbert was Gilcrist sent with an ar|mie by the king. There was fought a sore battell betwixt them, for the most part of those that followed Gilberts commandement, were desperat fellowes, such commonlie as for murder and other heinous crimes by them committed were in danger of the lawes, and therefore vpon hope of pardon desired Gilbert of Galloway vanquished by Gilcrist. a change; but yet in the end, Gilcrist with multitude wan the field of them, and slue more in the chase than in the battell. Gilbert himselfe escaped and got ouer into the Ile of Man, and fled from thence into Ireland. Wilhelmus Paruus reporteth this matter Wilhelmus Paruus. somewhat otherwise, as thus: In the armie of king William (saith he) when he was taken neere vnto Anwike, were two brethren, Gilbert and Uared, that were lords of Galloway, hauing there with them a great retinue of their countriemen. These were the sonnes of Fergusius, sometime lord of that prouince; after whose deceasse the king of Scots that is superiour lord thereof, diuided the countrie be|twixt these two brethren. But Gilbert the eldest bro|ther found himselfe much griened to haue anie part of those lands (which were his fathers) giuen from him; yet doubting punishment at the kings hands, he durst not attempt anie thing against his brother, till it fortuned the king to be taken. And then deli|uered of the feare which had staied his mischiefous purpose, he taketh his brother at vnwares, and cru|ellie murdered him, after no common maner; but rather martyred him in beastlie wise, so to satisfie the instinct of his diuelish nature. And immediatlie after inuading the vpper countries, he exerciseth great slaughter of men on each hand. But his bro|ther had a sonne called Rowland, which proouing a valiant yoong gentleman, boldlie resisted his vncles rage, with the assistance and aid of his fathers friends. And thus was Scotland brought into trou|ble (as Wilhelmus Paruus recordeth) till by the fore|said Gilcrist the murderer was expelled, as before is expressed. In the yeare following tame Hugo car|dinall of saint Angelo as legat from the pope into Hugh cardi|nall of saint Angelo the popes legat. England, with authoritie to reforme the English churches, in such cases as were thought requisit; and after he had made an end there, to doo the like in EEBO page image 190 Scotland. When he had therefore finished with Eng|land, he cited all the bishops of Scotland to appeare The bishops of Scotland summoned to a conuocation at Northamp ton. before him at a day prefixed at Northampton. They came according to his appointment, and being as|sembled there in consistorie, he went about in most earnest wise to persuade them to receiue the archbi|shop of Yorke for their metropolitane. But one Gil|bert a yoong man, howbeit sigularlie well learned, and for his holinesse of life much commended (as Hector Boetius writeth) being sent of purpose by king William vnto this conuocation, to foresée that Gilbert a learned man defended the liberties of Scotland. nothing were concluded in the same, preiudiciall to the ancient liberties and franchises of the realme of Scotland, did argue so stifflie to the contrarie, that the cardinall left off the pursute of such maner of matter, and brake vp that councell without deter|mination of anie thing to the pupose in that behalfe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 This Gilbert that thus defended the cause and li|berties of the Scotish clergie, was afterwards made bishop of Cathnes, and finallie after his de|parture Gilbert bishop of Cathnes. out of this transitorie life, registred for his supposed perfect holinesse of life among the number of saints. The chiefest eause that mooned the Sco|tish cleargie to withdraw their obedience from the primasie of Yorke, was the dissention and conti|nuall enimitie betwixt the two nations for superiori|tie in temporall causes. The same yeare that this councell was holden at Northampton, sundrie vn|keth woonders were séene in Albion. On Midsum|mer Woonders. day being the feast day of the natiuitie of saint Iohn the Baptist, there fell such a storme of haile, that it killed manie shéepe and small cattell: people Haile. that were out of houses, and from vnder couert anie where abroad, were beaten to the earth with vio|lence of that storme. The sunne in September a|bout noonetide was darkened for the space of two The sun darkened. houres togither, without anie eclipse or cause na|turall by interposition of clouds. In Yorkeshire Thunder. was such terrible thunder with strange lightening, that manie abbeies and churches were consumed with the fire.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 About this season, the abbeie of Arbroth was built The founda|tion of the ab|beie of Ar|broth, or A|birbrothoke. in most magnificent wise, and indowed with lands and reuenues in such ample sort, that few houses within the bounds of Albion might compare there|with. The church was dedicated in the yeare of Grace 1178, by king William, in honor of Thomas 1178. Becket archbishop of Canturburie, with whome (as is said) he had great familiaritie in time of his yoong yeares. At the same time the abbeie of Hadington The abbeie or nunrie of Ha|dington foun|ded. was founded by Adhama the mother of king Wil|liam, and shortlie after she had built it, she died. Not long after, king William sent as ambassadors Iohn bishop of saint Andrews, and Reignald abbat of Ar|broth Ambassadors to the pope. vnto pope Alexander the third, to present vnto him his obeisance, according as he thought stood with his duetie. The pope séeming to reioise there|at, A rose of gold. sent shortlie after vnto the king a rose of gold, filled with balme, and certeine new priuileges con|cerning the libertie of the church of Scotland. At the same time Gilcrist, hauing his wife in suspicion Gilcrist mur|thereth his wife vpon su|spicion and adulterie. The kings indignation a|gainst Gil|crist. of adulterie, droue hir out of doores, and afterwards strangled hir in a village called Manis, not past a mile from Dundée. The king (for that she was his sister) tooke such indignation therewith, that he sei|zed vpon all his lands and goods, purposing to haue put him to death if he might haue got him into his hands: but when he saw he could not be found, he proclamed him traitor, and raced his castell (where|in Gilcrist pro|clamed trai|tor. he had dwelled) quite to the ground, in such wise that vnneth remaineth anie token at this day where it stood. This Gilcrist had a brother that hight Bre|dus, who before this mischance had got the lands of Bredus the brother of Gilcrist. Ogiluie: of whome the house of the Ogiluies tooke their beginning, that after came to great authori|tie The house of the Ogiluies in the court, though at this time (through Gil|crists offense) his whole familie was néere hand de|stroied. About this time also, the queene, king Wil|liam his wife, deceassed. A daughter which he had by hir, named Adhama, he gaue in mariage vnto the earle of Laon: but he himselfe after the deceasse of this his first wife maried Emengard, daughter to The earle of Laon. Richard vicount of Beaumount that was sonne to a daughter of king William the Conquerour. By Emengard. 1186. this mariage and aliance, the peace was newlie confirmed betwixt England and Scotland, in such wise, that neither part might receiue anie rebels to The peace confirmed with Eng|land. the other, by means whereof Gilcrist, that before was fled into England, was constreined to returne into Scotland, disguised in poore wéed, with two of his sonnes, and there passed foorth his life a long time The misera|ble state of Gilcrist. in great miserie amongest the woods and in out pla|ces, vnknowen to anie man what he was, by rea|son of his poore and simple habit. Somewhat before The castell of Edenburgh restored. the aboue remembred mariage, Henrie king of England at the motion of Hugh bishop of Durham rendered vp the castell of Edenburgh into K. Wil|liam his hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 About this time the Souldane named Saladine prospered hugelie against the christians in the holie Saladine the Souldane. land, making such cruell slaughter of them, that to heare thereof, all christian hearts were mooued to pitifull commiseration and dolorous teares: in so much that Henrie king of England vowed to go thither with an armie to relieue the common neces|sitie King Henries purpose to go into the holie land against the Saracens hindered by rebellion of his sonne. of the christian publike weale, and had gone in deed, if he had not béene hindered by the conspira|cie of his sonne, whome latelie before he had caused to be crowned king, that went about to vsurpe the sole administration to himselfe now in his fathers life time. About the same time William went with an armie into Rosse, against Makulzen and Mak|bein, Makulzen and Mak|bein capteins of pirats. two capteins of the westerne Iles, which vsed vpon occasion to passe ouer into Rosse, Cathnes and Murrey land, spoiling and wasting those countries; & when they heard of anie power comming against them, they would streight returne to their ships, and repasse againe into the Iles. But at this time, the king had sent foorth a nauie to burne all those ves|sels, wherein the robbers had passed ouer and had left at anchor, by reason whereof when they were inclosed in on euerie side by the king, and taken pri|soners, Death on the whéele. they after had suffered death on the whéele, according to the maner of the ciuill law.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The king in his returne from this iournie, came Abirbrothoke is builded. by the abbeie of Abirbrothoke, to view the woorke of that house, how it went forwards, commanding them that were ouerséers and maisters of the works to spare for no costs, but to bring it vp to perfection, and that with most magnificence. After his depar|ture from thence, he tooke the way toward Bertha, Gilcrist del|uing clods. and by aduenture espied where Gilcrist was del|uing vp turfes, togither with his two sonnes. And though he knew not what they were, yet he mufed to sée two such goodlie yoong men, as by resemblance they appeared to be, to be thus occupied in such toi|ling and base labour. Incontinentlie herewith Gil|crist with his bald head came afore him, and falling downe on his knees at the kings féet, said:

If there Gilcrist asketh pardon of the king in vn|knowne ha|bit. be anie mercie in thée (most ruthfull prince) for them that are brought through their offenses into extreme miserie, hauing suffered condigne punishment for the same; I beséech thée for the loue that Christ had to all sinfull people, not sparing to shed his most preti|ous bloud for their redemption, to haue some pitie & compassion on me, & these my pooré & miserable sons, which with me haue suffered much griefe and penu|rie, not hauing deserued the same by anie crime by
EEBO page image 191 them committed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At the last, when king William had inquired of Gilcrist decla|reth what he is. him what he was, and how it chanced he fell into such kind of miserie, the teares came so fast tricke|ling from his eies, that of a long time he was not a|ble to declare his owne name. At length being come to himselfe, he said:

I am Gilcrist (noble prince) the most sorrowfull creature on earth, which (alas) put my hands in thy bloud, and was therefore disheri|ted of all my lands, and banished with these my two sonnes out of thy realme, wherevpon we remai|ned in England for a time, till through proclama|tion made against outlawes, I was constreined to come hither againe with my said sonnes, where we haue liued by roots all the summer season, and now in the winter are glad to get our liuing with trauell of hand thus in digging and deluing of clods. Ther|fore if anie ruth or pitie haue place in thy heart, or that thine indignation be qualified, haue mercie on our sorrowfull estate, and remit the offense, wherby thou maiest not onelie purchase great honor and fame by example of pitie, being highlie renowmed for that vertue amongest all nations, but also win great merit afore God, for shewing thy selfe the fol|lower of Christ, the giuer of all mercie, grace, and peace.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The king mooued by these woords, and remembring the good seruice which Gilcrist had imploid so often|times afore in defense of the realme; and againe pi|tieng his case, to consider from what degrée of ho|nor The king ta|keth Gilcrist to his fauour, and restoreth vnto him his lands. he was fallen into the déepest bottome of ex|treme miserie, he tooke him wholie to his fauour, and not onelie forgaue him his former offenses, but also restored vnto him, and to his sonnes, all such lands as sometimes apperteined vnto them, except so much as the king had alreadie giuen vnto the abbeie of A|birbrothoke. Gilcrist euer after perseuered in due obedience to his prince. And forsomuch as his eldest sonne deceassed before him without heires, & that his yoonger sonne, by reason of some impediment which he had, was vnméet for mariage, he gaue the most Gilcrists gift vnto the house of Abirbro|thoke. part of his lands after his owne deceasse vnto the said house of Abirbrothoke. His yoonger sonne also, no lesse well affectionated towards the same house, gaue the residue of his lands therevnto. The father and both his sonnes are buried before the altar of S. Katharine within the church of this abbeie, as the superscription of their toomes sheweth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Though king William was earnestlie occupied in the aduancing forward of the building of Abir|brothoke, yet did he not forget his dutie in the admi|nistration of his lawes; but diligentlie caused iustice to be executed, to the punishing of the wicked, and the rewarding of them that well deserued. He made also sundrie new laws for the restreining of théeues Laws deuised by king Wil|liam against théeues. and oppressors of the people, so rigorous, that they might be in feare to heare him named. Further|more, where as the church of Scotland was subiect to the church of Yorke, he obteined of pope Clement the third of that name, letters of exemption for his clergie, whereby the church of Scotland (within the which were conteined the bishops sées of saint An|drews, Glasco, Dunkeld, Dublaine, Brighne, A|berden, Murrey, [...]osse, and Cathnesse) was declared exempt from all other forrein iurisdictions, except onelie from that of the see of Rome, so as it might not be lawfull from thenceforth for any that was not of the realme of Scotland, to pronounce sentence of interdiction or excommunication, or otherwise to deale in iudgement of ecclesiasticall causes, except such one as the apostolike sée of Rome should speci|allie appoint, and send thither with legantine power. The date of the said bull or letters of exemption thus obteined was at the popes palace of Laterane, the third Ides of March, and first yéere of the said pope Clements gouernment. Shortlie after, to wit in the yéere 1198, died Henrie king of England, after The death of Henrie king of England. whom succéeded his second sonne Richard: for Hen|rie his eldest sonne deceassed before his father.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 King Richard, after his coronation, prepared him selfe to passe with an armie into the holie land, and K. Richard. therefore made peace with all his neighbors, that no trouble should follow to his realme by reason of his absence: and herevpon to keepe the Scots in friend|ship, rather by beneuolence than by feare, he rendred into their hands the castels of Roxburgh, Berwike, The castels of Roxburgh, Berw [...]ke, and Sterlin [...] ren|dred to king William. and Sterling: and moreouer that part of Northum|berland which his father had taken from king Wil|liam when he tooke him prisoner. He also deliuered the eariedomes of Huntington & Cumberland; but vnder condition, that all the castels and holds within them, should be in the kéeping of his capteins and souldiors, such as he should appoint. He released to king William also the residue of such summes of monie as were due for the foure castels laid to gage, ten thousand pounds onelie excepted, which he recei|ued in hand at that present towards the charges of his iournie. When king William had thus receiued Earle of Hun|tington. Scots with king Richard in the holie land. his lands and castels by surrender, he made his bro|ther Dauid earle of Huntington, who therevpon doo|ing his homage vnto king Richard, according to the old ordinance deuised by king Malcolme the first, went with him also in that voiage with fiue hun|dred Scotishmen, or rather fiue thousand (as the translator of Hector Boetius saith) if no fault be in the printer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 As the christian armie laie at siege before the ci|tie The siege of Acres. Oliuer a Sco|tishman. of Acres, otherwise called Acon, it chanced that one Oliuer a Scotishman borne, was within the towne reteined in seruice among the Saracens; for being conuict of felonie in his natiue countrie he was banished out of the same, and fled to the Sara|cens, remaining so long amongst them, that he had learned their toong verie perfectlie, so that as then few knew what countriman he was. It fortuned that this Oliuer had one of the gates in kéeping, on that side the towne where was but a single wall, without trenches, or anie other fortification. He hap|pened by some good aduenture to espie amongst the watch of those that were of the retinue of Dauid earle of Huntington, one of his owne kinsmen na|med Iohn Durward, with whom of long time before Iohn Dur|ward. he had béene most familiarlie acquainted; and incon|tinentlie he called to the same Durward, desiring vnder assurance to talke with him. After certeine communication, for that this Oliuer had not as yet vtterlie in his heart renounced the christian faith, he appointed with Durward to giue entrie at a cer|teine houre vnto earle Dauid, and to all the christi|an Earle Dauid entered the citie [...]con. armie, vpon condition that earle Dauid would sée him restored againe vnto his land and heritage in Scotland. The houre set, earle Dauid came with a great power of men to the gate before rehersed, where he was suffered to enter according to appoint|ment, and incontinentlie with great noise and cla|mour brake into the midst of the citie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the morning betimes, king Richard percei|uing the citie thus woone, entred the same, and short|ly after wan a tower, which the Saracens for a while manfullie defended. Thus was the citie of Acres woone from the Saracens, chieflie by means of the Scotishmen. But now touching their returne from this voiage (for sith in other places more large men|tion is made of such exploits as were atchiued there|in, I passe ouer to make anie longer discourse there|of in this place) ye shall vnderstand, that in that strei|nable tempest, in the which king Richards nauie was dispersed in his comming homewards (as in EEBO page image 192 the historie of England is more at large expressed) the ship also that earle Dauid was in, chanced to be throwne on land on the coasts of Aegypt, where be|ing taken prisoner, and led into Alexandria, at length Earle Dauid taken prisoner He is re|deemed. he was redéemed by certeine merchants of Uenice, and first conucied vnto Constantinople, and after vnto Uenice, where he was bought out & redéemed by the English merchants, and in the end suffered to depart home. At his comming into Flanders, hée hi|red a vessell at Sluis, therwith to returne into Scot|land; but being loosed a little off from the shore, such a He went to Scotland. vehement tempest suddenlie arose, that droue him, not without great danger of life, néere to the coasts of Norwaie and Shetland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Here in the midst of this extreame ieopardie (as hath béene reported) after he had made a vow to Arriued at Dundee. build a church in the honor of the virgin Marie, if he might escape that danger of seas, he arriued at length in Taie water beside Dundée, not far from saint Nicholas chappell, without either rudder or tackle. The place where he arriued before that time hight Alectum, but he as then changed the name, and called it Dundee, which signifieth as though ye The name of Dundée. should say, The gift of God. When his brother the king heard that he was returned, supposing long time before, that he had béene dead, he came spéedi|lie vnto Dundée to welcome him home, shewing himselfe most glad of his returne, insomuch that he caused publike processions to be celebrate through Procession was holden. the realme, to giue God thanks that had thus resto|red his brother home into his countrie. Earle Da|uid, according as he had vowed, builded a church in the field commonlie called the wheat field, and dedi|cating A church bu [...]t. it in honor of the virgin Marie, made it a pa|rish church. At a parlement also holden after this at Dundée, licence was granted vnto him to build an abbie in what place it shuld please him within Scot|land, and to indow it with lands and rents as hée should thinke good. There were also manie priuile|ges Priuileges granted to the towne of Dundée. granted the same time vnto Dundée, which in|dure to this day.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Earle Dauid not refusing the grant and beneuo|lence of the king his brother, builded an abbeie cal|led The abbeie of Lundoris. Lundoris, for moonks of the order of saint Be|net. One thing there is much to be woondered at, as a strange singularitie. For whereas that house standeth in a vallie, inclosed on each side with wood and water, by reason whereof there is great abun|dance of adders; yet dooth no man catch hurt by anie of them, insomuch that ye shall see yong children play Adders with|out hurt. and run vp and downe amongst a great number of them, without anie skath or hurt following vnto them thereof. In this meane while, Richard king of England (who also in his returne out of the holie land was taken prisoner by the emperour of Al|maine) was deliuered for a great summe of monie, and so returned into his countrie. King William hearing of king Richards returne into England, to K. Richards returne into England. congratulate the same, tooke his brother earle Da|uid with him, and came vnto London, where, in to|ken of ioy, that he had vnfeinedlie conceiued for his safe comming home, after all troubles and dangers which he had passed, he gaue vnto him two thousand markes sterling, for that he knew at what great The gift of king william to king Ri|chard. charges he had béene, aswell for furnishing of his voiage, as also for redéeming of his libertie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 By these friendlie points of humanitie shewed, there followed great amitie and loue betwixt these two kings. But king William fell sicke in Eng|land, and as it often happeneth, such as were vnquiet persons, desirous to be deliuered of all feare of lawes, were streight way put in an vntrue beliefe, that he was dead: and causing it to be bruted abrode, A brute raised that the king was dead. began to exercise all kind of misdemeanors by inua|ding the poore and simple people, with spoilings and slaughters in all parts. But after it was certeinlie Herald thane of Cathnes succourer of rebels. knowne, that the king was not onelie aliue, but al|so recouered of his infirmitie, and comming home|wards, those raskals and wicked rebels withdrew vnder the conduct of one Herald the thane of Cath|nes, and erle of Orkenie, vnto the vttermost bounds of Scotland. Howbeit the king pursued them in such diligent and earnest maner, that he apprehended the most part of them in Cathnes, and commanded iustice to be doone on them, in such wise, that mercie Iustice not destitute of mercie. was not yet wanting: for such as were thought to be after a sort giltlesse, were pardoned, and the other punished, euerie one according to the measure of his offenses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 But the principall leader of them, that is to say, the forenamed Herald, for that time escaped into the westerne Iles, but shortly after, returning to Cath|nes, he was taken and brought to the king, who cau|sed The thane of Cathnes taken. Seuere pu|nishment. his eies first to be put out, then gelded, and lastlie to be hanged on a paire of gallowes. Also all those of his linage that were men, were likewise gelded, that no succession should follow of so wicked a wéed. In the yeere next insuing was more dearth felt in Scotland, than euer was heard of before: for a Great dearth measure of barlie, in Scotish called a boll, was sold for fiue crownes; and yet in the yéere next following, accounting from the natiuitie of our Sauior 1199, was more plentifull abundance than euer had béene 1199 séene afore. The same yéere king Williams wife Er|mengard was deliuered of a yoong sonne named A|lexander. Alexander the prince of Scotland. The same yeere also died Richard king of England, & his brother Iohn succeeded in his place. About thrée yéeres after this, was the foresaid Alex|ander the kings sonne created prince of Scoltand. And the same yéere came a legat from the pope sent A legat sent from the pope. to K. William, presenting vnto him a sword, with a sheath & hilts of gold set full of rich pretious stones. He presented vnto him also a hat or bonet, made in maner of a diademe of purple hue, in token (as it A hat. should meane) that he was defender of the church. Defender of the church. Manie indulgences and priuileges were granted at the same time by the pope, for the libertie of the church of Scotland. It was ordeined also the same time, that saturdaie should be kept as holidaie from Saturday af|ter noone to be kept holie. noone forward, and great punishment appointed for them that transgressed this ordinance, in dooing a|nie bodilie worke from saturdaie at noone, vntill mondaie in the morning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 After this, king William returned againe into King william did homage to king Iohn of England. England to doo his homage vnto king Iohn, for the lands of Cumberland, Huntington, and Northum|berland. Immediatlie wherevpon king Iohn willed him to passe with him into France, to make warres against the Frenchmen. And bicause he refused so to doo, king Iohn made claime to all the foresaid lands as forfeited to the crowne of England, and caused a great bootie of goods to be fetched out of the same: so that open warres had immediatlie followed, if the English lords had not compelled K. Iohn to make restitution of all the goods so taken; bicause they thought it not expedient in anie wise to haue wars with the Scots at the same time, being alreadie in trouble with the Frenchmen. In the winter follow|ing, the frost was so vehement, & continued so long, that till mid March, no plough might be put into the ground. Ale was frozen in such wise within houses, Ale sold by weight. and cellers, that it was sold by weight. Such a great snow fell also therewith, that beasts died in manie places in great numbers. Moreouer, from the Twelfthtide till Februarie, there was euerie day Earthquakes verie terrible earthquakes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 After the end of winter, king Iohn hauing made an end of his warres with France, began to build EEBO page image 193 a castell in Northumberland ouer against Berwike, vpon purpose to haue some quarell to fall out with the Scots. King William being aduertised thereof, sent his ambassadors vnto king Iohn, requiring him to desist from such attempts, and not to séeke a|nie occasion of new trouble: but forsomuch as he re|ceiued no towardlie answer againe from K. Iohn, he assembled a power, & comming to the castell which king Iohn had caused to be builded, he ouerthrew A castell ouer|throwne. the same, and raced it to the earth. King Iohn sore offended herewith, raised a mightie armie, and came towards Scotland, but at his comming to the bor|ders, he found his aduersarie king William readie to receiue him by battell, if he had come forward; howbeit through mediation of prudent men, the matter was taken vp betwixt them, so that on ei|ther A peace esta|blished a [...] york betwixt the kings Iohn and William. side the armies were dissolued, & both the kings repairing to Yorke, established a peace there, with these conditions, that Margaret and Isabell daugh|ters to king William, after the tearme of 9 yéeres then next insuing were once expired, should be cou|pled The couenãts of the peace. in mariage with Henrie and Richard the sons of king Iohn, vpon this paction and couenant, that if the one died, the other should succéed to the crowne. For the which it was couenanted, that king Willi|am should giue a right large dower. Also the castell which king Iohn had builded, and king William raced, it was agréed that it should remaine so defa|ced, and neuer after againe to be repared. For the sure performance of these articles thus betwixt the Scotish hosta|ges deliuered to king Iohn. two kings concluded, nine noble men of Scotland were appointed to be deliuered as hostages vnto king Iohn. In that assemblie there at Yorke, King William also surrendered into the hands of king Iohn, the lands of Cumberland, Hunting|ton, and Northumberland; to the intent he should as|signe A surrender made to a vse. those lands againe vnto his sonne prince Alex|ander, and he to doo homage for the same, according to the maner and custome in that case prouided, for a knowledge and recognition that those lands were holden of the kings of England, as superior lords of the same. During the abode of these two kings at Yorke, there was brought vnto them a child of sin|gular beautie, sonne and heire to a gentleman of great possessions in those parties, being sore vexed with diuerse and sundrie diseases; for one of his eies was consumed & lost through an issue which it had of corrupt and filthie humors, the one of his hands was dried vp; the one of his féet was so taken, that he had no vse thereof; and his toong likewise that he could not speake. The physicians that saw him thus troubled with such contrarie infirmities, iudged him incurable. Neuerthelesse, king William making a crosse on him, restored him immediatlie to health. A child healed by K. William. By reason whereof, manie beleeued that this was doone by miracle, through the power of almightie God, that the vertue of so godlie a prince might bée notified to the world.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 After his returne from Yorke into Scotland, he indowed the churches of Newbottell, Melros, Holie Churches in|dowed by king William. rood house, Dunfirmling, and Aberden, with manie faire possessions, as the letters patents made therof by him beare manifest testimonie. He also erected one new bishops see called Argile, giuing therto suf|ficient The erection of the sée of Argile. lands towards the maintenance and susten|tation thereof. After this, comming vnto the towne of Bertha, he had not remained there manie daies, The towne of Bertha drow|ned by inun| [...]ation. but there chanced such a floud, by reason of the rising and inundation of the two riuers, Taie & Almond, that through violence of the streme the towne wals were borne downe, and much people in the towne drowned, yer they could make anie shift to saue themselues, insomuch that though the king with his The king in danger of browning. wife, and the most part of his familie escaped out of that great danger and ieopardie, his yongest sonne yet named Iohn, with his nursse and twelue other women perished, and twentie other of his seruants Iohn ye kings son drowned. beside. Héere was heard such clamor, noise, & lamen|table cries, with bitter rorings and dreadfull shri|kings, as is vsed in time when anie towne is sud|denlie taken and surprised by the enimies: for as the cõmon prouerbe witnesseth; Fier & water haue no mercie: and yet of these two, water is more ter|rible and dangerous: for there is no force or wit of man able to resist the violence of inundations, where they suddenlie breake in.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 King William, after that the towne of Bertha The towne of Perth builded was thus destroied and ouerflowed with water, be|gan the foundation of an other towne, which was af|ter called Perth, by a man of that name that owght the ground where the same towne was builded. Fur|thermore, to aduance the dignitie and augmentation of this towne, the king granted sundrie beneficiall Fréedome granted to the towne of Perth. priuileges and freedoms thereto, that it might the soo|ner rise in riches and wealth. The first foundation thereof was laid after the incarnation of our Saui|our 1210 yéeres, but the name was changed after|wards, and called saint Iohns towne, which name it beareth euen vnto this day. About the same time Saint Iohns towne. Gothred moo|ued a rebellion in Cathnes. there rose estsoones new trouble in Cathnes, for one Gothred the sonne of Makuilzen (of whose rebellion ye haue heard before) spoiled with often incursions and rodes the countrie of Rosse, and other bounds there abouts. His companie increased dailie more His companie increaseth. and more, by repaire of such number of rebels as came vnto him out of Lochquhaber, & the westerne Iles. King William, to represse these attempts, sent foorth the earles of Fife and Atholl, with the thane of The earles of Fife and A|tholl sent a|gainst him. The rebels o|uerthrowne. Gothred ta|ken and be|headed. Buchquhane, hauing six thousand in their companie, the which incountering with the enimies in set bat|tell, gaue them the ouerthrow, and taking Gothred their chiefe capteine prisoner, brought him vnto the king, who caused both him and diuerse other which were likewise taken prisoners, to lose their heads. Gothred himselfe was sore wounded, before he was taken; so that if his takers had not made the more spéed in the conueieng of him to the king, he had died of his hurts before execution had thus béene doone on him accordinglie as was appointed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 About this time arose the dissention and variance The dissenti|on betwixt the pope and king Iohn. The cause. betwixt Iohn king of England, and pope Innocent the third, for that the English cleargie refused to aid the said Iohn with such summes of monie as he de|manded of them. Shortlie after, William king of Scotland, worne with long age, departed out of this The death of king William. world at Striueling, in the 74 yéere of his age, and in the 49 yéere of his reigne, and after the incarnati|on of Christ 1214 yéeres. He was buried in Aber|brothoke, 1214. before the high altar within the quier. The yéere afore his death, two comets or blasing starres Two blazing starres. appéered in the moneth of March, verie terrible to be|hold; the one did shine before the rising of the sunne, and the other before the going downe thereof. The yéere next following, there was a cow in Northum|berland A monstrueus calte. that calued a verie monstruous calfe; for the head and necke resembled a verie calfe in déed, but the residue of the bodie was like vnto a colt. In the winter after, there were séene also two moones in the Two moones. firmament, the one being seuered from the other, and in shape naturallie horned, as ye see the moone in hir increasing or waning. King William in his life The abbeie of Balmernocht founded. time founded the abbeie of Balmernocht, but his wife quéene Ermengard indowed it with lands and possessions after his deceasse. In the 46 yéere of this king Williams reigne, two moonks of the Trinitie order were sent into Scotland by pope Innocent, to whome king William gaue his palace roiall in A|berden, to conuert the same into an abbeie for them EEBO page image 194 to inhabit: and was in mind to haue giuen them manie other bountifull gifts, if he had liued anie lon|ger time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 AFter the deceasse of king William, his sonne Alexander the second of that name succeeded, Alexan|der. and was crowned at Scone with all due solemnitie; which being finished, he went vnto Abirbrothoke, Alexander the second is crowned at Scone. A time of mourning. where he remained 14 daies, in attending the fune|rall obsequies of his father, and commanded that no publike plaies nor great feasts should be vsed or kept in all that yéere, to the intent the death of his father might be lamented through the whole realme. The king himselfe, and all his seruants also, were clothed in mourning weed, during the space of one whole yéere. The first parlement which he called, was hol|den at Edenburgh, in the which he confirmed all the A parlement at Edenburgh acts and ordinances deuised by his father: and fur|ther appointed that all such as had borne offices vn|der Confirmation of officers. him, should still inioy the same. Namelie he com|manded that William Wood bishop of Dunblaine should still continue lord chancellor, and Alane of Galloway high constable, which is an office of most The office of the constable. honor & reputation next to the king, as he that hath power of life and death, if anie man draw bloud of an other by violence within two miles of the court.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 When this parlement was ended, bicause the old queene his mother determined to remaine, during the residue of hir life, in the place where that holie woman queene Margaret sometime led hir life, he gaue vnto hir towards the maintenance of hir e|state, the castels & townes of Forfair, with the lands The lands of Forfair giuen to the old quéene. A princelie appointment. and possessions to the same belonging. He also ap|pointed certeine sage and most graue personages, to be chosen foorth as iudges, which should be resident in euerie citie and good towne of his realme, for the hea|ring and due determining of all quarrels and mat|ters in controuersie betwixt partie and partie. In this meane time great dissention rose betwixt Iohn king of England, and his barons, by reason whereof Dissention be|twixt king Iohn and his nobles. great warres insued, as in the English historie dooth appéere. The barons made sute both to the French king, & to the king of Scots for aid, so that at length Lewes the French kings sonne came ouer to sup|port them, whereof when king Alexander was aduer|tised, he likewise came with an armie through Eng|land King Alexan|der passeth to London. vnto London, causing his souldiers by the waie to absteine from dooing anie kind of damage to the people. By his comming things were partlie quie|ted for a time, and shortlie after that he had commu|ned with Lewes touching sundrie affaires pertei|ning to both the realmes, they passed the seas with ten vessels ouer into France, leauing their powers behind them to assist the English lords.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The French king aduertised thereof, came downe to Bullongne, where finding his son and king Alex|ander, he renewed the ancient bond of amitie be|twixt France and Scotland, with the same Alexan|der, The league betwixt France and Scotland re|newed. according to the couenants of the old league, with this addition; that neither prince should receiue the enimies of the others realme, nor to marrie with anie stranger, the one not making the other priuie thereto. These things being ratified, king Alexander The best ap|prooued wri|ters affirme that Lewes went not ouer into France, till after the death of king Iohn. Lewes and king Alexan|der accurssed. A councell at Rome. and Lewes returned into England: shortlie where|vpon, king Iohn died, more through anguish of mind and melancholie, than by force of anie other naturall disease. His son Henrie, the third of that name, suc|céeded him. And in the meane time had the pope ac|curssed both Lewes, and king Alexander, with all those that fauoured their cause against king Iohn, which cursse was pronounced in a generall councell, which was holden at Rome by pope Innocent, there being present foure hundred and twelue bishops, and eight hundred abbats. King Alexander after the de|ceasse of king Iohn, returning homewards with his armie, thought he might haue passed quietlie with|out King Alexan|der returneth into his coun|trie. anie annoiance by the waie, through meanes whereof he lost a certeine number of his men, being suddenlie inuaded by such Englishmen, as watched their time to take the Scots at some aduantage, in straieng abroad out of order: with which iniurie king Alexander was so mooued, that he spoiled and harri|ed all the countries by the which he passed, till he was entered within the confines of his owne dominion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Shortlie after, Cardinall Gualo came into Eng|land furnished with the popes authoritie, to denounce Cardinall Gualo. the excommunication aboue remembred, against Lewes and Alexander, with all their fautors, where|vpon he accurssed not onelie the foresaid persons, but also interdicted all the places where they came, inso|much that in the end Lewes was constreined to buy an absolution with no small summes of monie, of that auaricious cardinall Gualo: and after vpon a|gréement also made with king Henrie, he returned into France. Not long after came K. Henrie with Lewes retur|neth into France. King Henrie inuadeth Scotland. an armie into Scotland, sore indamaging the coun|trie: but so soone as he was aduertised that king A|lexander had assembled all the power of his realme to giue him battell, he retired with all spéed into England. The king of England had in his armie at Ex codice an|tiquo S. Alba|ni, written by Mat. Paris (as I take it.) the same time 1200 men of armes, verie perfectlie appointed and furnished with armor and weapon as was requisit, and the king of Scots but onelie fiue hundred. But of footmen there were in the Scotish armie 60000 able personages well appointed, with axes, speares, and bowes, readie to die and liue with their prince, constantlie beléeuing, that to lose this present life héere in his defense, was an assured waie to be saued in an other world.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 After that king Henrie was gone backe into England, king Alexander followed after him into King Alexan|der in Nor|thumberland. Northumberland, where he ouerthrew & beat downe manie castels and strengths, which the Englishmen held. Then marching through the countrie vnto Car|leill, Carleill woon by the Scots. he wan that citie, and garnished it with his peo|ple. After this, laieng siege vnto Norham castell, when he had continued at the same a certeine time, and perceiued how he lost but his trauell, he left it, and returned home with great honor and triumph for his other atchiued enterprises in that iournie. King Henrie being once aduertised that king Alexander had broken vp his campe, incontinentlie got eftsoons his people togither, and comming to Berwike, wan Berwike woon by king Henrie. both the towne and castell. After entring into Scot|land, he burned and spoiled the countrie alongst by the sea coasts, till he came as farre as Hadington, Hadington. putting all such to the swoord as were found in the waie; women, préests, and children onelie excepted. He assaied to haue woone the castell of Dunbar, but missing his purpose there, he returned into England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time, the auaritious prelat Gualo, vpon trust to purchase some large portion of monie in Scotland, put the same vnder processe of interdi|cting, & namelie he accurssed king Alexander most Scotland in|terdicted. terriblie, for that he had inuaded England, and (as he alleged) spoiled churches as well as prophane pla|ces. These cursses so inflamed the hearts of the Scotishmen with hatred against the Englishmen, that the same was not like to haue ended without the vtter destruction and ruine of both their realms. Neuerthelesse at length, by the diligent trauell of the bishops of Yorke and Salisburie, which came Bishops of yorke and Salisburie. vnto king Alexander to treate an agreement, a fi|nall peace was concluded, vnder these conditions. First it was agréed, that king Alexander should A peace con|cluded. render the citie of Carleill into the Englishmens hands, and king Henrie the towne of Berwike vnto the Scots. The whole dominion of Cumber|land The condi|tions. to remaine vnto king Alexander, with the one EEBO page image 195 halfe of Northumberland, to the Recrosse. And fur|ther, that king Alexander should be absolued of the censures of the church, which Gualo the cardinall had denounced against him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Thus the two kings being accorded, the two fore|said bishops comming vnto Berwike, absolued king Alexander, and deliuered his realme of interdiction, by such authoritie as they had procured of the cardi|nall Gualo. But yet the same cardinall, not min|ding to depart with emptie hands, summoned all the prelats of Scotland to appeare before him at The cleargie of Scotland summoned by cardinall Gualo to come to Anwike. Anwike, there to receiue their full absolution, to the intent by such means to trouble them, till they had disburssed to his vse some large portion of mo|nie. Sundrie of them which loued quietnesse more than contention, satisfied his mind; but others refu|sed vtterlie so to doo, taking great indignation that spirituall causes were thus dispatched for monie, Sale of spiri|tuall promo|tions. and ecclesiasticall preferments bought and sold, no otherwise than secular possessions and prophane dig|nities. Incontinentlie therevpon Gualo cited them to Rome, supposing that rather than to take vpon The Scotish cleargie cited to Rome. them so long a iournie, they would haue compoun|ded with him at his pleasure. Notwithstanding they being nothing in doubt thereof, went vnto The com|plaint of the Scotish clear|gie to the pope Rome, and at their comming thither, made vnto the pope their complaint in most gréeuous maner, of the insufferable iniuries attempted in England and Scotland, by his most couetous legat the fore|said Gualo: by reason of which complaint, and of The auarice of Cardinall Gualo. sundrie such letters & informations as dailie came out of England and Scotland, from other bishops & abbats, conteining right gréeuous accusations, con|cerning the insatiable auarice of Gualo, the pope re|uoked him home to Rome, to make answere in his presence vnto such matters as were laid to his charge.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 At his returne thither, for so much as he was not able to discharge himselfe of such manifest crimes Cardinall Gualo con|demned in a summe of mo|nie. The Scotish bishops absol|ued. Dauid earle of Hunting|ton deceassed. wherewith he was burdened, the pope condemned him in a great summe of monie, to be paid as a fine for his trespasse and transgressions. And those Sco|tish bishops, which were come for their absolution, were absolued by the pope, and suffered to depart in peace. In this meane time, Dauid earle of Hun|tington, brother to William late king of Scots, (of whome ye haue heard before how he went in the iournie made by the christian princes into the holie 1219. land) deceassed, and was buried within an abbeie in England. Henrie king of England, after he came to yeares of perfect discretion, shewed himselfe to be In interview betwixt the kings of England and Scotland. more desirous of peace than of warres. Where|vpon at Yorke there was a meeting appointed be|twixt him and king Alexander, where mutuall ali|ance was accorded betwixt them on this wise. Iane the sister of king Henrie was promised to be giuen Mariages concluded. in mariage to king Alexander, and two sisters of king Alexanders were despoused vnto two great princes of the English nobilitie. These mariages were thus concluded in the yeare of our Lord, 1220.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the yeare next following, came a legat into Scotland from pope Honorius, with buls to gather a summe of monie towards the furnishing foorth of Alegat sent from pope Honorius for a collection. an armie against the Turks or rather Saracens. This legat was a cardinall, and named Egidius, who hauing purchased no small quantitie of coine both of the cleargie and laitie of Scotland, spent the same in riot and outragious insolencie, making his excuse at his returne to Rome, how it was taken Alegats ex|cuse. from him by certeine Brigants and robbers. With|in short while after, was an other legat with sem|blable commission sent into Scotland from the fore|said pope. But king Alexander, being aduertised An other le|gat. of his comming, called a councell, in the which one of the bishops (as should séeme) tooke great indigna|tion, to sée how couetousnesse reigned in most shame|full wise amongest the Romish legats, and spake in maner as followeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6

Albeit sundrie considerations there are which An oration of a bishop. might stay me from vttering such things as be most preiudiciall to the common-wealth, yet (most noble prince) when I consider thine humanitie, faith, and constancie, giuen to nothing more than to the de|fense and weale of thy true liege people, I cannot but (for the zeale I beare to common libertie) de|clare Tyrannie in|tollerable. the truth. For sith all maner of tyrannie is intollerable, yea euen that which is exercised by kings or princes descended by lineall succession to their rightfull heritage: much more is that tyran|nie Men of base linage. to be detested, which is exercised by men of vile and base linage. Therefore, if the sundrie and ma|nifest wrongs doone to vs these manie yeares now passed, had come by the popes themselues, the same might somewhat more sufferablie haue béene borne: but sith naughtie & vile persons, of base birth and ob|scure linage, promoted to benefices and ecclesiasti|call dignities onelie for their wicked and horrible vi|ces, haue not onelie interdicted our realme, with|out lawfull commission; but haue also consumed in maintenance of their wanton and insolent vices, that monie which they gathered in our countrie by the popes authoritie, vnder colour of raising an ar|mie to go against the Turks and Infidels; I am of this opinion, that their curssed auarice ought to haue no further place amongest faithfull people, speciallie amongest vs, whose simplicitie and humblenesse they haue in contempt. In the yeares passed, ye com|plained The Scots sore offended against Gua|lo. of the iniuries doone by Gualo, when he had put your realme vnder the censure of interdicting, and the most part of your prelats vnder the cursse; because they would not answer him with monie, ac|cording to his couetous demands, wherewith he might mainteine his outragious lusts. Which Gualo also (as should appeare) by most certeine coniectures, was of such a diuelish nature, that though he were sent to treate a concord betwixt the Englishmen The practise of Gualo. and Scots; yet to satisfie his auaritious desire, he ministred such occasion of warre betwixt them, that both the realmes (had not the matter béene the soo|ner taken vp) were at a point to haue entered so far into malitious hatred the one against the other, that it was not like that anie peace would haue taken place, till the one or both had béene vtterlie destroi|ed. But since these heinous and terrible déeds are manifest inough; to what end should I here remem|ber them, sith the same cannot be doone without your great griefe and displeasure? Moreouer, after we were deliuered of this Gualo, shortlie after com|meth another, one shewing himselfe to come foorth of the same shop; for in conuersation of life he was to be iudged no whit better, but rather woorse: for after that he had got vp amongest vs of this realme large summes of monie, vnder pretense of redéeming the christian prisoners out of the Saracens hands, and waging of new armies against them; he wasted the same monie in riotous lust and insolencie, feining, when it was gone, that it was béereft him by Bri|gants. Therefore sith we haue had experience, and are alreadie sufficientlie taught by the dooings of the two fore-remembred legats, to our heauie griefs and no small damages; we may be woorthilie repu|ted vnwise and verie fooles in déed, if we now admit the third. For it is not to be thought, that this new legat shall vse the matter in anie better sort, than his fellowes haue doone before him. And verelie, if anie man shuld demand of me, what I thinke ought to be doone in this matter, I doo for my part protest, The bishops oration. that neither this legat, nor anie other in times to EEBO page image 196 come, ought to be receiued within this realme, con|sidering how the same hath béene wasted & robbed by their continuall exactions. If there be anie amongst you that hath more monie than he knoweth which way well to spend, he may (in the name of God) be|stow it vpon the poore, rather than to the vse of such vicious legats, as order it in such sort, that all men haue cause to thinke whatsoeuer commeth into their hands, is but cast away and clearelie lost.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 These words of this bishop (whatsoeuer he was) Legats can|not be recei|ued. were liked so well of all the councell, that the legat could not be receiued into the realme. After the breaking vp of this councell, the mariage was con|summat betwixt king Alexander and Ione, sister to Henrie king of England; also betwixt Hubert de Burgh high iustice of England, and Margaret sister to king Alexander, by reason of which mariages, the peace was confirmed with the Englishmen, and as it had beene sealed vp for a more full and certeine as|surance. Peace confir|med with the Englishmen. Gilespie Rosse are rebell. Shortlie after followed ciuill warres in Scotland, by the motion of one Gilespie Rosse, who hauing liued most licentiouslie in riotous outrage, at length arreared open warre against the king, and first sleaing diuerse such of his companions as had kept him companie aforetime in his lewd misde|meanors, for that they refused now to sticke to him in this rebellious enterprise, he went with the resi|due that offered to take his part vnto the towne of Enuernes, which he tooke and burned, with diuerse other places being of the kings possessions, till at Enuernes burned by Gi|lespie Rosse. Iohn Cu|min earle of Buchquhane. Gilespie Rosse behea|ded. length Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquhane com|ming against him with an armie deliuered to him by the king, pursued the said Gilespie in such earnest wise, that finallie he tooke him with two of his sons, and striking off all their thrée heads, sent the same to the king as a witnesse how he had sped.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 This businesse being thus quieted, an other insued after this maner: The men of Cathnes sore offen|ded New trouble. with their bishop named Adam, for that vpon re|fusall to pay their tithes he had accurssed them, fell vpon him within his owne house, and first scour|ging him with rods, at length set fire vpon him and Adam bishop of Cathnes slaine by the people of that countrie. burnt him within his owne kitchen. Which act be|ing reported to the king, as then soiourning at E|denburgh, he hasted foorth with all speed to punish the offendors, not ceassing till he had taken foure hun|dred of them, all the which number he caused to be Streight exe|cution. hanged; and for that he would haue no succession to come of such a wicked séed, he appointed all their sons to lose their stones. The place where they were so gel|ded, The stonie hill. The earle of Cathnes lo|seth his lands is called euen to this day the stonie hill. The earle of Cathnes, for that he neither succoured the bishop in time of néed, nor yet sought to punish the offendors that did this cruell déed, was depriued of his earledome, and the lands belonging to the same. King Alexan|der commen|ded of the pope The pope highlie commended king Alexander for this punishment taken of them, that had so cruellie murthered their bishop.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 After this, king Alexander comming vnto Aber|den, gaue manie large gifts and priuileges therevn|to, The priuile|ges of Aber|den. although the same before this time inioied sun|drie notable commodities and endowments giuen and confirmed by other kings his predecessors. The buls which were granted by sundrie popes concer|ning the liberties of the churches in Scotland, were committed by the king to the custodie of one Gilbert The archde|con of Mur|rey. archdeacon of Murrey, who succéeded next after the foresaid Adam in the sée of Cathnesse. In the third yeare after, as king Alexander with his mother Er|mingard were sitting at their banket on the twelfe day in Christmas, otherwise called Yule, the earle of Cathnes, hauing good opportunitie thereto, pre|sented himselfe before the king, and besought him of grace and pardon for his passed offense. King Alexander taking rush & pitie of him, restored him The earle of Cathnes is pardoned and restored to his lands. (vpon his fine to be paied in maner as was agréed betwixt them) vnto all his former honors, lands and possessions. Neuerthelesse the offense that was par|doned by man, was afterward punished by the iust iudgement (as some thought) of almightie God: for The earle of Cathnes is murthered by his seruants. he was slaine as he lay in bed one night by his own meniall seruants, whome he had roughlie intreated, as the fame went. The house also wherein he was thus slaine, was likewise set on fire and burnt ouer him, that no man should haue suspiciion of his slaugh|ter, but that it might séeme as though it had come by some sudden aduenture.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 About this time, or somewhat before, there came The first com|ming of blacke friers into Scotland. into Scotland (sent by saint Dominicke) certeine blacke friers, of which order the same Dominicke was the first author. These men that were first sent by him, liued according to his institution, more per|fectlie than such as followed: for as it often happe|neth, althings commonlie from a good beginning fall into woorse estate, so that the successors of those men declined from all good religion, into most insolent a|buses and misorders, and so continuing in vicious liuing the space of thrée hundred yeares, at length were perfectlie reformed into a better rule, by a frier named Iohn Adamson, that proceeded doctor in the Iohn Adam|son. profession of diuinitie in the vniuersitie of Aberden, at the same time that Hector Boetius the Scotish thronographer proceeded there in the same facultie. On the same maner, about the selfe same time, were sent into Scotland, as well as into all other parts The first comming of friers minor [...] of the christian world, friers minors, of saint Fran|cis his order. Manie of them also after his deceasse fell to dissolute liuing, kéeping no such streict rules, as both he prescribed, and also obserued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 But now to returne to the residue of the historie. The Scotish people inioied peace a long time after the appeasing of the trouble in Cathnes, till time that Alane lord of Galloway and constable of Scot|land The death of Alane lord of Galloway. departed out of this life; and for that he had di|uided his lands before his death amongest his three daughters, his bastard sonne gathered an armie of 10000 men, in hope to atteine the possession of His bastard sonne raiseth a commotion. Galloway by force of armes; but at length, after he had wrought much scath in the countrie by his vio|lent inuasion, he was slaine with fiue thousand of those that tooke his part, by the earle of March, and The earle of March. Walter Steward of Dunwald, which was sent against him with a power. The eldest daughter of the aboue mentioned Alane of Galloway, was gi|uen in mariage vnto Roger Quincie earle of Win|chester, Roger Quin|cie earle of winchester constable of Scotland. who after his father in lawes deceasse, was made constable of Scotland, which office continued in the hands of his succession, till king Robert the second his daies; in whose time this Roger of Quin|cies posteritie was disherited and extinguished, for certeine offenses committed against the kings maiestie, and then afterwards the office of the con|stable was giuen to the Haies of Arroll. The second The diuision of the lands of Galloway. daughter of the foresaid Alane was maried vnto Iohn Bal [...]ioll; & the third to the earle of Albemarle. Thus was the lordship of Galloway diuided into thrée, by reason whereof the inhabitants of that coun|trie, taking displeasure therewith, cleaued vnto the aboue mentioned bastard, till he was vanquished and slaine, as before ye haue heard. This trouble being appeased thus within the realme, K. Alexan|der was aduertised of great diuision rising betwixt king Henrie of England and his nobles, and there|fore to helpe towards an agréement betwixt them, K. Alexander goeth into England. he went to London with his wife quéene Iane, and Isabell his sister. Through his earnest diligence, all the debates and quarels were remooued, and the parties throughlie accorded. Which being doone, he EEBO page image 197 maried Isabell his sister vnto the earle of Norfolke, Isabell the sister of king Alexander maried to the earle of Norfolke. Iane quéene of Scotland deccasseth. and in the meane time his wife quéene Iane deceas|sed, without leauing anie issue behind hir, which chance caused the king hir husband to returne with great griefe and lamentation into Scotland. In the yeare next following, which was after the incar|nation 1239, king Alexander (because he had no succession begot of his bodie) maried at Rocksburgh the daughter of Ingelram lord of Coucie, a virgine 1239, king Alexan|der marieth the daughter of the lord of Coucie. Iohn Cumin earle of An|gus departeth this life. of excellent beautie named Marie, on whome he got a sonne named Alexander, which succeeded after his deceasse in the gouernement of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 About the same time, Iohn Cumin earle of An|gus, being sent in ambassage to Lewes the French king, died by the way. Also at Hadington was hol|den a roiall tornament, where knights and esquiers aduanced themselues by valiant prowesse to win ho|nor: neuerthelesse the end of all that pleasure and pastime ended in sorow. For Patrike Cumin earle of Atholl was slaine within his lodging in the night, Patrike earle o [...] Atholl murthered. and the house set on fire and burned ouer him, to the intent no suspicion should rise, but that it happened by some euill misfortune, and negligence of fire. But yet was Iohn Bissart, with Walter Bissart his Iohn Bissart suspected. vncle shrewdlie suspected for the matter, insomuch that though no euident proofe could be had against him, yet were they banished the realme, and lost all their goods by confiscation to the kings vse. After these things were thus passed, a conuocation was A conuoca|tion of the cleargie at saint Iohns towne. called of the cleargie at saint Iohns towne. In the which were diuerse prouinciall ordinances and sta|tutes, made by consent of the king and nobles of the realme, which were obserued in the church of Scotland vnto these late daies. About the same time also, one Somerleid thane of Argile, the sonne of that Somerleid of whome ye haue heard before, Somerleid thane of Ar|gile rebelleth. following his fathers steps, rebelled against the king, sore indamaging by rodes & forages the parts bordering vpon the confines of his countrie of Ar|gile, till at length the earle of March brought him to the brinke of such extreme necessitie, that he was Somerleids humble sub|mission. faine to yéeld himselfe, with a cord about his necke in token of submission; and being so brought before the king, obteined pardon of his heinous offense.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the same season, Henrie king of England, prouoked by the setting on of such seditious per|sons remaining in his court, as trusted by wars to aduance their priuat gaine (during which time law and iustice haue no place) began to build a castell iust A castell be|gun to be buil|ded by king Henrie a|gainst Ber|wike. Matth. Paris disagréeth frõ the Scotish writers tou|ching the oc|casion of this warre, as in the English chronicles ye may read. against Berwike, in the same place where the o|ther was begun afore by king Richard, which (as before is shewed) was raced and throwen downe by king William, by the articles of agréement with couenant that it should neuer be builded vp againe. This attempt of the Englishmen had ministred sufficient occasion of warre, if the nobles of Eng|land (considering that the building vp of this castell was contrarie to their bond and promised faith) had not staied the woorke, and so therevpon that begin|ning of new trouble betwixt the English and Sco|tish nations for that present ceassed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the yeare following came ambassadors forth Ambassadors foorth of France. of France into Scotland, declaring that K. Lewes was readie to passe forward on that iournie, which he had taken in hand to make into Iewrie, and there|fore desired aid of king Alexander, to support him in those warres against Gods enimies. With these ambassadors were sent ouer into France, certeine Scotishmen that went with Lewes king of France into Aegypt. chosen bands of men of warre vnder the leading of Patrike earle of March, Dauid Lindseie of Glen|neske, and Walter Steward of Dundonald, thrée capteins of great wisdome, and perfect experience in feats of chiualrie. The most part of all those Scotishmen, that thus went foorth in that iournie, perished in Aegypt either on the sword or by sicke|nesse, so that few or none of them returned home a|gaine. From henceforth, king Alexander liued not long: but falling into a sore and grieuous sickenesse The death of king Alexan|der the second. 38. Io. Ma. but that cannot be. within a certeine Ile called Carnere, not sar distant from the coast of Argile, deceassed in the same Ile shortlie after, in the 51 yeare of his age, the 35 of his reigne, and of our redemption 1249, his bodie (ac|cording as he had commanded in his life time) was buried in Melrosse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 AFter that Alexander the second was thus dead Alexan|der. and buried, his sonne Alexander the third of that name, not passing nine yéeres of age, was pro|clamed king. There was no small adoo on the daie Alexander the third crowned of his coronation amongest the nobles, for that by reason of the obseruation of starres, it was iudged An infortu|nate [...]y. to be an infortunate daie for him to receiue the dia|deme. And againe some held opinion, how he ought to be made knight first, before he were crowned; so that thus they were at strife togither, in such ear|nest maner, that it was doubted, least this conten|tion would haue bred some great inconuenience, had not the earle of Fife preuented the same, in cau|sing The earle of Fife preuen|teth the occa|sion of further troubles. vpon a sudden the crowne to be set vpon the kings head, being placed in the marble chaire, accor|ding to the custome, without regard to the friuolous allegations of them that spake to the contrarie. When the solemnitie was ended, there came before him an Hillandman (for so they call such as inhabit The saluta|tion of an Hil|land man. the mounteine countries of Scotland) who in a kind of méeter of the Irish language, saluted him as king, thus: Bennach dere Albin Alexander, mak Alax, mak William, mak Henrie, mak Dauid, and so foorth (reciting in maner of a genealogie or pede|grée, all the kings in order of whome he was descen|ded, till he came vp to Gathelus the first beginner of the Scotish name & nation.) The woords in Eng|lish are as followeth:

Haile king of Albine, Alexan|der the sonne of Dauid, the sonne of Alex, the sonne of William, the sonne of Henrie, the sonne of Da|uid, and so foorth as before.
This Hilland Scot was highlie rewarded by the king for his labour, accor|ding as was thought requisite.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the second yéere of his reigne, king Alexan|der (or rather such as had the gouernement of the realme vnder him) assembled togither all the pre|lates and barons of the realme at Dunfirmling, and there ordeined to take vp the bones of his grand|mother quéene Margaret, which being doone, he cau|sed The transla|tion of quéene Margarets bones. them to be put into a shrine of siluer, the 21 day of Iulie, and minding to place the same where it re|steth at this present, as it was borne foorth toward that place, when the bearers came against the se|pulchre of hir husband king Malcolme, they were not able to remooue the relikes anie further, till by the councell (as is said) of an aged man that was then & there present, they tooke vp the bones of the same Malcolme also, and bare them foorth with hirs to the place aforesaid, where they after rested in great veneration of the people. Such as were appointed gouernors (during the minoritie of king Alexan|der) doubting least the tender yéeres of their soue|reigne might imbolden the enimies of the relme to attempt some inuasion, sent ambassadors vnto Hen|rie They were a [...] fianced in the daies of king Alexander the faire, as in the English chro|nicle it may appeare. king of England, requiring that the peace might be ratified anew with him and his people, and fur|ther to make a motion of mariage to be had betwixt king Alexander and a daughter of king Henries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shortlie after, vpon this motion, both the kings met at Yorke with a great number of lords, as well spirituall as temporall of both the realmes, where king Alexander (according to the promise before that An interuiew of the kings of England and Scotland. time made) maried the ladie Margaret daughter to the forenamed king Henrie, on saint Stephans day EEBO page image 198 in Christmasse, with all solemnitie and ioifull mirth 1250. that might be deuised. The charges whereof were borne partlie by king Henrie, & partlie by the arch|bishop, who in feasting those princes spent right libe|rallie. At length, king Alexander after he had sola|ced himselfe in the companie of his father in law king Henrie a certeine time, returned into Scot|land with his new maried wife. During the mino|ritie of K. Alexander, the realme of Scotland was gouerned in great prosperitie by the nobles: but after his comming to ripe age, he was informed of certeine extortions doone by some of the péeres of his realme against the poore people, and therevpon determined to sée redresse therein. Amongst other there were accused of such trangression, the earles Complaint made of the Cumins. of Menteith, Atholl, and Buchquhane, with the lord of Strabogie, which were of one surname, that is to saie, of the Cumins. These being summoned to ap|peare before the iustices, with one Hugh Aberneth, and other of their complices, vpon their contempt so to doo, were proclamed traitors, and as the Scotish The Cumins put to the horne. men tearme it, put to the horne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The foresaid lords mooued with this displeasure, purposed to reuenge the same, and assembling their powers in secret wise, tooke the king at Kinrossie, and brought him vnto Striueling, where they kept The king ta|ken by the Cumins. him as captiue in ward a long time after. Through which aduenture much harme insued, by reason of misruled persons, that wrought manie oppressions a|gainst the people, in hope to escape the due punish|ment for their mischiefous acts prouided, sith the king who should haue séene iustice ministred, was holden in captiuitie by his presumptuous aduersa|ries. But of this matter ye maie see more in the English chronicles, about the 39 yéere of Henrie the third. The house of the Cumins was in those daies of great power within the realme, both in multi|tude The great power of the Cumins. Thirtie and two knights of one sur|name. The height of great families the cause of|tentimnes of their fall. of ofspring, riches, lands, possessions, and main|rent. There were at the same time to the number of 32 knights of that surname within the realme, all men of faire possessions and reuenues. But as it of|ten happeneth, that men of great possessions and do|minion are had in suspicion with the prince, whereby the same is for the more part the cause of their ruine and fall, speciallie when they presume too farre vpon their high power: so it chanced here. For within a short time after that the king was thus taken (as be|fore is shewed) the chiefe author of the whole conspi|racie, that is to saie, the lord Walter earle of Men|teith, who was highest in authoritie among all those The earle of Menteith is poisoned. Cumins, was poisoned (as was thought) by his owne wife, through which mischance the residue of the Cumins were so exanimated, that obteining their pardon, for all offenses passed of the king, they The king set at libertie. did set him againe at libertie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 This woman did thus make awaie hir husband the erle of Menteith through instigation of an Eng|lishman called Iohn Russell, as by coniectures it was suspected; namelie, for that refusing to marrie Iohn Russell an English|man. with anie of the Scotish nobilitie, she tooke the said Russell to husband, though in estate to be compared with hirs, he was iudged a match farre vnméet, and therevpon constreined to flie with him into Eng|land, she died there in great miserie. About this time pope Urbane the fourth of that name instituted the The feast of Corpus Chri sti instituted. The first com|ming of the Carmelite friers. feast of Corpus Christi, to be celebrated each yéere on the thursday after Trinitie sundaie. The Carme|lite friers came at this time into Scotland, and erec|ted a chappell of our ladie without the walles of saint Iohns towne, which the bishop of Donkeld appoin|ted them, therein to celebrate their seruice. It was also said, that in this season a moonke of Melrosse A part of the holie crosse found. was admonished in a dreame, where he should find a part of the holie crosse, not far from Peplis in Lou|thian, inclosed in a case ingrauen with the title of S. Nicholas. And not farre from the same was like|wise found a stone chest, right cunninglie wrought and ingrauen, wherein were found certeine bones wrapped in silke, but whose bones the same were it was not knowne. As soone as the case was opened, within the which the crosse was included, manie mi|racles were wrought (as it was then beléeued.) King Alexander for deuotion hereof, builded an abbeie in honor of the holie crosse, in the same place where that péece of the crosse was so found. In this abbeie after|wards An abbeie built. there were moonks inhabiting of the order of the Trinitie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Not long after, the two kings of England and An interuiew Matth. Paris writeth that in the yeare 1256, both K. Alexander & his wife came into England to visit king Henrie, whom they found at woodstoke, as in the Eng lish chronicles further ap|peareth. Scotland met togither at Warke castell, accompa|nied with a great number of the nobles and gentle|men of both their realmes, for the redresse of cer|teine misorders committed betwixt the borderers. Such reformation also was here deuised, and re|compense made on either side, that both the realms continued afterwards in more perfect tranquillitie for a certeine space, than euer was séene in anie kings daies before that time. In this season was the church of Glasco finished in that perfection as it stands to be séene at this day, right sumptuouslie builded, for the most part at the charges of Willi|am bishop of that sée, who liued not long after the fi|nishing of the said worke. In the yéere following, which was the yéere after the birth of our Sauiour 1262. 1263, there fell a great dearth through both the realmes of England and Scotland, by reason of the A great derth wet haruest preceding, so that the corne and graine was quite marred and corrupted before it could be got beside the ground.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Acho king of Norwaie, being informed how the Acho king of Norwaie. Scots were thus oppressed with famine and other miseries, by report of them that made the same more than it was in deed, supposed to find time and occasion sit for his purpose, to subdue them wholie to his dominion. Herevpon, preparing an armie and a fléet of ships conuenient for such an enterprise, he landed with the same in the westerne Iles, on Lam|mas day otherwise called Petri ad Vincula. Those Iles continued vnder subiection of the Norwegi|ans The westerne Iles vnder subiection of the Danes & Norwegians. and Danes, from king Edgars time vnto the daies of this Acho. From thence the said Acho with a mightie power of his Danes and Norwegians came ouer into Aran and Bute, which are two Iles, and onelie at that time amongst all the residue were vnder the dominion of Scots. But Acho hauing quicklie subdued them at his pleasure, in hope of Acho landed in Albion. more prosperous successe, transported his whole ar|mie ouer into Albion, and landed with the same on the next coasts, where after he had besieged the ca|stell of Aire a certeine time, hée tooke the same, and The castell of Aire besieged and woone. began to waste and spoile all the countrie therea|bouts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Alexander being sore astonied with these King Alexan|ders purpose to inféeble his enimies force. newes, for that he was yoong, and not able (as it was doubted) to resist the force of his enimies, imboldened vpon such frequent victories as they had atchiued, thought best to prolong the time by colour of some treatie for a peace, that waie to diminish the enimies force, by long soiorning in campe without triall of anie battell. Héerevpon were ambassadors sent vnto Ambassadors sent to Acho. Acho, of the which one amongst them appointed ther|to, being well languaged and wise, at their first com|ming before him spake in this manner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6

Were it not that our king & nobles of the realme The oration of one of the ambassadors. (by an ancient custome obserued euen from the be|ginning) doo vse first to séeke redresse of all iniuries receiued, before they offer to be reuenged with the swoord; ye should not now behold orators sent vnto you to talke of concord, but a mightie armie in ordi|nance EEBO page image 199 of battell comming towards you to giue the onset. We are of that opinion, that we neuer get so much gaines by victorie of the enimies, no though they haue robbed and spoiled our confines, but that Peace to be preferred be| [...]ore warres. we account it much better to haue peace, if we may haue restitution of wrongs doone to vs, by some ma|ner of honest meanes. For what greater follie may be, than to séeke for that by fier and swoord, which may be purchased with faire and quiet woords? Neuerthe|lesse, when our iust desires and reasonable motions are refused of the enimies, when we find them not willing to haue peace (for the obteining whereof all warres ought to be taken in hand) but rather that Wherefore warres ought to be mooued. their onelie séeking is to haue warres, not respecting the quarrell: we are readie to rise wholie togither in reuenge of such contempts with all possible speed and violence against our aduersaries. We are sent there|fore from our king and souereigne, to inquire what The cause of their message. occasion you haue thus to inuade his realme and sub|iects, in violating that peace and league, which hath béene obserued and kept betwixt vs and your nati|on, the space of this hundred yéeres, and not onelie to take from him his two Iles of Bute and Aran, but also to inuade the maine land of his dominions, with such crueltie, as neither consideration of age or person séemeth to be had; but that women, children, and feeble old persons haue passed by the swoord, as well as those that haue stood at resistance with wea|pon in hand against you. What heinous offense haue the Scotishmen at anie time committed either a|gainst you or anie other (whose reuengers ye may séeme to be) that they should deserue to haue such cru|eltie shewed against them? What furious ire hath mooued you to burne the churches of God and his Burning of [...]hurches. saints, with the murther of his people that flee into the same for safegard of their liues? But if you dread not God that gouerneth all things (by his diuine pro|uidence) which heere in this world we sée; if ye dread not the saints nor vengeance to come on you by the punishment of the righteous God: ye ought yet to dread the two most puissant kings of Albion, alied togither in bond of amitie and mariage, which shall come against you with such puissance, that ye shall not be able to resist the same. Therefore sith ye may depart with honor, we on the behalfe of him from whome we are sent, doo admonish you, that better it is for you to redresse such iniuries as ye haue alreadie doone, and therewith to repaire home, than to aduen|ture to be brought vnto such desperate ends, that when ye shall be constreined to séeke for mercie, the same in no wise will be granted vnto you.
¶ These woords were spoken by the ambassadors, vpon pur|pose to put some terror into the hart of this hardie king Acho.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Neuertheles he was abashed so little therwith, that he answered them in this manner. Your beliefe is King Achos answer.

(I perceiue) ye ambassadors, to abash vs with your fierce and awfull words, supposing vs so weake har|ted, that we should leaue off our enterprise through your menacing threats: but ye are farre deceiued suerlie if your imagination be such. And where ye ex|aggerate our iniuries doone to you in taking from you certeine Iles, we perceiue you are not méet nor indifferent persons to be chosen for iudges in that cause, neither doo we mind to learne of you, what we ought to estéeme right or wrong in such behalfe. If ye desire further to know and vnderstand the cause why we haue inuaded Aran and Bute, we saie and af|firme, that not onelie those two Iles perteine to vs and our people by good title and ancient right of inhe|ritance, but also all the other Iles of Scotland, as we are able by firme euidences sufficiently to proue. And therfore are we now come to take presentlie so The cause of Achos com|ming into Scotland. much in value out of Scotland, as ye haue taken in issues and profits out of those Iles in times past from vs. Shew then to your king, that we feare neither his menacing woords, nor yet anie other violence that he can shew against vs. Notwithstanding, if he be more desirous of peace than of battell, and lus|teth to auoid the spoiling and burning of his townes, and slaughter of his people; or if he desired not to sée the vtter extermination of his realme afore his eies, command him to send vnto vs foorthwith ten thou|sand marks sterling for the fruits of our lands taken His demand. vp and receiued by him and his elders in times past, and further that he make a cleare resignation of all claime or title that he may séeme to pretend vnto the said Iles, in such sort that the same may passe vn|der our dominion in perpetuitie without anie con|tradiction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 When king Alexander had heard what the answer of his enimie was, he was therewith sore mooued, & perceiuing no waie to eschue the battell, but that he should be constreined to trie fortunes chance, he assembled togither an armie of fortie thousand men, King Alexan|der assembleth his power. that though he were not able to match his enimies in prowesse, he might yet passe them in number. He diuided his host into thrée battels. In the right wing The ordering of the Scotish host. Alexander Steward lea|der of the right wing. Patrike Dunbar cap|teine of the left wing. The king in the middle ward. was Alexander Steward, a very valiant knight, ne|phue to that Alexander which indowed the abbeie of Paslie. He had with him all the men that came foorth of Argile, Leueno [...], Atholl, and Galloway. In the left wing was Patrike Dunbar, hauing with him the men of Louthian, Fife, Mers, Berwike, and Stri|ueling shire. In the middle ward was the king him|selfe, with all the remnant people of the other parts of Scotland, to succour the wings when danger ap|péered. These battels were ordered in such arraie, that euerie band had a capteine assigned to them of their owne language, to exhort them to manhood, thereby to win praise and honor.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At his entring into the confines of Conningham, where he came first within sight of his enimies, he called his people togither, and exhorted them to doo King Alexan|der exhorteth his people to doo vali antlie. their dutifull indeuors like hardie and valiant men, against those enimies that inuaded their countrie without anie iust cause or title of warre, and to put their trust in almightie God, desiring him to grant victorie vnto that part, which had most right and iu|stest cause of battell. He further shewed how neces|sarie it was for them to behaue themselues valiant|lie, and how much it stood them in hand to fight with manlie courages, in defense of their wiues, children, liberties, and lands, hauing no hope of suertie of life Hope of suer|tie in what point it rested. but in the valiant vsing of their able hands, so that their whole safegard rested in this point, either to vanquish their enimies with manhood, or else to liue The necessi [...] of the cause. in seruile bondage as their slaues and miserable thrals, and to suffer their wiues and daughters to be abused at their lust and pleasure. He willed them therefore to consider, that not onelie he, but all Scot|land should sée them fight that day, noting both their manhood & cowardise. But sith their cause was iust, and mooued onlie in defense of their natiue countrie and ancient liberties, he trusted they would shew the more hardinesse and courage, namelie against them Séekers of bloud & spoile. that sought onelie bloud and spoile. These with other the like woords king Alexander vttered with bold spirit, to incourage his people. And on the other part Achos exhor|tation to his people. king Acho likewise thought it expedient to vse some exhortation vnto his armie, that they should not be afraid of the great number and huge multitude of the Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The chiefest point to incourage them to doo vali|antlie, Hope of spoile incourageth men of warre. he supposed was the hope of spoile, and there|fore he put them in remembrance, how by victorie not onelie all such riches as the Scots had brought thither with them (which could not be small) but also EEBO page image 200 all the whole substance and treasure of the realme to be at their commandement, yea and the realme it selfe, if they minded to inioy it: so that this was the day which they had so much desired, wherein suffici|ent opportunitie was offered to shew what reward should follow to ech man for his good and valiant ser|uice. But for that high enterprises and famous ex|ploits might neuer be atchiued without extreme ieo|pardie, High enter|prises atchi|ued with ex|treme perill. it behooued them to atteine to these so great commodities by persing thorough, and ouerthrow|ing by dint of swoord the arraied battels of their eni|mies, which how easie a matter it should be for them to bring to passe, such as well considered the circum|stances, might soone coniecture. For through dearth and famine which so long hath reigned amongst the Scotish people, their bodies and forces (saith he) are so woonderfullie inféebled, that they appeere to repre|sent rather shadowes than full personages of men able to make resistance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Againe, in consideration how necessarie it was for euerie man to fight without fainting, sith they were inuironed on ech part without meane to es|cape, he desired them, that if it so fell out, that they should chance to be ouercome (which as he trusted should not come to passe) that in such misaduenture they would yet sell their liues déerelie, and not to die vnreuenged. Thus hauing opened vnto them what prosperous hap followed by victorie, and what danger by the ouerthrow, he thought to haue sufficientlie in|structed them to put all feare aside, and to doo what lay in their vttermost forces to vanquish the enimies. The kings on either side, hauing thus exhorted their The ordering of the battels. people to doo their indeuors, they arraie their battels. Acho disposed all his best souldiers and whole force of his armie in the middle ward, for that he had knowledge how the Scotish king was placed in the middle battell of his people: wherefore he supposed, that if he might ouerthrow and vanquish that part where the king stood, he should easilie then put the re|sidue to flight. His wings (bicause he had not num|ber sufficient to furnish them fullie) were arraied The battels ioine. more weakelie in slender and thin ranks: but yet at the first incounter there was a terrible fight betwixt them, especiallie where the two kings fought: for they preassed still with great violence on that part where they saw anie danger, not ceassing to exhort & incourage their men to stand to the bargaine with manlie stomachs, so that on either side these two The valiancie of the kings. kings plaied the parts of verie valiant capteins.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Acho with a band of verie hardie souldiers assaied sundrie times to perse and disorder the battell where king Alexander fought: notwithstanding he had so great number of people there with him, that he stuf|fed The great number of Scotishmen. euen the ranks with fresh men where he saw it néedfull. Also betwixt the wings, there was no lesse crueltie shewed on either side in the beginning of the battell, till at length the Norwegians, perceiuing themselues ouerpressed with multitude, and compas|sed in on euerie side, did somewhat begin to shrinke, and first those in the left wing, constreined to breake The left wing of the Norwe|gians are put to flight. their order, fell to running awaie. Alexander Ste|ward therfore, that had the leading of the right wing of the Scots, hauing pursued the enimies a certeine space, and slaine Achos nephue, a man of high repu|tation Achos nephue is slaine. and authoritie amongst the Norwegians, cau|sed the retreat to be sounded, and gathering his men againe into araie, brought them against the enimies of the middle ward, where was hard hold betwixt the two kings, the battell continuing with great slaugh|ter on both parts, and vncerteine a long while to whe|ther part the victorie would incline: but the Norwe|gians being now assailed on the backs by a new The maine battell of the Norwegians fléeth. power of their enimies, at length they began to flee amaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time, the left wing of the Scots, whereof one Patrike had the leading, was in great The left wing of the Scots, in danger. danger, by reason the capteine himselfe was sore wounded, and thereby all the companies in the same wing sore discomforted: but after they once beheld how the middle ward of their enimies was put to flight, they recouered new courages, and with great force caused their aduersaries, with whom they were matched, to giue backe also: and so were the Danes and Norwegians chased by the Scots, with verie The Danes and Norwe|gians chased by the Scots. cruell slaughter through all Cunningham, not ceas|sing from the pursute of the enimies, till night made an end of that daies woorke. King Acho with a few o|ther escaped out of danger, and comming to the cas|tell of Aire, which (as ye haue heard) he had woone be|fore, he was there informed of an other losse which he had susteined: for his fléet conteining the number of an hundred and fiftie ships, were so beaten with an outragious tempest, that there were not past foure of all that number saued, the residue being drowned The losse of Achos ships by tempest. and broken against the rocks and cliffes. The mari|ners also, being constreined to come on land for safe|gard of their liues, were slaine by the people of the The losse of the mariners. countrie, so that few of them or none at all escaped.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Acho being thus abashed with these two infortu|nate mischances, aswell for the losse and discomfi|ture Acho fléeth in|to Orkneie. of his armie by land, as for the perishing of his nauie on the seas, got him vnto those foure ships that were saued, and sailed with them about the coast, till he arriued in Orkneie. In this battell, which was fought at Largis on the third day of August, in the yeere 1263, there were slaine of Danes and Norwe|gians 24 thousand, and of Scots about fiue thou|sand. 1263. Thus saith Hector Boetius. But Fourdon sée|meth Iohn Fourdon. not to agrée altogither héerewith, who writing of this inuasion made by the Norwegians into Scotland, saith, that they were but twentie thousand men of warre in all, imbarked in foure score ships, which comming to the new castell of Aran, besieged as well the said castell of Aran, as the castell of Bute, and tooke them both, spoiling also the churches alongst the sea coast, and after arriuing at Largis in Cunningham, on the feast of the natiuitie of our ladie, lost the most part of their vessels, which were drowned togither with thousands of men in the same. The residue that got to land, incountring with the Scots led by Alexander Steward of Dondo|nald, were discomfited, put to flight, chased & drow|ned in the sea, into the which they were driuen. Amon|gest other that were slaine, a nephue of king Acho was one, a yoong gentleman of great valiancie, and sore lamented of his vncle. Acho had much adoo to es|cape himselfe, he was so egerlie pursued of his eni|mies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Thus haue I thought good to shew the diuersitie of writers in this behalfe, that it may appéere how things are sometimes amplified by Boetius, to ad|uance the glorie of his countriemen, further per|haps than by the simple veritie of those that did write before him, may in some points be well auer|red. But now to procéed. King Acho at his comming into Orkneie, sent into Norwaie and Denmarke for a new armie, prouiding ships & all other things Acho prepa|reth to make a new inuasion into Scot|land, but dieth before his pro|uision was readie. necessarie, to haue made a new inuasion into Scot|land against the next spring: but for that he himselfe departed out of this life in the beginning of the yéere next following, all that purueiance and great prepa|ration was dashed, and came to none effect. The same day that Acho deceassed, that is to saie, the 21 day of Ianuarie, Alexander prince of Scotland, the Alexander prince of Scotland, as eldest sonne to the king is borne. eldest son of king Alexander, whome he begot on his wife quéene Margaret, the sister of Henrie king of England, was borne, to the great reioising of the people. For the people conceiued double ioy & glad|nesse EEBO page image 201 héereof, bicause that both a new prince was borne, and that enimie dead which sought the destruc|tion of the whole realme. After the deceasse of king Acho, his sonne Magnus succéeded him, a verie faith|full prince, and one that had the feare of God before his eies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the second yeere of his reigne, be sent his am|bassadors (of whome the chiefe was the chancellor of Ambassadors sent from Magnus K. of Norwaie to king Alexan|der. Norwaie) vnto king Alexander, whome they found at saint Iohns towne, and there signified vnto him, that king Magnus their maister would willinglie giue ouer all his title, right, and claime vnto Aran and Bute, so that the residue of the Iles might re|maine in quiet possession of him and his successors in time comming. Héerevnto was answer made by king Alexander, that the Iles by right of old inheri|tance perteined vnto him and his progenitors kings of Scotland, and therefore he might not make anie agréement with the Danes or Norwegians, till he had recouered the full possession of the same Iles. The ambassadors being dispatched and sent awaie In time of the trouble be|twixt the sons of Malcolme Cammore and their vncle Donald Bane Magnus K. of Norwaie the son of O|l [...] subdued these Iles. Richard South [...]ell. with this answer, incontinentlie Alexander Ste|ward of Pasteie, and Iohn Cumin were sent with an armie ouer into Man, which Ile they then recoue|red (though not without bloud) foorth of the hands of the Danes and Norwegians, who had kept the same in possession now for the space of 167 yéeres passed, but not without so [...]e alteration and trouble, as may appeere by the annales of Richard Southwell, a wri|ter (as should seeme) well instructed in matters as well touching Scotland, and the north parts, as also concerning the state of the out Iles. And therefore that the same may the better appéere to the readers, I haue thought it not impertinent to set downe what I haue read in the same Southwell, touching the kings, or rather viceroies of Man, and those Iles which for a season (as should séeme in déed) were sub|stituted by the kings of Norwaie, though it may al|so appéere, that sometime there was a certeine succes|sion in them, as from the father to the sonne, & from the brother to the brother, &c: in manner as if it had beene by waie of inheritance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the daies of king Iohn therefore (as saith the foresaid Southwell) one Gothred reigned as king in Man. And in the yeere 1228, one Reginald being [...]thred king of Man. Reginald. 1228. Olaue, or O|lauus. king of those Iles, was murthered by wicked per|sons, & then his brother Olaue reigned in his place. In the yéere 1230, the king of Norwaie appointed one Husbac, the sonne of Osmund (surnamed Ha|con) to gouerne the said Iles called Sodorenses, 1230. Husbac. Insulae Sodo| [...]enses. Olauus and Godredus. Bute. Husbac slaine. that is to say, the Ile of Man, & the other Iles there abouts the coasts of Scotland; the which Husbac, to|gither with two other capteins Olaue and Godred, surnamed Don, came by sea, and arriued at Bute, where they wan the castell: but Husbac was slaine with a stone that was throwne downe vpon him. And then after this, the foresaid Olaue and Godred came vnto the Ile of Man, where they diuided the kingdome of the Iles betwixt them, so as Olaue Olauus and Godredus di|uide the king|dome of the Iles betwixt them. had Man alotted to him for his part, and Godred the other Iles. But after that Godred was also slaine, Olaue gouerned both in Man, and in all the other Iles (those excepted which the sonnes of Somerleid held in possession.) In the yéere 1237, in the moneth of Maie, Alane king of Man, the sonne of Godred, 1237. Alane. & brother to Reginald, departed this life, after whose deceasse his sonne Harold succéeded him, and reig|ned Harold. 12 yéeres, being but 14 yeeres of age when he began his reigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeere 1247, Haco king of Norwaie sent for Harold king of Man to come vnto his coronati|on, 1247. Harold passeth into Norway. who comming thither, was honorablie receiued, and obteined king Hacos daughter in mariage: but as he returned from thence, in the yéere 1249, Is drowned in his returne. togither with his wife, they perished in the seas by a 1249. Reginald. He began to reigne the sixt of Maie. yuarus. Harold. tempest on the coasts of Ireland. Then succéeded his brother Reginald, who reigned but 27 daies, for he was slaine the first of Iune the same yéere, by the ser|uants of a knight called Yuarus. Then Harold the sonne of Godred Don gouerned Man one yéere, be|ing remooued by the king of Norwaie: & after him Magnus the sonne of Olaue began his reigne ouer Magnus. Man & the other Iles, by consent of the Manskemen themselues. But in the yeere 1254, one Yuarus was 1254. yuarus. ordeined king, or rather viceroy of those Iles, & go|uerned the same, till the foresaid Magnus king of Norwaie resigned his title to all the said Iles vnto king Alexander (as ye haue heard) who placed his lieutenants there, of whome the first was called Go|dred Lieutenant of bailife of the Ile of Man vnder the Scots. mac Mares, the second Alane. And after him Maurice Okarsaire succéeded; and then followed one that was the kings chaplaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For the time of the resignation made, I follow Hector Boetius, by reason of some contrarietie which appeareth in Southwell in the account of the yeares assigned to the reignes of those Iland kings, if you confer the same with the time of the foresaid resig|nation. But now to the matter. The lieutenant ap|pointed to haue the rule of those Iles, now that they were thus come into the hands of the Scots, was bound by his office to be readie with thirteene ships, and fiue hundred mariners to come to the aid of the Scots, at all times when he should thereto be requi|red. After this, were the earles of Atholl, Carrike, and March, Alexander Steward, with the thanes of Argile, and Lennos, sent with a puissant armie The westerne Iles recoue|red out of the hands of the Norwegians vnto the other of the westerne Iles, the which those that were greatest, they brought with much a doo vnder the obeisance of the crowne of Scotland, the residue submitted themselues.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Magnus king of Norwaie informed hereof, sent The chancel|lor of Nor|waie ambassa|dor to King Alexander. e [...]tsoones his chancellor in ambassage vnto king A|lexander, to trie if he might by treatie recouer a|gaine those Iles: and if he might not bring that to passe, yet to compound with him for a yeerelie tri|bute. The first motion of the chancellor would in no wise be heard, therefore surceassing to spend anie longer time about it, they fell in communication touching the second, which tooke effect at length in The release of Magnus king of Nor|waie to the Scotish Iles. this wise. King Magnus by his letters vnder his great seale, renounced and gaue ouer his right or claime that he had or might haue, both for him and his successors to all the Iles of Scotland. And king Alexander for this resignation was agreed to paie the said king of Norway, foure thousand marks sterling, togither with a pension or tribute of an hundred marks by yeare. And for the more confir|mation A pear [...]lie pension. of loue and amitie betwixt the two kings and their people, Margaret the daughter of king Alexander, being not past one yeares of age, was Margaret K. Alexanders daughter. promised in mariage vnto Hauigo, the sonne of king Magnus, the same mariage to be consummat when she came to yeares mariable. Further, in place where the greatest slaughter of Danes and Norwegians had béene made, it was couenanted that an hospitall should be erected & founded there, for the sustentation of poore folks.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 About this season, there were great warres in England betwixt king Henrie and his barons, of Warre in England. whome the chiefe was Simon Mountfort earle of Leicester, and diuerse other. K. Henrie being not well able to withstand his aduersaries attempts, re|quested King Henrie required aid of the Scots. K. Alexander to send him some aid of Scots to subdue the rebels of his realme, that had arrea|red warres against him. Herevpon shortlie after, was Alexander Cumin, with fiue thousand chosen Alexander Cumin sent into Eng|land. men, sent by king Alexander into England, who right valiantlie bare themselues in that war which EEBO page image 202 king Henrie held against his barons, whereof in the English chronicle ye may read more at large. In these daies (as the translator of Hector Boetius hath written) that notable and most famous outlaw Ro|bin Robin Hood and little Iohn his companion. Hood liued, with his fellow little Iohn, of whome are manie fables and merie iests deuised and soong amongst the vulgar people. But Iohn Maior wri|teth that they liued (as he dooth gesse) in the daies of king Richard the first king of England, 1198.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the yeare next and immediatlie following, after that Henrie king of England had subdued his domesticall enimies, there came a legat from pope Clement the fourth, requiring him to haue a collec|tion of monie in Scotland towards the charges of A legat from pope Clement leuieng an armie against the Saracens. But this legat was not receiued into the realme, but com|manded to shew his message vpon the borders. He The legats demand. demanded therfore of euerie parish-church in Scot|land foure marks sterling, and of euerie abbeie foure score marks. And to the end he might the sooner pur|chase fauor to the furtherance of his purpose, he de|uised by the way certeine statutes and ordinances right profitable to be vsed in the realme of Scotland, as he iudged. But king Alexander for answer here|vnto The answer of king Alex|ander to the legats mes|sage. alledged, that the Scots minded not to receiue anie statutes or decrées, other than such as were or|deined by the pope, or some generall councell: for by a generall rule; The more precepts, the more offen|dors are alwaies found. And as touching the request The more pre|cepts the more offendors. made for the collection of so great summes of mo|nie, it was not thought necessarie, that so much coine should go foorth of the realme: neuerthelesse if it were thought expedient, he would be contented to send foorth at his owne proper costs and charges, a number of armed men to go with the christian ar|mie against the Turks: but for monie otherwise foorth, the realme would not depart with anie, least it should be wastfullie spent, or taken by the way of théeues, as it had béene aforetime.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Henrie king of England praised much the wise|dome King Alex|anders wise|dome praised by king Hen|rie. of king Alexander for this his answer, as he declared shortlie after by his sonne prince Edward, who came to visit his sister the queene, and his bro|ther in law king Alexander at Roxsburgh, where they met him; for ye must vnderstand that K. Hen|rie had also learned by experience to be wise in that behalfe, as well as others. King Alexander yet af|ter A thousand marks sent to the pope. this sent vnto the pope a thousand marks in sil|uer: and vnto Lewes the French king, that requi|red his aid in that iournie which he made into Affrike against the Saracens there, a thousand souldiers, Scotish cap|teins sent in|to Affrike. vnder the leading of the earles of Carrike & Atholl, Iohn Steward brother of Alexander Steward, A|lexander Cumin, Robert Keth, George Durward, Iohn Quincie, & William Gordon. All these going ouer with K. Lewes into Affrike, died there, either vpon the enimies sword, or by the intemperat heat of that countrie (whereto they had not béene accu|stomed) in the yeare after the incarnation 1270. The 1270. Thomas earle of Car|rike. earle of Carrike, whose name was Thomas, peri|shing thus amongst the residue in Affrike, left no inheritor behind him to inioy his lands, sauing a daughter named Martha, being then about fiftéene yeares of age. This yoong ladie, chancing to ride on Martha daughter to the earle of Carrike. hunting in the woods for pastime and solace, as the vse is, fortuned by aduenture to méet with a noble yoong man one Robert Bruse the sonne and heire to Robert Bruse the lord of Anandale in Scotland, and Robert Bruse. Cleueland in England, begot of Isabell the second daughter of Dauid earle of Huntington. The la|die immediatlie became so inamored of this yoong Robert Bruse maried to Martha daughter to the earle of Carrike. gentleman, that she led him with hir home vnto Carrike, where (without making hir friends priuie to the matter) she maried him in all hast, least anie man should be about to hinder hir determined pur|pose. Of this mariage was borne that Robert Bruse which afterwards (through want of heires of the linage of king Alexander) atteined the crowne of Scotland. As soone as Alexander was aduerti|sed King Alexan|der displeased with the fore|said Martha. hereof, he tooke such indignation that she should bestow hir selfe so lightlie vpon one whom she neuer saw before, that he seized hir castell of Turneberie into his hands, with all hir other lands and posses|sions, as it were by escheat, for that she had maried without his consent. Notwithstanding, within short while after he tooke pitie on hir case, and for an easie composition of monie which she paied for hir mari|age, restored to hir againe all hir lands and liuings, suffering hir to inioy hir husband without anie more trouble or vexation. In the third yeare after, the Robert Bruse that was after king of Scot|land is borne. 1274. said ladie was deliuered of the afore-remembred Robert Bruse that was after king of Scotland. And the same yeare, which was the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour 1274, Dauid the second son of king Alexander deceassed; and the third yeare af|ter, the brethren of Edward king of England came into Scotland to visit the quéene their sister, & their King Alexan|der with his wife the quéene came to London. brother in law the K. & after did attend them in their iournie to London, whither they went to be present at the coronation of the foresaid Edward, as then returned foorth of Affrike after the deceasse of his fa|ther king Henrie, to take vpon him the gouerne|ment of the kingdome descended vnto him by right of inheritance. He was crowned the same yeare on the day of the assumption of our ladie in August, with great solemnitie and triumph.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 At the same time there was a Norman in king Edwards court, of such passing strength of bodie, A Norman of passing strength. Ferquhard a Scotishman ouerthrew the said Norman. that he ouerthrew all men with whome he wrestled, till at length one Ferquhard a Scotishman borne, of the countrie of Rosse, descended of noble paren|tage, vanquished him to his great praise & aduance|ment in honor: for king Alexander in guerdon of so woorthie a déed there doone in the presence of so hono|rable an assemblie, gaue vnto him the earledome of Rosse for euermore. Of this Ferquhard succéeded fiue earles all of his surname, but the sixt earle was named William Rosse, otherwise Leslie, in whose The earle|dome of Rosse giuen to wil|liam Rosse alias Leslie. sonne the seuenth earle failed the dignitie of that house for fault of succession. At the same time prince Alexander king Alexanders sonne did homage vnto king Edward for the earledome of Huntington, as the Scotish writers doo testifie. Shortlie after that king Alexander was returned foorth of England at The death o [...] quéene Mar|garet. that time into Scotland, his wife quéene Margaret deceassed, and was buried in Dunfirmling. She bare by him two sonnes, Alexander and Dauid, and one daughter named Margaret, the which (according to the assurance before made) was maried about three yeares after hir mothers deceasse, vnto Hani|go, The mariage of Margaret king Alexan|ders daugh|ter. or rather Aquine king of Norwaie, and deceas|sed in the second yeare after the solemnization of the mariage, leauing behind hir a daughter named also Margaret.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But before this hap fell so out, euen immediatlie after the death of quéene Margaret the mother, hir The death of Dauid sonne to king Alex|ander. The mariage of Alexander prince of Scotland. yoonger sonne Dauid deceassed: by reason whereof, king Alexander being carefull of his succession, pro|cured a mariage for his elder sonne prince Alexan|der, with the earle of Flanders his daughter, the which being brought into Scotland, was maried vn|to the said prince in Iedwoorth, on the sunday after the feast of saint Martine in winter, in the yeare of our Lord 1279. The feast of this mariage was 1279. holden with great triumph and solemnitie continu|allie for the space of fiftéene daies togither. This yeare a number of the Scotish nobilitie, which had attended the ladie Margaret into Norwaie were lost EEBO page image 203 by shipwracke, as they would haue returned backe againe to Scotland after the consummation of hir mariage there with king Hanigo or Aquine. Shortlie after, by the force of deaths dreadfull dint, two greeuous losses chanced vnto king Alexander, the one following in the necke of another. For first his eldest sonne prince Alexander, being not past twentie yeares of age, departed out of this world, without leauing anie issue behind him; and not long after, his daughter Margaret queene of Norwaie deceased also, leauing behind hir one onelie daughter (as before is mentioned) being as yet but an infant.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the same yeere was a generall councell holden at Lions, the pope and a great multitude of the prelats of christendome being there assembled. To this councell were summoned to appeare all the prouincials, wardens, and ministers of the begging friers. And for that there were so manie sundrie orders of them, each man deuising of his owne braine some new alteration; all those orders were reduced into the foure orders, which after by the church of Rome were approued and allowed. A generall commandement was also giuen, that no man should go about to begin anie new forme of such vaine superstitious orders, which appoint themselues to eschue labor, to the end they may liue in pleasure, lust & idlenes, vpon the trauell of other mens browes. In this mean time, after that the christian armie was returned home out of Affrike, by reason of a truce concluded with the Soldan, the same Soldan (that truce notwithstanding) ceassed not to make great slaughter and inuasions vpon those christian men that remained behind. The christian princes sore mooued herewith, made their apprests for a new expedition into the holie land. The Scots gaue the tenth penie of all their lands, or rather (as some bookes say) the furtherance of this iornie: notwithstanding through such enuie and contentions as rose amongst the said princes, that iornie brake, to the great damage and preiudice of the christian faith.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 King Alexander hauing lost his wife and children, in maner as is before expressed, not onelie hee himselfe, but also all Scotland was in great pensiueness and sorrow, each man by a certeine foreiudgement and misgiuing in mind, doubting the mishap that might thereof insue. But yet did king Alexander, by the aduise of his nobles, in hope of new issue, marie the daughter of the earle of Champaigne in France, named Iolant. The mariage was celebrated at Iedburgh with great feasting and triumph: but that ioy and blithnese indured not long after. For the same yeere on the 18 day of Aprill, as he was gallopping vpon a fierce horsse at Kingorne, forcing him in his race somewhat rashlie, he was thrown ouer the west cliffe towards the sea by a woonderfull misfortune, so rudelie, that he brake his necke, and so therewith immediatlie died in the 42 yeere of his reigne. He was buried at Dunfirmling, in the yeere after the incarnation 1290. It is said, that the daie before the kings death, the earle of March a little before night, demanded of one Thomas Liermont, otherwise named Thomas the rimer, or (as the translator of Hector Boetius saith) Thomas Ersilton (who in those daies was reputed for a noble prophesier) or (as we may call him) a soothsaier, what weather they should haue on the morow? To whome the said Thomas answered, that on the morrow [before noone] should blow the sorest wind and tempest that euer was heard of in Scotland at anie time before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 On the morrow when the skie appeared cleare and bright, without a cloud or anie other figure of foule weather, and that it drew neere vnto the midst of the daie, and no wind heard from anie side, but all calme and quiet, the earle of March sent for the forenamed Thomas, and told him that he had mistaken his marks, in prophesieng of anie such notable tempest as he had spoken of the night before, considering it prooued so lithe a daie, without appearance of anie tempest to insue. This Thomas said little thereto, sauing that he said it was not yet past noone. And incontinentlie herevpon came a post to the castell gate of Dunbar, where this earle of March as then laie, bringing woord of the kings sudden death, as before is recited. Then said the prophesier: That is the scathfull wind and dreadfull tempest, which shall blow such calamitie and trouble to the whole state of the whole realme of Scotland. This Thomas was a man in great admiration of the people; shewing sundrie things, as they afterward chanced: howbeit they were euer hid and inuolued vnder the veile of darke and obscure speeches.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Manie strange woonders and vnketh fights were seene in the daies of this Alexander the third. In the 17 yeere of his reigne, there was such an infinit number of woormes through all the parties of Albion, that not onelie the leaues and fruits of trees, but also flowres & herbs in gardens were eaten vp and consumed with them. And in the same yeere, the waters of Forth and Taie rose with such high tides in flowing ouer the banks, that manie towns and villages were drowned, to the great destruction both of men and beasts. In the 20 yere of his reigne, there was a comet or blasing starre seene of a meruellous quantitie, shining euerie day toward the south, euen about noone daies. On the Epiphanie day next after, rose to great winds, with stormes of such vnmeasurable great hailestones, that manie townes were throwne downe by violence thereof. In the meane time, rose through the vehement rage of winds, a sudden fire, in manie bounds within the realme of Scotland, that did much hurt to buildings and edifices, burning vp steeples with such force of fire, that the belles were in diuerse places melted, as though it had beene in a fornace. Amongest other, those of the abbeie of Abirbrothoke were most pretious, which were as then consumed togither with the steeple wherein they hoong. The townes of Aberden and Perth were burned the same time: also part of Lainrike, with the temple, and all the townes and villages in Clow, a part of Angus: and likewise manie townes and other buildings in Louthian, and in diuers other parts of the realme, too long here to rehearse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the 31 yeere of his reigne, was the first comming of the pestilence into Scotland, with great mortalitie of the people, where it had not bene heard that euer this sicknesse had come within that realme before hat time. In the solemnization of the second mariage of king Alexander, as the bridegroom (according to the manner) led the bride in a danse, a great number of lords and ladies following them in the same danse, there appeared to their sight as it were closing vp the hindermost of the dansers, a creature resembling death, all naked of flesh & lire, with bare bones right dreadfull to behold. Through which spectacle, the king and the residue of all the companie were so astonied, and put in such fright & feare, that they had quickly made an end of their danse for that time. In the daies of this Alexander the third, liued sundrie great clearkes. Amongst other, Michaell Scot was reputed for an excellent physician, and for his singular practise & knowledge in that profession was no lesse esteemed and had in high fauour with Edward king of England, than with king Alexander, during his life time. EEBO page image 204

Francis Thins addition, to this marke.) This Alexander made manie healthfull and good lawes, whereof most by the negligence of men, and longnesse of time are worne away; so that things so profitablie by him deuised, séeme rather by report to haue béene ordeined, than that they are by cu|stome The lawes of Alexander the third. practised. He diuided the kingdome into foure parts, through which he made his progresse almost euerie yéere, remaining about thrée moneths in e|uerie place, there to sit in iudgement, and to heare the complaints of the poore, at what time the meanest person might haue frée accesse vnto him. As often as he went into anie prouince to giue sentence of law, he commanded the gouernor of that place to re|ceiue him with a chosen companie; and when he de|parted thence, to bring him to the borders of his iu|risdiction, where he was honorablie receiued of the next gouernors. The which trauelling about his realme he vsed, to the end that he might know all his nobilitie, and that he might also be knowne of all others. During which time of his progresse, no great traine or multitude of courtiers did follow him; bicause he would not charge his people in recei|uing of them; and for that cause also abated and re|streined the troope of horssemen which followed the nobilitie, and brought them into a certeine & meane number, bicause he supposed that the multitude of horsses (whereof in warre there was no vse) were néedlesse deuourers of meat. Further, he forbad his people to trauell by sea for gaine or merchandize, when he considered that through the vnskilfulnes of failing, the rashnesse that men vsed in committing themselues to the seas, and the rapine of pirats, ma|nie men were lost, and their goods spoiled: whereby the merchants were driuen to extreame pouertie. Which precept when it had continued almost a whole yéere, and by manie mens spéeches was reprehen|ded as dangerous and hurtfull to the weale publike, at the length there arriued such plentie of strange merchandize in Scotland, that the abundance and cheapenesse thereof did excéed the memorie of anie former age. But yet to take order with and for the benefit of the merchants, he forbad his people to buie anie thing brought in by strangers, but such as were merchants of his land, and that all the other people should buie of them such things as they néeded.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Alexander the third, being in such miserable Scotland without a K. and gouernor. wise deceassed, as before is specified, the realme re|mained in great discomfort, by reson he had neither left anie issue behind him to succéed in the gouerne|ment thereof, neither taken order in his life time by testament, or otherwise, for anie other to supplie the roome of a gouernor, so that hereof insued such infi|nit Mischiefes insuing for lacke of a king. misorders, by the presumption of wicked and vn|gratious persons, the which vpon hope to escape vn|punished (bicause iustice was like to want due pro|cesse) ceassed not to attempt manie vnlawfull acts, to the grieuous oppression of the people: which mis|ruled demeanors and disordered enterprises of those outragious persons, when such as had anie zeale to the wealth of their countrie vnderstood dailie to mul|tiplie and increase, they thought it apperteined to their duties to prouide some remedie in due time, and there vpon called a councell togither, wherein after sundrie consultations had, and manie matters debated touching the rule of the realme, it was fi|nallie Six gouer|nors chosen to haue the rule of Scotland. agréed, that six gouernors should be elected and chosen, of the which thrée should haue the administra|tion and rule of the north parts, and these were Wil|liam Fraser bishop of saint Andrews, Duncane earle of Fife, & Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquane. The other thrée were appointed to the gouernance of the south countries, that is to say, Robert bishop of Glascow, sir Iohn Cumin (a man of high estima|tion for his wisdome and experience as well in mat|ters concerning peace as warre) and Iames high steward of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But in the meane time Edward king of Eng|land, surnamed Longshanks, cast in his mind, how he might make some conquest of Scotland, now the same was thus destitute of an head to gouerne it. And for that he well vnderstood that the daughter of How can this be true, when K. Edward had a wife at that time? but ver [...]e the Scotish wri|ters shew themselues o|uercome with too much ma|lice in most things which they write in the defamatiõ of K. Edward. Norwaie (of whom before ye haue heard) was right inheritor to the crowne of Scotland, though she were but verie yoong in yéeres, & not able for mari|age: yet to compasse his purpose that waies foorth, he sent his ambassadors vnto the lords of Scotland, requiring to haue hir to wife, and the realme with|all, as due vnto hir by good title and right of inheri|tance. The lords, after long deliberation herein had, consented to his desire, vnder these conditions, that the realme should remaine in all freedoms and liber|ties, without anie kind of seruile subiection, in the same maner and state as it was vsed in the daies of king Alexander last deceassed, and other his noble progenitors: and if it chanced, that no issue came of this mariage to succéed them, then shuld the crowne returne by remainder ouer to the next heirs of king Alexander, without anie claime or pretext of title to be made by king Edward, or anie of his successors in time to come.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Immediatlie herewith, two noble knights, sir Iohn Scot of Albawore, and sir Iames Wemis, were sent into Norwaie to fetch the bride ouer into Scotland: but before their comming thither, shee was deceassed, & so they returned backe into Scot|land againe without effect of their errand. And thus The daughter of Norwaie deceassed. by means of hir death, all amitie betwixt English|men and Scots ceassed. Then began to insue great trouble and businesse in Scotland, by reason of the The conten|tion betwixt the kinsmen of K. Alexander for the crown. Sée more of this matter in the English histories. contention which sprang betwixt the kinsmen of king Alexander, for the title and claime which they se|uerallie made and pretended to the crowne. There were thrée chieflie that séemed by néerenesse of bloud to haue most right, and therefore made most earnest sute in their claime: Iohn Balioll, Robert Bruse, and Iohn Hastings. This Robert Bruse was sonne to the son of that Robert Bruse, which maried Isa|bell The ancestors of Robertle Bruse. the yoongest daughter to Dauid earle of Hun|tington, on whom he got a son named also Robert, that maried the inheritor of Carrike, as we haue shewed before, whose sonne this Robert Bruse was, The line of the Balioll with his title to the crowne. that now claimed the crowne. Iohn Balioll came of Margaret, eldest daughter to the foresaid Dauid earle of Huntington: for Alane lord of Galloway, which maried the said Margaret, begot on hir two daughters, of the which the eldest named Deruogill, was giuen in mariage vnto sir Iohn Balioll, father vnto this Iohn Balioll, that thus made claime to the crowne: alledging that forsomuch that he was come of the eldest daughter of earle Dauid, the bro|ther of king William, he ought by reason to be re|puted as next heire to the same king William, sith none other person aliue approched so néere vnto him in bloud.

Fr. Thin.Here I thinke it conuenient before any more be spoken of this historie, to interlace somewhat (be|sides that which is alredie spoken, being here in part repeated (of the descent of this Deruogill, the daugh|ter of Alane lord of Galloway, beginning the same somewhat higher, in this sort. In the reigne of Wil|liam K. of Scots, which began in the yere of Christ 1160, as saith Lesleus, lib. 6. pag. 226, Fergusius Buchanan. gouernor of Galloway left two sons, Gilbert, and Ethred, who after the death of their father, fell at va|riance Wil. Paruus nameth him Utred. for the lands of Galloway, to be diuided be|twixt them in equall portions. This brall comming to the eares of king William, he was desirous to EEBO page image 205 quench those flames of vnkindnesse betwéene the said brethren, and for that cause with indifferencie (as he supposed) he ment to pacifie and satisfie each part, by diuiding the inheritance equallie betwéene them. But Gilbert highlie taking this partition in grudge (bicause he was eldest, & that the whole inhe|ritance belonged to him) did with like hatred pursue both the king and his brother, the one as enuious a|gainst him, and the other as an vnequall iudge, in gi|uing his right from him. Wherfore when king Wil|liam was taken prisoner of the Englishmen, this Gilbert being of bold spirit (and now by the kings mishap out of all danger, being deliuered from the Of this mat|ter though not so [...] is somewhat in|treated before, pag. 275. The crueltie of one brother [...]o another. feare of anie law) began to vtter his conceiued ha|tred till this time couertlie concealed. For vpon the sudden, he tooke his brother prisoner, put out his eies, cut out his toong, and not contented with a simple death (to be giuen vnto him at one instant) did most miserablie a long time togither put him to paine, by dismembring th [...] seuerall parts of his bodie, before he should die. After which wretched fact against his owne brother, he ioined himselfe to the English na|tion, and taking preies on the borders, he did vnna|turallie and traitorouslie (as it were an vtter eni|mie to his [...]untrie) [...]age against his owne citizens, with all kind of murther and slaughter of battell. In which he did such harme, and so great oppression, as if he had not bene resisted by his nephue Rowland (ga|thering a strong power to him of such common peo|ple as remained stedfast in dutifull obedience to the imprisoned king) he had vtterlie spoiled all the coun|tries adioining to England, or else would wholie haue brought them into his subiection. For this Rowland a lustie yoong gentleman, bold of spirit, in|dued with noble strength of mind and bodie, did not onelie beat downe the force of his vncle, but did ma|nie times (and that sometimes most happilie) fight with the English, when they spoiled his natiue soile, or that he made anie inuasion into their borders.

At length when king William was deliuered of restreint, and returned into Scotland, this Gilbert (notwithstanding all his former euils) by the media|tion of his friends, found fauor in the king, and was pardoned of all his offenses, but yet so as he promi|sed to make recompense of all such damages as he had committed; for the sure performance whereof, he found sufficient pledges to the king. But Gilbert shortlie after departing this life, they which had ser|ued vnder him, giuen by continuall vse vnto theft and blood, did yéeld themselues to the fauourable pro|tection of the king of England, either for inconstan|cie of mind, or feare of punishment, being touched with remorse of conscience for the euill which they had before committed. These men thus shadowed vn|der the wings of England, did againe take armes a|gainst their countrie, vnder the conduct of Gilpa|trike, Henrie Kennedie, and Samuell, who before Gilpatrike & other spoile Scotland. had béene authors and executors to Gilbert, of all such euils as were by him performed. Against whom was Rowland sent with an armie, who in a set bat|tell slue the capteine, and a multitude of both kinds of the common people. They which escaped the con|flict, did flie to the refuge of one Gilcombe, capteine Gilco [...]be spoile [...]h his countrie. of such persons as liued vpon spoile and pilfering, who by continuance of followers, & increase of peo|ple, were now growne to some number, & did wan|der ouer all Louthian, robbing & spoiling in eue [...]e place where they set foot: and not so content, did from thence passe into Galloway, where this [...]ilcombe tooke in hand the defense of Gilberts cause (now vt|terlie Maketh him|selfe lord of Gallowaie. forsaken of all men) vnder colour whereof, he not onelie challenged the inheritance belonging to Gilbert, but also behaued himselfe as chiefe lord of all Galloway. At length incountering with this Rowland in the kalends of October (the third mo|neth after the companie of this Gilbert was be|fore dispersed) this Gilcombe was valiantlie slaine, with the greatest number of his followers, by the Gilcombe slaine. said Rowland, on whose part there was verie few missing.

The king of England highlie [...]ffended therwith (bicause the yere before they had sworne themselues to serue faithfullie vnder him against their owne bloud) came in haste with a maine armie to Carleill to séeke reuenge thereof. Which when William king of Scots vnderstood, he laboured by all the meanes he could, to appease the king of Englands displea|sure, and to reconcile this Rowland vnto him. In the end the king of Scots wrought so with the Eng|lish, that Rowland was admitted to come to Car|leill to the presence of the king of England; the which Rowland re|stored to the fauour of the king of Eng|land. Rowland did accordinglie. At what time before the king of England, refelling the slanderous accusati|ons of his aduersaries (and further declaring that he had doone nothing either rashlie, or vniustlie against his and the common wealths enimie) he was hono|rablie by the English king suffered to depart from Carleill. These things thus doone, & king William returned into Scotland, he called to remembrance the continuall constancie and good seruice, which E|thred the father of Rowland had manie times doone to him and to the realme; there withall not forget|ting the woorthie exploits which this Rowland had of late performed for the common wealth: for which considerations he woorthilie recompensed the said Rowland, in bestowing on him the whole countrie of Galloway. And further (although he did not me|rit Rowland made lord of Gallowaie. the same by reason of his fathers euils) yet the king mildlie considering, that the sonne was not to beare the offense of the father (but hoping by this vn|deserued liberalitie, to bind him faithfullie to serue him) did giue the lands of Carrike vnto the sonne of Carr [...]e giuen to the sonne of Gilbert. the said Gilbert. All which William Paruus reporteth to haue happened in the yéere of Christ 1183.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Rowland being thus made lord of Galloway, Rowland con|stable of Scot land. maried the sister of William Mooruill constable of Scotland, who dieng without issue, obteined the same o [...]fice by inheritance in right of his wife, from whome did issue Alane lord of Galloway, and con|stable Alane lord of Galloway, & constable of Scotland. of Scotland, by inheritance from his mother, a valiant gentleman, and such a person as for his no|table seruice (imploied in Ireland on the behalfe of Iohn king of England) was rewarded by the said king with honorable and rich reuenues: for which by the permission of William king of Scotland, he pro|fessed himselfe the liege man of Iohn king of Eng|land, and sware fealtie vnto him. This Alane (as is before said) maried Margaret the elder daughter of Dauid earle of Huntington, of whome he raised thrée daughters, whereof the eldest being Dornagill, was maried to Balioll, the second to Bruse: in right of which Dornagill, the sonne of this Balioll challenged the crowne of Scotland, as descended from the el|der sister.) On the other side Robert Bruse, albeit he The title of Robert Bruse was descended of the yoongest daughter to earle Da|uid, yet was he come of the first issue male, for his fa|ther was first borne, and therefore if king William had deceas [...]ed without issue, the crowne had descen|ded to him: for which consideration he mainteined that he ought now to be preferred. Hastings also for Hastings. his part, bicause he was come of the yoongest daugh|ter of king Dauid, maried to his father Henrie Ha|stings, wanted not allegations to propone, why he ought to be admitted. Beside these, there were other also, that made claime to the crowne of Scotland, and had matter sufficient to mainteine their sute. This controuersie being brought before the gouer|nors, was at sundrie times argued with much con|tention, EEBO page image 206 not without the assistance of the nobles fa|uoring the parties, as occasion of friendship or kin|red mooued them, namelie Balioll and Bruse had no small number that leaned vnto their parts, by rea|son whereof, the gouernors were in doubt to procéed to anic definite sentence in the matter, least if they The doubt of the gouernors declared one of them king, an other would attempt to vsurpe the crowne by force.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Héere vpon they iudged it best to referre the deci|sion of all this whole matter to some mightie king, which was of puissance able to constreine the parties repugnant to obeie his sentence. Heerevnto was none thought so méet as Edward king of England, and therfore they chose him. [Of whose faith and loue Fr. Thin. Buchanan. towards them, they did not anie whit mistrust, bi|cause Alexander the last king of Scots had found the father of this Edward, both a louing father in law to himselfe, and vpright tutor to his realme. Wherevnto also they ioined this cause of hope in king Edward, for that the said Edward had of late before tried the fauor of the Scots towards him, by a singular testi|monie, in that they so easilie consented to ioine the heire of Scotland with the son of the said Edward.] Wherevpon king Edward tooke this charge vpon him, as competent iudge, & promised by a certein day to come vnto Berwike, willing that their councell might be assembled there against that time. At his comming thither, at the day assigned, and hauing heard what could be said on ech part, and throughlie The title doubtfull. considering at length their allegations, he perceiued the same doubtfull, and required a longer time to dis|cusse the truth by good aduise of counsell: and there|fore required to haue twelue Scotishmen, the best learned and most skilfull lawiers of all the realme to be associat with twelue Englishmen, which he pro|mised to choose foorth of the most perfect and wisest clerks that might be found within all his domini|ons, to the intent that by their ripe and aduised deba|ting of the matter, the truth might appeere, according to the which he minded to giue sentence, without fa|uor either of one part or other. [Before which he tooke Fr. Thin. Buchanan. The nobles sweare to stand to the or|der of king Edward. a solemne oth of the ambassadors of Scotland, and such nobles as were there to stand to his definitiue sentence, further therevpon requiring a writing to be made, sealed with the seales of the same nobles.] After when all such matters and proofes as were pro|poned by the parties, alledged by them for furthe|rance of their titles were put in writing, as matter of record, he returned backe againe into England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶ Héere the Scotish writers report, that king Ed|ward This report of the Scotish writers smel|leth altogither of malice con|ceiued against him, for that he scourged them so [...]ore for their vntruths. vsed himselfe nothing vprightlie in this mat|ter, but accordinglie (as it often happeneth) had the eies of his conscience blinded, vpon hope to gaine somewhat by this credit thus to him committed. But how vniustlie he is s [...]andered in this behalfe, I leaue to the indifferent readers to consider, by conferring that which the Scots doo write thereof, with that which is to be found in our English historie. But to procéed as we find it in the Scotish writers. King Edward to be satisfied in knowledge of the truth, sent into France for men learned and of great ex|perience in the lawes, that he might haue their opi|nions in the demands of the parties for their doubt|full rights. But (saith Hector Boetius) he first com|manded them in no wise to agree vpon anie resolute point, but rather to varie in opinions, that when the plée should séeme doubtfull by reason of their con|trarietie in deciding thereof, he might the better vn|der that colour, giue iudgement with which partie he thought most expedient to serue his purpose.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Howbeit the most part of the lawiers iudged with Respect of persons in de|ciding contro|uersies is not to be conside|red. Robert Bruse, both for the woorthines of his person, and also for that he was come of the first issue male. But some there were that gaue sentence with Iohn Balioll, for that he was descended of the eldest sister. King Edward supposing this to be the time most conuenient for his purposed inteution to conquer the realme of Scotland, returned to Berwike, where he had appointed the 24 learned men before specified, to be present, that finall sentence might be giuen, ac|cording as he had before promised. When he was come thus vnto Berwike, and the foresaid 24 lear|ned K. Edward co [...]th to Ber [...]ike. lawiers assembled as assistants with him, and the parties appéering before him in a chamber proui|ded for the purpose, he caused the doores to be suerlie The purpose of king Ed|ward, as the Scots doo vntrue re|port. kept, and the entries stronglie warded, that no man might come in or out, but by his appoi [...]ment and [...] cence. His purpose was to make him king, that would be sworne to hold the crowne of Scotland of him, as superior lord thereof. And bicause he knew that Robert Bruse was a man of singular manhood and wisedome, he thought best to assaie him first, [...] if he found him not conformable to his purpose, then he minded to trie what the Balioll [...] doo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 When Robert Bruse had throughlie hear [...] king The answer of Robert Bruse. Edwards motion, he answered that he [...] the li|bertie of his countrie, more than his priuate pro [...]|ment, and therefore minded not to deliuer h [...] coun|trie (which euen to that day had béene [...]ée) into the bondage and seruitude of the Englishmen. King Edward perceiuing his stoutnesse of stomach, brake off with him, and fell in talke with the Balioll, who had such blind desire to atteine the crowne, that he passed not whether he inioied the same in libertie o [...] seruitude, so he might haue it. Héerevpon when this Balioll had giuen his faith by assured oth vnto king The Balioll promiseth to doo homage to king Edward Edward, that he would doo homage vnto him for the realme of Scotland, and acknowledge to hold the same of him as superior lord, king Edward gaue sentence with him, to haue most right to the crowne and realme of Scotland, now thus in controuersie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 It is said, that the earle of Glocester, a man of great prudence and authoritie in England (séeing The saieng of the earle of Glocester (as the Scots write, but not like to be true.) King Ed|ward was no man so to be dealt with. the Balioll thus made king, and Robert Bruse with|out reason put backe) spake in this sort to king Ed|ward: Oh king, remember what is doone by thée this day, sparing to giue righteous sentence in this mat|ter; for though the same be now couered and hid, it shall be reuealed, when the great iudge that searcheth consciences, and the secrets of euerie mans mind, shall cause thée to answer for it at the dreadfull day of that vniuersall iudgement: thou hast now giuen sentence on a king, but then shall iudgement be gi|uen on thée. Shortlie after, Iohn Balioll went in great arraie vnto Scone, where he was crowned Iohn Balioll crowned king of Scotland. king of Scotland on saint Andrewes day, in the yeere from the incarnation 1292. In the yeere next 1292. insuing, on saint Stephans day in Christmasse, he came to Newcastell vpon Tine, and there did ho|mage Iohn Balioll dooth homage to king Ed|ward. So say the Scotish wri|ters, but how trulie, read more héereof in England. vnto king Edward for the realme of Scot|land, contrarie to the mind and consent of all his no|bles, for that by this meanes, he séemed to submit his realme (which had remained in freedome vnto those daies) into the seruitude of the Englishmen: but small felicitie succéeded therof.* And héere it appee|reth by Buchanan, that the nobilitie of Scotland, which held with Balioll, did also their homage: for be|ing farre from home, they durst not contend against the power of two kings. Whereof some taking it gréenous [...]ie in their hart, dissembled with the present [...]me, and couered their anger vnder the cinders of a faire countenance, which yet in the end burst out, notwithstanding this painted shew. For the declara|tion and proofe whereof, there was shortlie after occa|sion offered to Makduffe, by the death of the earle of Fife, being (in the time when there was no king) made one of the sir gouernors of the realme: for this earle was not onelie killed by these of [...] EEBO page image 207 (which familie did then greatlie flourish in riches and authoritie within Scotland) but the brother also of she said earle was called into law by the Abirnethi|ans, for whome the king in assemblie of the states did giue sentence against the other. This Mak [...]e after the land whereof the contention grew was so adiud|ged, supposing therein the king to be more vniust a|gainst him than was cause, and that the king was not so seuere a reuenger of his brothers death, as he hoped that he would be; forsooke the Balioll, and ap|pealed to the king of England, before whom he com|mensed his sute against Balioll. The deciding where|of was appointed to be holden at London, where was an assemblie or parlement of the nobilitie, after the English manner, amongst whome this Balioll had his place also.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The parlement begun and Balioll there summo|ned Iohn Balioll king of Scots an|swered a [...]uts cõmensed a|gainst him in the parlement of England as an inferior person should. or cited, would haue answered by his proctor or attornie: but this (not being allowed) Balioll was compelled to rise out of his seat, and to defend his cause himselfe in an inferior place. Which contume|lie when he durst not at anie time redresse, secretlie he still bare in mind, vntill fit oportunitie might an|swer the reuenge thereof. But when he would, and then could not deliuer himselfe of such disgrace; he returned home with a mind of deadlie anger, rol|ling mounteins of choler therein, who still bending himselfe on euerie side to satisfie his anger, dwelled on this point; how he might reconcile the hearts of his subiects: and offend the state of the English. Whilest Balioll with this meditation was feeding his hot stomach, a fit means was now offered to performe his desire, by reason of the wars newlie growen betweene England and France, as after shall appeare. For vpon this occasion of wars, king Edward of England commanded this Balioll by tenure of his land, & tenure of his homage, to come with all the power he could prepare to aid him in his warres against the king of France.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Iohn Bali [...]l incontinentlie herewith be|came repentant, in that he had indangered himselfe Iohn Balioll repenteth him thus by dooing his homage; and therevpon sent his ambassadors to king Edward, as then soiourning at London, to renounce his act touching the same homage, alledging that for somuch as it was doone without the aduise of the thrée estates of Scotland, it was of no strength in it selfe, and not méete to be obserued being doone by force; for which cause he would renounce his friendship and aliance, aswell Fr. Thin. for manie other iniuries doone vnto him and his; as for that he would séeke to restore his countrie to his former libertie. Which message when none of the better sort durst take in hand to execute, a certeine moonke (or as other haue the abbat of Alberbrethie) caried these letters into England, vpon the receit whereof, king Edward answered the ambassadors Ambassadors into England (whom he tawnted with innumerable contumelies) that since we perceiue (saith he) your king will not come vnto vs; we intend shortlie to come vnto him, wherewith the ambassadors departed. Butus (saith Buchanan) could scarselie returne home in safetie: being at his returne into Scotland rather had in contempt of his owne people, than anie iot reueren|ced for such an ambassage.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After this, king Edward the better to accomplish his purpose against the Scots, found means to con|clude The league renewed be|twixt France and Scot|land. a peace with the king of France, and for the more confirmation of the same peace, the French kings daughter was giuen in mariage vnto king Edward his sonne. Nuerthelesse (as saith the Sco|tish chronicle) he purposed (when he had wrought his will once against the Scots) to inuade France as flercelie as before, notwithstanding anie bond of amitie or mariage by him contracted. After this, he procured the friendship of Robert Bruse, and vpon promise (as it is to be thought) to make him king, the same Robert deliuered into king Edward his hands all such castels as he held in Scotland. Iohn Balioll the Scotish king, vnderstanding that king Edward minded to make a conquest vpon him, sent Ex chron. A|bindon, as I take it. William bishop of saint Andrews, and Matthew bishop of Dunkeld, with sir Iohn Sowlis, and sir Ingram Umfraiuile into France, to renew the an|cient league betwixt him and Philip the fourth, as then king of France; which accordinglie was doone: and for the more corroboration thereof, the eldest daughter of Charles earle of Uallois and Aniou, brother to king Philip, was promised in mari|age vnto Edward Balioll, the sonne of king Iohn, which Edward should inioy lands' of yearelie tents & reuenues to the summe of fiftéene hundred pounds sterling, in places not of the demesnes belonging to the crowne, as Ballieuille, Dampiere, Harecourt, and Horneie, which his father held in France with Lanarke, Ki [...]on, Maldeseie, Cuningham, and the castell of Dundee, with the appurtenances in Scot|land: and hereto was annexed a prouiso, that if those seigniories and places exceeded the value of fiftéene hundred pounds of yearelie reuenues, then should the surplusage remaine to the K. of Scotland: but if the same amounted not to that summe, then should the said king make them good, and supplie the same with other rents in Scotland, or otherwise, as should be thought méet. And further, the said summe of fiftéene hundred pounds in yearlie rent was assigned as it were the dower of the said ladie, to inioy to hir selfe during hir life after hir husbands deceasse, if hir hap were to suruiue him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In consideration whereof, king Philip couenan|ted to content and pay vnto king Iohn in name of Hector Boe|tius. Abindon. the mariage monie, the summe of 40000 crownes, or (as other write) 25000 pounds Turnois. The char|ter conteining the articles, couenants, and agrée|ments of this mariage and league aboue mentio|ned, beareth date at Paris, the 23 day of October, in the yeare of our Lord 1295. And the letters pro|curatorie made by king Iohn to the said bishop of 1295. saint Andrewes, & the other his associats, bare date at Striueling, the third nones of Iulie the same yeare. Shortlie herevpon, king Iohn was aduer|tised The gentle|men of Fife and Louthian sent to Ber|wike to de|fend it against the English|men. that king Edward purposed to come and be|fiege Berwike; wherefore by aduise of his nobles he sent the most part of all the lords and gentlemen of Fife and Louthian vnto Berwike, to defend the towne against the enimie, if he came to besiege it. The Englishmen came not onelie with a mightie power by land, but also with a great nauie by sea to|wards the said towne of Berwike. Of whose com|ming English ships taken at Ber|wike. the Scots being aduertised, came foorth a|gainst those that approched by sea, tooke 17 of their ships, and chased awaie the residue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 King Edward rather prouoked than feared with this misaduenture, came with a farre greater puis|sance than before, to renew the siege: but when he Berwike be|sieged. perceiued his purpose tooke not so spéedie effect as he hoped it should haue doone, he deuised how to take this towne by some slightfull policie. Héerevpon he feined as though he would haue broken vp his siege, The policie of king Edward to win Ber|wike. and so raising his campe, withdrew a little from the towne, and then hauing prouided banners and en|signes, resembling altogither such as diuerse noble men in Scotland vsed, he suddenlie returned toward the towne, euerie one of his souldiers wearing a acrosse of saint Andrewes aboue on their harnesse, after the manner of the Scotishmen. There were al|so sent before vnto the towne, certeine Scots that serued the king of England, which gaue knowledge to the capteins within the towne, that their lord king EEBO page image 208 Iohn was comming with [...] to their s [...]|cors. The Scots that were within the towne, belee|uing it had béene most true, [...] the [...] came foorth against [...] ( [...] the [...] supposed) to The Scots deceiued and intrapped. haue receiued him with all ioy [...].

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 But when they [...] Englishmen, they perceiued both by their language and habit what they were: but this was not before the Englishmen were hard at the gate [...], so that then the Scotishmen would haue fled [...]aoke to haue got into the towne a|gaine, the Englishmen pursued them so fast at the The crueltie of the Eng|lishmen. héeles, that they entered the gates with them, and so tooke the towne with great slaughter as well of the souldiers and men of warre, as also of women, chil|dren Berwike is woon [...]. and aged persons, without all r [...]th or compassi|on, so that they left not one creature aliue of the Scotish bloud within all that towne. Thus was The 29 of March being good friday. 1295. H. B. The abun|dance of bloud [...]led. S [...]reames augmented with bloud. Berwike woone the 30 day of March, in the yéere 1296. Such abundance of bloud was spilled tho|rough all parts of the towne (as the Scotish chroni|cles testifie) that where at the [...]allingtide the water was not able to driue about the [...], some of the same mils yet, were now at a low water set on gate, by reason the streames were so hugelie augmented with bloud. There were slaine aboue seuen thousand persons that day, with the greatest part of all the no|bles and gentlemen of Fife and Louthian.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Iohn hearing of this slaughter of his people at Berwike, in great desire to be auenged, gathered The Scots discomfited at Dunbar. his power, and sent the same foorth against king Ed|ward, with whome they met not farre from Dunbar, and there incountring with him in battell, the Sco|tish host was discomfited, the most part of the Scots being either slaine or taken. The earles of March and Menteth, with 70 knights, fled to the castell of Dun|bar, but they were besieged so streictlie by the Eng|lish power, inuiro [...]ng the castell on ech side, that in the end they were constreined for lacke of vittels to The castell of Dunbar ren|dered to king Edward. yéeld themselues to king Edward, on condition to haue their liues saued, which couenant was not ob|serued; as the Scotish writers affirme: for king Edward hauing got them into his hands, caused them foorthwith to be put to death. It was reported that Robert Bruse vpon secret conference had with Robert Bruse occasion of the ouerthrow of Scots at Dunbar. king Edward before this battell at Dunbar, sollici|ted all his friends in the Scotish armie, to flée vpon the first ioining, which the residue perceiuing, were so discomforted, that incontinentlie they threw awaie both armor and weapon, and so were vanquished without resistance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Truth it is, that after this victorie, Robert Bruse Robert Bruse submitteth himselfe to K. Edward. submitted himselfe vnto king Edward, requiring him to performe his promise touching the right which he had to the crowne of Scotland: howbeit he recei|ued no answer to his liking touching that request: for K. Edward had no lesse desire to inioy the king|dome of Scotland, than Bruse, as the Scotish wri|ters affirme. Therefore to cast off Robert Bruse concerning his demand, he answered thus, as is said; Beléeuest thou that we haue nothing else a doo The answer of king Ed|ward to Ro|bert Bruse. but to conquere realmes, and to deliuer them ouer againe vnto thee? Robert Bruse hereby perceiuing the subtile meaning of K. Edward, returned right sorrowfull vnto his lands in England, hauing great indignation in his mind, that he had obeied king Edwards requests: but yet considered with him|selfe that he must suffer for the time, till occasion serued to reuenge the iniuries receiued, which he minded to doo, and that in most cruell maner, as af|terwards it will appeare. King Edward after he The castels o [...] Eden|burgh and Striueling woone. King Iohn priuen into the castell of For [...]arre. had thus woone the castell of Dunbar, got likewise both the castels of Edenburgh and Striueling, and pursued king Iohn, till he had constreined him to take for his refuge the castell of Forfaire. Herewith Iohn Cu [...] [...]ord of Strab [...]gie came to king Ed|ward, and was swo [...]ne his [...]ge man.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Sh [...]e after, by a politi [...] practise of the same Iohn C [...]n, king Iohn with his sonne Edward came to M [...]rus, where perceiuing himselfe vn|wiselie to be fallen into the hands of king Edward, through fea [...] of death which he doubted by reason of Iohn [...] king of Scot|land resigneth all his right to king Ed|ward. the men [...]g words of king Edward, he suffered himselfe to be spoiled of all his kinglie abiliments, and with a white wand in his hand (as the maner is) presented himselfe before king Edward, resigning there vnto him all his right and title which he had to the crowne of Scotland, vtterlie renouncing the same both for him and his heires for euer. Hereof was a charter made in most sufficient wise, confir|med A charter. with the hand and seale of king Iohn, and other the nobles of Scotland substantiallie as might be deuised, bearing date the fourth yeare of his reigne. After this, king Edward assembled all the Homage of the barous of Scotland to king Edward lords and barons of Scotland at Berwike, where he caused them to be sworne his liege men, and to doo homage vnto him as to their souereigne lord and supreme gouernor. Which William Dowglasse (a Fr. Thin. man of noble birth and famous for his déeds) refu|sed to doo, and for his obstinacie was cast into prison, where after a few yeares he ended his life. And for The holds of Scotland de|liuered into king Edward his hands. the more suertie of their allegiance, he constreined them to surrender into his hands all the strengths & holds of the realme, both as well those that stood on the sea coasts, as also such other as were situat in the inner parts of the countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 These things doone, and order taken in each be|halfe as was thought requisit for the quiet kéeping of the countrie, he sent king Iohn and his sonne Iohn Bali|oll kept as prisoner in England. Edward Balioll vnto London, where they were kept in strong ward; till at length he suffered the said king Iohn to returne into Scotland: but lea|uing still his sonne in pledge behind him, least he should attempt anie new rebellion after his depar|ture; which after was deliuered at the request of the pope. King Iohn vpon his returne into Scotland, He returneth into Scot|land. perceiuing that he was in the hatred both of his lords and commons, he withdrew againe of his owne accord into England, forsaking wholie the He renoun|ceth the admi|nistration of Scotland. administration of the Scotish dominion, and final|lie went ouer into Normandie to his ancient inhe|ritance and lands there, where at length falling blind, and wasting away by long age, he departed out of this world in the castell Galliard, leauing He returneth into France, and deceasseth in castell Gal|liard. those lands which he possessed on that side the sea, vn|to his sonne Edward Balioll, who being released out of captiuitie, was come ouer to his father be|fore his deceasse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 In the meane time, king Edward hauing well in King Ed|ward his purpose to in|uade France. remembrance the warres which he had intended to make against France, had be not bin staied through the businesse of Scotland, purposed now to pursue the same with all diligence; & therefore garnishing all the strengths & forts in Scotland to withstand the Scots, if they attempted anie rebellion against him in his absence, he appointed Hugh Cressing|ham regent there, whilest he should be occupied in Hugh Cres|singham re|gent of Scot|land. France, which Cressingham before was treasuror. Then hauing prouided a great nauie of ships, he passed ouer into France, trusting that the Scots would not s [...]ur, sith they had of late susteined so ma|nie ouerthrows and sore losses one after an other by the last wars: but tyrannie is of such a nature, that by no kind of prouision it may anie long time be suerlie defended. For those people that be oppressed King Ed|ward [...]e|ned by the Scotish wri|ters of tyran|nie. by anie tyrannicall seruitude, will not faile to séeke to deliuer themselues from the yoke of that impor|table burden when soeuer opportunitie of time and occasion serueth. Therefore the lords of Scotland EEBO page image 209 hauing knowledge that king Edward was passed The Scotish [...] a [...]semble at Striue|ling. ouer the seas, they got them all togither straight|waies, and assembled in councell at Striueling, where by generall agréement, twelue noble men were chosen to be gouernors of Scotland, euerie Twelue go u [...]rnors [...] in Scot|land. one in their limits appointed, that they might the better prouide to resist the enimie. Amongest these gouernors, Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquhan was principall, a man of great wisedome and singular knowlege in all affaires, as well of peace as of war. This earle of Buchquhan raised a mightie armie, Iohn Cumin. and with the same entered into Northumberland, where he wasted with fier and sword all that coun|trie. After this, he laid siege to Carleill, but he wan nothing there, the towne was so well defended. In William Wal|las [...] beginneth to war fa|mous. that season also, the fame of William Wallase be|gan to spring, a yoong gentleman of so huge stature and notable strength of bodie, with such skill and knowledge in warlike enterprises, and hereto of such hardinesse of stomach in attempting all maner of dangerous exploits, that his match was not anie where lightlie to be found. He was sonne to one Sir Andrew Walias [...] knight father to William Wallase. sir Andrew Wallase of Cragie, knight, and from his youth bare euer an inward hatred against the English nation. Sundrie notable feats also he wrought against the Englishmen in defense of the Scots, and was of such incredible force at his com|ming to perfect age, that of himselfe alone, without all helpe, he would not feare to set vpon thrée or foure Englishmen at once, and vanquish them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 When the fame therefore of his woorthie acts was notified thorough the realme, manie were put in good hope, that by his means the realme should be deliuered from the seruitude of the Englishmen within short time after. And herevpon a great num|ber of the Scotish nation as well of the n [...]bilitie as other, were readie to assist him in all his enterprises. By reason whereof he might not easilie be intrapped nor taken of the Englishmen, that went about to haue got him into their hands. At length, when oc|casion serued to vse the helpe of such a notable chief|teine, he was chosen by generall consent of the Sco|tishmen as gouernour vnder Iohn Ballioll, to deli|uer his countrie from bondage of the English na|tion. At the same time manie abbeies & spirituall be|nefices [...]bbeies of Scotland in Englishmens han [...]s. in Scotland were in Englishmens hands. Neuerthelesse, this William Wallase by commis|sion had of William Fraser bishop of saint An|dr [...]ws, auoided and put them foorth of all parts of Scotland, leauing neither temporall nor spiri|tuall person of their bloud within that realme. For shortlie after, by publike authoritie, he receiued the armie that Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquhan had led before, and constreined those Scots that fauored king Edward, to obeie his commandements, in renouncing all such faith and promise as they had giuen or made vnto him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 This doone, he passed foorth with great puissance Castels woon by William Wallase. against the Englishmen, that held sundrie castels within Scotland, and with great hardinesse & man|hood he wan the castels of Forfair, Dundée, Brechen and Mountros, sleaing all such souldiers as he found within them. Wallase now ioifull of this his prospe|rous successe, and hearing that certeine of the chie|fest capteins and officers of those Englishmen that Dunoter woon by William Wallase. kept the castell of Dunoter, were gone foorth to con|sult with other Englishmen of the forts next to them adioining, came sudenlie to the said castell, & tooke it, not leauing a man aliue of all those whome he found as then within it. Then after he had furnished that hold with his owne soldiers in most defensible wise, be went to Aberden. The towne he found in maner void of all the inhabitants, but the castell was so [...]onglie garnished with men and munition, that considering it might not be woone without great murder, he raised from thence, and returned into Angus. King Edward as then being in France, hearing of these exploits atchiued by this Wallase Hugh Cres|singham sent into Scotland his aduersarie, sent diuerse noble capteins vnto his lieutenant Hugh Cressingham, with an armie into Scotland to redresse the matter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Wallase in the meane time had laid siege vnto the castell of Couper, but now being aduertised of the comming of this armie against him, he raised his siege, & went to Striueling to defend the bridge there, that Hugh Cressingham with his armie shuld not passe the same, according as the report went his intent was to doo. Heere incountring with the enimies, the third Ides of September, he obteined a Hugh Cres|singham slaine at Striueling and his armie discomfited by William Wal|lase. The castell of Couper ren|dred to Wal|lase. verie woorthie victorie, for he slue not onelie the fore|said Cressingham with a great part of his armie be|ing passed the riuer, but also forced the residue to flee, in such sort, that a great number of them were drow|ned, and few escaped awaie with life. Thus hauing gotten the vpper hand of his enimies héere at Stri|ueling, he returned againe to the siege of Couper, which shortlie after vpon his returne thither, was rendred vnto him by those that were within in gar|rison. There were manie of the Scotish nobilitie the same time, that sent vnto him, offering to leaue the king of Englands part, and to aid him with monie and vittels, if he would onelie receiue them into fa|uour, wherevnto he granted. By which meanes, sun|drie other castels were yéelded vnto him, the which af|ter he had garnished with men, munition, and vit|tels (according as was thought requisit) he brake vp his campe, and went with sundrie of his most faith|full friends vnto the castell of Striueling.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Afterwards perceiuing that through scarsitie of corne, great dearth arose on each side within the Dearth in Scotland. The policie of Wallase to relieue the peoples lacke in time of dearth. realme of Scotland, he deuised which way he might best relieue the peoples necessitie and lacke in that behalfe, and herevpon he determined to passe with a mightie armie into England, and to soiourne there the most part of the winter, in susteining the whole number of his men of warre on such prouision as they might find within the bounds of their enimies Disobedien [...] punished. countrie. He commanded therefore that all the Scots, appointed to go with him in that iournie, should be readie at a certeine day and place prefired. But diuers of the northerne Scots (as they of Aber|den and other) for that they disobeied his comman|dements set foorth by letters and proclamations, were hanged as rebels and traitors to their coun|trie. By whose example, other being put in feare, his Wallase inua|deth Nor|thumberland. commandements were the better obeied, so that ha|uing got togither an huge host of men, he entered with the same into Northumberland [...]asting and spoiling the countrie euen vnto New [...]astell. Thus putting the enimies in great feare and terror of his awfull name, he brought his armie backe againe in|to Scotland, loden with spoile and glorie of their prosperous atchiued iournie. They entred into Eng|land Fr. Thin. (as Io. Maior writeth) about the feast of All saints, and remained there till Candlemas after, li|uing still vpon the spoile of the Englishmens goods.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Edward king of England, being informed of the K Edwards message vnto Wallase. great slaughter of his people, and what damage the Scots had doone in Northumberland, returned in great displeasure out of France into England, and sent his ambassadors vnto Wallase, sore menacing him, for that he had inuaded his realme in such cru|ell wise in his absence, which he durst (as he sent him word) full little haue doone, if he had béene at home The answer of wallase to K. Edwards message as the Scots doo write. himselfe. Wallase herevnto answered, that he had taken the aduantage for the atchiuing of his inter|prise, touching the inuasion of England, in like sort as king Edward had doone for the conquest of Scot|land, EEBO page image 210 at such time as he was chosen by the nobles of the realme as indifferent iudge in decision of the right and lawfull title of the parties that stroue and were at contention for the crowne. And further, to the end it might appeare vnto king Edward, that he inuaded England in defense of his owne natiue countrie, and that he was fullie bent to imploie his whole indeuor to deliuer the same from all maner of subiection to any forreine power, and to reuenge the iniuries doone to them by the Englishmen in times past; he willed the English ambassadors to de|clare from him vnto king Edward, that he purpo|sed to hold his Easter in England (if God afforded him life) and that in despite of king Edward, and all such as would beare armor against him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And vndoubtedlie according to his promise he Wallase en|tred England with an armie of 30000 men. kept his day: for assembling togither an armie of 30000 men, he entred into England at the time be|fore appointed, where king Edward was readie with an armie vpon Stanesmoore, double in num|ber to the Scots, to giue them battell: but when the time came that both parties were readie to haue ioi|ned, the Englishmen withdrew, hauing no lust (as should seeme) to fight with the Scots at that time) who perceiuing them to giue backe, incontinentlie would haue rushed foorth of their rankes to haue pursued in chase after them: but Wallase (doubting least the Englishmen had ment some policie, and saieng (as writeth Io. Ma. lib. 4. cap. 14.) that it was honor inough for him that he had inforced so mightie a prince in his owne countrie to forsake the field) caused the Scots to kéepe togither in order of bat|tell, and so preseruing them from the deceitfull ma|lice of their enimies, brought them backe into Scot|land with liues and honors saued, besides the infinit spoiles and booties which they got in this iornie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 But as in the beginning all men were glad to support Wallase in all exploits and enterprises which he tooke in hand, so afterward when his fame began to wax great, to the derogation of other mens re|nowmes, such as were farre his superiors in birth and linage, that fauor which manie bare him at the first, was now turned into enule, hauing no small indignation, that a man of so base parentage should so surmount them in all honor and dignitie. Those that enuied him most, were of the Cumins bloud, Wallase is enuied. and Robert Bruse. King Edward being aduertised of this enuious grudge, and new sedition amongst the nobles of Scotland, had secret conference by his agents with the chiefest amongst those that thus en|uied the high glorie of Wallase, and vpon trust of such practise as was concluded by reson of the same K. Edward inuadeth Scotland. conference, he came with a mightie armie into Scotland, and at Falkirke met with this Wallase, who mistrusting no guile, had raised a power to re|sist him: but now being come in sight of the Eng|lishmen, Wallase rai|seth a power to resist him. there rose a right odious contention be|twixt the head capteins, who should haue the leading of the vantgard, which is reputed a most high honor Strife for the leading of the vantgard. among the Scotishmen. And among other, Iohn Steward, and Iohn Cumin, thought scorne, that Wallase a man of so low beginning, should be pre|ferred before them in that honour: but on the other part, Wallase considering that the charge of the whole was giuen vnto him by agréement and con|sent of the thrée estates, thought it no reason that he should giue place to anie of them, though vnto his face, as saith Iohn Maior, the lord Steward had be|fore vpbraided him with his pride, comparing him to an owle, which from his originall had begged a feather of euerie bird, and being now inriched with abundance of feathers, did aduance himselfe aboue all other birds.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 In the meane time came the Englishmen vpon them right fiercelie, before the Scotish chiefteins (hauing their brests filled with more malice one a|gainst another, than with desire to defend their coun|trie against their enimies) could bring their men in|to anie perfect araie. Herewith at the comming to the point of ioining, the Cumins with their retinues fled out of the field, and left the residue of the Scots The Cumins fled. in all the danger. Robert Bruse seruing that day a|mong the Englishmen, fetched a compasse about an hill, and came on the backs of the Scots, so that they were in maner compassed in, and beaten downe on each side: yet Wallase left nothing vndoone that might perteine to the dutie of a valiant capteine. But at length, all his indeuors notwithstanding, the Scots (ouerset with multitude of enimies, as the Scotish writers affirme) were slaine in such huge numbers, that he was constreined to draw out of the field, which such small remnants as were left a|liue. The Englishmen pursued fiercelie after him, & The Scots discomfited at Falkirke. namelie one valiant capteine named Frere Brian Iaie, a templer, whome Wallase perceiuing to be within his danger, stepped foorth vnto him, and slue Frere Brian Iaie slaine by the hands of William Wallase. him there in sight (as it is said) of all the English ar|mie. Which valiant act of Wallase caused the Eng|lishmen somewhat to staie, for doubt of further pe|rill by their vnwise pursute likelie to befall them. In this infortunate battell, were slaine on the Nobles of Scotland slaine at the battell of Falkirke. Scotish side, Iohn Steward of Bute, with his Brandans (for so they name them that are taken vp to serue in the warres foorth of the Stewards lands) Makduffe earle of Fife, with sir Iohn Gra|ham, whose death was much lamented by Wallase, as one whome he highlie estéemed for his great ex|perience in warlke knowledge. Manie other noble and valiant men died in this conflict, whose names would be too long to rehearse. This battell was stri|ken Marie Mag|dalens day prosperous for the English|men to fight a|gainst Scots. on Marie Magdalens daie, in the yéere of our Lord 1298, and therefore the Englishmen haue hol|den it euer since an happie day for to fight against the Scots.

Fr. Thin. Iohn Maior lib. 4. cap. 14. Buchan. lib. 8. Lesleus epis. Ross. li. 6. p. 235. Conference betwéene Wal lase & Bruse. When William Wallase was passed the riuer Carran, where he might defend himselfe, and gather his dispersed people, Bruse desired to speake vnto him, which Wallase did not denie. Wherevpon each of them (drawing alone by themselues without any arbitrers to the bankes of the riuer, in such place as it was narowest, and they might without anie com|panie best heare one another; Bruse began to say as followeth.

I doo much muse, thou most valiant of all men, what came into thy mind to be caried away by the vncerteine fauor of the common people, and to stand against the mightiest king of our age, suppor|ted with the greatest forces of the Scots: and dailie to offer thy selfe to euerie danger, and that for no re|ward assured to thée for all thy labors. For if thou shouldest ouercome king Edward, the Scots will neuer aduance thée to the kingdome, and if thou be ouercome, there resteth no refuge for thée, but onelie the mercie of thine enimie. And doost thou not sée the Cumins, and mée, and the most of the nobilitie, to follow the English faction? Neither doost thou con|sider the malice of the princes conceiued against thée? Looke vnto thy selfe, and thou hast but a few of the nobles thy partakers, and a small number of the commons (which are more vncerteine than the wind) to follow thée, whose fortune is now almost o|uerthrowne.
All these words Iohn Maior suppo|seth that Robert Bruse did speake, to serch the mind of Wallase, whether he ment to aspire to the crowne or no: being in deed rather contented that Wallase had left the field, than otherwise to reduce him to the part of king Edward.

To whome Wallase answered in this sort.

The end of all my trauell was not to atteine the king|dome; EEBO page image 211 for my birth and fortune neither did or could deserue it, and my mind did neuer desire it: but the negligent slouth of thée (to whome the right of that diademe doth apperteine, and who doth greedilie hunt therafter) made my citizens (perceiuing themselues destitute of faithfull gouernors) to follow me, and caused me (when I saw them in that miserie, rather butcherlie torne, than in honest seruitude to be op|pressed) to séeke for libertie. Which suerlie I had ob|teined for them and you, if the nobilitie had not so e|uillie striued against me, refrained themselues for comming into the field, and had but sent their hinds (which till their land) foorth to the battell, at which time I had scarse 10000 men, & those of cõmon sort. Trulie if the princes had not béene impediment thereto, I could haue brought foorth to fight a hun|dred thousand bold and chéerefull souldiers. But now in truth I perceiue the hatred of the nobles against me this day. Wherefore if thou pretend to possesse the kingdome, I giue thée faithfull warning, especiallie to beware of the Cumins: who if they had more re|garded the glorie of their countrie, than of secret ma|lice to others, would not so wickedlie haue forsaken the field, what hate soeuer they had conceiued against me. If they haue giuen their faith to the king of England, they are not bound to kéepe it: in a wic|ked promise no oth is to be performed. I am now wearie of my life, and rather desire to die, than to liue in this sort, to see the miserie of my beloued coun|trie. Wherefore imbrace you this thraldome (which is so much estéemed of you) to whome filthie seruitude with ease séemeth more pleasant, than honest libertie with danger: for I had rather choose willing death with fréedome (in which I meane to spend my bloud) than to doo as you haue doone, because the loue of my countrie shall not depart from my hart, before the life of my bodie depart from his office.
Which being said, Bruse burst foorth in teares, considering the no|bilitie of the mind of Wallase, although perhaps he nothing misliked the misfortune of the man, as doub|ting the end of all his pretense to be, to atteine to the crowne. This being thus doone, they both depart to their companies. By which conference (saith Leslee bishop of Rosse) this good was wrought to Scot|land (to recompense the ouerthrow of Falkirke) that Wallase partlie by the bitternesse of his woords, and partlie for the loue of his countrie, did now draw Bruse from the English, to take part with the Scots.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But notwithstanding all these valiant spéeches of Wallase, when he considered the infortunat discom|fiture 1298. by him so treacherouslie receiued, he came to Perth, and there vttering by complaint the iniuri|ous enuie of the nobles against him, he renounced and discharged himselfe of all the authoritie which had Wallase re| [...]nceth his [...]ice. béene committed to his hands, touching the gouer|nance of the realme, and went into France, as saith Lesleus. But Iohannes Maior saith, that he neuer came there, although he will not flatlie denie it. The same time, Philip king of France, the fourth of that Philip king [...] France. name, and surnamed le Bea [...], hauing great ruth in his hart for the miserable calamities thus chanced to his ancient confederat friends the Scots, and that chieflie for the quarrell of France, sent his ambassa|dors vnto Edward king of England, who had latelie before maried his daughter, requiring that there might be some peace or abstinence of warre granted. At his request therefore a truce was taken betwixt the Scots and Englishmen, to indure from the feast [...] truce. of All saints, till the feast of Pentecost next follow|ing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Scots in the meane time sore oppressed by rea|son of long warres, sent ambassadors to pope Boni|face, Scotish am|bassadors sent to pope Boni|face. in presenting a verie gréeuous complaint vnto him, for the great affliction doone to them by king Edward, who was fullie bent by iniurious meanes (as they alledged) to conquer their realme, and there|fore they besought him to constreine king Edward by vertue of his prerogatiue, which he pretended to haue ouer the realme of England, to stand to his or|der in deciding the right concerning the liberties of Scotland, which might no other waies be determi|ned, but by intollerable damage falling to the people through blind desire and couetous ambition of the nobles, contending for the crowne. The pope (as is said) after he had by good and deliberat aduise heard The opinion of the pope. the matter, gaue sentence with the Scots, that they had iust cause of warres in defense of the liberties of their countrie, against K. Edward and his fautors. ¶ But for this matter, looke in the English chroni|cles, where it shall well appéere, that the pope by these letters of king Edward, was fullie satisfied of his superioritie ouer Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Scots somewhat recomforted héerewith, shortlie héerevpon chose Iohn Cumin to their gouer|nor, Iohn Cumin the yoonger elected gouer|nor of Scot|land. An armie of Englishmen sent into Scotland. in purpose to trie with the Englishmen for their liberties. Whereof king Edward being aduertised, sent foorthwith an armie into Scotland, which passed through the countrie to saint Iohns towne, with great damage of those that were adiudged rebels to king Edwards empire. All the countrie in manner vnto Forthrie, at this season was subiect to the Eng|lishmen, sauing such few of the inhabitants, as liued within the woods, hauing more regard to the ancient liberties of their countrie, than to anie desire of pre|seruing their goods or liues. Iohn Cumin therefore, desirous to redresse this heauie miserie and lamenta|ble case of his countrie, admitted Simon Fraser fellow with him in the administration of the warres against the Englishmen, and therewith gathering an armie of eight thousand hardie men of warre, set|teth in hand to reuenge the iniurious dooings of the enimies, chasing out of the realme all such officers King Ed|wards offi|cers chased out of Scot|land. with their seruants, as king Edward had placed in anie roomes within the bounds of Scotland; and such as resisted, he pursued in most cruell wise, not spa|ring to put them vnto the swoord in all places, where he might find them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Edward sore kindled in displeasure with these attempts of such desperat persons, raised an Scotland a|gaine inuaded armie of thirtie thousand men, and sent the same in|to Scotland, vnder the leading of a verie stout and valiant capteine, named Radulph or Rafe Confraie. Radulph Cõ|fraie. I remember not that anie of the Eng|lish nobilitie [...]are this sur|name in those daies, where|fore I thinke it was the lord Iohn Segraue. Iohn Cumin and Simon Fraser. This Radulph at his comming into Scotland, tooke small regard to the ordering of his field, but diuided his armie into thrée parts, euerie part conteining ten thousand men, and appointed them to passe foorth to forraie the countrie, and to meet altogither at Ro| [...]in, in such sort and time as he prescribed. Iohn Cu|min and Simon Fraser being aduertised héereof, gathered their powers togither, to the number of seuen or eight thousand men, and determined to trie the chance of battell with one part of the English ar|mie first, trusting that if they happened to haue the vpper hand of one of the thrée parts, the other two would be the more easie to deale with. The Scotish capteins resolued thus vpon that point, exhorted their people to remember how they were to fight in defense of their wiues, their children, their goods, and liberties of their countrie, against such as sought to bring them into [...]hraldome and vile seruitude.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 With which woords the Scots were so imboldened, that minding either to die or to win the victorie, they gaue the onset so fiercelie on their enimies, that the first battell of the Englishmen was quicklie ouer|throwen The first bat|tell of the Englishmen ouerthrowne. and vanquished. But scarselie had they ga|thered the spoile, when an other part of the English|men came vpon them with more fiercenesse than the EEBO page image 212 other before: neuerthelesse, the Scots incouraged with their fresh woone victorie, got themselues spée|dilie The second battell ouer|come. into arraie, & receiued their enimies with such incredible manhood, that they had quickly got the vp|per hand of these also. But scarse had they made an end with this second battell, when the third part was at hand readie to charge them, being now sore infee|bled, what thorough wearinesse and wounds recei|ued in the two former incounters, besides the want of such of their numbers as were slaine: yet by ex|hortation of their capteins, and the valiant presence of the officers of bands beside, they rushed foorth on their enimies with such earnest forwardnesse to re|ceiue them, that after a verie sharpe bickering, they put the whole number of them to flight. Few of the Englishmen had escaped the Scotishmens hands, had they not béene so wearied with continuall fight, that they were not able to follow anie great waie in the chase.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 This victorie fell to the Scots in manner as is be|fore rehearsed, vpon saint Matthewes day, in the The third battell of the Englishmen vanquished at Roslin. yéere after the birth of our Sauiour 1302. The glo|rie of this victorie was great, considering that thir|tie thousand Englishmen well furnished, & through|lie appointed for warre, should be thus in one day 1302. vanquished with an handfull of Scotishmen. For as The matter is amplfied by the Scots to the vtter|most. their histories make mention, they passed not eight thousand at the most: and therefore all men supposed that it came to passe by the singular fauour and grace of almightie God. But yet the Scots did not long inioy the benefits of so notable a victorie. For king Edward hearing of this discomfiture of his people The great preparation of king Edward to inuade the Scots. at Roslin, gathered a mightie armie of English|men, Gascoigns, Irishmen, and such Scots as tooke his part, and hauing all his furniture and puruei|ance readie both by sea and land, he set forward with the same to inuade the Scots on ech side. The Scots perceiuing they were not of puissance able to resist his inuasion, withdrew to their strengths: by means The Scots withdraw to their holds. The English armie passeth through Scot land from the south parts to the north. whereof the English armie passed through all Scot|land, euen from the south parts to the north, & found few or none to make resistance, except Wallase, and such as followed his opinion, which were fled to the mounteins and woods, to eschue the malice of the Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 It is said, that king Edward required by a mes|senger sent vnto this Wallase, that if he would come in and be sworne his liege man and true subiect, he K. Edward sendeth vnto Wallase. should haue at his hands great lordships and posses|sions within England, to mainteine his port as was requisit to a man of verie honorable estate. But Wallase refused these offers, saieng that he Wallase refu|seth the offers of K. Edward preferred libertie with small reuenues in Scotland, before anie possession of lands in England, were the same neuer so great; considering he might not inioy them, but vnder the yoke of bondage. The ca|stell of Sterling at the same time was in the kée|ping of one sir William Uthred knight, who would not render it to king Edward by anie summons or other meanes, till after three moneths siege he was constreined to giue it ouer vnder these conditi|ons; The castell of Sterling ren|dred. That all persons being within the castell, should depart by safe conduct with bagge and baggage at their pleasure. Neuerthelesse king Edward caused the said sir William Uthred to be conueied to Lon|don, This Uthred the Scotish bookes name Olifes. where he remained as prisoner manie yeeres af|ter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Sundrie other castels were taken by force the same time by king Edward, and all such as resisted, being found within anie of them, slaine without mercie or ransome. Amongest other, the castell of Urquhard in Murrey land was taken by force, and The castell of Urquhard ta|ken by force. not one left aliue that was found in the same (one gentlewoman onelie excepted) who being great with child, was in that respect preserued. She was the wife of Alexander Boyis, lord of that house, though by reason she was got into poore apparell, the Eng|lishmen tooke hir but for some other woman of mea|ner estate. She therefore with hir life saued, being suffered to depart, got hir ouer into Ireland, where the was deliuered of a son, that was named at the font-stone Alexander, who when Scotland was reco|uered out of the Englishmens hands, came to king Robert le Bruse, requiring him to be restored vnto his fathers heritage, being as then in the occupation of other possessors. King Robert doubtfull what to doo héerein, for he thought it neither conuenient that a prince should take lands or possessions from noble men, which had béene giuen to them in reward of their manhood, shewed in defense of the realme; nei|ther iudged he it reason to kéepe him from his right|full inheritance that had lost his father, his friends, and all his whole substance in the like cause and qua|rell by iniurie of the common enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Wherefore to qualifie the matter, he deuised this meane: he gaue vnto this Alexander Boyis certeine other lands in Mar, nothing lesse in value (conside|ring the largenesse and fertilitie) than the other of Urquhard were: and willed him to content himselfe with those, in recompense of such as belonged to his father: to the intent that all parties might be satisfi|ed, and no man should séeme to haue wrong in being depriued of his rightfull possessions. This Alexander Boyis had afterwards his name changed, and was called Forbesse, for that he slue a beare in those par|ties, by great and singular manhood. And so the sur|name The begin|ning of the name of the Forbesses. of the Forbesses had beginning, as descended from him. Scotland being subdued by the mightie puissance of king Edward, he went about to abolish all the old statutes and ancient constitutions of the realme, trusting by that meanes, that Scots liuing togither with Englishmen, vnder one vniforme ma|ner of lawes, they should finallie sort themselues to be of one mind and opinion, as well touching the su|preme gouernement of their publike weale, as also in all other things, touching the friendlie societie of life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 He burnt all the chronicles of the Scotish nati|on, Chronicles and other bookes burnt. with all manner of bookes, as well those contei|ning diuine seruice, as anie other treatises of pro|fane matters, to the end that the memorie of the Scots should perish: and thereto appointed gree|uous punishments for them that should disobeie his commandements héerein, in kéeping anie of the said bookes vndefaced. And he ordeined also, that the Scots should occupie church bookes after the vse of Sarum, and none other. Moreouer, he compelled all such Scotishmen as were of anie singular know|ledge in learning or literature, to be resident in Ox|ford, Scotishmen learned, com|manded to be resident in Oxford. doubting least the Scotish nobilitie increasing in politike prudence by their instructions, should seeke to throw off the yoke of bondage. Thus king Edward going about (as the Scotish writers doo re|port) to extinguish the name of Scots, togither with their rule and empire, passed through the most part of all the bounds of Scotland. And vpon verie hate which he had to the Scotish antiquities, at his com|ming to Camelon, he commanded the round temple standing ouer against the same, to be thrown downe, which was builded (as before is shewed) in the honor The temple of Claudius was at Col|chester, and not in Scot|land, whatsoe|uer Hector Boetius or o|ther dreame thereof. Arthurs hoif. of Claudius the emperor, and the goddesse Uictoria. But for that his commandement was not immedi|atlie put in execution, he changed his purpose, and appointed onelie that the monuments of Claudius, with the superscription of his name, should be taken awaie; and in place thereof, the armes of king Ar|thur, with his name to be set vp; commanding the place to be called Arthurs hoif (as ye would say) Ar|thurs court.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 EEBO page image 213 Moreouer king Edward at his returning into England, tooke the chaire of marble with him, and The marble chaire is con| [...]d into England, and [...]ed in West [...]ster. The nobilitie o [...] Scotland sworne to it. Edward. causing it to be conueied vp to London, did place it at Westminster, where it remaineth yet vnto this day. Furthermore, before his departure out of Scotland, he appointed all the Scotish lords to assemble at Scone, where he caused them to take a new oth, that from thencefoorth they should take him for their souereigne lord, and to obeie him in all things as loiall subiectes. All the nobilitie of Scotland was sworne to him that day (Wallase onelie excepted) who eschued more than the companie of a serpent, to haue anie thing to doo with the Englishmen, touching anie agreement to be made with them, agreeable to their desires. Moreouer, to keepe the Scots from rebellion, king Edward ordeined Odomare de Valence Odomare or [...]er de Ua|lence g [...]uer|nour of Scot|land vnder king Edward to be gouernour there, as his generall lieutenant ouer the whole realme of Scotland in his absence. And hauing this set all things in good and quiet order (as he supposed) he returned into England with great ioy and triumph.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time, Iohn [...]umin surnamed the red, and Robert Bruse hauing conference togither, complained the one to the other of the miserable ser|uitude Conference betw [...]t Cumin and B [...]e. wherein the realme of Scotland as then stood by the opp [...]ion of king Edward. And at length vp|on offers made betwixt them, it was agréed, that if by anie meanes they might deliuer the realme out of the Englishmens hands, the one of them should be king that is to say, the Bruse, and the other, that is to say, the Cumin, should inioy all the Bruses lands and possessions, with man [...] other preferments of ho|nors and dignities, as next vnto him in all authori|tie touching the gouernement of the realme. There were indentures made betweene them, subscribed with their names, and sealed with their seales inter|changeablie, Indentures of agréement betwixt Cu|min & Bruse, touching the conspiracie. for the full ratifieng of couenants agre|ed in this confederacie betwixt them. Shortlie after, vpon deliuerie of those writings, Bruse went into England, for he might not remaine long in Scot|land, for doubt of suspicion which king Edward had in him, because of the title which he had to the crowne of Scotland (as before is specified) so that (as was thought) king Edward would haue put both him and his brethren vnto death long before, if he might haue once got them all into his hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Iohn Cumin (after that he and Bruse were thus agreed vpon articles, and departed the one from the other) began to doubt, least this conspiracie deuised betwixt them, would not sort to anie luckie conclu|sion Iohn Cumin dooth doubt. for his purpose, either for that he feared the great puissance of king Edward, either else for that his au|thoritie and power (as he mistrusted) would not be great, if the Bruse once atteined the crowne: and héerevpon he sent one of his seruants to king Ed|ward, with his counterpane of the indenture, con|teining Cumin disclo|set [...] the con|spire [...]. the couenants of the conspiracie signed and sealed with Bruses owne hand and seale. The mes|senger deliuered this writing in secret wise to king Edward, declaring vnto him the whole matter, as it was passed and concluded betwixt the Bruse and his maister, according to instructions giuen him in that behalfe. But king Edward at the first gaue light cre|dit either to the writings or woords of the Cumin, supposing that the same proceeded onelie through en|uie, which he bare towards the Bruse, euer dreading lest he should beare no rule in Scotland, if the Bruse once atteined anie authoritie within the same. Yet at length, king Edward pondering with himselfe the whole circumstance, and being in some doubt of the matter, he shewed the counterpane of the indenture vnto Bruse himselfe, questioning with him, if he Robert Bruse is examined. knew his owne hand? Bruse stoutlie denied that he was priuie to anie such deuise or writing, and there|fore He de [...]eth his writing. desired of king Edward to haue the sa [...] [...] one night, to peruse and scan ouer at leasure, & [...] if he were not able to prooue that it was forged, and maliciouslie deuised vpon an enuious purpose, to put him in danger of life, he would fo [...]fait all [...] lands and liuings that he held either within the realme of England, or else where. King Edward, because he coniectured at the first how this accusation of Cu| [...] was nothing like to be true, granted his re|quest, wherein manie iudged he did vnwiselie: but such was the ordinance of almightie God, that Bruse should escape that danger, to accomplish that [...]vnto he was appointed. The earle of Glocester immediatlie after that Robert Bruse was departed from the kings [...]sence, sent vnto him twelue ster|ling pence, wi [...] two sharpe [...]s, whereby he con|iectured his meaning to be, that the best sh [...]t for him was to auoid out of the waie in most spéedie wise, wherevpon he causing a smith to shoo thrée horsses for him, contrarilie with the calkins forward, that it should not be perceiued which waie he had taken by the tract of the horsses, for that the ground at that time (being in the winter season) was couered with snow: he departed out of London about [...]idnight, Robert Bruse dooth flee. accompanied onelie with two trustie seruants.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 It chanced also, that there fell on the same night more snow aloft vpon the other snow that was fallen before, by reason whereof it could not easilie be iud|ged in the morning which way he was gone, though king Edward vpon knowledge had that he was fled, sent out a great manie of horssmen after, to haue brought him againe, if they might anie where haue found him. But Bruse hasted foorth with such He commeth to Louchma|ben. speed in his iournie, that the seuenth day of his de|parture from London, he came to Louchmaben in Annandale, and there found Dauid, or (as some books haue) Edward his brother, with Robert Fleming, Robert Fle|ming. a woorthie yoong gentleman, vnto whome (they mu|sing what he meant by his sudden comming) he de|clared into what perill of life he had fallen by means of Cumin, and how narowlie he had escaped out of king Edwards hands. His brother hearing the matter, consented to go with him, and to be parta|ker of all haps that might fortune to fall out in his flight; and by the way they chanced to light vpon one of Cumins seruants, that was going with let|ters A seruant of Cumins ta|ken with let|ters on him. vnto king Edward from his maister the said Cumin, signifieng by the same, that if Bruse were not the sooner put to death, there would insue short|lie such trouble and ruffling in Scotland against K. Edward, that it would be much adoo to appease it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 These letters being found about Cumins seruant, through means of yoong Fleming, the Bruse after he had apposed the bearer throughlie in each behalfe, and learned of him that his maister the said Cumin was in the friers at Dunfrise, he first slue this fel|low that was thus sent with the letters, & after in all hast possible came to Dunfrise, by the guiding of the same Fleming, where in the quier of the friers Cumin was at the friers in Dunfrise. church there he found Cumin. And reasoning the matter there with him, for that he had vsed him so euill, and withall shewing him the indenture which king Edward had deliuered to him, as before is mentioned, in the end (after some multiplieng of words togither) Robert Bruse plucked foorth his sword, and stroke the fore said Cumin a sore blow in the bellie, and therevpon fléeing out of the church, met with two of his dearest friends, Iames Lind|seie, and Roger Kirkpatrike, who beholding his countenance altered, and comming foorth of the church in such hast, demanded of him what was the matter: I trow (said he) that Cumin is slaine. Why (said they againe) hast thou attempted so high EEBO page image 214 an enterprise, and left it doubtfull? And immedi|atlie herewith they went to the place where Cumin lay wounded (as before is mentioned) and asked of him whether he thought he had anie deaths wound, or hoped to recouer if he might haue a good surgian. And for that he answered how he trusted to doo well inough if he might haue a good surgian in time; they gaue him thrée or foure other wounds so grieuous Cumin is slaine. and deadlie, that foorthwith vpon the same he yéel|ded vp the ghost. This chanced in the yeare of our Lord 1305, the fourth Ides of Februarie. About 1305. the same time was William Wallase taken at Glaskow by the means of sir Iohn Menteth and o|thers, in whome he had euer put a most speciall trust; but they being corrupted with the offers of large re|wards Wallase is ta|ken. promised by king Edward to such as could helpe to take him, wrought such fetches that he was Wallase is brought to London. apprehended at length by Odomare de Ualence earle of Penbroke, who with a great power of men brought him to London, where he was put to death, He is put to death. and his quarters sent into Scotland, and set vp in sundrie great townes there for a spectacle, as it were to giue example to other. This was the end of that puissant champion William Wallase, praised a|mongst the Scotishmen aboue all other in that age, for so much as he would neuer yeeld or consent to ac|knowledge anie superioritie in the Englishmen o|uer his countrie, no not when all other had submit|ted themselues to king Edward as his liege sub|iects and most obedient vassals. It is said, that when he was yoong and went to schoole, he learned by heart two verses of his schoolemaister, which euer after he bare in mind, and vsuallie would rehearse them, (when a toy tooke him in the head) as followeth.

Dico tibi verum, libertas optima rerum,
Nunquam seruili, sub nexu viuito fili. Iohn Fourdon. Iohn Maior.

Of this William Wallase one Henrie, who was blind from his birth, in the time of my natiuitie [...]. Thin. (saith Iohn Maior) composed a whole booke in vul|gar verse, in which he mitred all those things vul|garlie spoken of this Wallase. But I doo not in all points saith the same [...]thor, giue credit to the wri|tings of such as he was, who onelie get their food and clothing (whereof this man was most woorthie) by reciting of histories before the nobilitie of Scot|land.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 BUt now touching Bruse; after he had slaine Cu|min (as before is mentioned) he purchased an absolution from Rome for that act: and to the end he Absolution from Rome. might then through authoritie obteine some aid to resist the puissance of his aduersarie king Edward, he went by support of friends vnto Scone, & there Robert Bruse is crowned king of Scotland, the first of that name. caused himselfe to be crowned king, on the 27 day of March, though he had no great number that tooke his part in the beginning, as shortlie after well ap|peared. For when he should assemble an armie a|gainst a power of Englishmen that were sent a|gainst him by king Edward, immediatlie vpon knowledge had of his attempts, he was not able to get togither anie sufficient number to resist his ad|uersaries, though with those few which came vnto him, he thought to trie the chance of battell, and so incountring with Odomare de Ualence lieutenant Iohn Maior. King Robert is discomfited at Meffen. of the English armie at Meffen the 19 day of Iune 1306, he was there put to flight; and though the slaughter was not great, yet for that it was iudged to be an euill signe to haue such infortunat lucke v|pon his entering into the estate, the peoples fauor shranke greatlie from him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Odomare de Ualence after he had obteined this victorie against king Robert, banished the wiues of all those that supported the same Robert, by means whereof, manie ladies and gentlewomen were con|streined to flée into woods, and other desert places, to eschew the crueltie of their aduersaries. King King Robert ests [...]nes dis|comfited in Atholl. Robert also after this ouerthrow, fled into Atholl, and from thence to Streill, where the third Ides of August at a place called Dalreie, he fought againe with the Cumins and other such Scots & English|men as were assembled in those parties readie to pursue him, and had the like lucke here that had chan|ced to him before at Meffen; for he was put to flight after the same maner, though he lost here but few of his men, neither in the fight nor chase. This place Dalreie is as much to say, as the kings field: Bu|chan lib. 8, which is also called Dawkie by I. Maior. Fr. Thin. lib. 4. cap. 19, who supposeth that Bruse had so hard a beginning for a punishment of the death of Cu|min, slaine in the church by him and his friends. Wherevpon finding fortune thus contrarie vnto The misera|ble state of K. Robert in the beginning of his reigne. him in these two seuerall battels, he was left so de|solat and vnprouided of all friendship, that he was constreined for his refuge to withdraw into the woods and mounteins, with a few other in his com|panie, and there liued on herbs and roots oftentimes for want of other food.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Whilest he remained in this estate of aduerse for|tune, there were two that shewed themselues right The earle of Leuenox and Gilbert Haie faithfull ser|uitors to king Robert. trustie and faithfull seruants vnto him aboue all the rest, the earle of Leuenox, and Gilbert Haie: for though either inforced by persecution of enimies, or constreined through some other necessitie, they de|parted sometimes from his presence; yet did they e|uer acknowledge him for their souereigne lord and onelie king, readie at all seasons to serue and obey him in each behalfe. The most part of all other his friends yea and seruants, in that present miserie, did clearelie forsake him; so that sometimes he was left with onelie one or two in his companie, & glad to kéepe himselfe secret in desert places, where no person lightlie vsed to resort. His wife & quéene fled to saint Dutho, and chanced to be taken by William Cumin earle of Rosse, who deliuered hir to king King Ro|berts wife ta|ken. Edward, by whose commandement she was com|mitted to safe kéeping at London, where she remai|ned till after the battell of Bannocksborne. His brother Nigell was also taken, and so afterwards were his two other brethren, Thomas and Alexan|der, with manie other nobles and gentlemen of Nigell Tho|mas and A|lexander bre|thren to king Robert are taken and put to death. Scotland, of whome some were executed at Car|leill, and some at Berwike. Nigell was taken at the castell of Kildrome whither he fled, and came to Berwike. Thomas and Alexander were taken at Locreis, and carried to Carleill, and so behedded. Io. Maior. lib. 4. cap. 19. Finallie the most part of all such as had aided him before, and were now shroonke from him, were within one yeare after, ei|ther slaine or kept as prisoners in England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Yet though he was thus left desolat of all aid and succor, hauing his brethren and other of his friends murthered and slaine to his vtter discomfort and ru|ine (as was to be supposed) he neuerthelesse liued e|uer King Ro|berts good hope in time of extreme ad|uersitie. in hope of some better fortune, whereby in time to come he might recouer the realme out of the eni|mies hands, and restore the ancient libertie thereof to the former estate. As for the paines which he tooke in liuing barelie for the most part by water & roots, & lodging offtimes on the bare earth, without house or other harborough, he was so accustomed thereto by haunting the warres in his youth, that the same gréeued him little or nothing at all. But to conclude, His inuin [...]|ble hart and vndaunte [...] stomach. such was his valiancie and most excellent fortitude of mind and courage, that no iniurious mischance of froward aduersitie could abash his inuincible heart and manlike stomach. At length, after he had wandered from place to place in sundrie parts of EEBO page image 215 Scotland, the better to auoid the sleights of them that laie in wait to apprehend him, he got ouer in|to one of the Iles, where comming vnto one of his King Ro|bert gotteth [...]er into the Iles. speciall friends, a man of high nobilitie and welbe|loued of the people in those parts, he was most har|tilie welcome, and gladlie of him receiued, to his great ease and comfort.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Here when he had remained a certaine space, hee King Robert purchaseth aid in the Iles. got support of men, armor and weapons, by meanes whereof taking new courage, he passed ouer vnto Carrike, & winning the castell there that belonged to his fathers inheritance, he slue all the English|men, [...]winneth the castell of [...]rrike. which he found within it, and bestowed all the spoile of monie and goods gotten there amongst his souldiers and men of warre. His friends that laie hid in couert and secret corners, hearing of these his dooings, began from each side to resort unto him, by whose assistance shortlie after he wan the castell of His power increaseth. Inuernesse, and slue all them that were within it Inuernesse castell taken. in garrison. With the like felicitie he got the most part of all the castels in the north, racing & burning vp the same till he came to Glenneske, where being King Robert co [...]th to Glenn [...]. aduer [...]ised that Iohn Cumin with sundrie English|men and Scots were gathered against him, [...]cause he was vpon a strong ground, he determined there to abide them: but they being thereof informed, and woondering at his manlie courage, durst not ap|proch to giue him battell, but sent ambassadors vn|to him to haue tr [...] for a time, vnder colour of some communication for a peace, till they might in|crease their power more strongly against him: which being doone, they pursued him more fiercelie than before. Neuerthelesse K. Robert receiued them at all times in such warlike order, that they might neuer take him at anie aduantage, but were still driuen backe with slaughter and losse, though the same was of no great importance to make account of, but such like as happeneth oftentimes in skirmishes & light incounters, where the battels come not to ioine pu|issance against puissance. The fame whereof yet pro|cured him the fauour of sundrie great barons in Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 F [...]. Thin. Simon Fra| [...]r [...]nd wai| [...]r Logan executed. About this time, Simon Fraser, and Walter Logan (most valiant knights, and greatlie fauou|ring their countrie) were taken (by such as followed the faction of Cumin) deliuered to the English, sent to London, and there executed. Almost about which time, Iames Dowglasse ioined himselfe to the part of king Robert. This Iames being the sonne of William Dowglasse, was a yoong gentleman very actiue and forward in all chiefe exercises and arts. Who when he gaue himselfe to studie at Paris (hea|ring that his father was by the king of England cast in prison, in which he shortlie after died, as is be|fore noted) returned home to dispose the rest of his life after the aduise of his friends. But being with|out liuing, & all his other friends by misfortune dis|persed: he committed himselfe to the seruice of W. Lambert bishop of saint Andrews, of whome hée was gentlie receiued into his familie, and well in|terteined: vntill king Edward comming to Ster|ling (after that he had almost pacified all the rest of Scotland) to besiege Striueling: at what time Lam|bert going to Sterling to salute the king, caried Dowglasse to attend vpon him, to the end to prefer him to his liuing and inheritance. Wherevpon the bishop finding the king at conueniene leisure, b [...]|sought him to be fauourable to this Dowglasse; to restore him vnto his fathers patrimonie: and that (receiuing the yoong man into his fealtie and de|fense) it would please him to imploie him in his faith|full and warlike seruice: adding further such com|mendations in the behalfe of Iames, as for that time he thought most conuenient. But the king vn|derstanding his name and [...]inred, spake bitterlie of the disobedience and stubbernesse of his father Wil|liam Dowglasse; further answering, that he would neither vse the same Iames, nor his trauell in anie thing, neither that he could (if so he would) restore him to his patrimonie, bicause he had with the same gratified other that well deserued it. For which cause being by the king so repelled, he remained still in the bishops seruice, vntill Bruse came into Merne, at what time (least he might loose the oppor|tunitie to offend king Edward, whome he secretlie in heart disdeined) this Dowglasse departed from Lambert his maister, taking with him all the bi|shops gold, and certeine of his best horsses, with the which, hauing in his companie diuerse other hardie yoong gentlemen, priuie to his dooings, he fled with all spéed vnto king Robert, offering him his seruice, and to spend his life in his quarell and defense.) The bishop was priuie to his cousins going awaie, yea A crastie dis|sembling prelate. and counselled him therevnto, though he would by no means it should outwardlie so appeare, for doubt least if things had not come to passe as he wished, he might haue run in danger for his cloked dissimula|tion. The Dowglasse was ioifullie receiued of king Robert, in whose seruice he faithfullie continued both in peace and warre to his liues end.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Though the surname and familie of the Dow|glasses The rising of the Dowglas|ses to honor. was in some estimation of nobilitie before those daies, yet the rising thereof to honor chanced through this Iames Dowglasse: for by meanes of his aduancement, other of the same linage tooke oc|casion by their singular manhood and noble prowes shewed at sundrie times in defense of the realme, to grow to such height in authoritie & stimation, that their mightie puissance in ma [...], lands, & great possessions, at length was (through suspicion concei|ued by the kings that succéeded) the cause in part of their ruinous decay. Edward king of England hea|ring of the dooings of his aduersarie king Robert, doubled (if some redresse were not found in time) lest the Scots reioising in the prosperous successe of his said aduersarie, would reuolt wholie from the English obeisance: and herevpon purposing with all spéed to subdue the whole realme of Scotland from end to end, he came (with a far greater armie than euer he had raised before) to the borders; but before his entring into Scotland, he fell sicke of a right sore and grieuous maladie, whereof he died The death of king Edward Longshanks. shortlie after at Burgh vpon sands, as in the Eng|lish historie more plainlie dooth appeare, though Buchanan say he died at Lancaster.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Scotish writers make mention, that a litle The crucitie of king Ed|ward as is noted by the Scotish wri|ters. before he departed out of this world, there were brought vnto him 55 yoong striplings, which were ta|ken in the castell of Kildrummie, after it was woone by the Englishmen, and being asked what should be doone with them, he commanded they should be han|ged incontinentlie, without respect to their yoong yéeres, or consideration of their innocencies that might haue mooued him to pitie. After his deceasse, his sonne Edward of Carnaruan succéeded in the Edward of Carnaruan, sonne to Ed|ward Long|shanks. gouernement of England, who following his fa|thers enterprise, called a councell at Dunfreis, sum|moning the lords of Scotland to appeare at the same, and caused a great number of them at their comming thither to doo their homage vnto him, as to their superior lord and gouernor: but yet diuers [...]omege to king Edward of Carnaruan disobeied his commandements, and would not come at his summoning, vpon trust of some change of fortune by the death of his father, for that the son was much giuen (as was reported) to incline his eare to lewd counsell, not without the great griefe of his people, and namelie of the lords and chiefe no|bles of his realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 EEBO page image 216 Shortlie after this, the said Edward of Carnar|uan returned into England, and in the meane time Iohn Cumin erle of Buchquhane gathered a migh|tie armie, both of Scots and Englishmen to resist a|gainst king Robert, that he might thereby declare his faithfull affection toward the new English king. He trusted onelie with multitude of people to cause his enimies to giue place: but king Robert though he was holden with a sore sicknesse at that time, yet he assembled a power, and caused himselfe in a horse|litter to be caried foorth with the same against his enimies, who abiding him at a streight, supposed it had bin an easie matter for them to be put to flight: but it chanced quite contrarie to their expectation, for in the end the Cumin with his whole armie was discomfited, and a great number of king Roberts aduersaries slaine or taken. This victorie was got|ten at a village called Enuerrour, ten miles distant Iohn Cumin discomfited by king Robert at Enuerrour 1308. from Aberden, on the Ascension daie, wherewith king Robert was so much refreshed in contentation of mind, that he was suddenlie thervpon restored to his former health, hauing at that time also taken the [...]r. Thin. castell of Aberden, which he vtterlie destroied, and caused to be leuelled with the ground, to the end his enimies might haue no more refuge thereby.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the same yere Donald of the Iles came with a Donald of the Iles discom|fited by Ed|ward Bruse. great armie of Englishmen and Scots against K. Robert, and was on the feast day of the apostles Peter and Paule discomfited by Edward Bruse the kings brother, at the water of Deir. At this battell was a right valiant knight named Rowland, slaine of the English part, with a great number of other a|bout him, and Donald himselfe was taken prisoner. Thus king Robert through fauour of prosperous for|tune, Argile sub|dued by king Robert. This was in 1309, as Iohn Ma. saith. obteining the victorie in sundrie conflicts, came with an armie into Argile, and not onelie subdued the countrie to his obeisance, but also tooke Alexan|der lord of Argile out of a strong castell in that countrie, and banished him with all his friends into England, where shortlie after he deceassed. In the yéere next following, king Edward came with an armie into Scotland, where ioining with an other armie of Scots that were assembled readie to aid him, he passed through the countrie vnto [...]anfrew, [...]. Edward commeth [...]nto Scotland. Anno 1310 as should seeme by [...]o. Maior. and at length without atchiuing anie notable enter|prise woorthie the mentioning, he returned againe into England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 In the same yeere, through continuall warres, there rose such dearth & scarsitie of things in Scot|land, that neither corne nor other vittels could be had A sore dearth. for monie: for the ground in manner generallie through the countrie laie vntilled, and beasts with all kind of cattell were driuen awaie, as booties ta|ken by the enimies. By reason wherof the famine so increased on each side, that the people were constrei|ned to eat horsses, and other lothsome flesh & meats, thereby to susteine their liues. In the yéere following which was after the incarnation 1311, king Robert 1311. chased the Englishmen out of all parts of Scotland, Ca [...]s reco|uered by king Robert. winning manie castels out of their hands, diuerse of the which he raced and consumed with fire. After this entring at sundrie times into England with his King Robert inuadeth England. fierce armie, he brought from thence innumerable booties of cattell and other riches, afflicting the Eng|lishmen with like slaughter and calamities, as the Scots had suffered in the yéeres before, by the out|ragious force and puissance of king Edward. On 1312. Io. Ma. the eight day of Ianuarie next insuing, King Ro|bert The towne of Perth reco|uered, other|wise called S. Iohns towne. wan by fine force the strong towne of Perth, sleaing and hanging all the people both English and Scotish, which were found in the same. He threw al|so the walles of that towne to the ground, and filled the ditch with the rampire. The same yere the castels of Dunfreis, Aire, Lanarke, with manie other Castels [...]oon. strengths and castels were rendered vnto him, and cast to the ground.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The castell of Rokesburgh was taken by sir Rokesburgh woone on Shrouetues|day. Iames Dowglasse on Feastings euen, in the yéere 1313, when they of the garison were ouercome with immoderate surfetting by meats and drinks exces|siuelie taken, according as on that day the accusto|med 1313. vse is. In that yéere also Thomas Randall, af|terwards The castell of Edenburgh woone. created earle of Murrey, wan the castell of Edenburgh. In which yéere also, Bruse wan the Ile of Man; Iohn Maior lib. 5. cap. 1. And the same yéere Edward Bruse besieged the castell of Striue|ling: Striueling ca stell besieged. but the strength of the house was such, what by nature of the high crag whereon it stood, and what by fortification of mans hand beside, all his trauell and inforcement diligentlie imploied to win it, pro|ued vaine for the time. Within this castell as cap|teine thereof, was a right valiant knight named sir Philip Mowbray, a Scotish man borne, but taking Sir Philip. Mowbray. part with the English men, who feared nothing the siege, for he had sufficient store of men, vittels, mu|nition, and all maner of purueiance sufficient to de|fend the hold for a long season: so that finallie Ed|ward Bruse, perceiuing no meanes whereby to ar|chiue the enterprise, which he had rashlie taken in hand, was abashed thereof: for by force he saw well inough it could not be brought to passe, and by large offers made to the capteine, if he would render the place, and become seruant to the king his brother, he could not once mooue him to giue anie eare thereto, insomuch as at length he sought to trie him another way foorth, which in the end tooke better effect than was likelie it would haue doone, considering the lacke of circumspection vsed in the bargaine ma|king: as thus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After long siege, and (as before is said) no good doone, there was a motion made betwixt him and the capteine within for a truce, which was accorded on this wise: that if the fortresse were not succoured within twelue moneths next insuing, it should then be rendered vnto king Robert, and in the meane time no force should be vsed against it. This com|position was vnwiselie made, as most men iudged: An vnwise composition. for euerie man of anie wisedome might easilie con|iecture, that king Edward hauing so long day to make his prouision, would come in support of them within the castell, and that so stronglie, as would be hard for the Scots to resist him. King Robert him|selfe King Robert offended with his brother. also was sore offended with his brother for his follie shewed in this behalfe: but yet hée would not go about to breake the couenant accorded, for doubt to lose his brother, whose aid hée might not well want.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time king Edward sent foorth mes|sengers K. Edward taketh vp souldiers. with letters, not onelie vnto all his subiects, but also vnto all his confederats and alies, to haue men of warre taken vp and reteined to serue him in his warres against the Scots, which he intended to folow to the [...]tter destruction of the whole nation. There came therefore in hope of spoile, not onlie such as were appointed by commissioners of the musters, but also a great number of other that offered them|selues of their owne accord to go in that iournie, namelie such as had little to liue vpon at home, and trusted to amend the matter by some good fortune in the warres abroad. The countries out of the which it is reported by the Scotish writers, that such aid came to the English, were these; Holand, Zeland, Out of what countries K. Edward had aid of men. Brabant, Flanders, Picardie, Bolognois, Gas|coigne, Normandie, Guian, and Burdelois. For all these at that time were either subiect to the king of England, or else in confederate league with him. There were also manie Scots that were English by deuotion, and aided king Edward at this time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 EEBO page image 217 But the number of naturall Englishmen excée|ded anie one nation beside, insomuch that the whole armie what of one and other, conteined (as the fame went) one hundred and fiftie thousand footmen, and almost as manie horssemen, beside cariage-men, coistrels, women, and lackies, but the fame herein belike (as often happeneth) did farre excéed the truth. For it is not to be thought (as Iohn Maior himselfe Fame often|times excée|deth the truth. writeth) that he should get such a number togither, not for that England it selfe is not able to set foorth such a power: for as the same Maior saith, as manie men as are to be found in England of lawfull age, so manie able personages may be found there to passe for able souldiers. But either kings are not of abilitie to find so great a multitude with vittels and sufficient prouision, or else they will not streine them selues thereto. Neuerthelesse, the whole number by all likelihood was great, for many as well strangers as Englishmen, brought their wiues, their children, and whole houshold-meinie with them, in hope after the countrie were once subdued, to haue dwelling places appointed them in the same, there to inhabit: for so had king Edward promised them. By reason k. Edwards promise. whereof the disorder was such, that no warlike disci|pline might be obserued amongst them; for men, wo|men, and children, were all mixt togither, with such clamor and noise, through the huge number of peo|ple, and diuersitie of languages, that it was a thing right strange to behold a campe so confusedlie or|dered.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Edward himselfe most proud and inso|lent of such incredible number, tooke no héed at all to the gouerning of them, supposing victorie to be al|readie in his hands; insomuch that at his comming to the borders, he tooke aduise with his councell to what kind of torment and death he might put king Robert, for he had no doubt of catching him at all. He also brought with him a religious man somwhat learned belike, of the order of the Carmelites, to de|scribe the whole maner of his conquest and victorie k. Edward thinketh him|selfe sure of victorie. ouer the Scots: so sure he thought himselfe that all things would come to passe as he could wish or de|uise. This Carmelite, as may appeare in Iohn Bales booke, intituled A summarie of the writers of great Britaine, was named Robert Baston, and had the Robert Ba|ston a Car|melite. gouernance of an house in Scarburgh, of the Car|melites order, he being (as before is said) of that cote himselfe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 On the contrarie part, king Robert ordered all his dooings by good & prudent aduise, and with 30000 Iohn Ma. hath in his booke 35 thousand. King Robert his comming toward the battell. men, right hardie and throughlie exercised in wars, came foorth against his enimies, shewing no token of feare in the world, but boldlie pitched downe his tents in good order and warlike araie, vpon a plaine a little aboue Bannocksborne. Whether he did this for the great confidence he had in the hardinesse of his people, or for that he would shew how little hee doubted the puissance of his enimies, least they shuld haue him in contempt, it is vncerteine. Indéed there were diuerse expert warriours amongest the The opinion of expert war|riors of king Edwards. Englishmen, that said (when they heard how the Scots were thus assembled to fight) that the victorie would not be had, except it were dearelie bought: the wisedome and manhood of king Robert was knowne so well amongst them, that they were assu|red he would not ieopard himselfe in such a case, but that he knew he had such fellowes about him, as would sticke to their tackle.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Moreouer the Scots by appointment of their king, to the furtherance of his hardie enterprise, had [...]renches made by Scots to o|uerthrow the Englishmen. cast déepe pits and ditches in the place where it was iudged the battels should ioine, and pitched sharpe stakes within the same, and after couered them ouer flightlie with gréene turfes or sods, in such wise that a few footmen might passe ouer well inough; but if a|nie great number should come preassing togither, or that anie horssemen came therevpon, the sods would shrinke and fall to the bottome of the trenches, with extreme perill of the men and horsses, that were sure to fall vpon the stakes set there for that purpose; or else to be so inclosed, that they should not be able to get out of those pitfals. By the place where king Ro|bert was thus incamped, there runneth a great brooke or water called Bannocksborne, so named of Bannocks|borne. oten-cakes called bannocks, which were vsed to bée made commonlie at the mils standing on the banks of the said water. It falleth into the Forth right fa|mous afterwards by reason of this battell fought néere to the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 When both the armies were approched within a mile togither, king Edward sent eight hundred horsmen by a secret waie, vnto the castell of Striue|ling, to giue notice to sir Philip Mowbraie the cap|teine, that he was come with his armie to succour him. K. Robert being aduertised of their gate, & be|holding them which way they tooke, he sent Thomas The fight of Th. Randall with 500 Sco tishmen in his companie a|gainst 800 Englishmen. Randall with fiue hundred Scotish horsmen to saue the countrie from spoile, who with singular manhood incountering with those Englishmen in sight of both the armies, there insued a cruell fight betwixt them for so small a number, continuing a long space with vncerteine victorie. In the meane time sir Iames Dowglasse, dreading that his speciall friend the said Thomas Randall should be ouerset with multitude of the Englishmen, came to K. Robert, and falling on his knéees before him, required li|cence to go foorth to the support of them that were thus fighting with their enimies: which bicause the king would not grant at the first, he rushed foorth of the campe without licence, hauing in his companie a small band of men, but yet chosen out for the pur|pose, that if it were but by shewing himselfe, hée might put the enimies in some feare.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Notwithstanding, when he was come néere to the place where they fought, and saw how the Scots had got the victorie with great murther of the English|men, he staied and went no further; least he should by his comming séeme to beréeue them the glorie of the victorie, which had woone it with so great prowesse & singular valiancie. All those in the Scotish campe were relieued, in good hope of greater successe to fol|low in the whole enterprise by so happie a beginning. The Englishmen passed litle thereof, but yet for that The English men deter|mine to giue battell. King Robert prepareth to receiue the e|nimies by b [...]|tell. the Scots should not waxe proud, and take ouer|much courage thereby, they determined to giue them battell the next morow. King Robert with great di|ligence caused his people to prepare themselues rea|die to receiue the enimies, though he was nothing a|ble to match them in number, deuising which waie he might traine them into the ditches before prepa|red. He commanded through the armie that euerie man should on the next morow receiue the sacra|ment of the Lords bodie, through the which they might haue the better hope of victorie against the vniust inuaders of their realme and countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 On the other side, the Englishmen trusted that all things would prosper with them, euen as they could best deuise: for by one small daies labour they hoped to be lords of all Scotland, and to dispose of the lands and goods of their enimies, as should séeme to them good, and most for their owne auaile. But king Robert all the night before the battell tooke litle rest, hauing great care in his mind for the suertie of his armie, one while reuoluing in his consideration this chance, and an other while that; yea and some|times he fell to deuout contemplation, making his praier to God and saint Phillane, whose arme as it Saint Phil|lane. was set and inclosed in a siluer case, he supposed had EEBO page image 218 béene the same time within his tent, trusting the bet|ter fortune to follow by presence thereof. In the meane time, as he was thus making his praiers, the case suddenlie opened, and clapped to againe. The kings chapleine being present, astonied therewith, went to the altar where the case stood, and finding the A subtill chap leine. arme within it, he cried to the king & other that were present, how there was a great miracle wrought, confessing that he brought the emptie case to the field, and left the arme at home, least that relike should haue beene lost in the field, if anie thing chanced to the armie otherwise than well.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 The king verie ioifull of this miracle, passed the remnant of the night in praier and thankesgiuing. A matter de|uised betwixt the king and his chapleine, as is to be thought. On the morow he caused all his folks to heare diuine seruice, and to receiue the sacrament, as ouer night he had appointed. The abbat of Inchchaffraie did ce|lebrate before the king that day, and ministred vnto him and other of the nobles, the communion, other priests being appointed to minister the same vnto the residue of the armie. After this, when seruice was The exhorta|tion of king Robert to his people. ended, the king called the people to his standard, and first declared vnto them from point to point, how ne|cessarie it was for them to shew their woonted man|hood, considering that such an huge multitude of peo|ple was brought thither against them by king Ed|ward, not of one nation or dominion, but of sundrie languages and parties, as well subiects as alies to the Englishmen, with full purpose vtterlie to extin|guish the Scotish name and memorie, and to plant themselues in their seates and roomes, as in possessi|ons vtterlie voided of all the ancient and former in|habitants. To increase the fierce stomachs of the Scotishmen against the enimies, he recounted vnto them what he heard by credible report touching the menacing woords and insolent brags of the same e|nimies, able to mooue verie quiet minds vnto full in|dignation. Againe, to auoid feare out of their harts, which they might conceiue by reason of the multitude of their aduersaries, he rehearsed what a number of rascals were amongest them, without anie skill of warrelike affaires, not taken vp by choise and electi|on in appointed musters, but resorting without diffe|rence togither, in hope of spoile and booties, hauing not else wherevpon to liue at home in their coun|tries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Moreouer, if nothing else might raise their harts in hope of victorie, their iust cause sith they came in defense of their countrie against iniurious inuaders, was matter sufficient to aduance their manlie sto|machs, in trust of Gods aid in that quarell, hauing partlie assured them thereof, by notable miracles shewed in the night last passed. Hereto he added, that the greater multitude there was of the enimies, the more spoile and riches was to be got, if they atteined the victorie. Finallie, the more to stirre their harts to doo valiantlie, he required them of one thing, which he trusted (their manhood being such) they would not thinke hard for them to atchiue, and this was, that e|uerie of them would but dispatch one of the enimies, which if they performed, he promised them assured victorie. As for ten thousand, he knew to be amongst them of such approoued souldiers, and old men of war, as he durst safelie vndertake for them that they would slea two of the enimies a péece, at the least. Such manner of persuasions king Robert vsed to incourage his people.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Fr. Thin. But Iohannes Maior, lib. 5. cap. 2. putteth spéech much different from this, in the mouth of Bruse, fur|ther saieng, that when this oration was ended, that the king came downe the hill, on which he stood, when he vttered these woords, and bareheaded imbraced all the nobilitie in his armes, and after turning him|selfe to the whole armie, he reached to euerie man his hand, in signe of amitie: but I suppose he was ouer|wearied before he had shaken 35000 men by the hands.) On the other part, king Edward caused the The exhorta|tion of king Edward. coronels of ech nation within his campe, to exhort their retinues to remember, that if they fought vali|antlie for one houre or two, they should purchase in|finit riches with the whole realme of Scotland, in reward of their labour: for he desired nothing for himselfe, but the superioritie. Againe, he willed they should haue in remembrance what irrecouerable shame would follow (sith they had departed out of their countries in hope of gaine) to returne home with emptie hands, and void of victorie, not without some reproch and note of cowardise.

Fr. Thn. Iohannes Ma|ior maketh K. Edward to speake (by his pen) what he list himself. Besides which (as séemeth by Iohannes Maior) king Edward clothed in his kinglie robes, is said to haue vsed these spéeches to the armie.

If I did not be|hold the open victorie, I would this day (most vali|ant men) make an other beginning of speech vnto you. We are in preparation & number of souldiors farre beyond these miserable Scots. Besides which, we haue abundance of brasse péeces, catapultes, bowes, and other such engins of warre, which on the Io. Maior for|got that guns were not yet inuented. contrarie part the Scots doo want. They are onelie couered with leather pilches made of bucks skins, and with clokes like vnto the wild mounteine peo|ple, for which cause our archers, before the strength of the maine battell shall ioine, will soone subdue them. Maruell not that they haue before time subdued some of my subiects, because they did it by their accu|stomed deceits, and not by strength of battell. And though by chance they haue ouercome (in fight) some weake companie of equall number vnto them, yet are they not able to resist vs; being farre more ex|cellent in number, preparation, and order of battell. The Scot hath a weake nation fighting on his owne charge, not hauing anie chosen souldier. God hath in this field inclosed that fox Bruse (nourished by my good father) to the end that he might receiue woorthie punishment for his wickednesse. His three brethren were consumed by my father: wherefore it now re|maineth that we apprehend (aliue) these other two wicked and wauering men, to lead them to London, there to receiue their due punishment. You had great reuenues (noble princes) giuen to you by my father, in that kingdome. Wherefore now shew your selues valiant persons, that you may againe recouer the same, at this day possessed by the vniust and vn|rightfull owners.
Besides which, I will further by K. Edward a good mathe|matician by Maiors hyper|bolicall spée|ches. line geometricallie measure foorth all the land of Scotland, to be diuided vnto those that deserue the same, according to the merits of the men. Thus much Maior.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But yet when they should march forward in ar|raie of battell towards the Scots, they might scarse be seuered from their wiues and children, which they Incombra [...] in an armie. had there in campe with them: neuerthelesse, at length by the sharpe calling vpon of their capteins, they were brought into order of battell, not without much adoo, by reason of the vnrulie multitude. The ar|chers The order of the English battels. were placed in wings, mingled amongest the horssemen on the sides of the wards and battels, which stood inclosed in the middest of the same wings. King Robert appointing all his battels on foot, diui|ded The appoin|ting of the Scotish bat|tels. The first bat|tell. the same into thrée parts: the fore ward he com|mitted to Thomas Randulfe, & Iames Dowglasse, capteins of verie approoued valiancie, vnder whome went seuen thousand of the borderers, and thrée thou|sand of the Irish Scots, otherwise called Katerans or Redshanks. These no lesse fierce and forward, than the other practised and skilfull. The second ward The second. was gouerned by Edward the kings brother, where|in were ten thousand men: but for that he was sus|pected of too much rashnesse, there was ioined with EEBO page image 219 him certeine ancient gentlemen of great sobrietie and circumspection, to qualifie his hastie and hot na|ture. The third battell, in the which were (as Iohn The third. Maior recordeth) fiftéene thousand fighting men, the king himselfe led, shewing a verie chéerefull counte|nance amongest them, so farre foorth, that euerie one that beheld him, conceiued in his mind an assured hope of victorie to succeed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The abbat of Inchchaffraie aforesaid (who as be|fore is mentioned, did celebrate that morning afore The abbat of Inchchaffraie bea [...]ng a crosse. [...]. Thin. the king) came foorth before the battels, with the cru|cifir in his hands, bearing it aloff like a standard [ad|monishing them valiantlie to take in hand the de|fense of their countrie, and the libertie of their poste|ritie: for (saith he) you must not euerie man fight as it were for his owne priuat defense, his owne house Lesleus epise. Ross. li. 7. pag. 144. saith, it was M [...]uri|nus the abbat a man of sin|gular p [...]etie and puritie of life, such ver|tue they can find in their cleargie. and children, but euerie man for all men, and all men for euerie man must fight for the libertie, life, patri|monie, children, and wiues of all the realme: for such and so great is the dignitie of our countrie, as they which deface or spoile it, are to be punished with per|petuall fier, and they which doo preserue it, are to be recompensed with an eternall crowne of glorie. And héerewithall this abbat instructed them of manie things touching the loue of their countrie, which na|ture hath so planted in all men, that for the preserua|tion and libertie therof, none should refuse anie dan|ger, no not the losse of life, yea though (if it were pos|sible) that it might be manie times lost therefore. Which doone, he feared not to admonish them to wor|ship the image of Christ, which he shewed them on the crosse.] Incontinentlie whervpon, the Scotish armie fell on knées before it, deuoutlie commending them|selues to almightie God.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The English armie beholding the Scots fall on knées, thought verelie they had yéelded without stroke striken. But when they saw them risé a|gaine, and to come forward, they began to be some|what doubtfull. And herevpon rushing togither, at The first ioi|ning. the first ioining a great number of people on either side were beaten downe & slaine. The archers which were arraied on the vtter skirts of the English wings, sore annoied the Scots, till finallie Edward Bruse came on their backs with a thousand speares, and brake them assunder, in such wise that they did but little more hurt that day. Albeit incontinent|lie herewith a battell of horssemen to the number of Thirtie thou|sand English horssemen o|uerthrowen in trenches. thirtie thousand, came rushing togither all at once in shocke, to haue borne downe and ouerridden the Scots; but being so in their full race galloping with most violence towards them, they tumbled into the foues and pits before mentioned, in such wise one vpon another, that the most part of them was slaine, without all recouerie. Neuerthelesse the Scots in maner oppressed through the huge multitude of the enimies, were néere at the point to haue beene van|quished. [During which conflict saith Buch. this Fr. Thin. happened (which though it be a small thing to put in writing, yet was such as oftentimes it chanceth in Nothing o|mitted for the glorie of their nation, since valure is com|mendable in all men, but most in a king E [...]virtus in hoste laudatur. battell, and as brought no small benefit to the per|fection of their businesse) that king Robert (who continuallic rode before the battell appointed to his gouernement) holding a mace of warre in his hand (and kéeping the first order in the arraie) was espied of an Englishman that knew him verie well: and forthwith rode full against Bruse with his speare. But the king beating the stroke aside, came to his English aduersarie, ouerthrew him by the force of King Robert killeth an Englishman. his horsse, in the end killed him with his mace & so left him dead. Wherevpon, the common people be|holding the valure of their king and capteine, did with great force by the instigation of their fierce and fierie minds (and not by the kings persuasion) fall vpon their enimies in such sort, that they séemed to haue had the victorie of the aduerse battell of their enimies: had it not béene for the English archers, which were placed in the wings of the battell; whom Bruse (sending out certeine light horssemen) did soone represse: whereby the Scots incouraged, made their partie good, rather by hidden policie, than prepared force. For a stratage [...] by the Sctos de|uised, and an error by the English therof conceiued, did far more hur [...] to the enimie, than the power as|sembled in the field. For that deuise in the end was the cause that the English lost the victorie, being in this sort.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scots which were appointed to attend thé carriage, as carfers, wainemen, lackies, and the women, beholding in what danger their maisters, friends, & countriemen stood, put on shirts, su [...]ocks, and other [...]e linnen alost vpon their vsuall gar|ments, and herewith binding towels and napkins to their speares, and to other such staues as they got in their hands, placed themselues as well as they could in arraie of battell, and so making a great muster and shew anew, came downe the hill sid [...] in the face of their enimies, with such a terrible noise and hideous clamor, that the Englishmen fighting as then with most furie against the Scots with vn|certeine victorie, and beholding this new reenfo [...] comming downe the hill vpon their faces, supposing The English mens hearts begin to faint. verelie it had béene some new armie, their hearts began to faint, the more in deed, for that they sa [...] themselues vneth able to susteine the violent in| [...]ter of the Scots then present. And herevpon The English men put to fight. they began to [...] their backs, and fell to running away as people clearelie vanquished: on whome the [...]ts followed with insatiable [...]re, and [...]ue them down on all sides where they might ouer [...]ake them. Sir Iames Dowglas with foure hundred chosen horssemen, was commanded by king Robert to pursue the king of England with all spéed, to trie if he might ouertake him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Dowglas (according to his charge) followed him in chase to Dunbar, & casting betwixt that and the borders, laie in wait to haue taken him, if he had returned by land; but he being receiued into the ca|stell of Dunbar by Patrike Dunbar erle of March, King Ed|ward escapeth with fiftéene earles in his companie, was by the same earle of March conueied into certeine vessels, lieng there at anchor, with the which he passed alongst by the shore into England, to shew an example of the vnstable state of princes: for though this Ed|ward The vnstab [...] state of world|lie puiss [...]. was that day in the morning right proud of the great puissance and number of people which he had about him, not vnlike sometime to the great armie of king [...]erres, yet he was constreined before the euening of the same day, to saue his life in a poore fishers boat. In this battell were slaine [...] thousand Englishmen (as the Scotish writers af|firme) amongst whome was the earle of [...], with two hundred knights. On the Scotish The number of Scots slaine. part were slaine about foure thousand, and amongst other two valiant knights, sir William Wepo [...], and sir Walter Rosse. The spoile was so great of gold, siluer, and other iewels gotten in the field, that the whole number of the Scotish armie was made rich thereby: and besides this, they got little lesse mo|nie and riches by ransoming of prisoners taken at this battell, than of spoile gotten in the fight, campe, and field. But the death of sir Giles Argentine, that died amongst other in this mortall battell, was Sir Giles Argentine slaine. so displeasant to king Robert, for the familiaritie which he had sometimes with him in England, that he reio [...]ed little of all the gaine got by so famous a victorie. He caused his bodie to be buried right bo|norablie in saint Patriks church, beside Edenburgh. The quéene king Roberts wife, who had béene kept EEBO page image 220 in captiuitie the space of 8 yeares, was in England The quéene king Roberts wife restored to hir husband now deliuered by exchange for one of the nobles of England, which was taken at this battell. The [...]ith clothes of silke, veluet, and gold, which were found in the English campe, were distributed to the ab|beies and monasteries of the realme, to make there|of vestments, cones, and frontals for altars. The Carmelite frier, of whome ye heard before, brought thither by king Edward to describe the victorie of the Englishmen, was taken prisoner amongst o|ther, and commanded by king Robert to write con|trarilie the victorie of the Scots, according as he had séene: who therevpon gathered his rustie wits togi|ther, & made certeine rude verses beginning thus.

De planctu [...]udo motrum cum carmine nudo, Uerses made by Robert Baston the Carmelite.
Risum retrudo c [...] tali themate [...]udo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 There must be some that haue iudged, how this victorie was atteined by the singular fauor of almightie God, by reason of miracles which they rehearse to happen at the same time. The night before the day of the battell, there came to the abbeie of Glastenburie two men in complet armour, desiring to lodge there all night: the abbat keeping an house of great hospitalitie, receiued them right gladlie, and Miracles if ye list to be|léeue them. making them good cheare, demanded what they were, and wither they were going: who answered that they were the seruants of God, and going to helpe the Scots at Bannoxborne. On the morrow the chamberlaine found them departed before anie of the gates were opened, & the beds faire made, and not stirred otherwise than as they left them ouer night. The same day that the battell was foughten, a knight clad in faire bright armour, declared to the people at Aberden, how the Scots had gotten a famous victorie against the Englishmen, and was seene shortlie after to passe ouer Pictland Firth on horssebacke. It was supposed by the people that this was saint Magnus, sometime prince of Orkenie, and for that cause king Robert endowed the church of Orkenie with fiue poundes sterling of the customes of Aberden, to furnish the same church, with bread, wine, and wax.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Manie noble men for their approoued manhood shewed in this conflict, were highlie rewarded at the hands of king Robert. One Robert Fleming, Robert Fle|ming rewar| [...]ed for his faithfull ser|uice. by whose means he reuenged the treason wrought a|gainst him by Iohn Cumin, with slaughter of the same Iohn, had the lands of Cumnernald giuen him, which were of the inheritance belonging to the said Cumin. It is reported by writers, that two knights of Bra [...]ant that serued amongest the Eng|lishmen, chanced to heare manie reprochfull words spoken in the English campe against king Robert, who being somewhat mooued therewith, and misli|king such dismeasured talke, wished in words that the victorie might chance vnto him. For the which with K. Edward informed thereof, caused them by a trumpet to be conueied vnto the Scotish campe, with commandement to aid king Robert to the vt| [...]ost of their powers, purposing to punish them according to his mind, if he atteined the victorie, as he had no doubt but he should. Herevpon, before A proclama|tion. the ioining of the battels, he caused proclamation to be made, that whosoeuer brought their heads vnto him, sho [...]ld haue an hundred marks in reward.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Robert hearing in what danger they had run for his sake, rewarded them with great riches of the spoile got in the field, with the which they re|turning The Scotish house in An|tuerpe buil|ded. into Brabant, built a goodlie house in An|tuerpe, naming the same Scotland, and causing the Scotish armes, and the picture of Bruse to be set vp in the same, appointed it for a lodging to re|ceiue them of the Scotish nation that should resort vnto that towne, as may appeare euen vnto this day. And this was doone for a memoriall, to shew what loue and hartie beneuolence these two knights bare towards king Robert and his people, for the great liberalitie receiued at his hands. This glori|ous victorie chanced to the Scots on the day of the natiuitie of saint Iohn Baptist, in the yeare 1314. 1314.

Fr. Thin. About this time for the varietie of fortune (in so small a course of yeares) happened a thing not vn|woorthie the reporting. For Iohn Mentith, which Buchanan. before betraied his déere friend Wallase to the Eng|lish, being therefore (as of right he ought) extreme|lie hated of the Scots, was (in recompense thereof beside manie other rewards) benefited with the gar|dianship of the castle of Dunbriton: which fort (after Iohn Men|tith made cap|teine of Dun|briton castle. all the other castles before said were recouered to the Scots) was almost the onlie thing (except some few others) that remained in the hands of the English: and because this fort was by nature inexpugnable, king Robert dealt with the capteine (by such as were friends and of kinred vnto him) to betraie the castle into his hands, promising great recompense therefore. Wherevnto this Mentith by no means would agrée, vnles K. Robert would giue to him the earledome of Lennox for his reward. Wherevpon the king being greatlie in doubt what to say therein, (though in déed he vehementlie longed for the said castle) because he did not thinke the obteining there|of to be of such good vnto him, as that he would therefore offend or loose the earle of Lennox; who had in all his calamities béene the most certeine, and al|most the onelie friend of the king: which doubt, when the earle vnderstood; he foorthwith came vnto him, willing him in no wise to refuse the condition; wher|vpon the bargaine was concluded betwéene Iohn Mentith and the king, and that in such sort, as it was most solemnelie confirmed.

Now, when the king should come to receiue this castle (according to compositions) as he was in the wood Colchon, a mile distant from the same, a cer|teine Englishmen inclosed in [...] cellar to kill king Robert after his en|terance into Dunbrito [...] castle. carpentar called Rowland came thither secret|lie vnto him, & desired licence that he might speake to the king, for he would discouer a great matter touching a treason that was deuised and prepared a|gainst him, by the capteine of Dunbriton. Which pardon obteined, he opened vnto Bruse, that be|low in the wine-cellar of the castle, were a number of English inclosed, which at dinner should either take or kill the king (being then safe) after that he had obteined the castle. Wherevpon the king no|thing abashed, but kéeping on his former determi|nation, & being (according to appointment) receiued by the said Iohn Mentith in the castle of Dunbri|ton: after that he had searched all other places, and was courteouslie inuited to sit downe to dinner; answered that he would not eate, vntill he had loo|ked into the cellar below. Wherevnto for excuse, and to defer the time, the capteine answered that the smith was absent and caried the key away with him. But the king not waiting for the comming of the smith, did incontinentlie breake open the cellar doore, whereby all the deceit appeared. After which, the armed men were brought foorth before the king, who being seuerallie examined, confessed the whole matter; and further, that there was a ship readie in the hauen to haue caried the K. prisoner into Eng|land, if they had taken him aliue. Wherevpon the rest being punished, Iohn Mentith was onelie cast into prison, & reserued from further paine: because the king would not offend his friends & kinred in so dangerous a time as that was. For this Mentith had manie beautifull daughters maried to men of great power & riches. After which imprisonment of EEBO page image 221 this Mentith was by mediation of such as greatlie fauored him, restored to the fauor of Bruse, vnder whome he did after serue most faithfullie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Immediatlie after, king Robert called a parle|ment at Aire, where, by consent of the thrée states he 1314. The crowne of Scotland in [...]ed. Margerie the daughter of of king Ro|bert by his first wife. was confirmed king, and the crowne intailed to the heires male of his bodie lawfullie begotten, and for want of such heires, to remaine vnto his brother Edward Bruse, and to the heires male of his bodie; and if he chanced to die without such heires, then should the crowne descend to Margerie the daugh|ter of king Robert, and to the heires generall of hir bodie by lawfull succession. In which parlement it was further decréed, that if the king were in his mi|noritie, he should then be gouerned by Thomas Randolph, and if anie misfortune chanced vnto the said Randolph, that then the gouernement of the kings person and kingdome should be committed to Iames Dowglasse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 This Margerie was gotten by king Robert on the earle of Mar his sister, his first wife, and was maried by the aduise of his nobles vnto Walter great Steward of Scotland. Also king Robert, for The second mariage of king Robert. that his first wife aforesaid was deceassed, maried shortlie after Elizabeth the daughter of the earle of Ulster, on whome he got a sonne named Dauid, and The issue of king Robert by his second wife. two daughters, the one named Margaret, and the other Mauld. The first was maried to the earle of Sutherland, and bare him a sonne named Iohn: the second departed this world in hir infancie. Af|ter the mariage solemnized betwixt his daughter Margerie, and the foresaid Walter Steward, king Robert went through all the bounds of his realme, and did not onelie confirme the ancient liberties and priuileges of the burrowes and townes in all Liberties by king Robert. places where he came, but also augmented the same, and granted vnto diuerse, aswell townes as baro|nies, sundrie new prerogatiues and franchises, as may appeare by his charters made vnto them of the same, speciallie to the townes of Perth, Dundée, and Aberden.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the yeare following, which was in the yeare 1315, the princes of Ireland oppressed (as they tooke it) with long and insufferable tyrannie of the Eng|lishmen, 1315. and trusting by support of Scots to reco|uer their libertie, now after so notable an ouerthrow of the whole English puissance, sent ambassadors The lords of Ireland re|quire aid of king Robert. vnto king Robert, requiring that it might please him to send his brother Edward Bruse, to receiue the crowne and gouernement of their countrie of Ireland. This request being granted, Edward pre|pared to take that iournie in hand, and so with a small power of Scotishmen transporting ouer into Ireland, and ioining with an armie of such as were readie to assist him there, he tooke the towne of Ul|ster, Ulster. and slue a great number of Englishmen which were found in the same. Then afterwards, by the Edward Bruse pro|clamed king of Ireland. generall consent of all the estates of Ireland, Ed|ward Bruse was proclamed king of that realme, and certeine of the Irish nobilitie sent ambassadors vn|to the pope, to sue for a ratification of their act and procéedings, for the suertie and weale of their coun|trie, sith they were not able longer to susteine the gréeuous yoke of the English thraldome. These ambassadors, through their earnest diligence, got such fauor in their sute, that the pope sundrie times charged the Englishmen to auoid out of Ireland: The English men passe little on the popes commande|ments. howbeit, they séemed to passe little of his comman|dements in that behalfe, for they dailie sought how to make themselues strong in that part, least they should lose the possession of that countrie, which their enimies were about to get foorth of their hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Robert being informed how through the reenforcement of the English armie, being dailie re|freshed with new succors, his brother was like to run in danger to be cast away, he left sir Iames Dowglasse gouernor in Scotland, with a compe|tent Sée more hereof in Ire|land. number of men to defend the borders, and he himselfe with a great power of other souldiers and men of war went ouer into Ireland, to support his King Robert passeth [...] into Ireland. brother: but suffering great distresse at his first comming thither, for want of vittels & other proui|sions, he lost almost the one halfe of his folks through verie famine & hunger, & the residue were constrei|ned to eate horsses and other such lothsome meats, therewith to susteine their languishing liues. At length being approched within a daies iournie of his brother, in purpose to haue supported him with those Edward Bruse is slaine in Ire|land. people which he had left, his brother not abiding his comming, fought vnwiselie with the Englishmen at a place called Dundach, and receiuing the ouer|throw, was slaine himselfe with a great number of other. It is vncerteine whether he had anie know|ledge Sée more of this matter in Ireland. of the comming of his brother king Robert, or that through desire of fame he feared least if he staied till his brother came, a great part of the praise (if they got the victorie) should remaine to him: and therefore he made such hast to fight. But howsoe|uer it was, thus he was slaine on the fourtéenth of October, in the yeare 1317.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Edward king of England, hearing that king Robert was passed ouer into Ireland, thought the time to serue well for his purpose, estsoones to in|uade Scotland: and herevpon comming with a great power to the borders, he purposed to haue doone some great feat. But sir Iames Dowglas the gouernor, hauing likewise gathered an armie, gaue him battell, and put both him & his people to flight. In this battell were slaine thrée notable capteins on the English side: as sir Edmund Lilaw a Gas|coigne capteine of Berwike, with sir Iames Ne|uill, and the third sir Iames Dowglasse slue with his owne hands. King Edward perceiuing it was not like that he should doo anie good at that time a|gainst the Scots by land, thought it best to assaile them by sea, which way foorth the Englishmen com|monlie were euer too good for the Scots. He rigged K. Edward sendeth a na|uie into Scot land. therefore a fléet of ships, and sent the same into the Forth, which burned the countrie on each side, and tooke manie rich booties from the inhabitants néere to the shore.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Duncane earle of Fife, hearing of these cruel|ties doone by the Englishmen, came foorth with fiue hundred hardie souldiers, to defend the countrie from such inuasions: but when he perceiued that the enimies were of greater number than he was able well to incounter, hauing but an handfull of men in comparison to them, he gaue somewhat backe, and in the meane time met with William Sin|clare bishop of Dunkeld, hauing about thrée score armed men in his companie, who blaming the earle for his faintnesse of courage, caused him to set for|ward againe towards the enimies, & finding them busie in spoiling & harrieng the countrie, they gaue Englishmen discomfited. an onset vpon them so fiercelie, that there was slaine at the first incounter to the number of fiue hundred of the Englishmen, and the residue chased to their botes lieng at Dunbrissell, which they entred in such haste, that one of the botes being pestered with ouer great number, sanke with them before they could William Sin|clare called K. Roberts bishop. get to their ships. K. Robert euer after customablie called this Wil. Sinclare his owne bishop, for the noble prowes which he shewed in this enterprise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the same yeere Robert Steward the sonne of Robert Ste|ward borne. Walter Steward and Margerie Bruse was borne, which Robert after the death of K. Dauid le Bruse was preferred to the crowne. After this, Thomas 1318. Randall earle of Murrey, the second day of Aprill EEBO page image 222 recouered the towne of Berwike out of the Eng|lish Berwike re|couered. mens hands, which they had held for the space of twentie yeeres before. It was taken now by prac|tise, through meanes of one Spaldein an English|man, who for his labour had certeine lands giuen him in Angus, which his posteritie inioieth to these daies.

Fr. Thin. Scala chron. Trulie it were a woonderfull processe to declare what mischiefes came through hunger and other mis|fortunes, by the space of 11 yeeres in Northumber|land; for the Scots became so proud after they had gotten Berwike, that they nothing estéemed the English nation. But (amongst other things by the Scots attempted) much about this time, Adam de Gardonne came with 160 men, to driue awaie the cattell pasturing by Norham, which the people of the towne perceiuing, ran foorth and incountered with the Scots, who had gotten the victorie of them, had not Thomas Grey capteine of the castell, séeing them in some ieopardie, issued foorth with 60 of his souldiers, & slaine most part of the Scots, and their horsses. The which Grey had beene twise before besie|ged in the castell of Norham, once almost by the space of a whole yéere, and another time by the terme of seuen moneths, in which he behaued himselfe like a woorthie gentleman, in that his enimies got none aduantage of him, although that during the siege, they had erected manie fortresses before the castell, to annoie such as were within: of which forts they made one at Upsitlington, and one in the church of Norham, the castell whereof had beene twise tein|ted and indanger of losse, had not the lord Persie and Neuill (being great succourers of the marches) rescued the same. For at one time the vtter ward of Norham castell was taken in the time of this Grey on saint Katharins eeuen, which the Scots kept not but thrée daies, and their purpose in winning the same did vtterlie faile them.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After that the earle of Murrey had recouered Berwike, he and the lord Iames Dowglasse in the Ri. Southwell. moneth of Maie inuaded England with a puissant The Scots enter further into England thã they were accustomed, euen vnto Wetherbie (as Fourd, saith.) armie, passing further into the countrie than the Scots had béene accustomed to doo before time, bur|ning as they went forward the townes of Northal|lerton and Burrowbridge; and comming to Rippon, they spoiled the towne of all the goods found therein; but compounding with them that kept the church a|gainst them for a thousand marks, they forbare to burne anie of the buildings. After they had faried here thrée daies, they departed thence, and went to Knaresburgh, which towne they burnt, and beating the woods (into the which the people were with|drawne with their goods and cattell) they got a great bootie, and returning homewards by Scipton in Crauen, they first spoiled the towne, and after burnt it, and so marching thorough the countrie, came backe into Scotland with their spoiles and priso|ners without anie resistance. [This castell of Kna|resburgh was taken by Iohn Lilleborne, which after Fr. Thin. rendered himselfe to the king vpon certeine condi|tions. ]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeere following, king Edward came and 1319. Berwike be|sieged. laid siege vnto Berwike but the towne was so well defended, that he was constreined with small honor to returne home, and leaue it as he found it. For in the meane time, while king Edward lay at the siege Ri. Southwell. before Berwike, Thomas Randall earle of Mur|rey, and the lord Iames Dowglasse assembled their forces togither; but perceiuing themselues too weake to remooue the siege by force, they passed by, and en|tring into England, wasted and spoiled all before them. kéeping on their way vnto Burrowbridge: whereof when the citizens of Yorke were aduertised; William Mel|ton archbishop of yorke. with their capteins William Melton their archbi|shop, and the bishop of Elie, not making them of th [...] countrie once priuie to their purpose, but hauing in their companie a great number of priests and men of religion, they gaue battell to the Scots one day in the after noone, not farre from the towne of Mit|ton The battell of Mitton vpon Swale. vpon Swale, twelue miles distant from Yorke northwards.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But forsomuch as the most part of the English|men were not expert in the feates of warre, and came not in anie orderlie arraie of battell, they were eastlie vanquished & put to flight by the Scots, The English men discom|fited. who were readie to receiue them in good order, close togither in one entier squadrone, and after their ac|customed maner, at their first ioining they gaue a great showt, wherewith the Englishmen out of hand began to giue backe: which when the Scots perceiued, they got them to their horsses, and follo|wed the chase most egerlie, beating downe and siea|ing the Englishmen, neither sparing religious per|son nor other, so that their died to the number of foure thousand Englishmen that day, and amongst The maior of yorke slaine. the rest was the maior of Yorke one. In the water of Swale (as was said) there were drowned to the number of a thousand. To be short, if night had not come the sooner vpon, it was thought scarse there should anie of the English part haue escaped.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 When king Edward lieng as yet at the siege of Berwike, vnderstood what mischiefe the Scots did within his realme, he raised his siege, in purpose to haue incountered with his enimies: but the Scots aduertised of his purpose, returned with all their pri|soners and spoile by Stanemoore, and so through Gilsland, and the west marches, withdrew home into their countrie. About the feast of All saints, when the inhabitants of the north parts had got in their haruest, so that their barnes were now stuffed with corne, of the which prouision they were to liue all the yéere after, the Scots vnder the conduct of the said two capteins, the earle of Murrey, and the lord The Scot [...] inuade Eng|land. Dowglasse, entered into England, and burnt the countrie of Gilsland, taking away both such people as they tooke prisoners, and also all the cattell which they might meet with, and so kept vpon their iournie till they came to Burgh vnder Stanemoore, destroi|eng Burgh vnder Stanemoore. all afore them, & then returning through West|merland, practised the like mischiefe there, in bur|ning vp houses and corne in all places where they came, as they had doone before in Gilsland. And fi|nallie passing through Cumberland with the like ha|uocke, at length they drew home into their owne countrie, with no small number of prisoners, and plentie of great riches which they had got in that iournie. [And the souldiers going backe againe to|ward Fr. Thin. Scala chro [...]. Scotland, fought with the commons of New|castell at the bridge end, for certeine displeasures doone vnto them, in which conflict sir Iohn Perith knight was slaine, and manie other squires belong|ing to the constable and marshall. About which time also, king Edward (lieng at Lieth to go vnto Eden|burgh) was constreined to returne for lacke of vit|tels.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 About the same time died Margerie Bruse king Margerie Bruse deceas|seth. Roberts daughter. Shortlie after also was a truce taken betwixt the two realmes of England & Scot|land for a certeine time. Then king Robert hauing no trouble, neither within his realme nor without, caused a parlement to be holden at Perth, where hée A parlement at Perth. required the lords to shew their deeds and charters whereby they held their lands. The lords after long The euidence and charters whereby the lords of Scot land held their lands, aduisement taken herein, at length pulled out their swoords all at once, declaring that they had none o|ther euidence nor charter to shew for the tenure of their lands. King Robert was somewhat amazed at this sight, and tooke no small indignation therewith, EEBO page image 223 but yet he dissembled for the time, and commended them for their noble hearts and valiant stomachs: neuerthelesse, he purposed to be reuenged of their proud presumptions, when more opportunitie of time serued thereto. Sundrie of the nobles perceiuing that the king bare an inward grudge towards them Conspiracie of the lords a|gainst king Robert. for this matter, deuised amongst themselues how to deliuer him into king Edwards hands, so to auoid all danger that might follow of his displeasure con|ceiued thus against them. For the accomplishment of this their treasonable practise, they made a bond in writing, confirmed with their hands and seales betwixt them, & minded to send the same into Eng|land vnto king Edward. But king Robert hauing some inkeling of this their purpose, caused diligent watch to be laid by the way for such as should passe into England from them with the said bond, inso|much that in the end a palmer or pilgrime was ap|prehended which had the bond, and other writings in|closed [...] palmer ta|ken with wri|tings on him. within his pilgrims staffe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 King Robert vnderstanding by these writings all the manner of the treason, and what they were that had consented to the same, hastilie sent for the whole number of them, as though there had beene some matter in hand wherein he wished to haue their aduise. They were no sooner come, but streightwaies calling them before him, he questioned with them whether they knew their owne hands and seales, and immediatlie therewith shewed the writings, which were found in the palmers staffe: and because they could not denie their owne act, they were committed The lords that had con|spired, are committed to ward. to ward within sundrie castels, till he had taken fur|ther aduise in the matter. Incontinentlie after, he went to Berwike, and there arrested the capteine of the towne, named sir William Soulis, and caused him to be conueied to Perth (committing the said William Soulis (as saith Io. Maior) with the coun|tesse of Straherne, to perpetuall prison) where short|lie after he called an assemblie of all the estates of the realme. This was called the blacke parlement, The blacke parlement. 1320. kept in the yéere after the incarnation of our Sa|uiour 1320. In this parlement, at the beginning thereof, was Dauid Abernethie, the sisters sonne of king Robert, accused as partie to the treason afore|said, though being laboured vnto by the rest of the conspirators to ioine with them therein, he refused so to doo, but yet for that he did not vtter the thing, but concealed it with them, he was condemned & lost his Dauid Aber|nethie loseth his head. head, the people sore lamenting his mishap, for the great valiancie which was knowne to be in him, ha|uing serued honorablie manie yeeres before against the Saracens, and other miscreants in the parties of beyond the seas, where he was called the flower of chiualrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In déed the king himselfe would gladlie haue sa|ued his life, but for that he minded to doo iustice on the residue, and finding no man to make sute for him, he permitted the execution to procéed against him. On the morrow after, he caused all the residue of the Among other were these, Gilbert de Malet, Iohn Cogi knights and Richard [...]ron a nota|ble warriour. Iohn Maior. traitors to be brought foorth to iudgement, and sen|tence being giuen against them, he commanded without delaie that they should be executed. Then came diuerse and sundrie persons in most humble wise to make sute for pardon to the king for their friends and kinsmen: but he made them plaine an|swer, that there was none to be found that would make intercession for the sauing of his kinsmans life the day before, when he was led to execution, that had offended nothing so grieuouslie, in comparison of them for whome they now made sute; and therfore he had them be contented, for they should assuredlie haue according to that which they had deserued. And therewith were the officers commanded to make Execution without respit hast with the execution, which was doone incontinent|lie without anie further repsit.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 There were some that were accused to be parta|kers in this treason, but yet for that no euident proofes could be produced against them, they were dis|missed, as Walter Maxwell, with Walter Berclaie shiriffe of Aberdene, Patrike Graim, Hameline Neidrinton, and Eustace Rathre, knights; besides eight others. But yet the countesse of Straherne & William de Soults were condemned to perpetuall prison. The earle of Buchquhanes lands, who suffe|red at that present, were diuided into two parts, the one being giuen to William Haie that was made constable of the realme in place of Iohn Quincie, who likewise suffered at the same time; and the other part was giuen vnto William Reth, togither with the office of the stewardship of the realme. About the same time the king of England by complaint made to the pope, purchased that a legat was sent from the A legat sent from Rome to the Scots. sée apostolike into Scotland, to admonish king Ro|bert to ceasse from further disquieting the realme of England, by such cruell inuasions, as were surmised that he wrongfullie exercised against the same realme. But answer was made héerevnto by the king, and other the nobles of the realme of Scotland, The answer made to the legat. that all the world might well vnderstand that the whole occasion of all the trouble which had chanced betwixt the two realmes of England and Scotland, did onelie procéed of the couetous desire in the Eng|lishmen, séeking to conquer that realme without a|nie iust claime or title: and therefore they thought it reason first to suppresse the loftie stomachs of the Englishmen; and then if there were anie thing woor|thie to be reformed on their behalfes, they would be contented to stand vnto the order of the popes autho|ritie therein. Thus was the legat dispatched home, without other effect of his errand [sauing (as saith Buchanan) he curssed and interdicted the Scots and Fr. Thi [...]. Scotland.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Shortlie after, king Robert entered with an armie King Robert with an armie in Scotland. into England, and wasted the countrie before him, till he came to the recrosse, which standeth vpon Stanemoore. Howbeit it should séeme by that which Richard Southwell writeth héereof, that king Robert Ri. Southwell. 1321. was not present himselfe in person in this iournie, but that he appointed the earle of Murrey to be his lieutenant, who with an armie, after the feast of the Epiphanie entered into England, and comming to The bishop|rike of Dur|ham burnt by the Scots. Darington, staied there for a season, whilest the lord Iames Dowglasse, and the lord Steward of Scot|land went abroad to harrie and spoile the countrie on ech side, the one of them passing foorth towards Har|tilpoole and Cliueland, and the other towards Rich|mond. The inhabitants of Richmondshire, hauing Richmond|shire redéemed from spoile with a summe of monie. no capteine amongest them to defend their countrie from that grieuous inuasion of the enimie, gaue a great summe of monie in like manner, as at other times they had doone, to haue their countrie spared from fier and spoile.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scots taried at this time about 15 daies within England, and in the end returned without battell. For when the knights of the north countries repared vnto the duke of Lancaster then lieng at The duke of Lancasters disloialtie. Pomfret, and offered to go into the field with him a|gainst the Scots, he would not once stirre his foot, by reason of the discord that was depending betwixt him and king Edward: but howsoeuer the matter went, king Edward sore grieued in his mind with such inuasion made by his enimies the Scots, he gaue order to leauie an armie of an hundred thou|sand men, what on horssebacke and on foot (as the re|port went) appointing them to be readie to enter in|to Scotland at Lammas next: whereof king Ro|bert King Robert inuadeth England. being aduertised, ment to preuent him, and ther|vpon in the octaues of the Natiuitie of saint Iohn EEBO page image 224 Baptist, he entered into England with an armie néere to Carleill, and burnt a manor place that some|time belonged to him at Rosse, and Allerdale, and spoiled the monasterie of Holme, notwithstanding The abbeie of Holme burnt. his fathers corps was there interred.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From thence he marched forward, destroieng and spoiling the countrie of Copland, and so kéeping vp|on his iournie, passed Doden sands, towards the ab|beie of Fourneis: but the abbat méeting him on the Fourneis ab|beie. waie, redéemed his lands from spoile, and brought king Robert to his house, and made to him great chéere: but yet the Scots could not hold their hands from burning and spoiling diuerse places; and mar|ching forward vnto Cartmele beyond Leuin sands, Leuin sands. burnt and spoiled all the countrie about, except a pri|orie of blacke canons which stood there. Passing from thence they came to Lancaster, which towne they al|so The towne of Lancaster burnt. burnt, saue onelie the priorie of blacke moonks, and a house of preaching friers. Héere came to them the earle of Murrey, and the lord Iames Dowglasse with an other armie, wherevpon marching further southwards, they came to Preston in Anderneis, Preston in Anderneis burnt. and burnt that towne also, the house of friers mi|nors onelie excepted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And thus being foure score miles within Eng|land from their owne borders, they returned home|wards with all their prisoners, cattell, and other boe|ties which they had got in that iournie, comming to Carleill on the éeue of saint Margaret, and lodging about that towne the space of fiue daies, they wasted and destroied the corne, & all other things that came within their reach. Which doone, on saint Iames e|uen they entred into Scotland againe, hauing béene within England at this time thrée weekes and thrée daies. Immediatlie heerevpon, to wit, about the K. Edward raiseth an ar|mie. feast of Lammas, king Edward with his armie came to Newcastell, and desirous to be reuenged of such iniuries doone to his subiects, entered into Scot|land, and passing foorth till he came to Edenburgh, He entered Scotland. through want of vittels and other necessarie prouisi|on, he was constreined to returne home within the space of 15 daies. For king Robert aduertised of his comming, had caused all the corne and cattell in the countrie to be conueied out of the waie into cer|teine forts, wherevnto the Englishmen might not come to get it into their hands, & so to relieue them|selues therewith. But in their returning homeward, somewhat to reuenge their displeasures, they spoiled and burnt the abbeies of Melrose, and Driburgh, with diuerse other religious houses and places, not The abbeies of Mewrose or Melrose & Driburgh burned. King Robert inuadeth the north parts of England, ap|proching al|most to Yorke. sparing anie kind of crueltie against all those of the inhabitants that fell into their hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 In reuenge heereof, king Robert shortlie after en|tred with a puissant armie into England, spoiling & wasting the countrie, till he came almost to Yorke. At length, hearing that king Edward was com|ming towards him with an armie, he chose a plot of ground betwixt the abbeie of Biland and saint Sa|uiour, there to abide battell; which king Edward re|fused not to giue, though in the end he was put to K. Edward is put to flight. flight with his whole power, and chased with great slaughter both of Englishmen and Normans, which were there in his aid. Diuerse also of the nobilitie were taken prisoners, as Iohn de Britaine earle of The earle of Richmond is taken. 1323. Richmond, and Henrie Sowlie, with others. This battell was fought in the yéere of our Sauiour 1323, 15 daies after the feast of saint Michaell the archan|gell. King Edward lieng the same time at the abbeie Ri. Southwell. Riuale abbeie. of Riuale, aduertised of this ouerthrow, fled and got him into Yorke, leauing his plate and much other stuffe behind him for want of cariage in that his sud|den departure, which the Scots comming thither found, and tooke awaie with them. And from thence they passed foorth into Yorkeswold, spoiling and wa|sting Yorkeswold wasted by Scots. the countriemen vnto Beuerleie, which towne for a summe of monie they were contented to spare, and so then they returned homewards, entering a|gaine into Scotland on All soules day, which is the second of Nouember, after they had remained with|in England at that time the space of a moneth and foure daies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, king Robert sent an ambassador to the French king [to pacifie him offended with them Fr. Thin. Buchanan. for the English] and to renew the ancient bond of a|mitie betwixt the two realmes of Scotland and The bond of amitie betwixt Scotland and France re|newed with new articles France, which was accomplished with this new con|dition added to the former articles, that if it chanced that succession failed touching the inheritance of the crowne of either realme, so that a doubt should rise, who ought by right to inioy the same, the claime and title thereof should be tried and decided by the nobles of both the realmes; and further, that they should not onelie remooue and exclude all such as went about wrongfullie to vsurpe the crowne, but also to defend and mainteine the true inheritor to the vttermost of their powers. In confirmation of this couenant, both the kings receiued the sacrament. And for further ratifieng of it, they made a prouiso, that whereas (then) they had the popes consent héereto, neither he, A prouiso. nor anie of his successors héereafter should dispense with them for the breaking of that bond; and if they did, euerie such dispensation should be reputed void and of none effect.

In this yéere 1323 (as Richard Southwell repor|teth) Ri. Southwell. about the Ascension day, came commissioners from the two kings of England and Scotland, vnto Newcastell, there to treate of some agréement of peace. For the king of England came Amerie de Ualence earle of Penbroke, the lord Hugh Spen|ser the yoonger, and foure other persons sufficientlie authorised. And for the king of Scots came the bi|shop of saint Andrewes, Thomas Randall earle of Murrey, and foure other persons likewise of good calling. After much talke, in the end they agréed vp|on a truce to indure for 13 yéeres, which was procla|med in both realmes about the feast of saint Barna|bie next insuing. About this time also, or not long be|fore, Hamton an Englishman, of whome the Hamiltons are descended. an Englishman descended of noble linage, cal|led Hamton, chanced for speaking certeine woords in commendation of king Robert, to fall at variance with one of king Edwards priuie chamber, named Iohn Spenser; insomuch that fighting togither a|bout the same woords, Hamtons hap was to slea this Spenser, & therevpon knowing there was no waie but death, if he should hap to be caught, he fled with all spéed into Scotland, where he was receiued of the king in most friendlie wise, and had giuen to him for the maintenance of his estate like a gentleman, the lands of Cadzow [which (as saith Buchanan) he called by the name of Hamilton.] Fr. Thin.

The posteritie of this Hamton remaineth in Scot|land vnto this day, increased so in kinred and honor, by reason it was in processe of time mingled with the kings bloud, that few linages in that realme are of like estimation. They are now called Ha|miltons, The Hamil|tons mingled with the kings bloud. Fr. Thin. somewhat changed from the name of their first beginner. [Donald earle of Marre, was made by king Edward the second gardian or capteine of the castell of Bristow in England, the which he kept 1325. Scala chron. vntill the comming of quéene Isabell against hir husband Edward the second, at what time he deliue|red the same into the hands of the said queene, and re|turned into Scotland.]

In the meane time, Edward king of England be|ing ruled altogither by two of the Spensers, as Hugh the father and Hugh the sonne, ran so farre in|to the hatred of his people, as well the nobles as commons, that in the end he was deposed of all K. Edward deposed. EEBO page image 225 kinglie authoritie, committed to prison, and in fine secretlie murthered, as in the English historie more plainelie appéereth.

His sonne Edward the third was placed in his His son Ed|ward the third crowned. 1326. Ri. Southwell. The castell of Norham. roome, and crowned the 26 day of Ianuarie, in the yéere 1326. In the night of the same day in which he receiued the crowne, the Scots ment to haue stolne the castell of Norham by scaling, and they went so cunninglie about their purpose, that they were to the number of 16 of them got aloft on the wals: but the capteine of this castle Robert Maners being war|ned aforehand of their comming by one of his soul|diers that was a Scotishman borne, suddenlie assai|led them, fiue nine or ten of them, and tooke fiue pri|soners aliue, but sore wounded, so as this misfortune falling to them in the beginning of king Edward the third his reigne, might haue beene a for warning of their losses to follow in the daies of his gouerne|ment.

Whilest these things were a dooing in England, king Robert though he might séeme to haue title iust inough to the crowne of Scotland, which he had pos|sessed now not onlie by rightfull conquest, but also by lawfull interest of inheritance for a certeine num|ber of yéeres, by consent of all the estates of the realme; yet to the end to put awaie all doubts, and to conclude the succession of the Balioll from all claime, which heereafter they might pretend to the crowne of Scotland, he sent sir Iames Dowglasse into France vnto the lord Iohn Balioll, to require Iames Dow|glasse sent into France to the Balioll. him to transpose and resigne all the challenge of right and interest which he might séeme to haue to the crowne of Scotland, as well for himselfe as his heires & successors for euer, to king Robert le Bruse, and his heires. In consideration of which resignati|on, he offered faire lands and rents to him to be ap|pointed foorth in Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Balioll being now sore worne with age, and thereto blind of bodilie sight, lightlie consented vn|to this motion, considering (as he said) he tooke it to be the ordinance of almightie God, that king Robert should inioy the gouernement of the Scotish king|dome, as most woorthie and able thereto, hauing de|liuered the same, and defended it most valiantlie from the hands of most cruell enimies. He called therefore his friends and kinsmen togither, in the presence of whome he wholie resigned vnto king Ro|bert The resigna|tion of the Balioll to king Robert. and his heires, all the right and title which he or anie other for him either had, or héereafter might haue to the crowne of Scotland, concerning anie in|terest or claime which might be auouched for anie cause or consideration, from the beginning of the world vnto that present day. After the returne of sir Iames Dowglasse foorth of France, with so good ex|pedition and dispatch of that businesse wherabout he was sent, king Robert verie ioifull thereof, assem|bled a parlement of the nobles and other estates of A parlement at Cambus|kenneth. In act for the succession of the crowne. the realme at Cambuskenneth, where he procured a new act to be established touching the succession of the crowne, which was, that if his sonne Dauid de|ceassed without heires of his bodie lawfullie begot|ten, that then Robert Steward begotten on Marge|rie Bruse his daughter, should succéed in possession of the crowne. All the lords at the same time were sworne to mainteine this ordinance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane while, king Edward the third sent vnto king Robert for peace, but for somuch as it was perceiued to be but a coloured pretense, no conclusi|on thereof insued, but preparation made on either part for wars. King Robert shortlie after fell sicke, by reason whereof, being not able to ride abroad, nor to trauell himselfe, he committed the administration The rule of things com|mitted to Thomas of all things touching the common-wealth, and other the affaires of the realme vnto Thomas Randall, earle of Murrey, and to the lord Iames Dowglasse, Randall and to Iames Dowglasse. two capteins, for their high prowesse and noble vali|ancie in those daies greatlie renowmed. These two hardie chiesteins assembling an armie of twentie They inuade Northumber|land. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. thousand men, or (as some writers haue) 25 thou|sand, entered with the same into Northumberland, wasting & spoiling the countrie on ech side. [And in|countring with an assemblie of the English at Dar|lington, there slue manie of them, and put the rest to 1327. flight.] Against whome came king Edward with an armie of an hundred thousand men: of the which King Ed|ward the third commeth with an armie against them. number there were (as Froissard saith) eight thou|sand horssemen, and 24 thousand archers. At their comming into Northumberland, they might well perceiue by the smoke of the fiers, which the Scots made in burning of villages, houses, and townes, where the enimies were: but yet because they taried not long in a place, but passed on without soiorning here or there, the Englishmen might not come néere to fight with them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 King Edward therefore was counselled to draw towards Scotland, that lieng betwixt them and home, he might haue them at some aduantage as they should returne, which was thought should be shortlie, as well for lacke of vittels, as also to de|fend their owne borders, when they heard once that the English armie drew that waies foorth. But comming to the riuer of Tine, through abundance of raine (latelie fallen) the streame was so risen, that neither horsse nor man might passe, so that the armie was constreined to incampe there for the space of thrée daies, in great scarsitie of vittels, till they were faine to send vnto Newcastell (which was distant from thence 26 miles) and to Carleill (which was about 22. miles thence) for prouision, which was sent them from those places in great plentie. In the meane time were thus certeine light horsse|men sent abroad into the countrie, to vnderstand where the Scots were, and to view their dooings. [Upon proclamation before made by the king (that Fr. Thin. who so could bring him word where the Scots were harbored, should haue a hundred pounds of yéerelie reuenues in recompense for the same; Thomas Rokesbeie after diligent search, brought word to the king thereof:] for those which were sent, finding The Scots are incamped on a hill. where the Scots were incamped, vpon the top of a mounteine, not past sixe miles from the English campe, returned backe to king Edward, and decla|red what they had séene and learned of the enimies dooings.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Edward right ioifull of the news, causeth his armie to be diuided into thrée battels, and foorth|with marcheth on towards the place where his eni|mies laie. And comming about noone daies within sight of the Scots, he perceiued at length that the place which they kept was so strong, what with the heigth of the ground, & thereto defended on the one side with the course of a riuer, that by no means they might be assailed without great and manifest danger. The Englishmen in the end thought it best to choose foorth a place to incampe in for that The English men sent to the Scots. night, and so dooing, sent an herald at armes vnto the Scots, requiring them to come downe vnto some euen ground where battell might be giuen; but the Scots refused so to doo, alledging that sith the Englishmen were three to one in number, it was no The answer of the Scots. reason to will them to forsake their ground of ad|uantage which they had taken and chosen foorth for their owne defense.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Thus were they incamped néere togither either in sight of other for the space of thrée nights, euerie day shewing themselues in order of battell, without breaking their arraie, except certeine of the horsse|men, which on either part now and then came foorth EEBO page image 226 and fell in skirmish, so that sometimes a man might haue seene good emptieng of saddles betwixt them. On the fourth day in the morning, when the Eng|lishmen beheld the hill where the Scots had lien the night before, they perceiued how they were gone, The Scots dislodge. and therevpon sending foorth light horssemen to trie out which way they had taken, word was brought how they were but remoued to an other hill a little off, heng fast by the same riuer, and there lay in|camped more stronglie than before. Incoutinentlie The English armie raised. herevpon, king Edward raiseth his campe, and re|moueth to an other hill lieng ouer against that hill where the Scots with their power were now lodged. At length, after that both the armies had lien thus a good space the one ouer against the other, Iames Dowglasse tooke aduise with himselfe to exploit a right hardie enterprise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 He chose foorth two hundred of perfect good horsse|men, mounted vpon verie swift and readie gel|dings, with the which in the night season he passed stilie by the English watch, that he was not once An enterprise exploited by sir Iames Dowglasse. descried by anie of them, till he was entered into their campe, where, by the noise of the moouing of the horsse féet, some chanced to awake that lay asléepe. But yet yer the alarme were raised to anie purpose, the Scots thus led by Dowglas hadpersed through, euen vnto the kings tent, and cut two cords of the same in sunder, so that the king was in no small danger to haue beene slaine, had not the Scots withdrawen the sooner for doubt of being inclosed with their enimies as now raised on each side to come to his succors, but Dowglasse yet returned in safetie with his number backe againe to the Scotish campe, hauing slaine (as some books report) thrée hundred Englishmen at this brunt. The English|men warned hereby, tooke better heed after to their watch.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 These armies lay thus one against an other for the space of eightéene daies, till at length the Scots The Scots secretlie re|turne home to their countrie. priuilie in the night conueied themselues away, and returned home in most spéedie wise, supposing they had doone sufficientlie inough for that time. It chan|ced that in the euening, before the Scots went thus their waies, there was a Scot taken by the English watch, who being brought before the king, confes|sed that there was commandement giuen through the Scotish campe, that euerie man should be readie with his armor and weapon to follow the standard of Dowglasse at a certeine houre the same night, but whither they intended to go, it was vnknowne, saue onelie amongest the capteins. Herevpon the English doubting least the Scots minded to giue them a camisado that night, placed themselues in order of battell, and so stood till the next morning readie to haue receiued them, if they had come. The Scots also made great fires within their campe, that they might sée about them. In the breake of the day, there were two Scotish trumpeters taken by the English scouts, the which being brought before the king, declared that the Scotish armie was bro|ken vp and returned, and further shewed how they were appointed thus to declare vnto him, hauing suffered themselues to be taken for the same intent. As soone as the Englishmen were aduertised that the Scots were thus departed, they hasted to the place where they had lien incamped, in hope to haue found some riches, which for hast they had left be|hind them: but at their comming thither, they found nothing, but 20000 paires of hieland shooes, which are made of the gréene hides of beasts vntanned. Also they found thrée hundred hides of sauage beasts set vpon stakes in stead of caldrons, therein to seeth their meat. Moreouer, they had left behind them fiue hundred dead carcasses of beasts & shéepe, which for that they could not driue them away, they killed, to the end the Englishmen should haue no gaine by them. There were like wise found fiue Eng|lishmen with their legs broken, & bound naked vn|to trées, which were quicklie loosed and committed to the cure of surgians. The enimies being thus de|parted, king Edward by aduise of his councell brake vp his campe, and returned to London, supposing King Ed|ward brea|keth vp his campe. it but lost labour to trauell his people anie further at that time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 In this yeare died Walter Steward, father to Robert Steward, that was after king of Scot|land. And in this yeare following or rather the same 1326, as Io. Maior saith, but that can|not be, if she died the same yeare that the Scots were besieged in Stan [...] parke. Norham ca|stell woone. Alnewike besieged. Ambassadors sent from K. Edward for a peace. A peace con|cluded with England in the yeare 1328, after the account of them that be|gin the yeare at Christ|masse. Iane, or ra|ther Ione, the sister of king Edward, ma|ried to Dauid Bruse prince of Scotland. yeare, Q. Elizabeth mother to Dauid Bruse the prince deceassed, and was buried in Dunfirmling [...] the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour 1328. In the same yeare, king Robert wan the castell of Nor|ham, and shortlie after besieged the castell of Aln|wike, where were slaine William de Mountalte knight, Iohn Clapauen, and Malisius de Dunbar, with diuerse other of the Scotish nobilitie. In the end of the same yeare, there were ambassadors sent from king Edward into Scotland for the conclusion of a peace, which was accorded in this wise: that K. Edward should renounce all his right & claime which he had or might haue to the crowne of Scot|land, in declaring it frée as it was in time of king Alexander the third, vnder these conditions, that Northumberland should be admitted for the mar|ches of Scotland on the east part, and Cumberland on the west. For the which renuntiation thus to be made, and for the damages doone to England by the Scots, it was couenanted that king Robert should pay to king Edward thirtie thousand marks ster|ling. And for the more suertie and ratification of this finall agréement and peace betwixt the two na|tions, it was concluded that Iane the sister of king Edward should be coupled in mariage with Dauid Bruse the prince of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 All which articles were put in writing, wherevn|to all the seals of the great lords within both the realms were set in most substantiall wise. The so|lemnization of the mariage before remembred was kept at Berwike within a while after, on the eigh|téenth day of Iulie, in the presence of a great num|ber of the nobilitie, both of England and Scotland. King Robert liued not past twelue moneths after The death of king Robert. this mariage, departing out of this life at Cardros the seuenth day of Iulie, in the yeare of our Lord 1329. In the latter end of his daies, he was grée|uouslie vexed with a leprosie, which thus finallie 1329. made an end of him, in the twentie fourth yeare of his reigne, being one of the most valiant princes knowen in anie part of the whole world in those his daies, hauing felt in his time the force of either for|tune. King Robert tasted both prosperous and aduerse fortune. for in the beginning of his reigne, such storms of aduersitie surrounded him on each side, that if his constant manhood had not béene the greater, it might haue brought him in despaire of all recoue|rie: for beside sundrie discomfitures, which he recei|ued at the hands of the enimies, with losse of all his brethren (his brother Edward onlie excepted) the most part of all the lords of Scotland were against him, and aided his aduersaries to the vttermost of his power: yet he nothing discouraged herewith, ceassed not to imploy all industrious means to de|liuer his countrie from the yoke of seruile bondage (which he beléeued would succéed by the gouernment of the English kings) till at length (as it were in despite of all former chances) he atteined the effect of his whole indeuors, so much the more to his praise, as he had found the hinderance and difficultie great in bringing the same fullie to passe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 His fame therefore did spread hugelie, not onelie EEBO page image 227 amongst his owne people, but also amongst stran|gers, The fame of king Robert. insomuch that his due praise was not wan|ting, no not euen amongst and in the midst of his verie enimies. For (as it is said) on a time it chan|ced that king Edward the third, sitting at a banket amongst his nobles, fell in talke with them of war|like His praise a|mongst the [...]mies. enterprises, and of such notable capteins as had excelled in knowledge in that behalfe. At length af|ter much reasoning to and fro, he proponed this A question proponed to [...]n English berald by king Edward the [...]rd. question to the king of heralds, that as then stood by, commanding him to declare which were the thrée most worthie & valiant capteins that he had knowne in all his daies. The herald aduising with himselfe of this matter, staied a space, in which meane while all the companie were quiet, longing to heare his an|swere therein, both for that they knew his skill was such as was able best to giue sentence in such a mat|ter; and againe, for that manie of them thought hée would haue numbred some of those that were there present amongst those three. But the herald did not onelie know all the noble men within the realme of England, but also all such strangers as had in anie wise ercelled in Martiall prowesse, hauing all their acts and valiant dooings in fresh memorie, and there|vpon boldlie vttered his mind as followeth.

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The first, most woorthie and valiant chiefteine (said he) that hath liued in these our daies, was Henrie The heralds answer to the question. the emperour: for he subdued thrée kings and thrée realmes, and mainteined his imperiall estate and prosperous felicitie to his liues end. The second, was sir Giles of Argentine, who in thrée sundrie battels against the Saracens got the victorie, & slue two of their principall capteins with his owne hands. The third (if vnder your graces correction I may praisethe enimie) I must iudge to be Robert Bruse king of Scotland:
whom the herald had no sooner named, The herald is scorned. but all those that were present, with scornfull laugh|ter began to ieast at the heralds presumption, for that he durst so malapertlie in the kings presence honor the enimie with so high praise. At length, at the heralds request, the king commanded them to be still. The herald then began againe thus:
I beséech your highnesse (said he) if I haue ought offended, to The heralds [...]xcuss. take my woords in good part: for I haue beene euer of this opinion, that the truth should in euerie case be vttered, receiued, and allowed in your presence; namelie, where your highnesse commandeth anie man to declare the same. This one thing therefore I shall desire you to consider, that if a man must The heralds opinion. néeds be vanquished, it is lesse dishonor to be van|quished of him that is knowne for a right valiant personage, than of him that is but a coward. More|ouer, to shew plainelie vnto your grace, how much I estéeme the valiancie of king Robert (whome I perceiue some here may not abide to haue numbred with the two former most valiant capteins) if truth might appeare, I durst be bold to preferre him with good cause before them both: for the valiant acts at|chiued by Henrie the emperour may be ascribed rather to the wisedome of his councellors, than to his owne valiantnesse and prudence: but contrari|lie, The opinion of the herald concerning king Roberts valiancie. king Robert being confined out of his countrie, and destitute of friends and all conuenient aid, re|couered the realme of Scotland, by his singular manhood, out of the hands of your noble father, and established it with such tranquillitie, that he appea|red more terrible to his enimies of England, than euer they had béene afore to his subiects of Scot|land.
¶ These or the like words vttered by the he|rald, were well allowed of the king, and stopped the mouths of them that tooke the matter so strange|lie at the first.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 But now to returne to the purpose. King Robert a little before the time of his death, called togither into the chamber where he laie, the chiefest péeres of his realme, and there in presence of them all, com|mitted vnto them the gouernment of his sonne Da|uid, a child as then not past seuen yéeres of age. He also aduised them of sundrie things touching the rule of the realme after his decease, which he perceiued was at hand. And first he counselled them, that in no wise they should at anie time make an absolute lord The aduise giuen by king Robert vnto his nobles be|fore his de|ceasse. ouer the Iles, bicause the people of the same are of nature vnstedfast, and soone seduced and brought to mooue rebellion against the king, into the which be|ing once fallen, they are not easilie reduced to their due obedience againe, by reason their countries are of such strength, that they cannot be approched but by sea, as inuironed with the same. Secondarilie, he ad|uised them neuer to appoint anie set battell with the Englishmen, nor to ieopard the realme vpon the chance of one field: but rather to resist and keepe them off from indamaging their countrie, by often skirmishing, & cutting them off at streicts & places of aduantage, to the intent that if the Scots be dis|comfited, they may haue some power yet reserued to make new resistance. Thirdlie, he forbad them in a|nie wise to make any long peace with England; for naturallie men wax dull and slouthfull by long rest and quietnes, so that after long peace, through lacke of vse and exercise of armes, men are not able to susteine anie great paines or trauell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Morouer, he alledged, how the Englishmen would continue in peace no longer than there wanted o|portunitie and conuenient occasion for them to at|tempt the warres: and therefore he iudged it best, that the Scots should neuer conclude anie perpetu|all peace with them, nor take anie truce longer than for thrée or foure yéeres at the most. He willed them further, to consider one thing, that when their appea|red least occasion of warres with England, then they ought to be most circumspect, least peraduen|ture their enimies should come at vnwares, and find them vnprouided for timelie resistance. Herevnto he desired them, that after his deceasse, they would His desire to haue his heart borne to the holy sepulchre choose some one of the most worthie capteins within the whole realme, to beare his heart vnto Ierusa|lem, and there to sée it buried within the temple, be|fore the holie sepulchre of our Lord. For if he had not beene for a long space hindered by vrgent busi|nesse of warres at home, and lastlie preuented by death, he had vowed to haue passed with an armie into the holie land, in defense of the christian faith, a|gainst the Turkes and Saracens.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Herevpon when he was dead, the lords by one as|sent, The cause why the Dow+glasses beare the bloudie heart. appointed sir Iames Dowglasse to take this enterprise in hand, who willinglie obeied their order, as he that had euer during the life of king Robert, serued most faithfullie the bodie wherein the same heart was inclosed, & for this cause the Dowglasses beare the bloudie heart in their armes. Fr. Thin. The com|mendations of which king Robert, Buchanan setteth foorth (to comprehend manie things in few words) to be: that he was euerie way a most woorthie person, and that there were few to be found (from the for|mer heroicall daies) equall vnto him in all kinds of vertue. For as he was in battell most valiant, so There is no bodie but hath his shadow, no rese but hath his pricke. was he in peace most temperate & iust. And though his vndiuided good successe and perpetuall course of victories (after that fortune was once satisfied or ra|ther weried with his misfortunes) were verie great, yet he séemeth to Buchanan to be farre more woon|derfull in his aduerse fortune: whose valure of mind was such, that it could not be broken (no not so much as weakened) by so manie euils as happened vnto him at one time: whose singular constancie appea|red by the captiuitie of his wife, and the death of his valiant brethren. And besides that, his friends were EEBO page image 228 at one time vexed with all kind of calamities, and they which escaped death, were banished with the losse of their sustance: he himselfe was not onelie spoiled of all his patrimonie, but of the kingdome also, by the mightiest king of that age Edward the first, king of England, a man most readie in counsell, and of dispatch of his affaires as well in warre as peace. Yea, so farre was this Bruse oppressed at one time with all these kinds of euils, that he was driuen into extreame pouertie. In all which misfortunes he ne|uer doubted of the recouerie of the kingdome, nei|ther did or said anie thing vnbeseeming the noble Hyperbolicall commenda|tions. mind of a king, for he offered no violent hands to himselfe, as did the late Cato and Marcus Brutus, neither with Marius did he pursue his enimies with continuall hatred. For when he had recouered his former estate, he so liued with them that most occa|sioned his labour and trouble, that he rather remem|bred himselfe to be a king ouer them, and not an eni|mie vnto them. To conclude, he did not so forsake himselfe towards his end (when a grieuous disease added troubles to age) but that he confirmed and established the present estate of the kingdome, and prouided for the quiet of posteritie, whereby his sub|iects did not so much lament his death, as that they were depriued of so iust a king and godlie father.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Sir Iames Dowglasse then chosen as most wor|thie to passe with king Roberts heart vnto the ho|lie land, closed the same in a case of gold, imbalmed with sweet spices, & right pretious ointments. And herewith hauing in his companie a number of no|bles, and gentlemen, amongst whom sir William Sinclare and sir Robert Logan were chiefe, he pas|sed foorth till he came to the citie of Ierusalem, where he buried the heart aforesaid, with all reuerence and solemnitie that he might deuise. This doone, he resor|ted with such number as he had brought thither with The valian|cie of Iames Dowglasse shewd against the Turkes. him, vnto such other christian princes as at the same time were gathered with great puissance, from sun|drie parts of christendome to war with the Turks, and there in companie with them, he did so noble ser|uice against the common enimies of our religion, that by his often victories he wan great honor to the christian name. At length, hauing accomplished his charge in those parties, with no lesse fame and glo|rie than princelie magnificence, he tooke the seas to haue returned home into Scotland: but by force of Iames Dow|glas commeth on land in Spaine. contrarie winds he was driuen on the coast of Spaine, landing there vpon the borders of Grana|do, where at the same time he found the king of A|ragon, readie to make warres against the Sara|cens that inhabited in those parties.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Dowglasse, to make his manhood and pro|wesse the more knowne in all parts where he came, offered the king of Aragon to serue vnder him in those warres against the infidels, and so fought at sundrie times in his support against the enimies, with prosperous successe, till at length hauing too much confidence in fortunes fauour (which hath brought so manie noble men to their deaths) hée waxed negligent, and tooke small regard of dangers that might insue, so that in the end, he was inclosed by an ambush laid for him by the enimies, and there Iames Dow|glas slaine by the Saracens in Spaine. slaine amongst them, with all such as he had about him. This was the end of that noble Dowglasse, one of the most valiant knights that liued in his daies. He had gotten the victorie 57 sundrie times in fight against the Englishmen, and 13 times a|gainst How often Iames Dow|glasse had got the victorie. the Turkes, at it is written at length (saith Bellenden) in Scotichronicon. He might haue beene right necessarie for the defense of Scotland, if his chance had béene to haue returned home in safetie. He ended his life in maner (as is before mentioned) on the 26 day of August, in the yere of Grace 1330. 1330.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 BUt now to procéed in order with the historie, yee Dauid. shall note, that after the decease of king Robert, his sonne Dauid, a child scarse seuen yéeres of age, was proclamed king, and afterwards crowned at Scone, the 23 day of Nouember, in the yéere of our Lord 1331. During the time of his minoritie, earle 1331. Earle Tho|mas Randall gouernor of Scotland. Thomas Randall was ordeined gouernor of the realme, who for the space of foure yéeres in the latter end of K. Roberts reigne, had the whole administra|tion of things committed to his charge by the same king, for that by reason of sicknesse he was not able to attend the same himselfe. This earle Thomas then being elected gouernor by the generall consent of all the nobles of the realme, considered with himselfe, how necessarie it was for the people to continue in peace, till they had somewhat recouered their hinde|rance & losses chanced to them by the former wars. He addressed therefore certeine ambassadors imme|diatlie after the death of king Robert, vnto the king Ambassadors sent into England. of England, to require a new confirmation of the peace betwixt both the realmes for a season. These ambassadours found the king of England easie i|nough to be intreated for the grant of their sute, so that a generall truce was taken for the space of thrée A truce for thrée yeeres. yéeres.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In that meane time, earle Thomas applied his whole studie for the maintenance of iustice and equi|tie through the whole realme, not omitting yet to ap|point order, that men should be prouided of armor and weapon for defense of the countrie, if neces|sitie so required. [Wherefore when he was going to Fr. Thin. Buchanan. Uictone (a towne in Galloway) woord was brought to him, that there was a strong assemblie of théeues in that countrie, besetting the high waies, and spoi|ling the passengers: whervpon sending foorth a com|panie of his followers, he apprehended and hanged them all, not fauouring anie vnder pretext of deuo|tion or religion. For one of them latelie come from Rome (and safe as he supposed by the charter of the popes pardon) was also apprehended and executed by appointment of this Randall, saieng, that the par|don of the fault belonged to the pope, but the punish|ment thereof belonged to the king.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Moreouer, for the better proofe of exercising iu|stice amongst them that coueted to liue by truth, and to haue more readie occasion to punish others that ment the contrarie, he commanded the saddles and bridles, with all other such instruments and stuffe A meane to haue iustice executed. as perteined to husbandrie, should be left abroad both day and night without the doores: and if it chan|ced that anie of them were stollen or taken awaie, the shiriffe of the shire should either cause the same to be restored againe, or else to paie for it on his owne pursse. Finallie, such punishment was exercised Punishment of théeues. against théeues in all places, that both theft and pil|fering were quite suppressed, and the realme brought to more tranquillitie than euer it was in anie kings daies before. Manie insolent and misruled persons were tamed by his seuere chastisement and iustice. Also that vertue might bée cherished within the A laudable ordinance a|gainst vaga|rant persons. realme, he commanded that no vagabund nor idle person should be receiued into anie towne or place, except they had some craft or science wherewith to get their liuings. By this meanes he purged the realme of Scotland of manie idle & slouthfull roges and vagabunds.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 It is said, that during the time whilest such streict punishment was exercised against offendors, by the ministers of the lawes thereto by him authorised and assigned: it fortuned that a carle of the countrie, bi|cause he durst not steale other mens goods, stole his owne plow irons, that he might haue the value of them recompensed to him by the shiriffe: neuerthe|lesse, such earnest diligence was vsed in the search EEBO page image 229 and triall, who had the plow irons, that finallie the truth came to light, wherevpon for his craftie false|hood the partie giltie was hanged, as he had well de|serued. Upright iu|stice. The gouernor himselfe, for that he saw how hard it was to reduce them that had beene brought vp in slouthfull loitering, vnto honest exercise, held euer about him a gard of warlike persons, that hée might the more easilie oppresse all stubborne often|dors, which would not submit themselues to his com|mandements. Those that appeared before him, vpon summons giuen, had fauourable iustice, tempe|red Iustice tem|pered with mercie. with much mercie ministred vnto them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Others that refused to obeie, were pursued with his gard, and hanged euer as they were taken: as it happened on a time at Haddington, where threescore euill and naughtie disposed persons being gathered togither, robbed and spoiled the people on each side: Stubborne rebels sharpe|lie punished. and for that they regarded not, but rather misused a purseuant, whom he sent vnto them, they were all ta|ken incontinentlie by his foresaid gard, which follo|wed the said purseuant at the heeles, and without re|spit hanged them vp on gibbets to giue example to others. Thorough such rigorous iustice, no rebel|lion was heard of within the realme of Scotland K Edward enuieth the felicitie of the Scots. manie yeres after, so that such tranquillitie folowed, that not onelie theeues and loitering lubbers were daunted, but the realme also aduanced in wealth and riches, to the great terror of all the foes and enimies thereof. King Edward aduertised of this great fe|licitie chanced to the Scots by this meanes, began to enuie the same, and imagined with himselfe, that if earle Thomas, the author of the same felicitie were dispatched out of the way, it should not onelie impeach the procéeding of so great wealth to the Scots, but also make for the suertie of the realme of England: for the singular manhood and high pro|wesse of this earle was by him and other his nobles sore suspected.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 He thought good therefore to attempt the thing by sleight, which might not be doone by force, that after|wards K. Edwards purpose to de|stroie earle Thomas (as the Scots doo write.) But this is a kind of practise a|mongst men to forge slan|derous re|ports to bring princes in contempt. the realme of Scotland might be the more inféebled, and as it were made open to receiue dis|pleasure at his hands. For king Dauid was yoong, and manie of his nobles bare small good will ei|ther towards him, or his house, for the slaughter of their fathers and friends in the blacke parlement. Herevpon he deuised, which way he might best de|stroie earle Thomas, the onlie confounder of all his imagined hope, as to atchiue anie luckie enterprise against the Scots. At length he deuised to dispatch him by poison: and after he had long debated by whome he might worke that feat: finallie he found none so fit for his purpose, as a moonke of the order and facultie of those, that wandering from place to place, can with dissembling visage say that thing with mouth, which they neuer thought in heart: for oftentimes men of that order, put no difference be|twixt shame and honestie, cloking their execrable wickednesse vnder the feined shadow of their hypo|criticall cowles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This moonke, fullie instructed in that wherabout he was sent, came into Scotland, and feming him|selfe I moonke sent into Scotlãd to poison the gouernor. The fittest in|strument to bring such a thing to passe. to be a physician, got credit within a while a|mongst the people, to be a man of most excellent knowledge, for he had a companion with him, that being made priuie to the matter, set foorth his cun|ning and practise to the vttermost, declaring what notable and most desperat cures he had taken in hand, and made the patients perfectlie whole of the same, where all other had quite giuen them ouer: namelie he bruted it abroad, that for healing of the stone and grauell, his like was not to be found in all chastendome, as euidentlie had appeared by cures which he had shewed vpon sundrie noble men, both in England and France. This he spake, for that it was knowne, how the lord gouernor was sore vexed with that disease, hoping by this meanes to haue him in cure, that he might thereby the more easilie worke his diuelish enterprise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 And euen according to his desire it came to passe: for being taken for such a man as he was named to be, he was sent for to the gouernour, and comming before him, he handeled the matter so with woords, that the gouernour was contented he should take him in hand, which he did with such wicked intention, that persuading him to keepe such diet as he prescri|bed, and héerewith to take such sirrups & other things as he would giue him, at length he most traitorou|slie poisoned him in deed. The venem was of such mixture, as would not slea him out of hand, but by little and little waste his entrails, that the moonke The gouernor is poisoned. might haue leasure to escape home into England, yer it were perceiued what he had doone. He there|fore after he had ministred his wicked poison, found meanes to conueie himselfe out of the waie, and re|turned most spéedilie into England, informing king The moonke fléeth. Edward how he had delt. The gouernor féeling him|selfe tormented dailie woorse and woorse in his sto|mach and wombe, and hearing that the moonke was gone, and minded not to returne to him againe, he began to doubt the matter, and shortlie after learned by physicians that he was poisoned, and that the ve|nem had taken such hold within his bowels, that it was not possible to remooue it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time was king Edward come with K. Edward his purpose to inuade Scot|land. an armie to the borders, purposing to inuade Scot|land, for that he thought how the gouernour was ei|ther dead, or at the verie point of death, and therefore he was in hope, that comming in time of the trouble vpon his death into Scotland, he should find occasion to atchiue some enterprise, highlie to his aduantage. But the gouernour aduertised heereof, raised a pow|er, and though he were not able either to ride or go, The gouer|nour in an horsselitter is caried foorth to incounter the English|men. An herald sent to the go|uernour. yet he caused himselfe to be caried foorth in an horsse|litter. King Edward hearing that the gouernour was comming towards him with an armie, & that himselfe in person quite contrarie to his expectation, he sent an herald vnto him for meane of communi|cation of some peace, as was outwardlie pretended, though nothing else was ment but that he should es|pie how all things in the Scotish campestood. The gouernour hearing of this heralds comming, arrai|ed himselfe in his best apparell, that it might appéere he was rather recouered of his infirmitie, than o|therwise weake and féeble thorough his disease, and then causing the herald to be brought before him, where he was set in a chaire, to heare what his mes|sage was, which consisting in certeine demands not greatlie agreeable to reason, the gouernour with bold countenance answered, that he trusted within short time to make it knowne, what right the English|men had to mooue such vnreasonable requests, and The gouer|nours answer to the herald. thus dispatching the herald, he gaue him all such gor|geous and rich apparell as he ware at the same time when he thus talked with him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Edward at the returne of the herald, not perceiuing otherwise by his report, but that the go|uernor was in health, he returned immediatlie with his armie into England, and licencing euerie man to depart to his home, laid hands on the moonke, and The moonke is burnt. as one that had dissembled with his prince (for so he tooke it) caused him to be burnt for his vntruth. Thus was the wretch righteouslie recompensed, as he had most iustlie deserued. In the meane time, the gouer|nour returning homewards, through force of the ve|nem still increasing, deceassed at Muscleburgh, and was buried at Dunfirmling, in the yéere of our re|demption Fr. Thin. Buchanan. 1331. 1331. [He left behind him two sonnes, EEBO page image 230 Thomas and Iohn, woorthie such a father, they being persons of great valure, and friends to their natiue countrie.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After his deceasse, by common consent of the three estates of the realme in councell assembled, Patrike Two gouer|nours chosen to rule Scot|land. earle of March, and Dauid earle of Mar were chosen gouernors, the first (that is to say, the earle of March) had the charge of that part of the realme which lieth on the south side of the Forth, and the other (that is to say, the earle of Mar) was appointed to gouerne all that on the north side. Shortlie after rose great trouble in Scotland by meanes of Edward Balioll, the son of Iohn Balioll before remembred, as thus: It chanced there was one Twinam Lorison, a Twinam Lo|rison. gentleman borne, but spotted with vile conditions, as adulterie, and diuerse other, for the which being put vnder censures of the church by the officiall of Glas|cow: he tooke at length the same officiall as he was going towards the towne of Aire, and held him in captiuitie, till he had paied two hundred pounds for his deliuerance. But this iniurie remained not long vnpunished: for sir Iames Dowglasse, before his passage to the holie land, would not suffer him to rest, till he had constreined him to flée into England for his more safegard.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 At his comming into England, he met with Da|uid Cumin earle of Atholl, and manie other Sco|tishmen, Scotish lords banished into England. which were banished in times past by king Robert, for that they assisted the king of England a|gainst him. These persons being driuen out of the realme, and consederat altogither in one band, re|mained in England long time after, euer trusting to sée some occasion offered, whereby they might one day returne againe into their owne natiue coun|trie. And now, hearing that earle Thomas Kandall the gouernour was deceassed, this Twinam Lori|son Twinam Lo|rison sent vn|to Edward Balioll. in name of them all was sent ouer into France to persuade Edward Balioll to attempt the recoue|rie of the crowne and realme of Scotland, as the rightfull heritage of his father, and descended vnto him as lawfull and rightfull heire. Though the Bali|oll had no regard to make anie claime at all to the crowne of Scotland before this time, yet through the pithie persuasions of the earnest messenger, decla|ring how easie a matter it were for him to atchiue, considering the aid which he should haue in England, both at the kings hands, and also by the Scotishmen which remained there in exile, by whose meanes he might assure himselfe of support inough within Scot|land it selfe, after he was once entered: finallie he concluded to passe ouer into England, to proue what purchase he might make there.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 At his comming thither, he made sute to the king, to aid him in his righteous quarell towards the at|teining Edward Ba|lioll commeth into England of the crowne of Scotland, which if he might bring to passe with prosperous successe, he promised to hold the same of him and his successors as superi|or lords The promise of the Balioll to K. Edward K. Edward d [...]oth agrée to aid the Bali|oll. The English writers speak but of two thousand, or 2500. at the most. Ri. Southwell. thereof. King Edward gladlie vpon that condition, condescended to his request, notwithstan|ding the aliance contracted with king Dauid, by the mariage of him with his sister. Heerewith he appoin|ted foorth six thousand men well apparelled and arai|ed for the warre, to passe by sea with the Balioll, and other the confederats into Scotland, trusting that vpon their arriuall there, they should find no small number of friends to assist them. For beside the Ba|lioll, there was the lord Henrie Beaumount a Frenchman, who had maried the earle of Buthquha|nes daughter and heire: also the earles of Atholl & Angus [the lords Persie and Wake, Richard Tal|bot, Fr. Thin. Henrie Ferres, Iohn Mowbraie] & other Sco|tish lords such as were banished Scotland, when K. Robert le Bruse recouered it out of the English|mens hands. These were appointed to go with the Balioll to assist him in that enterprise: and likewise the lord Stafford, and diuerse other English cap|teins, wherevpon when all their prouision was once readie, with the number appointed them by king Ed|ward, Edward Ba|lioll landeth in Scotland. and a few others, they got them a shipboord, and sailing foorth by the coast till they entered into the Forth, at length they came on land néere the towne of Kingorne, and shortlie after, incountring with A|lexander Seiton, they slue him, and put his folkes to Alexander Seiton is [...]aine. The caries of Mar and March ga|ther their people. flight.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Balioll verie ioifull of this happie successe, came with his people to Perth, otherwise called S. Iohns towne, whereof the earles of Mar and March being aduertised, they raised two mightie armies, and ha|sted toward the enimies, not as though they should haue to doo with men of warre, but to chastise a num|ber of théeues and robbers that were come out of England. Yet at length they concluded to ioine both togither in Stratherne, that they might iointlie set vpon their enimies both at once. The Balioll séeing the matter brought so farfoorth, that no feare of death nor starting-hole by flight might auaile him, boldlie came forward, and pitched downe his tents at Du|plin Edward Ba|lioll at Du|plin. néere to the water of Erne, trusting that if his armie would stand to it, and fight with manlike con|stancie, he should weild his enimies well inough, notwithstanding their huge number. The same night came the earle of Mar with his power, and incamped with the same within sight of the English armie, but the earle of March lodged about fiue miles from thence, at Othirardour.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The Scots that were with the earle of Mar, ha|uing knowledge of the small number of their eni|mies, made no accounts of them, so that they neither The negli|gence of the Scots. tooke héed to their watch, nor to anie other order for defense of themselues, but fell to singing, dansing, re|uelling, and drinking, in most dissolute manner. The Balioll taking occasion héereof, determined to as|saile them the same night in their campe; and there|vpon causing his people to make them readie to ac|complish that enterprise, in the dead of the night he issued foorth of his campe, and comming vnto the water of Erne, passeth the same by the foord, where one Andrew Murrey of Tullibard had pight a stake of set purpose, in midst of the streame, to shew them the waie. Thus hauing got all his armie ouer the wa|ter, without anie noise or din, so secretlie as might be deuised, he entered the campe of his enimies, and brake through till he came to the tent of the earle of Mar, the Scots generall, before he was once descri|ed. Héere at the first was the earle himselfe slaine, The earle of Mar is slaine in his bed. lieng fast asléepe in his bed, & after with huge noise they set vpon the whole campe, murdering the Scots as then buried in sléepe without all defense. And therevpon followed so cruell slaughter, that nothing Sée more héereof in England. was heard but grunting and groning of people, as they lay on heapes readie to die, weltering togither in their owne bloud. And if it had not béene that Ed|ward Balioll had caused ech of his men to wrap a white cloth about his arme, no man might haue knowne (by reason of the darknesse of the night) his friend from his fo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The Englishmen were so earnestlie be [...]t to the slaughter of Scots, that they might not be filled with the bloud and murder of them, so that they sa|ued The great slaughter of Scots. Sixteene thousand saith Ric. South|well. The earle of Mar was not slaine in the night as be|fore ye haue heard, but [...] in the [...] fol|lowing as such South|well. stble [...] slaine at Duplin. none whome they might ouertake. There were slaine of nobles and gentlemen, to the number of three thousand, beside innumerable of the commons. Acerteine number of the Scots that escaped out of the place, closed themselues togither, and in purpose to be reuenged on the Englishmen for the death of their fellowes, returned vpon them againe, and were slaine themselues euerie mothers sonne. The chiefest nobles that were slaine at this battell, were EEBO page image 231 these, the earle of Mar generall of the armie, Ro|bert Bruse earle of Carrike, Alexander Fraseir knight, William Haie constable of Scotland, with all his linage so wholie, that had not his wife as then being great bellied, beéne afterwards deliuered of a sonne, all his surname had beene vtterlie extingui|shed. [Wherevpon saith Buchan. Thomas Randolph, Robert Bruse, William Seintclere bishop of Dun|keld, [...]. Thin. and Doncan Makduffe despairing of good suc|cesse, sware fealtie to Balioll.] There were slaine also Robert Keith marshall of the realmé, with ma|nie of his surname, Dauid Lindseie of [...], Alexander [...]eiton, George Dunbar, Robert S [...]a|thaquhen, Thomas Hal [...]on, and Iohn Skrim|geour knights, with manie other ouerlong to re|hearse. The earle of [...] taken. The earle of [...] & a few other were taken. This battell was fought on the thirtéenth day of August, in the yeare 1332. After that Edward Ba|lioll 1332. H. B. had atchiued this victorie thus at Duplin, he went straightwaies vnto Perth (otherwise called saint Iohns towne) and giuing assalt thereto, quicke|lie Perth [...]ne [...] Balioll entered it by force, without anie great resistance. The earle of March that lodged (as is said) the same night that the battell was sought, not past fiue miles off, hearing what had chanced both in the battell and towne, came with his people arraied in good and per|fect order vnto Perth aforesaid, to besiege the Eng|lishmen with Edward Balioll and other as then within it. But hauing lien there a cérteine space Perth besie|ged by the erle of March and filled the ditches in the meane time to such ad|uantage, that it was thought if he had giuen the as|salt, he must needs haue entered, he suddenlie rai|sed from thence, and departed, to the vnspeakeable damage (as was thought) of the whole Scotish na|tion. He raiseth his siege. The siege being thus raised, there came dailie great numbers of nobles and commons to the Ba|lioll, offering him their aid and seruice as his loiall subiects, towards the atteining of his right to the crowne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 HErevpon, perceiuing his power sufficientlie in|creased, and receiuing the othes of the earle of Fife, and William de Seintclere bishop of Dun|keld, he went accompanied with them and a great number of other, vnto Scone, where he was crow|ned Edward Balioll crowned king of Scotland, not the 24 of September, but the fourth of October, as Ri. Southwell saith. the 24 day of September, in the yeare last be|fore remembred, and receiued there the same time the homages and fealties of a great companie of no|bles & gentlemen, at that solemne feast there assem|bled. King Dauid being not past nine yeares of age, to auoid all dangers in that troublesome time, as destitute of succors, by aduise of his councell, was conueied ouer into France with quéene Iane his King Dauid is conueied ouer into France. wife, sister to Edward king of England, and was most friendlie receiued by Philip king of France the sixt of that name, so that they remained there with him for the space of nine yeares. And in the meane time diuers noble men that yet remained at Ri. Southwell. the deuotion of king Dauid, vnderstanding that K. Edward le Balioll soiourned within the towne of Perth, otherwise called saint Iohns towne, which standeth almost in the middle part of the realme, and was at that present not closed with anie wall, or rampire, they raised their powers, and besieged him within the same towne, he hauing as then no Saint Iohns towne besie|ged. great companie about him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Whereof when they of Galloway had aduertise|ment, because the king was their speciall lord and chiefe gouernor, they assembled togither vnder the conduct of the lord Eustace de Makeswell, and inua|ded the lands of those Scotishmen that had thus be|sieged their lord king Edward Balioll, and by that means constreined the aduersaries to leuie their siege. Wherevpon earle Patrike and the new earle of Murrey, with the lord Andrew de Murrey, and the lord Archembald Dowglasse, with an armie as|sembled Galloway in|uaded. in all spéed, entered into Galloway, dooing all the mischiefe they could deuise, with fire & sword, taking & bringing away from thence a great num|ber of cattell and other goods; but they slue no great number of people, for they found them not at home, being withdrawen out of the way for feare of this terrible inuasion. Thus did the Scots in that part of the realme spoile & harrie each others countries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time, king Edward le Balioll for|tified the towne of Perth, appointing the earle of Saint Iohns towne forti|fied. Fife to the kéeping thereof, whilest he with an ar|mie passed into the countrie; but before he returned, his aduersaries (that is to say) the sonnes of them that had béene slaine at the battell of Duplin, Ro|bert Keith, Alexander Lindseie, Iames and Simon Fraseir wan S. Iohns towne in the third moneth, after they had laid siege thereto, as Hector Boetius Saint Iohns towne woone. saith. But whither that is to be intended after the first besieging thereof, or now after their last co [...]ing thither, I can not affirme; but as the same Boetius writeth, now when the towne was woone, the earle of Fife, and Andrew Murrey of Tullibard, were taken, with other of their complices. The earle with his wife and children were sent to the castell of Kil|drummie, there to remaine vnder safe keeping; but Andrew Murrey for his treason afore committed, was beheadded. The towne being thus woone, was deliuered to the kéeping of Iohn Lindseie. But Buchan. out of an other author supposeth that it was not committed to the custodie of anie; but that the walls were pulled downe to the ground. The gai|ning of this towne put the Scots in hope of more prosperitie to succéed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 And therevpon Iohn Randoll the earle of Mur|rey, sonne to earle Thomas late of famous memo|rie, and Archembald Dowglasse lord of Galloway, the brother of Iames Dowglasse latelie slaine (as before is mentioned) in Spaine with Simon Fra|seir and others, gathered a great armie, and came with the same [and William Dowglasse lord of Lid|desdale Fr. Thin. to Maufet] against the Balioll, who being ad|uertised thereof, met them in Annandale, where in|countring togither, after cruell fight & great slaugh|ter The battell discomfited and put to flight in An|nandale. on both parts, at length Baliols part was put to the woorst, so that he himselfe was glad to flee, ha|uing got an horsse without a bridle, and rested not till he came to Roxburgh, or rather to Carleill, as Richard Southwell saith. In this battell were slaine sir Henrie Balioll, a man of great valiancie, sir Iohn Mowbraie, Walter Cumin, and Richard Kirkbie; but Alexander Bruse earle of Carrike, and the lord of Galloway were taken prisoners, and sa|ued by the helpe of the earle of Murrey, for that they had submitted themselues to the Balioll but latelie before. Shortlie after the atchiuing of this victorie, Andrew Murrey cho|sen fellow go|uernor with the earle of March. Andrew Murrey a man of great puissance and pos|sessions was chosen to be gouernor, as colleage and associat with the earle of March. These two gouer|nors, hearing that the king of England was min|ded to inuade Scotland with a maine armie, sent sir Alexander Seiton with manie other gentlemen vnto Berwike for defense of that towne and castell; [Alexander (as saith Buchan.) being capteine of the Fr. Thin. towne, and Patrike Dunbar capteine of the castle Andrew Murrey the new gouer|nor is taken prisoner. and borders aioining.] Shortlie after, the new go|uernor Andrew Murrey was taken prisoner at Roxburgh, by reason that hauing put his enimies to flight in a skirmish which he made with them at the bridge without the castell, he pursued ouer rash|lie in the chase, and was inclosed amongst them, and so taken yet he might be rescued. [At which time also Fr. Thin. William Dowglasse lord of Liddesdale was sent to Annandale, to defend the west marches.] There EEBO page image 232 was also taken beside the gouernor, a notable pirat Ri. Southwell. Crab, a pirat taken. named Crab, who before that time had doone ma|nie displeasures to the Englishmen both by sea and land: and now because his countriemen would not ransome him, but to his further griefe had slaine his sonne within Berwike, he became the king of Englands man, and did the Scots more damage afterwards, than euer he had doone to the English|men before. The gouernor at lengh was ransomed for a great summe of gold.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 About the same time William Dowglasse of Lid|desdale named for his singular manhood, The flower William Dowglasse of Liddesdale taken priso|ner. of chiualrie, fought with the Englishmen in Annan|dale, where himselfe was taken, and his people dis|comfited. Both these noble men thus taken priso|ners, were deteined in captiuitie more than [...] twelue moneths space, & then ransomed for a great summe of gold. This William Dowglasse was sonne to sir Iames Dowglasse, of whom so often mention is made heretofore. The realme of Scot|land being thus diuided in two parts, the one assi|sting the Balioll, and the other continuing in their allegiance sworne and promised to king Dauid: Edward king of England iudged the time to serue Edward king of England purposeth to subdue the Scots. well for his purpose to make conquest on the Scots, and herevpon gathering a mightie armie both of Englishmen and strangers, as well such as were subiects to him as other, whome he reteined out of Normandie, Aniou, and Flanders, he came with the same to subdue (as he outwardlie pretended) onelie such Scots as would not yéeld themselues to the Balioll. The Scots perceiuing themselues thus The earle of Murrey is sent into France. ouerset with enimies on each side, sent Iohn Ran|doll earle of Murrey int [...] France vnto king Dauid, that by his means they might purchase some aid of the French king to defend the realme from the force of the enimies. In the meane time the king of Eng|land besieged Berwike both by sea and land, not|withstanding such as were within it defended the Berwike is besieged. towne so manfullie that he got but small gaines by assaults; by reason whereof the siege continued for the space of foure moneths: during which time ma|nie issues and skirmishes were made betwixt the Scots and Englishmen, whereat manie proper feats of armes were at [...]hiued with variable fortune. Buchanan.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 William Seiton bastard sonne to the capteine of the towne was taken prisoner, and his bastard bro|ther, as he assailed the English ships one night ouer|fiercelie, was drowned by mischance in the sea. At length, when they within the towne began to want Sir Alexan|der Seiton capteine of Berwike. vittels, the capteine sir Alexander Seiton sent vn|to king Edward, promising that if he would grant a truce for the space of 6 daies, if no succour came in the meane time to resist his siege, the towne should be deliuered into his hands at the end of that terme; and for the assurance thereof, he was contented that his eldest sonne and heire Thomas Seiton should remaine with the said king in hostage. Whilest things passed thus at Berwike, the nobles of Scot|land Archembald Dowglasse chosen gouer|nor in place of Andrew Murrey. by common consent chose Archembald Dow|glasse to be gouernor in place of Andrew Murrey. This Archembald Dowglasse raising a mightie ar|mie of Scotishmen entered with the same into the borders of England, so to withdraw king Edward from the siege of Berwike to defend his owne lands from burning and spoiling. But king Edward ad|uertised hereof, deuised an other shift; for immedi|atlie sending a messenger to sir Alexander Seiton capteine of the towne, he certified him plainelie, that vnlesse he rendered the towne forthwith into his hands, both his sonnes which he had with him, the one as hostage, and the other as prisoner, should be without further delay hanged on a gibbet there in sight afore his owne face.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Sir Alexander Seiton hereto answered, that as yet the terme of the truce was not expired, & there|fore desired the king either to obserue the couenants, or else to deliuer the pledges, that he might be at his aduantage: but king Edward (as saith the Scotish chronicle) immediatlie caused a paire of gallows to be raised before the towne, and both the sonnes of sir Alexander to be led thither, to suffer on the same without further respit. Sir Alexander Seiton be|holding that pitifull sight, and weieng with himselfe, that he might saue the liues of those innocent crea|tures, if he would, was brought into great perplexi|tie of mind: the naturall affection and compassion which he bare towards his sonnes mouing him to haue rendered the towne on the one side, and the du|tie Sir Alexan. Seiton in doubt what to doo. with faith promised to his king and countrie re|straining him from all such resolution on the other. But in the end, the tender regard he had to saue the liues of his sonnes, had ouercome him, and caused him to haue rendered the towne into his enimies hand, had not his wife and mother to his said sonnes, The man [...] stomach of A|lexander Sei|tons wife. exhorted him most earnestlie to the contrarie, alle|ging that such reproch and dishonor should redound vnto them, and their posteritie, if through their fault the towne were traitorouslie deliuered into the eni|mies hand, that from thenceforth they should be in|famed for euer: and as for the death of their sonnes, it was not to be counted a losse, for by this kind of death, they should win immortall name, & leaue to their parents the high honor and renowme of faith|full & loiall subiects. Againe they were yoong inough to beget and bring foorth new children, where they should be neuer able to recouer honor once lost; if by deliuering the towne into the enimies hands, they should séeme to betraie their countrie, & falsifie their faith to their naturall prince and souereigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 With such & manie other the like words, this noble & woorthie ladie persuaded hir husband to refraine his inward griefe, and brought him with right sor|rowfull and heauie chéere vnto his chamber, that through commiseration had of his sonnes, he should commit nothing either against his honor or weale of Sir Alexan|der Seitons sonnes execu|ted. Fr. Thin. the towne. In the meane time, his two sonnes were put to death, ending their liues (saith Hector Boe|tius) with most honor, for the righteous quarell of their countrie: [at what time K. Edward remoued his campe to Halidon hill.] Archembald Dowglasse the gouernor, being at that present entered into Northumberland with his armie, hearing that king Edward had thus cruellie put to death those two yoong gentlemen, came the third day after with all his power, and pitched downe his tents not far from Archembald Dowglas purposeth to giue battell. K. Edwards armie, fullie resolued to giue him bat|tell, as well to reuenge the displeasure for the death of the said gentlemen, as to deliuer the towne of Berwike from further danger of the enimies force.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Yet were there sundrie prudent councellors in the Scotish armie, that for diuers respects aduised him in no wise to fight with the enimies at that pre|sent, considering the huge number of practised soul|diers which they had amongest them, and the want of skilfull warriours on his side, hauing few with him saue yoongmen, and such as lacked experience in the wars, for that they had béene but little trained therein. Notwithstanding, he himselfe was of con|trarie opinion, iudging that the good willes and de|sire which his people had to fight with the English|men, should supplie their lacke of skill: and there|vpon determining to trie the chance of battell with them, commanded his armie to refresh themselues with meat, drinke, and sléepe for that night, and to prouide themselues readie for battell on the next morning. In the breake of the day he arraied his people in order of battell. The vauntgard was gi|uen EEBO page image 233 to Hugh, lord Rosse, hauing with him Kenneth The appoin|ting of the Scotish bat| [...]s. earle of Southerland, Simon and Iohn Fraseir, and Iohn Murrey lieutenant to the earle of Mur|rey, who as then was sore tormented with a grie|uous maladie or sicknesse. The second battell was committed to the gouernance of Alexander Lind|seie, with whome were ioined Alexander Gordon, Reinold Graham, and Robert Kenneth. In the third battell was the gouernor himselfe, accompanied with Iames, Iohn, and Alane Stewards, the sons of Walter great Steward of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 On the other part, the Englishmen were no|thing flow to come forward to incounter the Scots, The policie of the English men. but at the first to take the vantage of the ground, they gaue somewhat backe, withdrawing to the side of an hill, which they hauing once got, boldlie tur|ned themselues to the Scots that pursued them ouer rashlie, in hope that the victorie had béene alreadie theirs: but being here fiercelie receiued by the Eng|lishmen, and beaten downe in heaps on each side, though they inforced themselues with all their might to be reuenged both for old and new iniuries which they had receiued, and so slue no small number of The Scotish [...] put to [...]ight. the enimies; yet in the end was the Scotish armie put to flight, and more slaughter made in the chase, than was afore in the battell: for one wing of the Englishmen making forwards to get before the Scots, so stopped their passage, that they were slaine The great slaughter of Scots. miserablie on each side, as they had beene inclosed within a toile or deere-stall. There were but few in number that were taken prisoners, those on the next day were beheaded by commandement of king Ed|ward, except a small number which were kept se|cret by some of the Englishmen for profit of their ransome. There were slaine on that day of the bat|tell, The nu [...]ber of Scots slaine at Hal|lidon hill. to the number of fourtéene thousand men, a|mongest whome were these as principall: Archem|bald Dowglas the gouernour, Iohn Steward, Iames Steward, and Alane Steward, the sonnes of Walter Steward; the earle of Rosse, the earle of Southerland, Alexander Bruse earle of Carrike, Andrew, Iames, and Simon Fraseir. This bat|tell was fought on Magdalen day, in the yeare of Grace. 1333.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 ¶ That this number and therewith manie mo doo 1333. H. B. Buchanan. abound by one yeare, Wil. Harison dooth gather to|gither by the Ferias. feries, because Adam Meremouth saith, that Magdalen day fell on the monday this yeare, and that the morrow after being tuesday, Berwike was surrendered. But for so much as the same Meremouth maie be perhaps deceiued, or mis|taken herein: I haue here thought good (as in other places) to note in the margent the yeare, according to the account of Hector Boetius, speciallie in this place, the rather because he agréeth with Richard Southwell, Robert Auesburie, and other of our Eng|lish writers, concerning this yeare in which this bat|tell was fought: but where the same Boetius saith, that it was fought on Magdalen day, R. Southwell, Robert Auesburie, Thomas Wals. and diuers other affirme, that it was fought the nintéenth of Iulie being saint Margarets euen. But now to procéed. The place where this battell was striken, is called Hallidon hill.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Immediatlie vpon this ouerthrow of the Scotish power, Alexander Seiton and Patrike Dunbar capteins of Berwike, despairing of all support, yéelded the towne to king Edward, with condition to haue their liues and goods saued, and to become The towne of Berwike yéelded to K. Edward on S. Marga|rets day, as Ri. Southwell. saith. subiects to king Edward. Herevpon, when they had receiued their oths, Patrike Dunbar was com|manded by king Edward, to build vp againe the castell of Dunbar vpon his owne costs and charges, for that he had throwen it downe, when he saw he was not able to defend it against the English power comming toward him. K. Edward accomplishing his desire, returned backe into England, leauing behind him with the Balioll, manie great lords of Richard Tal|bot. England (amongst whome for chiefe was Richard Talbot) that vsing the aduise and counsell of them he might rule the realme of Scotland as should be thought expedient. Edward Balioll herevpon went thorough all the bounds of Scotland, placing garri|sons All the for|tresses of Scotland [...] Ba [...]ols hands, fiue onelie except|ted. of Englishmen in most part of all the strengths and castels of the realme, for he had them all at his commandement, fiue of them onelie excepted, which were kept by such Scotishmen, as would not re|nounce their allegiance promised to king Dauid. For Dunbreton was kept by Malcolme Fleming of Enmirnald, Lochleuin by Alane of Uepont, the castell of Kildrummie by Christine Bruse, and U [...]qubart by Robert Lauder, the pile of Loudopin, a strong thing of so small a compasse, was in the kéeping of one Iohn Thomson [who were sup|ported Fr. Thin. with monie by Philip the French king] These capteins would by no means neither yéeld them|selues nor their fortresses to Edward Balioll, but defend them to the vttermost for the behoofe of their souereigne lord and maister king Dauid.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time, Philip king of France la|boured The popes ambassadors not regarded. to the pope, that he might by his authoritie cause the Englishmen to surceasse from further vexing the Scots, by their cruell inuasions made into their countrie: but when the popes ambassa|dors came about this matter into England, they were so little regarded, that they could not get li|cence to declare that message, and so were they glad to returne without dooing anie thing in the matter whereabout they were sent. Shortlie after was a parlement called at Perth, where Edward Balioll A parlement at Perth. was confirmed king of Scotland, a great number of the nobles promising thereby solemne oths, ne|uer to remooue anie rebellion against him in times to come. In the meane time rose great altercation betwixt Henrie Beaumont, and Alexander Mow|bray Strife betw [...] Mowbray & Beaumont. Fr. Thin. for certeine lands in Buchquhane [which Ed|ward the first had giuen Iohn Mowbray, brother of this Alexander.] Henrie Beaumont claimed those lands by the right of his wife, that was daughter to the said Alexander, but the Mowbray claimed them as heire to his brother.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After long contention, Mowbray had the lands adiudged to him by sentence of the Balioll, by rea|son whereof, Dauid Cumin earle of Atholl, and Ri|chard Talbot, fauouring the cause of Henrie Beau|mont, began to practise such conspiracies against the Balioll, that to auoid further danger, he was glad to repeale the former sentence by him giuen on the behalfe of Alexander Mowbray, and by new sen|tence adiudged the lands vnto Henrie Beaumont, for that (as was alledged) he had maried the inheri|tor thereof, which sentence he was constreined to change (saith Buchanan) by this means. 1334. Fr. Thin. Iohn Maior Balioll (fa|uouring Alexander) and hauing adiudged the mat|ter on his side, so offended the minds of the aduersa|ries, that they fear [...] not openly to complaine of the iniurie. But when they perceiued that they nothing profited therein by their speeches, they all departed from the court to their owne possessions of which fac|tion Talbot, whilest he goeth into England, was ta|ken and carried to Dunbreton: Beaumont doth strengthen Dungard a strong castell of Buchquhan, and not onelie maketh the land whereof the conten|tion was, but also [...] whole countrie adioining, to be subiect to his gou [...]nement. Cumin (returning to the part of Dauid Bruse) goeth into Atholl (whereof he was earle) and fe [...]sing the places of strength thereabouts, a [...]eth himselfe to withstand all force, EEBO page image 234 if anie be prepared against him. Balioll fearing the conspiracie of these great men, changeth his iudge|ment, and awardeth the lands (wherof the contention grew) to Beaumont, and reconciled Cumin vn|to him, by the gift of many rich possessions, that then belonged to Robert Steward, which shortlie after was king of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus through puissance of the parties, the truth in deciding the controuersie, might not onlie not haue place, but Balioll was also driuen to that extremitie, that he must haue one of them (with his faction) to be his enimies. For now Alexander, stroken with this iniurie (to haue the iudgement giuen before for him thus to be reuoked) forsaking the Balioll, ioined him selfe with Andrew Murrey gouernor of Scotland (for Dauid Bruse) hauing a little before ransomed himselfe, with a great masse of monie out of the Englishmens hands. These things (although doone at seuerall times) we haue ioined togither, least by often repeating of them in other places, the course of the historie might be broken: for (vpon this) An|drew Murrey besieged Beaumont in the castell of 1334. Scala chron. Dongard, the inheritance of his wife, where he sur|rendered the same, vpon condition that he might fréelie repaire into England: at what time also Ri|chard Talbot (being beyond the mounteins, in the inheritance of his wife the daughter of Iohn Cu|min of Scotland (for now manie English nobles possessed great reuenues in Scotland by mariages) hearing of these newes, that Balioll was forsaken Scala chron. Iohn Maior. by the earle of Atholl and Beaumont, would haue gone into England, but was taken in Lownes. ¶ This yeere the earle of March holding on the part of the king of England, came to him to Newcastell Scala. chron. vpon Tine, who returning homeward, was grie|uouslie wounded of the people of Northumberland, for couetousnes, to haue robbed him of such monie as K. Edward had liberallie bestowed vpon him.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Not long after this, Edward Balioll came to Rainfrew, and there receiuing the people into his o|beisance, The castels of Rothsaie and Dunnone de|liuered to the Balioll. Fr. Thin. had the keies of the castell of Rothsaie and Dunnone, brought vnto him by sir Alane Lile shiriffe of Bute [at what time the king gaue to him the kéeping of the castell of Rothsaie, hauing before made him shiriffe.] Thus did the Balioll increase in puissance, by such confluence of people as dailie submitted themselues vnto him, & he inriched them liberallie with lands and goods still as they came to him, thereby to win there good wils. He sought by all meanes possible to haue gotten Robert Ste|ward Robert Ste|ward. into his hands, as the person whome he knew to haue most right, next vnto king Dauid to the crowne of Scotland: but through the diligent fore|sight of his friends, this Robert Steward being a|bout the age of fiftéene yéeres, was conueied [with Fr. Thin. bote and horsse, by the helpe of William Hariot and Iohn Gilbert] to the castell of Dunbreton, where he was ioifullie receiued by Malcolme Fleming the capteine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Balioll being sore offended, that such ca|stels as were kept by his enimies were so great an impediment to his interprises, by succouring and re|lieuing his aduersaries to make warres against him, he got togither an armie, and the next yéere laid siege to the castell of Lochleuin: but perceiuing that this castell might not be woone without long siege, he appointed sir Iohn Striueling to continue the siege with a great power of men, vntill the castell were Lochleuin besieged. yeelded. There were left also with him, Michaell Ha|riot, Dauid We [...]s, and Richard Maleuill, with diuerse other. These capteins aduising the place and site of the castell, lodged themselues within the churchyard of saint Serfe, beside Kinrosse, making bastiles and other defenses within the same, for their more safegard. Within the castell were two valiant Alane Uepõt and Iames Lambie cap|teins of Loch|leu [...]. capteins to defend it, the one named Alane Uepont and Iames Lambie, citizens of saint Andrews.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The enimies assaied all the meanes that might be deuised to haue woone this castell, but all was in vaine. At length, they deuised a subtill sleight, where|by to compasse their intent, on this wise. They went about to dam vp the mouth of the riuer where it issu|eth A deuise to drowne the castell. out of the Loch, with earth, trées, & stones, that the water being so kept in, might rise to such an height, that it should ouerflow the castell, and so drowne all the people within it. And to cause the Loch to swell more speedilie, they turned the course of diuerse riuers and brookes in the countrie there|abouts, and brought them into the same Loch. It chanced at the same time, that sir Iohn Striueling capteine of the siege, with a great part of the armie, went vnto Dunfirmling for deuotion sake, to visit the shrine of saint Margaret, sometime quéene of Scotland. Whereof Alane Uepont then capteine of the castell, hauing vnderstanding, about mid|night prepared three botes, and taking certeine soul|diers with him, rowed foorth to the head of the dam or water, and there, with such engins as he had de|uised for the purpose, assaied to boare through and make a hole in the banke or rampire that kept vp the water, which when they had brought to passe, they re|turned quickelie againe to the castell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The water hauing once gotten an issue, within a while ware the hole so large, that entering with more violence, it finallie brake downe the banke, and rushed foorth with such an huge streame, that it bare downe all afore it, drowning vp the bastils and The bastiles and tents of them that lay at siege drowned. tents of them that lay at siege there, and caried the same with men and all downe into the déepe sea, they were so suddenlie taken, yer they could make anie shift to escape. Alane Uepont, when the water was fallen to the old marke, issued foorth of the ca|stell, & setting vpon those that had escaped the dan|ger of the water, slue part of them, and put the rem|nant to flight. Iohn Striueling hearing the mis|chiefe that had happened to his folks, returned to the siege, and made a vow neuer to depart from thence, till he had taken the castell, and slaine all them with|in it. But yet, after he had laine there a long time, and saw it was not possible to win that fortresse, he was constreined to raise his siege, and to go his waies, after he had lost thereat no small number of his people. This siege of Lochleuin chanced in the Lent season, in the yéere 1335. 1335.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the yéere following, king Edward prepared an armie both by sea and land, to enter into Scot|land. He sent by sea 70 ships well and sufficientlie K. Edward inuadeth Scotland both by sea and land. decked for the warres, to enter by the Forth: but by a sore tempest manie of those vessels perished be|twixt I [...]chketh and the Northland. He himselfe ha|uing the Balioll in his companie, with fiftie thou|sand men, came by land vnto Glascow, and percei|uing there was little for him to doo, for that no rebel|lion greatlie anie where appeared, he returned backe againe into England with the Balioll, and left Da|uid Cumin earle of Atholl gouernor in his roome, to subdue the residue of the rebels, and to win those strengths, which as yet were defended against him. Dauid Cumin left thus to be gouernor in Scotland, Dauid Cu|min earle of Atholl gouer|nor of the Ba|lioll in Scot|land. tooke vpon him the rule in name both of the king of England, and also of the Balioll, and seized into his hands all those lands in Murrey and Buchquhane, which perteined to Robert Steward, confiscating all the goods of such the inhabitants, as would not be sworne vnto him. [Who notwithstanding that hee Fr. Thin. Buchanan. was of such great authoritie in Scotland, of credit with both kings, Edward of England, & Edward of Scotland, and of excéeding great possessions of EEBO page image 235 his owne, would yet neuer vsurpe anie superioritie to him himselfe in stile, but passed all the grants and writings in the name of Edward king of England, and of Balioll king of Scots. At what time none would publikelie professe him a subiect to Dauid Bruse, but boies, who in their plaies & games would alwaies call their king, Dauid Bruse.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Incontinentlie héerevpon, Robert Steward as|sembled his friends by the helpe of Dungall Camp|bell of Lochquhow, and suddenlie tooke the castell of Dunnone, sleaing all the Englishmen and other, The castell of Dunnone ta|ken. Fr. Thin. which were found therein. [Which Campbell (as saith Iohn Maior) came with 400 men, and by the testi|monie of Buch. was a man of great power in Ar|gile.] The commons of Bute and Arrane, glad of this prosperous beginning, assembled togither to the number of foure hundred persons, and set forward, that they might come to support Robert Steward in The shiriffe of Bute slaine. such his late begun enterprises: and being incounte|red by the waie by Alane Lile shiriffe of Bute, they laid so lustilie about them, that they slue the shiriffe, [with Iohn Gilbert capteine of the castle of Bute] Fr. Thin. there in the field, & discomfited all his people [which they did after this manner. These people of Bute, Fr. Thin. Buchanan. Iohn Maior. (called the seruants of Bawdanus) séeing such sturs to be made by Alane Lile, ran to a heape of stones not farre from them, and with great force pelting the shiriffe, they in the end killed him with stones, and put the rest to flight.] Diuerse of them taken priso|ners, were brought awaie, and presented vnto Ro|bert Steward, who in recompense of this seruice, granted sundrie priuileges vnto the inhabitants of Bute and Arrane: as among other things, to be frée from paieng tribute for their corne and graine. Such A releasement of tribute. felicities succéeding one another, caused manie of the Scots to ioine themselues with Robert Stew|ard, in hope to recouer the realme out of the English mens hands. Amongst other, Thomas Bruse earle of Carrike, and William Canther [whome Iohn Ma|ior calleth Carucher, & Buchanan. Carruder of An|nandale] Fr. Thin. with a number of the commons came vn|to him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 About the same time, the ea [...]le of Murrey retur|ned foorth of France, and landed at Donbriton, where The earle of Murrey re|turneth foorth of France. he was most ioifullie receiued by the said Robert Steward. Shortlie after the said Steward, and the said earle, hauing with them a great power of their friends and alies [as Godfrie Rosse, and others] Fr. Thin. Countries re|duced to the obeisance of king Dauid. Fr. Thin. came into Clibe [...]ale, Ranfrew, Kile, Cunningham and Aire, which togither with Ros and Murrey, they reduced to the obeisance of king Dauid. [At which time (as saith Buchanan) did Ranfraie come to his old lords the Stewards.] The earle of Murrey also, to reuenge the ini [...] doone by the earle of Atholl, went vnto Aberden, and there learning where he so|iorned, made thither with all spéed: but the earle of Atholl vnderstanding how all the countrie tooke part with his aduersaries, fled into the mounteins; The earle of Atholl fléeth into the moun|teins. where he susteined his life with hearbs and roots for a time, and durst not come foorth to shew his head. At length, when he saw no waie to escape, he came foorth and in most humble wise submitted himselfe to the lords that defended the part of king Dauid. They He submitteth himselfe. receiuing him vpon his submission, sware him to be true vnto king Dauid, and exhorting him to be as di|ligent in reconciling the people vnto king Dauid, as he had béene afore to subdue them to the obedience of the Balioll, they suffered him to depart.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 About the same time, sir William Dowglasse of Sir William Dowglasse, and Andrew Murrey ran|somed. Liddesdale, and Andrew Murrey, were ransomed home out of England, for a great summe of monie, after they had béene kept there by the space of thrée yéeres in captiuitie. At their comming to Eden|burgh, they found the lords assembled in councell, at the which Iohn Randolph earle of Murrey, and Ro|bert The earle of Murrey and Robert Ste|ward elected gouer [...]. Steward, with generall voices were elected go|uernours. Manie Scotishmen at this time reuolted from the king of England, submitting themselues to king Dauid, as Alexander Ramsay, a verie skill|full warrior, Laurence Preston, Iohn Herring, and Iohn Haliburton knights, with diuerse other.

Fr. Thin. Buchanan. After this, Iohn Randolph, and Robert Ste|ward, were sent into the north parts with a strong armie, gathered of such as were wearied by the Eng|lish gouernement, whereat Dauid Cumin (being feared with the sudden assemblie) fled for his safetie, whome they egerlie pursued, and taking him (being then beset in a narrow streict, and oppressed with pe|nurie of all things) they compelled him to yéeld (without anie more circumstances) to their faction, who then swearing fealtie to Dauid Bruse, was per|mitted to depart vpon his promise: wherevnto they gaue such faith, that they left him deputie for them. At what time he did not faintlie dissemble the fauou|ring & defending of the part of Bruse. In the meane time, Randolph returned into Louthian, and ioined himselfe with his old friend William Dowglasse latelie returned out of England, & now with great slaughters of his enimies egerlie reuenged the long lothsomnesse of his imprissonment: to whome also to make their partie the stronger, came Andrew Murrey, which was taken at Bokesborowe. Where|fore these gouernours sufficientlie garded with the nobilitie, appointed a parlement at Perth, in the ka|lends Hector Boet. saith it was holden at Darsée. of Aprill. Whither when the nobles came, there could not be anie thing performed, by reason of the secret hartburning harbored in the bosoms of Wil|liam Dowglasse; and Dauid Cumin earle of Atholl: the cause whereof was pretended to be, in that Dow|glasse did [...] vnto Cumin, that it was by his meanes, that he was no sooner deliuered out of pri|son from the English: amongst which nobilitie, Ste|ward fauored. Cumin, and almost all the other tooke part with Dowglasse. With dissention amongst the nobilitie, was occasioned [...] which they had of the Cumins comming to that place with so great a traine: for he brought thither such number of his friends and followers, that he was a terror to all the rest of the assemblie, to the increase of which suspici|on, they further ioined a conc [...] they had of Cumins great and changeable wit, his aspiring mind, and certeine rumors spred abroad of the comming of the English; with whome no man did doubt, but that the earle of Atholl would ioine for his defense.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Edward king of England vnderstanding the re|bellion Ye may read more of this matter in the historie of England. A nauie sent into Scot|land. Shipwracke. of the Scots, determined to assaile them both by sea and land: and so prouiding a nauie of an hun|dred and foure score ships, sent the same well vittel|led and manned to saile into the Forth, the which be|ing there [...]ed, burnt and spoiled the townes on both sides that riuer, but returning backe into Eng|land, they lost manie of their vessels by a tempest. King Edward himselfe, togither with Edward the K. Edward inuadeth the Scots by land. Balioll entered by land, with an armie of fiftie thou|sand men, leading the same to the towne of Perth, otherwise called saint Iohns towne, and there lod|ged in campe, abiding for the comming of the earle of Atholl, who as then being solicited thereto by the king of Englands agents, was readie to turne a|gaine incontinentlie to his side [who after accor|dinglie, Fr. Thin. Scala chron. with Godfrie of Rosse, & Alexander Mow|braie, with other, came to the king of England.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The same time, whilest the king of England lay thus at Perth, the earle of Namure (whom the Sco|tish writers wronglie name the duke of Gelderland) Not the duke of Gelderland but the earle of Namure, named Guy. came into England with an armie, and purposing to passe thorough Scotland vnto the place where king Edward lay in campe? to come to his aid, was dis|com [...]ted EEBO page image 236 on the Burrowe moore, beside Edenburgh, by the power of the gouernours, and others, which were there assembled against him. There died manie on both parts in the fight (as Iohn Fourdon writeth) Iohn Fourdon. for the strangers fought verie valiantlie: insomuch that if William Dowglasse, with diuerse other, had not come downe from Pictland hils to the aid of the William Dow+glasse com|meth to the succour of the Scots. Seats, whilest they were thus fighting, the strangers that day had woone the victorie. But now discoura|ged with the sudden comming of this fresh aid to their aduersaries, they began to giue place, and drew towards Edenburgh: neuerthelesse kéeping them|selues in order of battell, they fought still: and at length comming to Edenburgh, they were driuen vp thorough the friers street, and so by an other street, called saint Marie Wind, where one sir Dauid de A|nand, a verie valiant knight chanced to be wounded Dauid de A|nand a Sco|tish knight. by one of the enimies, by reason whereof he was so kindled in wrathfull desire to be reuenged, that with an are which he had in his hand, he gaue his aduer|sarie (that had hurt him) such a blow on the shoulder, that he claue him downe togither with his horsse, that the are staied not till it light vpon the verie hard Hyperbole. pauement, so as the print of that violent stroke re|mained to be séene a long time after in one of the stones of the same pauement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The strangers still retiring, and manfullie defen|ding themselues, at length got to the hill where E|denburgh castle standeth, and there slue their horsses, making as it were arampier of their carcasses, so to defend themselues from the force of their enimies: but being inuironed by the Scots on ech side all that night, and hauing neither meate nor drinke where|with to susteine their languishing bodies, the which beside hunger and thirst, were sore tormented with cold also, and want of conuenient lodging, they yéel|ded themselues the next day, with condition to haue their liues saued. When the spoile of the field (where they first ioined) was gathered; amongst the dead bo|dies there was found a woman of an huge stature, A woman of manlike force and stature. who in the beginning of the battell stept foorth before hir companie, and incountering in singular fight with an esquire of Scotland, named Richard Shaw she ouerthrew him, and afterwards beating downe hir enimies on ech side, long it was yer she might be ouerthrowne, which chanced not before she was inui|roned [...]bout on ech side with hir enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The earle of Na [...]re hauing yéelded himselfe into the hands of the gouernours, was verie courte|ouslie vsed, the earle of Murrey not onelie rende|ring vnto him all his goods, but also granting him li|cence to depart: and for his more suertie, he went himselfe in person with him to the borders, to sée him safe deliuered out of all dangers. But by an ambush that lay in wait for the earle of Murrey, he was ta|ken The earle of Murrey is taken prisoner prisoner, and brought to king Edward Dauid Cumin earle of Atholl, hearing that the earle of Murrey one of the gouernours was thus taken, sup|posing king Edwards part to be much aduanced thereby, came streightwaies vnto Perth, and gaue his faith e [...]soones vnto Edward Balioll, and was a|gaine The earle of Ath [...] reuol|ting to the Balioll is eft|soones establi|shed gouernor. The king of England re|turneth home taking the Balioll with him. established by him gouernour of the realme of Scotland, as he was before. The king of England, hauing in the meane time gotten the towne of Perth, returned into England, and tooke the Balioll with him, for doubt least when he had recouered the whole gouernement of the realme, he should shrinke awaie from him. The earle of Atholl hauing now regained his former authoritie, began to exercise great crueltie against all those that were enimies to the Balioll.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The nobles of the contrarie faction (as Patrike Dunbar earle of March, Andrew Murrey, & Wil|liam Dowglasse, with other) tooke great despite ther|at, and raising an armie to restreine his insolent doo|ings, came towards him, whereof he being aduerti|sed (as then lieng at siege before the castle of Kil|drummie) rose and met them in the fields within the forrest of Kilblaine, where he gaue them a sore bat|tell, and had gone awaie with the victorie, had not Iohn Crag capteine of Kildrummie sallied foorth of the castle with three hundred fresh men, and com|ming to the succour of his friends, renewed the bat|tell in such earnest wise, that the aduersaries thereby were discomfited, earle Dauid their chiefteine being The earle of Atholl is slaine. slaine in the field, with Walter Bride, Robert Cu|min, and a great number of other, both gentlemen and commons. Sir Thomas Cumin was taken prisoner, & beheaded the next day, being Newyéeres day. For the battell before mentioned was fought the last day of December (as Fourdon noteth.) Who Fourdon. further saith, that the earle of Atholl had with him thrée thousand men against his aduersaries, which were not past eleuen hundred.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Fr. Thin. Iohn Maior li. 5. cap. 14. This Dauid earle of Atholl was verie incon|stant & gréedie of gouernment, who if he had brought all the Scots to haue taken king Edwards part, would out of doubt, haue afterward contended with king Edward, and inuaded the kingdome of Scot|land by violence; he did most grieuouslie oppresse the giltlesse and poore people, and wickedlie ordered all things after his own fansie, without reason.) Cumin earle of Atholl was slaine on this wise: Andrew Murrey was chosen gouernour in place of the earle Andrew Murrey cho|sen gouernor. of Murrey, taken (as before is said) by the English|men. This Andrew Murrey in the beginning of his new office, laid siege to the castle of Couper, with a mightie power of men, but hearing that the Cu|mins made foule woorke in the north parts of the The Cumins put to flight. realme, against such as fauoured not the English part, he left that siege, and went against them, with whome incountering in battell, he ouerthrew their armie, and put them all to flight.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 At this bickering were slaine two of the Cumins, Robert and William, Thomas Caldar, and diuerse other valiant men, though enimies for the time vnto the gouernour. This victorie reduced all the north parts of Scotland vnto the obeisance of king Da|uid. The north parts of Scot land reduced to the obei|sance of king Dauid. The castle of Dungard woone. Few Englishmen after the same abode within the north bounds of Scotland, except those that were within the castle of Dungard in Buchquhane. At length this castle was woone, & all that kept it slaine, except Henrie Beaumont the capteine, who being sworne neuer to returne againe into Scotland, was licenced by the gouernour to depart into Eng|land without anie interruption. After this, the gouer|nour came to the castle of Lochindoris, and laid siege The castle of Lochindoris besieged. to it, where within was the countesse of Atholl, the wife of the late slaine earle Dauid. This woman ha|uing knowledge aforehand, that hir house should be besieged had sent vnto the king of England and to Edward Balioll for succours.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The king of England now doubting least all the strengths in Scotland, kept [...] such as were his friends, would be lost without recouerie, if the same were not the sooner rescued, he raised an armie of for|tie The king of England com meth to raise the siege of Lochindoris. thousand men, and entering therewith into Scot|land, came to the castle of Lochindoris aforsaid. The Scots that lay there at siege, vpon knowledge had of his comming towards them, brake vp, and depar|ted from thence. Héerevpon, when he had refreshed the hold with new men, munition, and vittels, he tooke the countesse foorth with him, and passed with The towne of Aberden bur|ned by the Englishmen. Fr. Thin. Scala ch [...]on. bloudie swoord thorough Murrey, euen to Elghine, and returning by Mar, burnt the towne of Aberden. Then he went to Striueling, where he stronglie re|pared the castle: from whence he tooke his iournie to Botheuill, and there also in winter he made the ca|stle EEBO page image 237 stronger, in which he placed a valiant garrison: to this fort the lord Berkeleie conueied vittels from Edenburgh, and in one night discomfited William Dowglasse that lay in wait to intercept him. After which, king Edward did shortlie lose all the said ca|stels, which he had before with so great care fortifi|ed.] His nauie being on the sea at the same time, en|tered into the Forth, and spoiling (as other had doone afore time) the church of saint Colme, felt reuenge thereof shortlie after: for that ship (as they tell the tale) wherein saint Colmes goods (for so they call them) were laden, soonke to the bottome of the sea, without force of anie tempest, or other apparant occa|sion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 The king of England at his comming to Perth, foorth of the north parts of Scotland, and finding the The towne of Perth newlie fortified. towne vnfortified, caused the same to be newlie fen|sed with wals and bulworks, at the charges and one|lie expenses of these six abbeies, Aberbrathoke, Cou|per, Lundoris, Balmerinoch, Dunfirmling, & saint Andrewes. Henrie Beaumont also, who contrarie to his oth before taken, was now returned with king Edward into Scotland, was made capteine of saint Andrewes. Also Henrie Ferrar was made capteine of the castle of Lucres, William Mont|acute of Striueling, William Felton of Rockes|burgh, and the kéeping of the towne of Perth was committed vnto one Thomas Uthred. Whilest king Edward ordered things in Scotland after this ma|ner, his brother (surnamed by the Scotish writers Eltham) came vnto him at Perth, who in the west parts of Scotland had exercised much crueltie, as well against the enimies of the Englishmen, as a|gainst those that were fauourers and friends vnto them, insomuch that passing through Galloway, Ca|rike, Kile, and Cunningham, he put all to the fier His crueltie. and swoord that came in his waies. He burned the church of saint Bute, and a thousand persons within it, which were fled thither for safegard of their liues. At his comming to Perth, he found the king his bro|ther within the church there, who being sore offended with him for his misordered dooings, verie sharpelie reprooued him for the same: and forsomuch as he an|swered him somewhat frowardlie, he plucked foorth his swoord, and there thrust him through the bodie, e|uen before the altar of saint Iohn, wishing that all K. Edward slaieth his brother El|tham. such might perish on the same wise, as put no diffe|rence betwixt friend and fo, place hallowed and vn|hallowed; as being no reason, that the church should be anie more refuge for him, than he had made it for other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 It may be, that king Edward slue some other man in this sort, as the Scots héere doo write: but for the earle of Cornewall that was brother to king Ed|ward, and surnamed Iohn of Eltham, because he was borne at Eltham, it is nothing true that he was so made awaie, for he died of a naturall infirmitie, as He died of a naturall infir|mitie, as by the English writers it ap|péereth. K. Edward returneth into England. by our English writers it manifestlie appéereth. But now to procéed with the historie, as we find it writ|ten. Such things accomplished in Scotland (as be|fore ye haue heard) king Edward returned into England, & left the Balioll behind him with a great power of men at Perth. About the same time, Hen|rie Beaumont slue all such Scots as he might lay hands on, that had beene at the batteil of Kilbleine, where his coosine Dauid Cumin was slaine. Moreo|uer now, after that king Edward was returned in|to England, Andrew Murrey came foorth of the Andrew Murrey com|meth foorth of the moun|teins. He winneth the castle of kincleuin. mounteins, into the which he was before withdraw|en to eschue the furie of the Englishmen, and by the assistance of sundrie of the nobles of Scotland, he wan the castle of Kincleuin, and rased it to the earth. Shortlie after he came into Mernes, and there tooke the castle of Kilnesse, and likewise rased the same. Then passing forward, he burned Dunnoter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 On the other part, the Englishmen made no lesse spoile and destruction on ech side where they came, so that the Mernes, Angus, Stermond, and Gowrie through spoile, murther, & other disgraces, chancing The calami|tie chancing to sundrie countries of Scotland thorough con|tinuall wars. The victorie of Andrew Murrey got|ten at Pan|more. Henrie Mountfort slaine. by continuall warre, were left in manner waste and desolat. At length, this Andrew Murrey assembling a great power, with support of them of Murrey, Mar, and Buchquhan, fought with his enimies at Panmore in Angus, where he obteined the victorie with huge slaughter of Englishmen, and other his aduersaries. In this battell was slaine Henrie Mountfort, who latelie before had béene sent by king Edward into Scotland to support the Balioll, beside foure thousand others, the most part gentlemen: so that this ouerthrow was verie displeasant to the king of England, hauing his side sore weakened thereby. After the gaine of this victorie, Andrew Murrey passed thorough Fife & Angus, ouerthrow|ing the castle of Lucres, with all the other strengths The castle of Lucres ouer|throwne. of Fife, the castle of Couper onelie excepted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 * Andrew Murrife gardian of the Scots (and sir Dauid Bruse) did much harme in the countrie of Carleill, from whence he went to besiege the castle of Edenburgh (as yet in the hands of the English) whose intent cõming to the knowledge of the mar|chers of England, they hastned to repaire to raise the same siege of Edenburgh, and to rescue their coun|triemen within the towne. By meanes whereof, the Scots remooued and came to Clerkington, and the English came to Krethtowne not farre distant; be|twéene whome there was a great fight, and manie slaine on both sides. But the victorie inclining (with|out anie great conquest) to neither partie, both ar|mies parted: for the English went ouer Tweed, and the Scots feining that they would go into England, lodged themselues at Galuschell. So that king Ed|ward hearing of such prosperous successe chancing to his aduersaries, sent incontinentlie two capteins Two armies sent into Scotland. with two armies into Scotland, to the support of the Balioll.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 William Tailbois a man of notable prowes, ha|uing the conduct of the one of these armies, was in|countred William Tal|bot, or rather Tailbois is taken prisõer. by William Keith, and after the discom|fiture of his people, being taken prisoner, was kept in captiuitie till he paid two thousand marks for his ransome. The other was led by Richard Mountfort with whome Laurence Preston and Robert Gordon Richard Mountfort or Montacute is slaine. The castell of Dunbar is besieged by the earles of Sa|lisburie and Arundell. Fr. Thin. met, and giuing him battell, slue the same Richard with the most part of all his companie. About the same time sir William Montacute earle of Sa|lisburie, togither with the earle of Arundell came into Scotland with a great power of men, and be|sieged the castell of Dunbar, lieng at the same for the space of 22 wéeks. [At which battell also was king Edward, the earle of Glocester, the lords Per|sie and Neuill, being in the yeare 1337, as saith Scala chron.] Within the said castell was the coun|tesse 1337. Blacke Ag nes of Dun|bar. hir selfe, surnamed blacke Agnes of Dunbar, who shewed such manlie defense, that no gaine was to be got anie waies forth at hir hands, so that in the end they were constreined to raise their siege, and to depart without spéed of their purpose. It is said, that this countesse vsed manie pleasant words in testing and tawnting at the enimies dooings, thereby the more to incourage hir souldiers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 One day it chanced that the Englishmen had de|uised an engine called a sow, vnder the pentise or An engine called a sow. couert wherof they might approch safelie to the wals: she beholding this engine, merilie said, that vnlesse the Englishmen kept their sow the better, she would make hir to cast hir pigs: and so she after de|stroied it. In the yeare next after this siege, there was such a dearth through all the bounds of Scot|land, A great dearth and al|sol a death in Scotland. EEBO page image 238 with such mortalitie of people, as a greater had not lightlie béene séene nor heard of. The cause of which mortalitie procéeded (as was thought) for that the ground lay vntilled and not occupied, by reason of the continuall warres before passed. [The mar|chers of England (that were left behind the lords Fr. Thin. Scala chron. that went into Scotland) were discomfited at Pref|fen: where Robert Maners was taken, with manie other prisoners, beside a multitude that were slaine, by reason of certeine displeasant words amongest them, which caused that they brake order, diuided themselues, and fought in an inconuenient place.] All the souldiers that kept the castell of Couper, for The castell of Couper left void. lacke of vittels left the house void, and comming to the sea side, hired a ship to haue passed into England, but through negligence of the maister mariner, they fell vpon a sand-bed, and so were cast away. About The castell of Louthian in the hands of the English|men. the same time the most part of all the strengths and fortresses in Louthian were kept by Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The towne of Edenburgh was stuffed with a great number of souldiers, both Englishmen and Scots. Amongest whome there was a Scot of a right stout stomach named Robert Pendergest; he, for that it was perceiued he loued but little the Eng|glish nation, was euill intreated and vsed amongst them, in so much that on a day, hauing his head bro|ken by the marshall named Thomas Knatoun, he ceassed not to séeke some meane to be reuenged, till he brought his purpose to passe, so that shortlie after he slue the said marshall, and afterward to auoid the danger of death due for that fact, he got away, and came to William Dowglas, whome he persuaded with all diligence to passe vnto Edenburgh, where he might find his enimies at some great aduantage, by reason of the slothfull negligence as then growne amongest them. William Dowglas following this aduertisement, came secretlie on a night vnto the foresaid towne, and slue foure hundred English|men snorting in sléepe and dronkennesse, before they were able to make anie resistance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not long after, Andrew Murrey the gouernor of Scotland deceassed, to the great damage of the The death of Andrew Murrey the gouernor. 1338. common-wealth, and was buried in Rosmarkie, in the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour 1338. It came well to passe for Scotland, that about the same time the king of England entering into wars against France, was constreined to ceasse his pur|sute of the conquest which he minded to make in Scotland, the which must néeds haue come to full ef|fect, if he had followed his former purpose and in|tent. But to procéed, after the deceasse of Andrew Murrey the gouernor, Robert Steward tooke all the charge on him for the gouernment of the realme, till king Dauid returned home out of France, and began to rule all things himselfe. Tiuidall also was recouered out of the Englishmens hands, with di|uers Tiuidall re|couered out of the English mens hands by william Dowglas. other places, about this time, by the high prowes and manlie valiancie of William Dowglas and o|ther Scotish capteins; and therefore in the reward of the good seruice shewed by the same William in conquest of that countrie, he inioied the same after|ward as his rightfull inheritance. [Henrie earle of Lancaster and Derbie, hearing of the valure of Fr. Thin. these two woorthie capteins, William Dowglas, Fr. Maior. lib. 5. cap. 5. and Alexander Ramseie, carnestlie desired to sée them, and to trie their strengths in iusting. Where|vpon, there was a day appointed therefore at Ber|wike by all the said parties, where they met with their complices prouided accordinglie. At what time a certeine Englishman asked Peter Grame, if he would not refuse to iust with him, to whome he an|swered, that he accepted the chalenge, but willed him first to dine well, because he should that night sup in paradise. Which fell-out accordinglie, for in run|ning togither the Englishman was slain.] The king of England mooued with high displeasure at these dooings, sent a right valiant knight named sir Tho|mas Sir Thomas Berkleie. Berkleie with a great power of men into Scotland. Against whome came William Dow|glas, and Robert Steward the gouernor, and gaue The battell of Blacke|borne. him battell at Blackeborne, where the Scots were discomfited and so beaten downe, that few of them escaped, which were not either slaine or taken. Not|withstanding the two capteins saued themselues by flight.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Not long after, William Dowlas fought with his enimies at the Cragings, where hauing not past fortie men in his companie, he discomfited sir Iohn Striueling, who had with him néere hand fiue hun|dred Sir Iohn Striueling discomfited. Englishmen and Scots, that tooke his part in the king of Englands quarell. In the yeare fol|lowing, the same William Dowglas wan the ca|stell of Hermitage, & slue all them that were found The castell of Hermitage woone. within it. In the yeare next after, he fought fiue times in one day with sir Laurence Abernethie, principall capteine vnder the Balioll, and being put to the woorse at foure of those times, at the fift he vanquished his enimies, and tooke prisoner their capteine the said sir Laurence, who was sent to the Sir Larence Abernethie taken priso|ner. castell of Dunbreton, there to remaine in safe kée|ping for a time. For these and such woorthie enter|prises hardlie atchiued, this Will. Dowglas was much commended, and within a few daies after the taking of the said sir Laurence Abernethie, he was Sir William Dowglas sent into France. sent by the gouernor the said Robert Steward into France, as ambassador to king Dauid, for the dis|patch of certeine weightie matters touching the state of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time, Robert Steward the gouer|nor 1339. The towne of Perth be|sieged. raised a mightie armie, and came with the same vnto the towne of Perth, planting a strong siege round about it; for diuiding his host into foure parts, he lodged them with their capteins in foure seuerall places. The first consisting for the most part There was also in that armie beside other noble men William Keith of Gal|leston. of westerne Scots, he gouerned himselfe; the se|cond he committed to Patrike Dunbar earle of March, the third to William earle of Rosse, and the fourth, to Maurice of Mowbray lord of Clidesdale. These lay thus at siege of this towne for the space of ten wéekes. And though sundrie times they gaue alarmes and assaults to it, yet was it so stoutlie de|fended by Englishmen and other within, that the Scots for a long time lost more than they wan. At length when they were in maner past all hope to get William Dowglas re|turneth out of France. the towne, & readie to haue departed from it, Wil|liam Dowglas arriued in the Taie, bringing with him out of France in fiue ships, both men of war, and also munition of armour, artillerie, and wea|pons, which serued the Scotishmen in that season greatlie to purpose.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Amongest other, there were two knights of the Iohn Fourdon. familie of Castelgaliard, and two esquiers, Giles de la Hois, and Iohn de Breise; also a noble pirat, named Hugh Handpile, who had the charge ouer the foresaid fiue ships. [While Edward the third was at the siege of Turneie, the earls of March and Sou|therland Fr. Thn. made a rode into Scotland, and were dis|comfited 1340. Scala chron. by Thomas Greie the elder, Robert Ma|ners, & Iohn Copeland, with the garrison of Roks|borow, then in the hands of the English, but after woone by the Scots, on Easter day, at the verie houre of the resurrection; the gouernement where|of séemed to be fatall, because all the capteins of this towne died of euill deaths, amongst whome was Alexander Ramseie the capteine hereof that died with hunger, being put in prison for verie enuie that William Dowglas bare vnto him.] About the same time, one William Bullocke had taken eftsoones EEBO page image 239 the castell of Couper to the king of Englands vse, but by persuasion of this William Dowglas, he rendered it vp againe, and departed with bag and baggage. Those Scots that had serued vnder him likewise, were content to forsake the king of Eng|lands wages, and to serue William Dowglas, who led them foorthwith to the siege of Perth, the which towne shortlie after his comming was ren|dered The towne of Perth rende|red to the go|uernor. 1341. Iohn Fourdon. into the gouernors hands, by Thomas Uthred the capteine, in the third moneth after it was first besieged, & in the yeare after our redemption 1341.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Among other exploits attempted at this siege af|ter the comming of the lord William Dowglas, the Frenchman Hugh Handpile, taking vpon him on a day to approch the towne with his ships, and to giue an assault thereto, he lost the chiefest vessell he had, although afterwards when the towne was now rendered, the lord William Dowglas caused the same ship to be to him againe restored, and with great thanks and liberall rewards giuen as well to him as to the other of the Frenchmen, he sent them backe into France, greatlie to their pleasure and contentation; although in their returne, as they pas|sed out of Drumlie Firth, they escaped verie hardlie from the shore. [The winter after the siege of Tur|neie, king Edward went to Melrosse, but from Fr. Thin. thence riding through part of the forrest of Etrike, in a tempestuous time, he came backe againe to Melrosse, where Henrie earle of Lancaster iusted with William Dowglasse (by couenant) in the kings sight. King Edward taking a truce, departed from Melrosse, halfe ouercome with melancholie a|gainst those that first mooued him to this iournie, not succéeding as they hoped and desired that it should haue doone.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the same yéere (as some doo write) or (accor|ding vnto other) in the yéere following, there was A sore dearth. such a miserable dearth, both through England and Scotland, that the people were driuen to eat the flesh of horsses, dogs, cats, and such like vnused kinds of meats, to susteine their languishing liues withall, yea, insomuch that (as is said) there was a Scotish|man, an vplandish felow named Tristicloke, spared Children eaten. not to steale children, and to kill women, on whose flesh he fed, as if he had béene a woolfe. Perth being once deliuered (as before is said) to the gouernor, he The castell of Sriueling tendered. went with his armie to Striueling, and besieging the castell, had it rendered vnto him the eight day af|ter his comming thither, on these conditions, that Thomas Foulkie the capteine, with his wife and Alias Rugbie. children might safelie passe into England, without fraud or guile of anie impeachment [of which castell (as saith Buchanan) Maurice the sonne of Andrew Fr. Thin. Murrey was made capteine.] Edward Balioll, by Edward Ba|lioll with|draweth into England. such good and prosperous successe, as did thus dailie fall vnto his enimies, to auoid further danger, after oft remoouing from place to place, at length he was constreined to flie into England, lest he should haue fallen into his aduersaries hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Not long after, the castell of Edenburgh was woone by policie on this wise. William Dowglas The castell of Edenburgh woone. Fr. Thin. hauing acquaintance with one Walter Towers, [whom Buchanan called William Cur a merchant] caused him to prouide a ship, and to arriue there|with in the Forth, feining as though he were a merchant, and to offer wines to sell vnto the garison that kept Edenburgh castell. This Towers accor|ding to instructions thus giuen him, prouided him of A policie. all things necessarie for the purpose, & so comming into the Forth with his ship, came on land himselfe, and brought with him into Edenburgh two pun|chions of wine, which he offered to sell vnto the ste|ward of houshold to the capteine of the castell, who falling at a price with him, appointed that he should bring them earlie in the morning vp to the castell, that they might be receiued in. Towers hiring a cart ouer night, came with the punchions vp to the castell gate, earlie vpon the breake of the day in the next morning, and hauing the gates opened, entred with his cart, and being come within the gates with it, he plucked foorth a wedge or pin deuised of pur|pose, and immediatlie therewith the cart with the punchions fell downe, so stopping the entrie of the gates, that in no wise they might be shut or closed againe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Dowglasse hauing in his companie Willi|am Bullocke, Walter Fraseir, and Iohn Sand|lands, right valiant knights, with diuerse other har|die and bold personages, laie in couert not far from the castell, & hauing knowledge giuen him by sound of horne, or otherwise, when to come foorth, he hasted therevpon with all diligence vnto the gates, and fin|ding them thus open, first slue the porters, and after into the castell, within a while had dispatched all them within, and so became maisters of that fortres, within the which for capteine they left one William Dowglas, the bastard brother of the other William Dowglas, by whose conduct chieflie, both this enter|prise and diuers other were luckilie atchiued. Thus was the realme of Scotland clearelie recouered out of the enimies hands, the Englishmen, and all other that tooke part with the Balioll, constreined to auoid out of all the parts and bounds thereof. The castell of Edenburgh was thus recouered by the Scots in the yeere last before remembred, to wit, 1341. 1341. H. B. 1342. Io. Ma. King Dauid returneth into Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The same yéere, or in the next insuing, the second of Iune, king Dauid with his wife quéene Iane, and sundrie nobles both French and Scotish, came safe|lie through the seas, and arriued in Innerberuie, from whence with no small triumph they were con|ueied vnto Perth. About the same time, Alexander Alexander Ramsey ro|deth into England. Ramsey of Dalehouse, one of the most valiant cap|teins knowne in those daies, gathering a great power of men, entered into England, and hauing knowledge that the Englishmen were assembled, in This Ram|sey was so re|nowmed, that euerie noble man was glad to haue his sonne and kinsman to serue vnder him. purpose to giue him battell, laid an ambush for them, and training them within danger thereof, by such a fierce and new onset as he gaue vpon them, he put them out of order, and chased them most eger|lie, killing and slaieng a great number of them at his pleasure. Amongest the prisoners that were ta|ken, the earle of Salisburie (as the Scotish historie saieth) was one, and the capteine of Rokesburgh another.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Sir Alexander Ramsey, perceiuing that the most The castell of Rokesburgh woone by Alexander Ramsey. part of the garrison of Rokesburgh were either slaine, or taken in this last conflict, togither with their capteine, came hastilie thither, and giuing a right fierce assault thereto, by fine force tooke it. Wherefore king Dauid in recompense of his vali|ancie thus declared in his seruice, gaue vnto him the kéeping of this castell, togither with the shirifwike of Tiuidale. Whereat William Dowglasse tooke such displeasure, that seeking to be reuenged, he found Alexander Ramsey taken by William Dowglas, & imprisoned. Fr. Thin. meanes to apprehend this Alexander Ramsey with|in the church of Hawike, and put him in prison with|in the castell of Hermitage, where he remained in great miserie and lacke of food till he died. [About which time by the said kind of death (as saith Bucha|nan) was William Bullocke slaine, by Dauid Berkelie. The death of which two did draw Scot|land into manie factions, and filled it with seditions.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Dauid was sore mooued herewith, purpo|sing to sée such punishment doone vpon William Dowglasse for that rebellious attempt, as might serue for an example to all other how they went a|bout anie the like offense. Neuerthelesse, the Dow|glasse kept him out of the way amongst the moun|teins EEBO page image 240 and other desert places, till finallie Robert Steward and other nobles purchased his pardon, so that at length he came into fauor againe, and had all his lands and liuings restored vnto him, as well in Tiuidale as elsewhere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Soone after the earle of Salisburie was taken by The earle of Salisburie exchanged for the earle of Murrey. sir Alexander Ramsey (as is said) he was exchanged for the earle of Murrey, that had beene holden manie yéeres before as prisoner in England. But it should appeare by other writers, that the earle of Salisbu|rie was not taken at that time in the borders of Froisard. Scotland (as before is supposed) but in the borders of France, where he was in the wars which king Ed|ward the same time made against the Frenchmen, & now was exchanged for the earle of Murrey. But howsoeuer it was, king Dauid after the realme of Scotland was once brought into a quiet estate from 1342. the former trouble of war, he called a parlement at the towne of Perth, where he rewarded verie libe|rallie A parlement at Perth. all such as had either done any notable seruice themselus, or had lost any of their friends or parents in defense & recouerie of the relme out of his aduer|saries The bounte|ous liberalitie of K. Dauid. This Hugh was grand|father to Hec|tor Boetius. hands. Among other, Hugh Boece had in re|compense of his fathers slaughter at Duplin, the in|heritor & ladie of the baronie of Balbrid giuen him in mariage, which baronie is yet possessed by the heires of the said Hugh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shortlie after vpon the breaking vp of this par|lement, King Dauid inuadeth Nor thumberland. king Dauid raised a mightie armie, and en|tered with the same into Northumberland; but com|mitting the whole charge to Iohn Randolph erle of Murrey as lieutenant generall, he wold not that a|nie of his owne banners should be spred and borne in all that voiage [although himselfe were there in per|son, seruing secretlie, and would not be knowne in Fr. Thin. this iournie.] The most part of all Northumberland was burnt and spoiled, for they remained there a moneth before they returned, conueieng awaie with them great riches, which they got abroad in all pla|ces where they came. Shortlie after, he came with a new armie into England, causing his own standard King Dauid the second time inuadeth the English borders. to be caried afore him at that time, as he that tooke vpon him the whole gouernance of that enterprise himselfe. The Englishmen withdrawing all their goods into strengths, minded not to giue the Scots any set batell, but to take them euer at some aduan|tage, if they straied abroad any where vnwarilie to fetch in booties. Neither were they altogither dis|appointed of their hoped prey, for 5 Scotish knights, Fiue Scotish knights ta|ken prisoners whose names were Steward, Eglinton, Craggie, Boid, and Fullarton, pursuing their enimies on a time ouer fiercelie, were taken prisoners, and after redéemed for great summes of monie. At length, king Dauid perceiuing that he wasted but time, re|turned into Scotland. But not long after he went againe into England, in which iournie his people King Dauid the third time inuadeth England. Foule wea|ther. were so beaten with vehement stormés of raine and haile, that they had much adoo to saue themselues from perishing through the vnmeasurable force of that so rigorous weather.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 On the other side, the Englishmen that were gathered to resist against him, were in semblable maner néere hand destroied with the like rage of tempest. Herevpon king Dauid, to the end that his enterprise should not séeme altogither to want ef|fect, ouerthrew sundrie strong houses on the Eng|lish borders, and so returned home without other da|mage either doone or receiued. About the same time Calis be|sieged. did Edward king of England besiege the towne of Calis. The French king therfore deuising all waies possible whereby to saue that towne, and to cause his aduersarie to raise his siege, sent ambassadors into Ambassadors frõ ye French king into Scotland. Scotland, to require king Dauid, that with an ar|mie he would enter into England, and doo what da|mage he might vnto the Englishmen, to trie if by that meanes king Edward could be constreined to leaue his siege, and to returne home for defense of his owne countrie and subiects. In the meane time Ambassadors from the king of England into Scotland also (as I find in the Scotish chronicles) king Ed|ward addressed his orators into Scotland, offering vnto king Dauid, vpon condition that peace might be had, to deliuer into his hands not onelie the towne of Berwike, but also Edward Balioll his The king of Englands offers. old aduersarie, for whose cause the warre had so long continued betwixt them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 These offers being proponed in councell, though some of the wiser sort gaue aduise that in no condi|tion The Scots readie to helpe the French, & hinder their neighbors the English. they ought to be refused; yet the king himselfe (for loue that he had to the French king with whome he had béene brought vp) and other of the nobles ha|uing yoong heads, vpon desire to be reuenged of the Englishmen by practise of warres (wherevnto they were inclined) wold néeds condescend to the French kings chargeable request, & refuse the king of Eng|lands beneficiall offers. Wherevpon an armie was An armie rai|sed to inuade England. leuied, and solemne proclamation made, that all such as were able and fit to beare armour, should méet the king at a certeine day and place, which was to them in the same proclamation assigned. The earle of Rosse therefore came with his people vnto Perth, and there made his musters before the king: but in the night following he slue the lord of the Iles, with The lord of the Iles slain by the earle of Rosse. seuen of his kinsmen as they were in their beds, and therevpon fled, and got him with all speed againe into Rosse [whereby the armie was greatlie dimi|nished, when the friends of both parts fearing ciuill Fr. Thin. warres amongst the families departed home.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Dauid, though he was sore displeased here|with, and desired most earnestlie to haue punished that heinous act; yet bicause he would not hinder his iournie, he let passe the punishment therof, till more conuenient opportunitie might serue thereto. [Not|withstanding Fr. Thin. that William Dowglasse of Lides|dale did earnestlie persuade him, at that time to leaue the iournie, and first to punish these turmoils at home, whereby all things might be quieted in his absence.] At his comming to the borders, and before he entered into England, he made manie knights, William Dow+glasse created earle of Dow|glasse. to stirre them the rather to doo valiantlie; but first he created William Dowglasse an earle, which Wil|liam was sonne to Archembald Dowglasse, slaine before at Halidon hill. There was vndoubted|lie a mightie power of the Scots assembled at that Ri. Southwell. Two thou|sand men of armes, 20000 hoblers. present; insomuch as there was of earles, lords, knights, and gentlemen, to the number of two thou|sand men of armes; and of such armed men as they called hoblers, set foorth by the burrowes and good townes twentie thousand; beside the archers and o|ther footmen; so that they were at the least fortie thou|sand men in all, or (as some writers affirme) thrée score thousand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Dauid with that his puissant armie, the King Dauid inuadeth Eng land. sixt of October entered Northumberland, and com|ming to a fortresse not farre off from the borders cal|led Lidell, they laie round about that place for the space of thrée daies, without giuing thereto anie as|sault: The fort of Lidell. but the fourth day they assailed it right fierce|lie, and in the end entered by fine force, sleaing the more part of all those which they found within the house. The capteine sir Walter Selbie was taken aliue, but immediatlie by king Dauid his comman|dement, Sir Walter Selbie be hea|ded by the Scots. had his head striken off, and was not per|mitted to haue so much time as to make his confes|sion, which he instantlie desired to haue doone, but it would not be granted. From thence the armie re|mooued, and went vnto the abbie of Lauercost, which Lauercost. they spoiled; and that doone they departed, and passing by Naward castell, and the towne of Redpeth, kept EEBO page image 241 on till they came vnto the priorie of Hexham, which they sacked; but the towne was saued from fire by commandement of king Dauid, who in this iournie appointed to preserue foure townes onelie from bur|ning; to wit, Hexham aforesaid, Corbridge, Da|rington, and Durham, to the end he might in them lay vp such store of vittels, as he should prouide a|broad in the countrie, wherewith to susteine his ar|mie during the time of his abiding in those parties.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 From Hexham, where he laie thrée daies, he mar|ched to Ebchester, wasting and spoiling the countrie King Dauid lodged in the manor of Beaurpaire. on each hand, and after turned towards the wood of Beaurepaire; and comming thither, lodged himselfe in the manour, and set his people abroad into the countrie to fetch in booties, & to burne vp the townes and houses in all places where they came. The spoile, waste, destruction, and slaughter which the Scots practised with fire and sword, was woonderfull to heare, and incredible almost to be told, they spared neither yoong nor old, church nor chappell: religious houses as well as other were consumed to ashes. The abbeie of Durham, and all places thereabout The abbeie of Durham spoiled. (as the Scotish writers affirme) were spoiled and miserablie sacked, although it was said king Dauid was admonished in a dreame, that he should in anie wise absteine from violating the goods and lands perteining to saint Cuthbert.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The earle of Northumberland lieutenant of the The earle of Northumber|land lieute|nant of the North. North vnder king Edward, to resist these iniuries, raised a great power of men, and ioining the same with such bands of old souldiers as king Edward had latelie sent ouer out of France for that purpose, first dispatched an herald at armes vnto king Da|uid, I herald. requiring him to staie from further inuading the countrie, and to returne into Scotland, till some reasonable order for a finall peace might be agreed vpon betwixt him and the king his maister: other|wise he should be sure to haue battell to the vtte|rance within three daies after. King Dauid con|temning this message, required his folks to make them readie to receiue their enimies if they came to assaile them, and on the next morrow, he diuided his armie into thrée battels. In the first was Robert The appoin|ting of the Scotish bat|tels. Steward prince of Scotland, and Patrike Dun|bar earle of March: in the second were appointed Iohn earle of Murrey, and William earle of Dow|glasse: in the third was the king himselfe, with all the residue of the nobles. [Contrarie to the which Fr. Thin. Buchanan placeth Dowglasse in the first, the king in the middle, and Steward in the third.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the morning earlie before the battell, the earle of Dowglasse departed from the armie to descrie the English host, and to vnderstand their force and order The earle of Dowglas chased. (if it were possible:) but entring somwhat vnwari|lie within danger of his enimies, he was chased, and that to such disaduantage, that he lost fiftie, or rather fiue hundred (as some bookes haue) of yoong gentle|men, and such other light horssemen as he tooke foorth with him, escaping verie narrowlie himselfe also from being taken at the chase. In the meane sea|son, the English host diuided likewise into thrée battels, approched forward, and came within sight of the Scotish armie. Wherevpon Dauid Graham with a wing of fiue hundred horssemen, well appoin|ted gaue a full charge on the skirts of the English archers, thinking to haue distressed them: but he was so sharpelie receiued and beaten with arrowes, Dauid Gra|ham driuen backe. that losing a great number of his men, he was con|streined to flée backe to the maine battell, and that not without great danger of being taken in his flight by such as followed him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 These two discomfitures notwithstanding, the Scots rushed fiercelie vpon their enimies, & fought with great manhood a long season; but in the end, Robert Steward, and the earle of March, percei|uing their people partlie to shrinke backe, caused the retreat to be sounded, in hope to saue their men by withdrawing into some safer place: but this fli|eng backe of the earle of March and Robert Ste|ward, brought the discomfiture vpon all the residue The cause of the ouerthrow of the Scots. For that battell of Englishmen that was first matched with them, came now with such violence vpon the maine battell where king Dauid fought, that within a short while after, the same was vtterlie discomfited and put to flight. In this busi|nesse king Dauid himselfe did in euerie point plaie The Scots discomfited. the part of a most valiant chiefteine, incouraging his people as well with woords as notable exam|ples to doo their indeuours. Neither would he flie after hee saw himselfe destitute of all conuenient King Dauid his valiancie. aid, but still continued in earnest fight, desiring nothing so much (as should appeare) as death, for that he thought nothing more displeasant than life, after the slaughter of so manie of his nobles and liege people.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 At length hauing his weapons striken out of his hands, one Iohn Copland came vnto him, and wil|led him to yéeld; but he with one of his fists gaue this King Dauid taken by Iohn Cop|land. Copland such a blow on the mouth, that by force of the gantlet he strake out two of his téeth before he did yéeld vnto him. Which Copland is misnamed by Iohn Maior, and not onelie called Couptaunt, but also reported by him to be a Gascoigne, whereas it is euident by our histories, that he was named Cop|land, and a meere Englishman. But to our purpose. The Scots that fought in the rereward had no bet|ter successe than the other: for that battell was also broken & put to flight, with great slaughter as well of the nobles, as other commons, besides those that were taken. There were slaine in this dolorous con|flict, 1346. Scala. chron. Nobles slaine in this battell. Fr. Thin. Prisoners ta|ken. the earle of Murrey, the earle of Stratherne, the constable, the marshall, the chamberleine and chancellor of Scotland, with a great number of o|ther nobles and commons [with Maurice Murrife.] There were taken with the king fiue earles, that is to say, Dowglasse, Fife, Sutherland, Wigtoun, and Menteith [the earle of March & the Senescall fled, Fr. Thin. but after the earle of Mench being taken, was with the earle of Menteith (as saith Scala chron.) drawne and hanged at London.] And besides other great riches lost in this field, the holie crosse (as they call it) of holie rood house, was found vpon king Dauid, who bare it about him, in trust that by vertue thereof he should be inuincible: but he was spoiled both of that and all other his iewels which were found vpon him at the same time. This battell was striken néere vnto Durham, the 17 day of October, in the yéere 1346. What countries and places the Englishmen got after this victorie, ye may read in the English hi|storie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the yéere following, the Balioll, with the earle of Northumberland made a road into Louthian, and Cliddesdale, bringing a great bootie of goods and cat|tell out of those countries into Galloway, in which The Balioll soiorneth in Galloway. countrie the Balioll abode a long time after. At length, the Scots recouering themselues with much paine, after the slaughter of so manie of their nobles and commons, beside the discomfort for the taking Robert Ste|ward gouer|nour of Scot|land. of their king, chose and appointed Robert Steward as gouernour to haue the rule of the realme. About the same time, William Dowglasse the sonne of Archembald Dowglasse, that was brother vnto good sir Iames Dowglasse, who (as before is said) was slaine in Spaine, returned foorth of France, and by support of his friends chased the Englishmen out of Dowglasdale, Tiuidale, Twidale, Etrike forest, & Countries re|couered out of the English|mens hands. Twedale. Iohn Copland capteine of Rokesburgh, to resist such enterprises, gathered a number of men, EEBO page image 242 and came foorth against his enimies, but receiuing the ouerthrow, he was chased into Rokesburgh a|gaine, Iohn Cop|land chased. with losse of diuerse of his men.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the yéere next following, which was from the incarnation 1349, there came such a pestilence tho|rough all parts of Scotland, so vehement and conta|gious, 1349. that it slue néere hand the third part of all the people. This was the second time that the pestilence The second pestilence that was heard of in Scotland. Sir Dauid Berklie slaine was knowne or heard of to haue come in Scotland. The same yéere, or (as other bookes haue) the yéere next insuing, one Iohn saint Mighell slue sir Dauid Berklie knight at Aberden, in the night season, by procurement of sir William Dowglasse of Liddes|dale, as then prisoner in England with the earle of Dowglasse, both of them being taken at Durham field. The occasion was, for that this sir Dauid Berk|lie had aforetime slaine one Iohn Dowglasse, bro|ther to the said sir William, and father to sir Iames Dowglasse of Dalkéeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the yéere following, was the same sir Willi|am Dowglasse, being latelie before ransomed out of 1353. I. Ma. Sir william Dowglasse slaine. England, slaine, as he was hunting in Etrike fo|rest, by his coosine and godsonne William earle of Dowglasse, in reuenge of the slaughter of Alexan|der Ramsey, and other old grudges. Thus was the house of the Dowglasses diuided amongest them|selues, 1354. pursuing ech other manie yéeres togither with great vnkindnesse, vnnaturall enimitie and slaughter. In the yeere next following, which was 1355. 1355, shortlie after Easter, there arriued in Scot|land a noble knight named sir Eugenie de Garente|ris, Sir Eugenie de Garente|ris a French|man, arriued in Scotland. with a companie of Frenchmen; though few in number, yet valiant and verie skilfull warriors, which were sent thither by Iohn king of France; that succéeded his father king [...] of Ualois, late|lie before deceassed, and deliuered vnto the gouernor and other nobles of the realme of Scotland, fortie thousand crownes of the sunne, to be imploied about Fortie thou|sand crownes. the leuieng of an armie against the Englishmen, that they might be constreined the sooner to with|draw their powers out of France.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 This monie was receiued, though a small part thereof came to the hands of the souldiers or men of warre of Scotland, for the lords and nobles kept it safe inough to their owne vse. Yet neuerthelesse, the The earle of March and william Dow+glasse enter in to England with an army. william Ram+sey of the Dale+house. earle of March, and William Dowglasse, gather their people, and passe foorth with the same to the bor|ders, and entering into England, appoint William Ramsey of the Dalehouse, to ride before with a number of light horssemen, to the end, that if the Englishmen did assemble and come foorth too strong against him, he might retire backe to the maine bat|tell, where they lay in couert, at a place called Nis|bet moore. This Ramsey dooing as he was comman|ded, made a great forraie thorough the countrie, and hauing got togither a great bootie of cattell, with|drew with the same homewards: but being sharpe|lie pursued by the Englishmen, in hope to recouer their goods, he fled amaine, and they following eger|lie in the chase, were vpon the Scotish armie before The English|men intrap|ped. Put to flight. they were aware. The Scotishmen, and those few Frenchmen that were there, set vpon the English|men fiercelie, and finallie put them to flight, though not without some slaughter on their part: for there were slaine of Scots sir Iohn Holieburton, and sir Iames Turnebull knights. These were taken pri|soners of Englishmen, sir Thomas Greie, and his Prisoners ta|ken. sonne, with Iohn Darcas, and manie other Eng|lishmen.

Fr. Thin. Scala chron. 1355. The taking of which Greie is reported by others to haue béene after this manner. The lords Persie and Neuill, gardians of the English marches, tooke truce with the lord William Dowglasse, at the time that he conquered the lands which the Englishmen had woone of the Scots. But Patrike earle of March (being in confederacie with Garanteris) would not by anie persuasion consent to that leage: whervpon (with a number of others) he made a road to the castle of Norham, ambushing themselues vp|on the Scotish side of the riuer of Twéed, sending o|uer a banneret with his ensigne, and 400 men to fo|rage & spoile the countrie, who gathering the preies, draue them in despite alongst the castle: wherevpon Thomas Greie, capteine of Norham (sonne to Tho|mas Greie, that had béene thrée times by the Scots besieged in the said castle of Norham, in the reigne of king Edward the second) séeing the commons of England thus robbed (and déeming it his part to de|fend his countrie, friends, and their substance) issued foorth of Norham with few men more than fiftie of the garrison of the castle, and a few of the common people vnexpert in matters of war; who (not know|ing of the secret ambush of the band which Patrike had laied in wait behind Twéed) issued foorth to fol|low and recouer the preie: but being so farre gone in chase of the enimie, as that he could not returne in safetie (because he was beset before and behind with the 400 on the one side, & the ambush laied by Twéed on the other side) the said Greie and his companie (finding none other remedie but to hazard the suc|cesse) forsooke their horsses, and on foot (standing to the extremitie) with a woonderfull courage set vpon the Scots, whereof more were killed than of the Eng|lish, but the Scots comming so sore on the English (not able to resist) they began to flie, at what time Thomas G [...]ie (as before is declared) was taken prisoner.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The earles of March, and Dowglasse, after the obteining of this victorie, came sudenlie in the night Berwike woone. season vnto the towne of Berwike, and raising vp ladders to the wals, wan the towne, but not without losse of diuerse Scotish gentlemen, as Thomas Uaus, Andrew Scot of Balwerie, Iohn Gordon, William Sinclare, Thomas Preston, and Alexan|der Mowbraie knights. Of English were slaine Alexander Ogill capteine of the towne, Thomas Persie brother to the earle of Northumberland, and Edward Greie, with others. Eugenie de Garente|ris with his Frenchmen did verie valiantlie beare himselfe in this enterprise, whome Robert Steward the gouernour rewarding with great gifts, sent backe into France, commending him by letters vn|to the French king, as he that had doone his dutie in euerie behalfe verie throughlie. The castle of Ber|wike, notwithstanding that the towne was thus woone, held foorth the Scots and Frenchmen, by rea|son whereof when an armie of Englishmen came to Berwike wals raced. the succours thereof, they raced the wals, and burnt the houses of the towne, and so departed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Fr. Thin. Scala chron. The tidings wherof were brought to king Ed|ward at the verie instant of his landing from Calis into England, for which cause he taried at his parle|ment appointed at London but three daies, and with all speed came to Berwike, where he entered the ca|stle; wherat the burgesses amazed, treated with him, and therevpon the towne of Berwike was redeliue|red (against the minds of the Scots) to king Ed|ward.) K. Edward himselfe being come to the rescue Berwike is repared a|gaine by king Edward. The Balioll resigneth his right. Fr. Thn. Scala chron. and recouerie of Berwike, and hauing receiued the towne, and finding it so defaced, tooke order for the reparing thereof againe, went to Roxburgh, and there receiued of the Balioll a full resignation of all his pretended right to the crowne of Scotland. [For there the 26 of Ianuarie, the said Balioll hauing resigned (as before) all his title to king Edward, al|ledged these causes: first, in consideration that the Scots were full of rebellion; also, because he had no heire, nor anie verie néere of his linage: and for that EEBO page image 243 he was of K. Edwards blood of England, he knew [...]leus epis|cop. Rosse. lib. [...]p. 157. not where to bestow it better than vpon him. This Balioll is by no author (as Lesleus saith) placed in the catalog of the kings, as well for that he bound himselfe (by homage) to the gouernement of Eng|land with an oth, against the gouernement & maie|stie of Scotland: as for that being a tyrant, & by force inuading the crowne, he continued not long in the same. In truth, I suppose he held it not verie long, and that in continuall warre. But yet for that which I can see, he was crowned king at Scone, 1332, as Lesleus himselfe, Buchanan, and all other authors doo agrée. Beside, he gouerned by him & his agents vntill the yéere of 1342, at what time he yéelded his crowne to king Edward of England; which was the full part of ten yeares, after which againe he re|couered a good part of Endgland. Wherefore it sée|meth strange to me, that Rosse will not allow him a place in the catalog of kings, since Buchan. maketh him the nintie fourth king, and so placeth him vnder that title, and maketh Dauid Bruse (who was crowned before Balioll, and gouerned after Bali|ols departing Scotland) the 98 king, naming al|so Robert (who succéeded after Bruse) the hundred king in order of gouernement; in such sort, that both these writing at one time (but with diuers affec|tions) cannot agrée on the number of their kings: one receiuing, & the other reiecting him to be placed in the catalog of their kings.] After this, king Ed|ward passing foorth to Hadington, spoiled and wa|sted the countrie by the way on each hand as he mar|ched forward; and for displeasure that his nauie on the sea (after the souldiers and mariners had béene on land, and burned the church of our ladie in those parts called Whitekirke) had with force of a Whitekirke barnt. rigorous tempest beene sore shaken, and manie of the ships lost and drowned togither with men and all, he fell into such a rage, that he caused all the buildings in those parts to be burnt and spoi|led, as well abbeis as all other churches and religi|ous houses, as though he minded (say the Scotish writers) to make warre both against God and all 1355. his saints. These things chanced in the yeare 1355, after our common account, about the feast of the Purification of our ladie, & by reason the English|men did so much hurt at that time in those parts by The burnt Candiemas. fire, they called it euer after; The burnt Candlemas.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Shortlie after that king Edward was returned into England, William Dowglas of Niddesdale recouered out of the English mens possession the lands of Galloway, & the lands of Drisdale were in Galloway re|couered. like maner recouered by one Kirpatrike. In the same yéere on the 20 day of October, was the bat|tell of Poitiers fought, where Edward prince of The battell of Poitiers. Wales, otherwise named the Blacke prince, ouer|threw the armie of France, and tooke king Iohn prisoner, with his yoongest sonne Philip, and a great The French king Iohn ta|ken prisoner. number of other of the French nobilitie besides. There was at this battell with king Iohn, the earle William Dowglas, & to the number of thrée thou|sand Scots, hauing diuers knights and gentlemen to their capteins, of whome there died in the same battell Andrew Steward, Robert Gordon, An|drew Holieburton, and Andrew Uaus, knights. The earle of Dowglas escaped with life and vntaken, Archembald Dowglasse taken prisoner but Archembald Dowglas, son to sir Iames Dow|glas slaine in Spaine, was taken prisoner; albeit his taker suffered him to depart for a small ran|some, by reason that William Ramsey of Collu|thie, who was also taken with him, made semblance as though the same Archembald Dowglas had béen A subtill poli|cie. some poore slaue, causing him to pull off his boots, and to doo other such drudging seruice, as fell not for the estate of a man of any estimation or honestie, to the end it should not be knowne what he was.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Thus the king of England at one time hauing Two kings prisoners in England at one time. two kings vnder his captiuitie, sat crowned be|twixt them at meate in the feast of Christmasse, ma|king (as the vse is) amongst the Englishmen in that season) a great banket. And this he did (as is reported) to the intent that the maner thereof might be bruted abroad to his high praise & glorious fame. King Dauid within certeine yeares after was con|ueied by the earle of Northampton vnto Berwike, where the most part of all the nobles of Scotland assembled togither to consult with him tuching some agréement to be had for his ransome: but because they could grow to no certeine point therein, he was brought backe againe to London, and there re|mained in prison as before. In the meane time, Ro|ger Roger Kirk|patrike slaine. Kirpatrike was slaine by Iames Lindseie, in a castell where the said Iames dwelled, and receiued the said Roger as his ghest. This Lindseie fled vp|on the fact committed; but yet being apprehended and brought to the gouernor Robert Steward, he suffered death for that offense.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Shortlie after, that is to wit at Michaelmasse next insuing, after king Dauid had béene at Berwike, there was an agréement made for his ransome, wherevpon being deliuered, he returned into Scot|land, in the eleuenth yeare after his taking at Dur|ham King Dauid is deliuered. field. It was ageed that there should be paied for his ransome one hundred thousand marks ster|ling, at sundrie daies of paiment, as was accorded betwixt them. 1357. Fr. Thin. Scala chron. After he had béene 11 yeares in England, in which place also Froissard setteth downe that he paied but 50000 marks English. And Scala Chron. saith, that at the feast of S. Michaell, Dauid king of Scots was deliuered for 100000 marks of siluer: for which, his hostages came to Berwike, being the countie of Southerland, and his sonne that was borne of the sister of king Dauid; Tho|mas Senescall that was named in Scotland earle of Angus; Thomas Demurrife baron of Bothuill, and other twentie sons of noble men in Scotland.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Truce also was taken for the space of fourtéene Truce for 14 yéeres. yeares betwixt both realmes, and diuers nobles of Scotland were appointed to lie as hostages in Eng|land, till the monie were paied, as is before menti|oned [of which pledges (as saith Lesleus) most died in Fr. Thin. England, by means wherof, the king was deliuered of a great part of his ransome.] K. Dauid was also bound by couenant of agréement to race certeine castels within Scotland, which seemed most noisome to the English borders: which couenant he perfor|med. For vpon his returne into Scotland, he cast downe the castels of Dalswinton, Dunfreis, Mor|towne, and Durisdere. He also called a parlement, Castels ra|ced. wherein he enacted sundrie things for the punish|ment of them that fled from him at Durham field: and first for that his coosine Robert Steward was one of them, being through means thereof a great cause of the ouerthrow, he procured that the act (by which the crowne was appointed for want of issue of A parlement. Robert Ste|ward disher|ited of the crowne. Iohn Sou|therland made heire appa|rant. his bodie lawfullie begotten, to descend vnto the said Robert Steward) was vtterlie reuoked and disanulled, and Iohn Southerland the sonne of Iane his yoongest sister, appointed heire apparant in place of the said Robert. And all the lords of Scotland were sworne to obserue and keepe this ordinance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The earle of Southerland, father to the said Iohn, in hope that his sonne should inioy the crowne, gaue away the most part of his lands, diuiding the same amongst his friends, as to the Haies, the Sinclares, the Ogilbies, and Gordons: but he was neuer the|lesse deceiued of his hope. For shortlie after his son being one of them that was giuen in pledge to re|maine The death of Iohn Sou|therland. in England, till the monie for the kings ran|some EEBO page image 244 was paid, died there of the pestilence, in such sort as the most part of the other pledges likewise did. And shortlie after his deceasse, Robert Ste|ward Robert Ste|ward againe ordeined heire apparant. The contri|bution of the cleargie. 1363. was reconciled to the kings fauor, and ordei|ned heire apparant to the crowne in semblable ma|ner as he was before. The cleargie of Scotland condescended to giue the tenth pennie of all their fruits & reuenues towards the paiment of the kings ransome [which the pope caused the clergie to giue.] Not long after, king Dauid called an other coun|cell, Fr. Thin. Buchanan. wherein (according to his promise made to the king of England before his deliuerance) he mooued the lords and barons of Scotland in a matter where|of A demand proponed to the lords of Scotland. he wished not to haue of them anie towardlie an|swer, and that was this: Whether they could be contented, that after his deceasse, the crowne of Scotland should be transferred vnto the king of Englands sonne, and to his lawfull heires? [Which Fr. Thin. thing Iohn Maior assigneth to the yeare 1363, who also saith, that it was this parlement (as he hath red) and doone by the persuasion of Iane the quéene, for|getting that he said before, that she died in the yeare 1357.] 1357. Their an|swer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The lords hearing what was proponed vnto them, answered without anie long studie, that so long as anie of them were able to beare armour or weapon, they would neuer consent thereto. King Dauid right ioifull to heare them at this point, thought himselfe discharged, for that he was not bound to labor fur|ther in this sute, because his promise made to the king of England touching this point, onelie was, that if the Scotish lords would agrée, then he should intaile the crowne to his sonne. In the yeare next following, which was from the incarnation 1357, 1357 queene Iane the wife of K. Dauid went into Eng|land to sée hir brother king Edward, & died there be|fore Quéene Ianes death. Fr. Thin. she returned (leauing no issue behind hir) [at Hertford in the yeare of our redemption (as saith Io. Maior) 1362, and was buried (as saith Sca. chro.) Iohn Maior li. 5. cap. 22. in the greie friers in London beside hir mother. This woman dooth the said Maior commend for a most rare person, in that she neuer forsooke hir hus|band in his banishment into France, & in the time of his imprisonment in England; for which cause she deserueth as great praise as Penelope, although in hir life she inioyed small worldlie pleasure, hauing had hir bodie dedicated to the mariage bed. For

Si nihil infausti dur [...] tulisset Vylsses,
Penelope felix, sedsine laude foret. Ouid.

According to which, it might haue beene said of this woman, that she might haue beene counted hap|pie, if hir husband had neuer beene oppressed with these manie disgraces of fortune; but then she should neuer haue béene extolled with that commendation, which now to the worlds end she hath amongest the wisest.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 K. Dauid, after hir deceasse, maried a yoong lu|stie gentlewoman named Margaret Logie, daugh|ter King Dauid marieth Mar garet Logie. to sir Iohn Logie knight, but within thrée mo|neths after he repented him, for that he had mat|ched himselfe with one of so meane parentage, to the He repenteth his mariage. disparagement of his bloud. Herevpon he banished both hir, and all other that had counselled him to ma|rie hir, confining them for euer out of all the parts He banisheth hir. of his dominions. Shée hir selfe went vnto Auig|non, where as then the pope with all his consistorie She complai|neth to the pope. remained, and entering hir plaint there in the court, followed the same with such diligence, that in the end sentence was giuen on hir side (that is to say) that king Dauid should receiue hir againe into his Sentence gi|uen on hir part. She depar|teth this world. companie, and to accept and vse hir as his iust and lawfull wife. Thus should the realme of Scotland haue run in trouble and danger of interdiction, had she not departed out of this life by the way in retur|ning homewards Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 256. Charles the fift surnamed the wife, being king of France (supported by the aids of Scots) prepared an expedition into the holie land, in which iornie, when a gréeuous contention fell among the French and English, the last were ouercome by the first through the singular manhood of the Scots. Which benefit Charles not forgetting, erected an or|der of an hundred archers to be about his person, and by office to kéepe watch and ward for him (in the night) within his court gates: which (vpon this ori|ginall) is obserued with great solemnitie, euen in this our age.] K. Dauid in the meane time repared sundrie places and strengths of his realme, & built a tower in Edenburgh castell, béaring the name after him euen vnto this day, called Dauids tower. Dauids tow|er built. Fr. Thin. A|bout this time (or rather more trulie as others haue before this written in the yeare of Christ 1356, or shortlie after the deliuerie of Dauid Bruse from captiuitie as the third sort doo say) William Dow|glasse Scala chron. Of this man Dowglasse and his déeds in France, the English chro|nicles doo also report. being about to go on pilgrimage beyond the seas (at such time as king Iohn was preparing his host against the Blacke prince) went with K. Iohn vnto the foresaid battell, being honored by his hands with the title of knighthood: but after, hauing ma|nie of his men slaine, and being inforced to forsake the field, he returned home into Scotland. Willi|am Dowglasse shortlie after, vpon the deliuerie of Dauid Bruse from the captiuitie of England, was created earle of Dowglasse. Much about which or William Dow+glasse made earle. at the selfe same time, the said king of Scots ad|uanced William Ramseie to the earldome of Fife, by the means of the wife of the said Ramseie, whom Scala chron. William Ram seie made earle of Fi [...]e. the king intirelie loued (as the report went.) The right of which countie king Dauid affirmed to be iustlie in him (so that he might liberallie giue it) as truelie vested in his possession by the forfeiture which Duncan sometime countie of Fife had doone in K. Robert Bruses daies; in murthering of an esquier called Michaell Beton, whome he miserablie slue in a riuer for extreame displeasure. Wherefore this William Ramseie surmized that Duncan (to ob|teine pardon for his offense) did by indenture make Robert Bruse K. of Scots his heire in reuersion, if he died without issue male, Yet had this Duncan a daughter (by his wife the countesse of Glocester, and daughter to the king of England) which was enterteined in England, and should haue beene sold to Robert the seneschall of Scotland. But she (ra|ther respecting the satisfieng of hir loue, than the ho|nor of hir estate, rather choosing to be a kings wife, than an earles ladie) tooke to husband one William Felton, a knight in Northumberland, which (at the said time when William Ramseie was made earle of Fife) challenged that earldome in the right of his wife, daughter and heire to the said Duncan earle of Fife. But for anie thing that I can yet sée, the said Ramseie went away with the honor thereof.] After this appeasing of certeine rebels that sought to trouble the quiet state of the realme, he purposed to haue gone to Ierusalem: but hauing prouided all things necessarie for such a iournie, he fell sicke The death of king Dauid. of a burning feauer, and died within the castell of Edenburgh in the thirtie ninth yeare of his reigne, and fortie seuenth of his age, which was from the in|carnation 1370 1370, his bodie lieth in Holie rood house, where it was buried in the yeare aforesaid.

Fr. Thin. During the time that this Dauid Bruse was prisoner in England, he did so earnestlie set his lo|uing Scala chron. affection vpon Katharine Mortimer, a damsell of London (by reason of familiar acquaintance with hir) that he could not forbeare hir companie, but (as it séemeth) brought hir also into Scotland with him; whereat the lords disdeining, and highlie offended with the king therefore, procured one Richard de EEBO page image 245 Hull, a vallect of Scotland (in feining some matter vnto hir from the king, as being sent in message by him) to find meanes to rid hir out of life, which he did so couertlie, and handeled the matter so cunninglie, that he suddenlie murthered hir riding from Melros to Seltrée. Wherevpon, the king conceiuing great dolor (not daring to seeke reuenge thereof, for doubt of the nobilitie) caused hir to be honorablie buried at Newbotle, not ceassing (as farre as in him lay) after hir death, to manifest the singular loue he bare (vnto hir in hir life.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sundrie maruellous things were séene in the Strange woonders. daies of this king Dauid, within the bounds of Al|bion. In the 16 yéere of his reigne, crowes, rauens, and pies, in the winter season brought foorth their brood, and ceassed in the summer and springtime, con|trarie to their kind. All the yewes in the countrie the yewes barren same yéere were barren, and brought no lambes. There was such plentie of mice and rats both in hou|ses, and abroad in the fields, that they might not be destroied. In the 27 yéere of his reigne, the riuers Great raine. and other waters rose on such heigth through abun|dance of raine that fell in the latter end of haruest, that breaking foorth of their common chanels, with their violent streame manie houses & townes were borne downe and destroied. About this time liued di|uerse clerks, in that age counted notable, as Iohn Iohn Duns. Duns, of the order of saint Francis, Richard Midle|ton, and William Ocham, with others.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 King Dauid being thus dead and buried, the no|bles The assemblie of the lords for the election of a new king. assembled at Lithquo, about the election of him that should succéed in his place. The greater part of the nobilitie, and such as were of the sounder iudge|ment, agréed vpon Robert Steward; but William earle of Dowglas being come thither with a great William earle of Dowglasse clameth the crowne. power, clamed to be preferred by right of Edward Balioll, and of the Cumin, which right he pretended to haue receiued of them both, and there ought to be no doubt (as he alledged) but that the crowne apper|teined by iust title vnto them, as all the world knew, and therefore sith he had both their rights, he main|teined that he was true and vndoubted inheritor to the crowne. It appéered that the said earle Dowglas Buchanan. purposed to vsurpe the crowne by force, if he might not haue it by friendlie and quiet meanes: but ne|uerthelesse he was disappointed of his purpose, by reason that George earle of March, and Iohn Dun|bar carle of Murrey, with the lord Erskine [which [...]. Thin. three were capteins of Dunbreton, Sterling, and E|denburgh] and others (of whose friendlie furtherance he thought himselfe assured) gaue their voices with the Steward, assisting his side to their vttermost powers. The Dowglas perceiuing héereby that he should not be able to mainteine his quarell, resigned He resigneth his right to the Steward. therevpon his pretensed title, which in effect was of no importance, nor woorth the discussing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 THen was Robert Steward conueid to Scone, Robert. and there crowned with great solemnitie, and Robert Ste|ward is crow ned king of Scotland. 1370. was called Robert the second. This came to passe in the 47 yéere of his age, on our ladie day in Lent, cal|led the Annuntiation, being the yéere of Christ 1370. Moreouer, that the firmer amitie & friendship might continue and be nourished betwixt this king Robert and his subiect the earle of Dowglasse aforesaid, it was accorded that Eufemie eldest daughter to king Robert, should be giuen in mariage to Iames sonne to the earle of Dowglasse aforesaid. ¶ Thus ye may perceiue how the Stewards came to the crowne, whose succession haue inioied the same to our time: queene Marie mother to Charles Iames that now The first com ming of the Stewards to the crowne. Fr. Thin. that now reigneth, being the eight person from this Robert, that thus first atteined vnto it [of whose first originall and descent you shall see before in the life of Duncan.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 He had to wife at the time of his atteining to the crowne, Eufemie daughter to Hugh earle of Rosse, by whome he had two sonnes, Walter and Dauid. But before he was maried to hir, he kept Elizabeth Mure king Roberts concubine. one Elizabeth Mure in place of his wife, and had by hir thrée sonnes, Iohn, Robert, and Alexander, with diuerse daughters, of the which one was maried to Iohn Dunbar erle of Murrey, and another to Iohn Leon lord of Glames. The earledome of Murrey continued in possession of the Dunbars onelie du|ring the life of this earle Iohn & his sonne, in whom How the Dowglasses came by the earledome of Murrey. the succession sailed touching the name of the Dun|bars, in the inioieng of that earledome: for leauing a daughter behind him that was married to the Dowglas, the same Dowglas came by that means to the said earledome of Murrey King Robert after his coronation made sundrie earles, lords, barons, and knights. Amongst other, Iames Lindsey of Glenneske was made earle of Crawford. His wife Eufemie the quéene de|ceaseth. quéene Eufemie deceassed the third yeare after hir husband atteined the crowne, and then incontinent|lie he maried Elizabeth Mure [or Moore, daughter to sir Adam Mure knight] his old lemman, to the Fr. Thin. Elizabeth the Mure maried to king Ro|bert. Fr. Thin. end the children which he had by hir might be made legitimate by vertue of the matrimonie subsequent. [Although before he had procured this Elizabeth to be giuen in matrimonie to one Gifford a noble man in Louthian, which also died (as fortune serued) when Eufemie first wife of the said Robert died, whereby they (being now both at libertie) might renew their owne old loue, and in wedlocke possesse that which before they inioied in adulterie.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Not long after, by authoritie of a parlement as|sembled, The prefer|ment of the kings sonnes to dignitie. he made his eldest sonne Iohn, begotten on Elizabeth Mure aforesaid, earle of Carrike: his second sonne begotten on hir, earle of Menteith and Fife: and his third sonne Alexander, begotten like|wise on the same mother, he created earle of Buch|quhane, and lord of Badzenoch. [Besides which hée Fr. Thin. had also two daughters by hir.] His eldest sonne Walter, begotten on Eufemie his first wife, was made earle of Atholl, and lord of Brechin: his second sonne Dauid, begotten on the same Eufemie, was made earle of Stratherne. The said Walter procu|red the slaughter of Iames the first, for that be pre|tended a right to the crowne, as after shall appeare. Shortlie after, he called an other parlement at An act for suc cession of the crowne. Perth, where it was ordeined, that after the death of king Robert, the crowne should descend vnto Iohn his eldest sonne, and to his issue male; and for default thereof, vnto Robert his second sonne, and to his heires male; and for default of such heires, to Alex|ander his third sonne, and to his heires male, and in default of them, to remaine to his sonne Walter, begotten on Eufemie his wife, & to the heires male of his bodie begotten: and if such succession failed, then it should descend vnto his yoongest sonne Da|uid the earle of Stratherne, and to his heires gene|rall either male or female. And all the nobles of the realme were sworne to performe this new ordi|nance touching the succession of the crowne, and that in most solemne maner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 About this time, the borderers, which are men e|uer The borde|rers desirous of warre. desirous of warres and trouble, to the end they may applie their market, whereby they most chieflie liue, that is to say, reife and spoile of their neighbors goods, through enuie of long peace and quietnesse, vpon a quarell piked, slue certeine of the houshold seruants of George earle of Dunbar at the faire of Roxburgh faire. Roxburgh, which as then the Englishmen held. Earle George sore offended herewith, sent an he|rald vnto the earle of Northumberland, warden of the English marches, requiring that such as had committed the slaughter might be deliuered to re|ceiue EEBO page image 246 according to that they had deserued: but when he could get nought but dilatorie answers, full of derision rather than importing anie true meaning, 1370. Buchanan. The truce violated. he passed ouer his displeasure till more opportunitie of time might serue. In the yéere following, against the next faire to be holden at Roxburgh aforesaid, the said earle of March, with his brother the earle of Murrey gathered a power of men secretlie togither, and comming to the said towne, tooke it, slue all the Roxburgh surprised by the earle of March. Englishmen found within it, put their goods to the sacke, and after set the towne on fire, and so de|parted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Herevpon the Englishmen shortlie after enter The English men inuade Scotland. with an armie into Scotland, burning and dooing much hurt vpon the lands of sir Iohn Gordon, for that they ioined to the earle of Marches lands. Sir Iohn Gordon verie desirous to reuenge this iniu|rie, came into England with an armie, and getting togither a great bootie of cattell, returned therewith homewards, but being incountered by the way at a place called Carran or Carram, by Iohn Lilborne and other Englishmen, there was a sore fight be|twixt them, the victorie for a time shewing it selfe so variable and vncerteine, that sir Iohn Gordon was sore wounded, and the Scots were fiue times that day had in chase, and as oft got the like aduantage The English men discom|fited. Sir Iohn Lirborne taken. Fr. Thin. of their enimies. In the end the Englishmen were clearelie discomfited, and their capteine sir Iohn Lil|borne, with his brother and diuerse other brought prisoners into Scotland [the maner whereof Iohn Maior condemneth and laieth the fault of breach in earle Dowglasse.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To reuenge these displeasures, Henrie Persie Henrie Per|sie erle of Nor thumberland. earle of Northumberland entered into Scotland with seuen thousand men, & comming vnto Duns, there pitched downe his tents; but the night follo|wing came the herds and other people of the coun|trie, hauing prepared certeine bagges made and sowed togither, of drie leather like to bladders, into A policie to afright horses the which they had put small peble stones, & running vp & downe about the place where the Englishmen were incamped, made such a noise with those bags full of stones, that the Englishmens horsses brea|king their halters and bridles wherewith they were tied, ran from their maisters and kéepers, and were scattered so abroad in the countrie, that the Scotish|men got hold of them, and so in the morning the Englishmen that had watched all night (for doubt to haue béene assailed by their enimies) perceiuing themselues set on foot, returned home without anie further attempt.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time, Thomas Musgraue capteine of Berwike, comming to the succours of the earle Tho. Mus|graue capteine of Berwike taken prisoner of Northumberland, chanced to méet with sir Iohn Gordon vpon the way, by whom he was taken, and lead into Scotland as his prisoner. Neither had the Scots the better thus onelie on the east marches, but also on the west, where sir Io. Iohnston had sundrie skirmishes with the Englishmen, and went euer a|waie with the vpper hand. [All which before (vntill the death of Eufemie the quéene) Buchanan appoin|teth Fr. Thin. to the first two yéeres of the king, before the death of the quéene.] About this time, pope Gregorie A legat from the pope. the 11 sent a legat from Auignion to king Robert, forbidding him in any wise to meddle with the goods perteining to the church, after the decease of anie bishop, person, or vicar. [About this time happened the death of Edward the third, king of England. Fr. Thin. And Charles the fift king of France sent ambassa|dors 1375. Buchanan. into Scotland, to renew the old leage betwene the two nations, and to persuade him to warre vp|on England, to the end the warres might thereby be withdrawne out of France: which was performed accordinglie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 On the 22 day of October, in the yéere 1378, 1378. Dauid Steward was borne, which afterwards was made duke of Rothsaie, and on saint Andrews day Berwike ta|ken by Scots next following, towne of Berwike was taken by sir Iohn Gordon, and six or seuen other knights, but it was not long kept: for a number of English Recouered a|gaine out of their hands. men entring by a posterne of the castell, recouered the towne easilie againe out of the Scotishmens hands. After this, William earle of Dowglas came 1380. The faire of Pennire. with twentie thousand men to the faire of Pennire within England, and spoiled all the goods found as then in the same faire, and so returned with great ri|ches into Scotland: but the Scotishmen smallie re|ioised at this gains, for with such cloth & other wares as they brought awaie with them from the foresaid The third time that the pestilence [...]am into Scot|land. faire, they drew into the countrie such a violent and sore pestilence, that the third part of all the peo|ple (where it came) died thereof. This was the third time that the pestilence was knowne to haue doone anie great hurt in Scotland, being in the yéere after the incarnation 1380. 1380. Fr. Thin.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The Englishmen [with the number of 1500, vn|der the conduct (as saith Buchanan) of Talbot] to re|uenge the displeasure doone by the erle of Dowglas The English men inuade the Scotish borders. at Pennire, raised a great armie, and came with the same ouer Sulway, and inuading the Scotish bor|ders on that side most cruellie, spared neither fire nor sword. In the meane time, the Scots gathered to the number of fiue hundred men, & stood in a streict till the Englishmen should come and passe by them, and then with such huge noise and clamor they set on the Englishmen, that in giuing backe there was foure hundred of them slaine, and a great number Englishmen slaine and drowned. of the residue for hast drowned in the water of Sul|way, and hereby was all the bootie of cattell & goods recouered againe by the Scots, and the most part of it restored to the owners. Charles the sixt as then Ambassadors frõ the Frẽch king. French king, hearing of such prosperous aduenturs dailie chancing to the Scots, sent ouer his ambassa|dors vnto king Robert, exhorting him to follow his good fortune, and occasion thus offered to reuenge old iniuries against the Englishmen, now that their hearts séemed to faile them through losses susteined diuerse waies of late at the Scotish mens hands. 1381. Les. Anno Reg. 11. The renuing of the league betwixt Scot land and France. An other cause of their message was also (as the Scots doo write) to renew the old league & band be|twixt Scotland and France, which being doone in solemne wise according to the maner, they returned into France, & with them went ambassadors from king Robert vnto their master the said K. Charles, Walter Wardlaw, cardinall & bishop of Glascow, with manie other noble men, who in like maner there renewed the same leage & bond of friendship, to the high contentation of both the princes. This was in the eleuenth yéere of king Robert his reigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In which yéere Iohn Lion chancellor of Scotland The chancel|lor of Scot|land slaine. was slaine by Iames Lindesay, earle of Crawford. This Iohn Lion grew into so high fauour with king Robert, that he gaue to him his daughter the ladie Elizabeth in mariage, with diuerse possessions and lands, called Glammis. Of him the surname of the Lions is descended: and in memorie thereof, they beare in their armes the lion & lillies, with the tresse in forme and fashion as the king of Scotland beareth his, saue that their lions are placed in a blacke field. The cause why the earle of Crawford thus slue the Enuie & spite. chancellor, was onelie vpon enuie and spite, for that after he had maried the kings daughter, he atteined to such estimation and authoritie, that he might doo all things with the king, according to his owne will and pleasure. For this offense the earle of Crawford The earle of Crawford in exile. remained in exile certeine yeeres after, and durst not returne home, till finallie through earnest sute made EEBO page image 247 to the king by the earles of Dowglasse and March, his pardon was begged, and then at length he was His pardon is begged. reconciled to the kings fauour.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the meane time, Edward king of England, the third of that name, departed this life, and Richard of Bardeaur, sonne to the blacke prince Edward, that was sonne to the said king Edward, succéeded, Anno reg. 12. 1382. Io. Ma. 1381. English am|bassadors sent into Scot|land. Fr. Thin. in the fourth yéere of whose reigne, being after the birth of our Sauiour 1381, Iohn of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, with other English lords, came into Scotland in ambassage [to whome were appointed Iames earle of Dowglasse, and Iohn Dunbar earle of Murrey] to treat for the appeasing of the discord as then continuing betwixt the two realmes: and in the end the matter was so handeled, that a truce [...] truce taken. was concluded to induce for three yéeres. As the said duke was returning homewards, he was informed Rebellion in England. of the rebellion and insurrection made by the com|mons of England against the nobles, hauing one Iacke Straw and others to their capteins, wherevp|on Iack Straw doubting to passe thorough his owne countrie till things were better appeased, he returned into Scotland, and was conueied by William earle of Dowglasse, and Archembald Dowglas lord of Gal|loway, to holie rood house beside Edenburgh, where he remained till he heard that the rebels were sup|pressed, and their capteins slaine or taken, and put to execution.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 As soone as the truce was expired, Archembald Dowglasse lord of Galloway, displeased in his mind The truce ex|pired. The garison of Lochmaben Anno reg. 14. 1381. Io. Ma. that the Englishmen lieng in garison within the ca|stell of Lochmaben, did dailie harrie and rob the vil|lages and countrie townes of Galloway and An|nandale, raised a great power by support of the earls Iames of Dowglasse, and George of March, and therewith laid a strong siege vnto the said castell of Lochmaben, & hauing lien there at the space of nine 1384. daies, they fought with a number of Englishmen that came out of Carleill to rescue this castell, whom hauing put to flight, they gaue therwith also a sharpe assalt to the castell, and put them within in such feare, that sir William Fetherston then capteine thereof, The castell of Lochmaben rendered to the Scots. and the residue consented to yéeld the house vnto the Scots euen the same day without more adoo, vpon condition they might depart with their goods in safe|tie into England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But Fourdon writing of the winning of this ca|stell, speaketh not of anie ouerthrow giuen to those Iohn Fourdon. that should come from Carleill, in maner as other write. For thus he saith. When Archembald Dow|glasse had got knowledge that the same castell was vtterlie vnprouided both of men and vittels necessa|rie for the defense thereof, he assembled an armie to|gither, with the helpe of the earles of Dowglasse and Dunbar, who ioining with him, inuironed the castell about with a strong siege, so that no succour could en|ter to the reliefe of them within at anie hand. Héere|vpon the capteine sir William Fetherston knight, Sir William Fetherston. sent letters vnto the lord wardens of the English marches, requiring aid, and letting them to vnder|stand in what danger he stood for lacke of men and vittels. The wardens wrote to him againe, that he Buchanan. should doo his best for eight daies to hold out; and if no succour came within that terme, then to doo as he should sée cause. Héerevpon sir William Fetherston requiring a truce of the Scotish lords for the space of those eight daies, within which terme if no succour came to remooue their siege, he would yéeld the ca|stell vnto them, the liues and goods of them within saued. This was granted, and the Scots ceassed fur|ther to annoy them within by assalts: and when the ninth day was come, and no aid from England ap|peered, they receiued the castell into their possession, according to the couenant. And so the Scots hauing thus woone the castell of Lochmaben, raced it quite It is rase [...]. downe to the earth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Richard hearing that the Scots had atchi|ued this enterprise, appointed the baron of Grai|stocke with a certeine number of men to go with vittels and munition vnto Roxburgh, for doubt least if the Scots came to lay siege to that fortresse, and finding it vnprouided, they might peraduenture bring it into further danger than would lightlie be remedied. As this baron was come within a mile of The baron of Graistocke taken. Anno reg 15. 1383. l. Ma. An armie by sea and an o|ther by land, prepared a|gainst the Scots. The duke of Lancaster commeth with an armie to Edenburgh. Roxburgh, he was taken by the earle of March, and brought to Dunbar with all his prouision. The king of England being informed also of this mishap, ap|pointed two armies, one by sea, and another by land, to inuade the Scots; the duke of Lancaster hauing the generall charge and conduct of them both, who gi|uing order to them that should passe by sea what they should doo, entered himselfe by land, and wasting the countries of March and Louthian, came to Eden|burgh, and tooke the towne. But wheras his souldiors would haue spoiled and burned it, he compounded with the inhabitants for a summe of monie, and so returned without dooing anie more damage.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 His nauie being as then arriued in the Forth, ta|ried behind, & first burning the abbeie of saint Col|mes Inch, a number of the souldiers with their cap|teins landed in Fife, and spoiled diuerse townes and villages there: but in the end, Thomas and Nicho|las Erskinnes being brethren, Alexander Lindsey, and William Cunningham of Kilmauris, set vpon them, and slue the most part of them, so that few in The English|men discomfi|ted in Fife. The strength of Tiuidale recouered. number escaped againe to their ships, being pursued hard to the water side. The same yéere the earle of Dowglasse recouered all the strengths of Tiuidale out of the Englishmens hands, which they had held e|uer since the battell of Durham vnto those daies. This earle of Dowglasse, one of the most valiant The earle of Dowglas de|ceasseth. personages in those his daies, within the whole realme of Scotland, died within his castell of Dow|glasse, shortlie after he had atchiued this enterprise, and was buried in the abbeie of Melrosse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After his deceasse, his sonne Iames, or (as saith Iames earle of Dowglasse. Buchanan) William succeeded in the earledome of Dowglasse, a verie fierce and hardie knight, the which shortlie after appointed by the king to haue the guiding of an armie, he passed with the same into England, and burnt the countrie so farre as New|castell. The Scots inuade Nor|thumberland. 1385. Iohn de Uian admerall of France. But being countermanded home, he retur|ned and came vnto Perth, where he found the lord Iohn de Uian, admerall of France, and earle of Ua|lentinois, who about the same time was arriued in Scotland with two hundred and fortie ships well and perfectlie furnished for the warres, and in them two thousand and fiue hundred armed men, diuerse 200. Buchan. 26 barons, 800 men of armes or knights. I. Fourdon. I doubt whe|ther there were any hag|buts vsed in those daies, though guns were some|what before that time. of them being lords and barons, besides gentlemen and others. Also there was amongest them 400 hag|butters (as Bellenden saith) and two hundred with crosbowes: the residue bare pikes, halberts, and such like weapons. They were paied their wages for one whole yéere aforehand, and had brought vittels with them to serue them as long. They had brought also with them foure hundred paire of white curets, foure hundred halfe long swoords, & fiftie thousand franks, to be giuen among the nobles of Scotland, accor|dinglie as king Robert should appoint and thinke expedient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The admerall and other the nobles of France, be|ing thus come into Scotland to make warres on the Englishmen, were highlie feasted by the king and lords of the realme, as then present with him; and when the earle of Dowglasse was once come, by common consent of them all there assembled togi|ther in councell, it was ordeined that an armie should be raised with all spéed, that ioining with these EEBO page image 248 Frenchmen they might passe immediatlie into England. The earle of Fife sonne to king Robert The earle of Fife. An armie of Scots and Frenchmen enter into England. Castels woon. was appointed to be generall of this armie, hauing with him the earles of Dowglasse, and March, Ar|chembald Dowglasse lord of Galloway, and diuerse other of the Scotish nobilitie. This armie when they were all togither, amounted to the number of fiftie thousand men, the which entring into England, tooke the castels of Warke, Fourd, and Cornewall. After this, by robbing and spoiling the countrie betwixt Berwike and Newcastell, they did much hurt in all parts where they came; but through continuall raine which fell as then in great abundance, they were con|streined to returne into Scotland, where they pit|ched downe their field néere to the castell of Rockes|burgh, purposing to haue assaied the winning there|of: but forsomuch as they could not agrée in whose name it should be kept if it were woone, they left that enterprise. For the Frenchmen required that if they The French|men & Scots cannot agrée. wan it, that then it might be kept by them, in the name and to the behoofe of the French king, where|vnto the Scots would not agrée.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Yet after this, the Frenchmen wishing to accom|plish some other enterprise, went to the west bor|ders, where ioining with Archembald Dowglas lord of Galloway, they passed ouer Sulway sands; and so entering into Cumberland, did woonderfull much They inuade Cumberland. hurt in that countrie. At length they determined to lay siege vnto Carleill, but being called from thence they returned into Scotland, and then (as some au|thors write) and not before, they laid siege to Rocks|burgh, and raised from thence within eight daies af|ter, by reason of the variance before alledged. At All|hallowentide next insuing, the Frenchmen returned The French|men returne into France. into France, hauing indured no small trauell and paines, since their first comming foorth of their coun|trie. After they were gotten a shipboord to returne homewards, the Scots againe enter into England with an armie, remaining there for the space of two moneths (as the Scotish writers say) And in the meane time king Richard assembled a mightie pow|er, King Richard inuadeth Scotland. and inuading Scotland, passed through the Mers and Louthian, putting all the townes, countries, and houses vnto vtter ruine, as in the English historie more plainlie may appéere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the yeere next insuing, Walter Wardlaw bi|shop of Glascow and cardinall, departed this life. 1387. Also within a while after that king Richard was re|turned backe into England, Robert Steward earle of Fife, with Iames earle of Dowglas, Archem|bald Dowglas lord of Galioway, entred into Eng|land with an armie of thirtie thousand men, com|ming An armie of thirtie thou|sand Scots inuaded Eng|land by the west marches. Cokermouth taken vpon the sudden. so secretlie thorough the water of Sulway, that they came to Cokermouth in such spéedie wise vppon the sudden, that the people had not leasure to conueie away their goods: so that the Scots remai|ning there for the space of thrée daies, got a rich bootie togither, and returned with the same thorough the countries of Westmerland and Northumberland safe, and without incounter againe into Scotland. Amongest certeine other things, found in rifeling and ransacking of houses in this iournie, there was a charter found of certeine lands giuen by king A|thelstane, in this forme: I king Athelstane giues to The forme of an old déed of gift. Paullane, Odhiam and Rodhiam, als guid and als faire, als euer yay mine waire, and yarto witnesse Mauld my wife. ¶ By tenure of which déed it may ap|peere, that our ancestors gaue more credit to the true meaning of a few woords barelie expressed in their The true me|ning of men in old time. writings, than that there needed so long processe and circumstance as is now vsed with long studie of penning, nothing being thought sufficient to assure the parties of their couenanted bargaines, and con|cluded agreements.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In this last iournie against the Englishmen, William Dowglas bastard sonne to Archembald William Dew glas honored for his high prowesse. Dowglas lord of Galloway, wan great fame and honor for his high prowes and noble valiancie, shew|ed as well in certeine approches made vnto Carleill, as in diuerse other skirmishes elsewhere. The king also herevpon began to fauour him in such wise, that he thought him woorthie of some high aduancement; and therevpon gaue him his daughter in mariage, named Giles, a ladie of such excellent beautie, as hir match in those daies was not to be found: [with whome for hir dowrie, he gaue the lands of Niddes|dale.] Fr. Thin. He begat on hir a daughter, which was after maried to the earle of Orkenie. This William Dowglas (as Iohn Fourdon noteth) was of a blac|kish or swart colour, not ouercharged with flesh; but big of bone, a mightie personage, vpright and fall, valiant, courteous, amiable, full of liberalitie, mer|rie, faithfull, and pleasant in companie, but herewith he was of such strength, that whome soeuer he stroke either with mace, swoord, or speare, downe he went were he neuer so well armed. At one time (as the same Fourdon saith) he hauing with him but eight hundred, fought against thrée thousand Englishmen, of whome two hundred he siue in the field, & brought fiue hundred prisoners with him into Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the yéere 1388, Robert earle of Fife, and Ar|chembald Dowglas lord of Galloway, entered with 1388. a proud armie into England, and in the meane time came sundrie Irishmen by sea to the coasts of Gal|loway, and landing in diuerse places, fetched awaie Irishmen fetch preies in Galloway. William Dow+ glas inuadeth Ireland with fiue hundred men, as Iohn Fourdon saith. Carlingford beséeged. great booties of cattell, and other goods of the inha|bitants: whereof William Dowglas, sonne of the said Archembald being informed, got a conuenient power of men togither, by support of his brother in law, Robert earle of Fife, and by licence of the king passed ouer with the same, shipped in certeine vessels into Ireland, where being got on land, he laid siege to the towne of Carlingford. The townesmen doub|ting to be taken by assault, purchased a truce for cer|teine daies, promising to giue a great summe of mo|nie The craftie dealing of the townesmen. to haue their towne saued: but in the meane time, they assembled the number of eight hundred men, through helpe of an other towne not farre off, called Doundalke, and ioining with them, they diui|ded The Irish|men assaile the Scots in two seuerall pla|ces. themselues into two parts. One part set vpon Robert Steward of Durisdeir, who hauing the con|duct of the earle of Fifes men, was gone abroad in|to the countrie to fetch in some preie: and the other part assailed William Dowglas, that lay still afore the towne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Neuerthelesse, the said Robert and William re|ceiued the enimies with such manhood, that they put The Irish|men put to flight. them in both places to flight, and immediatlie after gaue assault to the towne, and entring the same per|force, put all the goods found therein to the sacke, and Carlingford woone by as|salt. then set it on fier, and burned it to ashes. This doone, they tooke threescore ships which they found in diuerse hauens and creeks there on that coast, and fraugh|ting fiftéene of them with such spoile as they had got, they burned the residue, and then returning home|wards, spoiled the Ile of Man by the way as they The Ile of Man spoiled. passed. Shortlie after their returne home, the king of England sent an armie into Scotland, which did much hurt in the Mers, in burning and ouerthrow|ing Englishmen burne in the Mers. diuerse towers and houses. King Robert being certified hereof, as then remaining in the north parts of Scotland, assembled the nobles of his realme at Aberden: and there by all their aduises it was con|cluded, that the whole puissance of the realme should be raised with all spéed, to reuenge those iniuries doon by the Englishmen. Héere vpon were two armies Two armies of Scotish|men assembled assembled, the one, wherein were fiftéene thousand men, was committed to the gouernance of the earle EEBO page image 249 of Fife, hauing with him the earle of Menteith, Ar|chembald Dowglasse lord of Galloway, and Alex|ander Lindseie of Walcop. The other conteining like number of men, was appointed to the guiding of the earles of Dowglas and March, hauing with them Iames Lindseie earle of Crawford, Iohn Dunbar earle of Murrey, and the lord Ha [...]e the con|stable of Scotland, with diuerse other of the nobili|tie [both which (saith Froissard) amounted to the num|ber Fr. Thin. of 40000 men.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 These two armies parting in sunder at Iedworth, the earle of Fife with his people entered into Cum|berland by the west marches, and the earles of Dow|glas Cumberland inuaded. and March with theirs, entered on the other side into Northumberland, passing thorough the coun|trie, Northumber|land inuaded. spoiling and wasting the same, till as farre as Durham; and on the other part, the earle of Fife spa|red neither fier nor swoord, all the way as he passed. At length both these armies met togither about a ten miles from Newcastell. Here the earle of Dow|glasse chose foorth ten thousand of the most able men Ten thousand of the choisest men with the earle of Dow|glas. The assem|blie of the Englishmen at Newcastle. that could be found amongest all the numbers, with the which he went to Newcastell, to trie if by anie meanes he might take the towne. There was gathe|red into Newcastell before his comming thither, the most part of all the chosen men from Yo [...]e to the borders, with the earle of Northumberland, who by reason of extreme age was not able to sh [...]re abroad (anie thing to purpose) himselfe, but he had with him two of his owne sonnes, the one named Henrie, and the other Rafe, verie forward and lustie gentle|men. This Henrie being the elder, was surnamed Henrie Hot|spur. for his often pricking, Henrie Hotspur, as one that seldome times rested, if there were anie seruice to be doone abroad.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The earle of Dowglasse comming to Newcastell, The earle of Dowglasse in|campeth fast by Newcastle. incamped with his people on that side the towne to|wards Scotland, and viewed the towne earnestlie, which way he might best come to giue assault to win it. Henrie Persie desirous to shew some proofe of his singular manhood, wherein he greatlie trusted, re|quired to fight with the earle of Dowglasse man to man; which request the earle granting, togither they ran, mounted on two great coursers with sharpe The earle of Dowglas and Henrie Persie run togither. The Persie dismounted beside his horsse. groond speares at the vtterance. The earle of Dow|glasse in this incounter bare himselfe so well, that in the end he droue the Persie out of his saddle. The Englishmen that stood without the gates, made to the rescue, recouered him on foot, and brought him foorthwith backe into the towne. Incontinentlie her|vpon, the earle of Dowglasse caused the assault to be giuen, and filling the ditches with haie and fagots, An assault gi|uen to New|castell. came with ladders to the wals: but the Englishmen so well defended themselues, that the Scots were beaten backe, not without great losse and slaughter of their people.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Froissard making mention of this enterprise thus made by the Scots, varieth somewhat from the Sco|tish Froissard some what varieth from the Sco|tish writers. writers in this place: for he speaketh nothing that the Dowglasse and the Persie should thus run togither on horssebacke (as before is specified) but that in giuing assault to the towne, it chanced, that as the Englishmen defended their barriers without the gate, the Dowglas fortuned to be matched hand to hand with Henrie Persie, and there by force pluc|ked the Persies staffe from him, and in returning hoisted it vp on heigth, saieng, he would carrie the same for his sake into Scotland: and the next day af|ter, he raised his campe and departed homewards to|wards Dowglas in|camped at Otterborne. the borders, & comming to a place called Ot|terborne, about twelue or fouretéene miles from Newcastell, pitched downe his tents there, that his souldiors might take some rest, & refresh themselues after their great trauell, for they had not rested of all the day nor night before, nor to anie purpose, since their first entering into England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time the English power was high|lie The English power increa|sed. increased at Newcastell, for a great number of the countrie came, and entered into the towne the same night that followed the day of the assault. Henrie Per|sie followed the Scots. Henrie Persie then perceiuing his number suf|ficient to fight with Dowglasse, set them in order of battell, & determined to issue foorth vpon the Scots, and to giue them an incounter: but when he vnder|stood that they were gone homewards, he followed [...] with all speed, for he would by no means that The Dow|glasse exhor|teth his men to fight man|fullie. they should passe into Scotland without battell, tru|sting to recouer the dishonor which he had susteined by losing his staffe at the [...]arriers before the gate of Newcastell. Earle Dowglasse aduertised that the enimies were comming to giue him battell, exhor|ted his people with few words to remember their woonted manhood, that by gaining the victorie, they might win euerlasting fame and honor, with safe|gard to themselues and their countrie. The Persie likewise for his part, incouraged his men, willing The Persie with comfor|table words incourageth his men. them to fight manfullie in reuenge of their iniuries doone to them and their friends by the Scots, and herewith commanding the trumpets to sound, he gaue the onset fiercelie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Here both the armies ioining togither, a right ter|rible incounter insued: but because the night was The onset is giuen. at hand, before they began to ioine, through want of light to sée what was to doo, they were seuered in sunder for that time; but remembring that the moone They were seuered by comming on of the night. would shortlie rise, they determined so soone as she began to giue light, to renew the battell againe. As soone therefore as the moone began to appeare, they ioined againe with more malice than before. The Englishmen fought so egerlie, that putting The battell is renewed. the Scots backe, and causing them to giue ground, they had woone the Scotish standards, and so by all likelihood got the vpper hand, had not Patrike Hep|borne Patrike Hep|borne relee|ueth the Scots at point to be o|uercome. The valian|cie of the earle of Dowglasse. with his sonne, & such other of his companie as attended him, come to the rescue, by whome the fight was begun afresh. Herewith also came the earle of Dowglasse, and with a great mace in his hand laid such sore strokes round about him, that none came within his reach, but downe he went.

Fr. Thin. Buchanan. The said Dowglasse the yoonger, hauing with him Robert & Simon Glendoure, was (all which not|withstanding) most grieuouslie wounded, whom his friends (comming about to succor) found then cast vpon the ground, next vnto whome lay one named Hart most miserablie wounded also. At what time This priest was William archdeacon of Aberden, as saith Io. Maior lib. 6. cap 3. & Lesleus lib. 7. pa. 263. calleth him William Loundie arch deacon of saint An|drews, kins|man to Dow|glasse. This Dow+glasse was hurt in the shoulder in the lower part of his brest, and in the thigh with seuerall arrows, and had a deadlie blow on his head being vncouered. Io. Maior. lib. 6. cap 3. a priest (which had faithfullie assisted this Dowglasse in all distresse) did (now the bodie being faint and de|caied) defend the same from other hurt of the aduer|sarie. Dowglasse lieng in this estate, his neere friends (Iohn Lindseie, Iohn and Walter Seint|clere) came vnto him, demanding how he did. To whome he stoutlie answered (as one whome the pre|sence of death nothing dismaied) that he was verie well; for said he, I doo not now die in my bed (by sluggish destinie) but in the field, as almost all my ancestors haue doone. Wherefore, this shall be the last thing that I will require of you; first to keepe my death most secret, secondlie that you suffer not my standard to be throwne downe, and lastlie that you reuenge my death; the which if I may before hand by your promise hope to be performed, I shall with more patience indure all other things. Wherevpon they first seuered his bodie that it should not be knowen; then they erected his standard, crieng (as the maner is) A Dowglasse a Dowglasse. At which voice, there was so great a concursse of people, & such a ioifull assault vpon the enimie; that forthwith they draue them from the place of the battell. For at the verie EEBO page image 250 name of Dowglasse, not onelie the common peo|ple, but Iohn earle of Murrey (supposing that the same side was in distresse) prepared in all hast to succour them.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Finallie, the whole number of the Scotishmen The English men put to flight. bare themselues so manfullie, that the Englishmen being broken and put to flight, were slaine & borne downe. The chase continued till the breake of the day with killing and taking, as in such cases is euer séene, though the more part in déed were taken with their liues saued after they once fell in the chase. Amongest other, Rafe Persie and his brother Hen|rie, Rafe and Henrie Per|sie taken pri|soners. were taken by Keith, the marshall of Scotland, somewhat before the Englishmen began to turne. [But Lesleus. lib. 7. pa. 263. saith that Henrie Hot|spur was taken by Montgomerie, who for his ran|some Fr. Thin. did build the castle of Pounune, which his heirs Other per|sons taken. to this day doo inioy. There was also taken besides the two Persies, diuers other men of name, as Ro|bert Ogill, Thomas Halberke, Iohn Lilborne, William Wauchlut, Robert Heron, the baron of Hilton, Iohn Colwell, and Patrike Louell knights. There were taken in all of Englishmen, to the num|ber of a thousand and fortie, and slaine what in the The number of prisoners taken. field and chase (as Froissard recounteth) aboue an eightéene hundred. [But Buchan. saith, there were 1840 slaine, 1000 wounded, and 1004 taken.) Fr. Thin. There were slaine but fiue hundred Englishmen as Hector Bo|crius saith. The death of Iames earle of Dowglasse. But yet the Scotish writers themselues report a lesse number. Neither did this victorie chance to the Scots without great losse and slaughter. For a|mongst other, the earle of Dowglasse himselfe was thrise stricken through the bodie, and also wounded so mortallie on the head, that being borne to his tent a little before the end of the battell, he died of those hurts immediatlie after, to the great discomfort of all his armie, conceiuing more dolorous griefe for the losse of so woorthie a chiefeteine, than ioy for the Sée more of this matter in England. gaine of a great victorie. His bodie was conueied vnto Melros, & buried beside his father earle Wil|liam in the abbeie church there. And because this earle Iames had no heires of his bodie begotten, Archembald Dowglasse succéeded Iames the earle of Dow|glasse. his coosine Archembald Dowglas lord of Galloway succéeded him in the earldome. The house of the Hepborns (of the which this Patrike Hepborne that fought so valiantlie in this battell at Otterborne did descend) arose in Scotland after this wise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 It chanced in the daies of king Dauid the third, there was an Englishman of that name taken pri|soner in Scotland, who by chance being in place where the earle of March was got vpon a yoong gel|ding vnbroken, the which plaieng the vnrulie iade, in fetching and flinging aloft, put the earle in great danger of his life; and when all other that were pre|sent there gaue backe, and durst not step in to make anie shift to helpe the earle: this Englishman lept to him, and boldlie catching hold on the bridle reine, held the horsse fast, till the earle was safelie got be|side him. In reward of which benefit, the said earle The first ad|uancement of the Hepborns. gaue vnto this Hepborne certeine lands in Lowthi|an, whose posteritie increased afterwards in such power of lands and surname, that the same inioied not onelie the earldome of Bothwell, but was also The earles of Bothwell. diuided into sundrie branches, and manie knights thereof haue risen of right woorthie fame and esti|mation. 1310. 12. kal. Aug. Buchanan. 1388. This battell of Otterborne was fought on saint Oswalds day, which is the fift of August, in the yeare 1388.

* Amongst those that fled to the battell, was Mat|thew Redman gouernor of Berwike, whom Iames Lindseie (supposing by the beautie of his armor to be of the nobler sort) did vehementlie follow by the space of thrée miles. At the last, Redman percei|uing that he was not by flight able to escape (and déeming it better to hazzard his life, than otherwise to be slaine without aduenture) allighted from his horsse to fight with his enimie on foot, which Lind|seie did accordinglie; in the end after a long conflict betwéene them, the Englishman (being as saith Lindseie had a halberd, and Redman a sword with a buckler which he caried at his backe. Io. Maior. lib. 6. cap 14. The disgrace of prisoners breaking promise. Buchanan inferior to the Scot in armor & weapon) did yéeld himselfe to his aduersarie. By whome (af|ter that he had giuen an oth to returne at a certeine day) he was permitted to go at libertie. Such in those daies was the humanitie amongest the borde|rers, and both nations towards their prisoners, which to this day dooth continue betweene the inhabitants of those places. But if anie doo not returne at the day appointed, this punishment is set vpon him for a perpetuall disgrace. That in the assemblies of true daies (to demand restitutions of things and iniu|ries doone by the one nation vnto the other) they vse that he which complaineth himselfe to be deceiued by his prisoner (on his promise) dooth carrie about Io. Ma. saith if they breake promise, the picture of him is tied to a horsse taile and drawen about the borders of the countrie. a hand or gloue painted in a cloth vpon a long staffe or speare to be séene of all men; the which is accoun|ted a singular infamie to the deseruers thereof. For they which haue so broken their faith, be euer after hated of their friends and acquaintance; for which dishonestie, they will not affoord them good report or interteinment. Lindseie hauing with this condi|tion dismissed his prisoner (and perceiuing a great number of armed men) made directlie towards them, not knowing that they were his enimies, vn|till he had ridden so néere vnto them, that he could not withdraw himselfe out of their danger. These The bishop of Durham go|eth towards the Scots, accompanied with Thomas Lindseie and Thomas Clifford. men were the bands of the bishop of Durham, who when he came too late to Newcastell (to ioine with Persie at the battell of Otterborne, because he sup|posed that the enimies would not ioine vntill the next day) commanded his armie to rest there, and to fall to their supper. Shortlie after which, he tooke his iournie towards the Scots.

But (before he was anie great way marched out of the towne) vnderstanding (by those that fled from Otterborne battell towards Newcastell) that Per|sie was ouerthrowne, and had lost the field, he retur|ned with his friends to Newcastell, to consult what he should doo against the enimie. At which time it was declared, that the next day at the sunne rising, they should all be redie in armor to séeke the Scots. According wherevnto in the morning of the next day, the inhabitants bordering thereabouts were assembled, who (with these that the bishop had broght thither) were of all sorts gathered togither, to the number of 10000 horssemen and footmen. These stirred the bishops mind, that (with all spéed) hée The bishop of Durham go|eth against the Scots. should lead them toward the Scots, and trie the suc|cesse of battell, for the Scots (said they) wearied with the former daies fight, and most of them woun|ded, will not be able to abide the second batell. With which spéeches they persuaded themselues of an ea|sie conquest. Wherevpon the bishop set forward with his armie, whose comming being vnderstood by the scouts of the Scots, the erle of Murrey (whom now all men did follow after the death of Dowglas) cal|led the present nobilitie togither to consult what should be doone with the prisoners, whom they could Iohn Maior writeth, that some say they tied these priso ners fast with ropes, li. 6. c. 4. not in iustice now kill (hauing receiued them vpon ransome) but it would seeme a most cruell part: and to rescue them (being their enimies, and almost an equall number to themselues) it was a thing most dangerous. Wherefore it was concluded, that the prisoners should sweare, that they would not stirre whilest the Scots and English were in fight; and further, that if the Scots were ouercome, and they (being now their prisoners) recouered from them, that yet they should still remaine prisoners vnto them as before, and so returne to them at a certeine day. These things thus doone, they left the prisoners in EEBO page image 251 in the campe, with a small gard which should execute a present reuenge vpon them, if they did at anie time seeme to attempt anie thing.

After this the Scots (full of the victories latelie obteined) afresh descended into the battell, defended behind with the marches, and on the left and right side with the dead bodies of the former conflict: at what time it was also commanded that euerie one (as he did approch the emimie) should blow the horne he caried about his necke (hanging at his backe) as lowd as he could, which sound being of it selfe terrible, was in the eccho (by reflexion of the hilles) so multiplied, that it forced the enimie to suppose the Scots to be of greater number than in truth they were. But before they entred into the battell (as saith Iohn Maior) George of Dunbar earle of March incouraged his soldiers with these words. We haue this night (most noble Scots) susteined the chiefe heat and force of the battell, we haue ouerthrowne the youth and strength of Northumberland with their two princes: for which there is no cause why we (after such honor obteined against those valiant princes) should now feare this sillie priest. Trulie there remaineth nothing now for vs, but that euerie one of vs giue but two strokes, bicause the leader will flie at the third, and all the flocke will follow, since the sheepheard stroken, the sheepe will be dispersed. But if they shall so long contend with vs, that (as God most rightlie forbid) we chance to be ouercome, then shall we most shamefully loose the glorie which we before haue honourablie gained by this nights trauell. But contrarie, if we be men, and put on vs such valiant hearts (as the preservation of honor requireth) we shall easilie teach this mitred priest, that it had beene farre more honor to him, safetie to his, and most commoditie to them all, that he had remained at home, with rods to correct vnbrideled and negligent scholers, than with sword to enter battell against growne and bearded souldiers.

This being spoken, and the English now come to the point to ioine with the aduersarie, the Scots began the alarms with their hornes, where vpon the English hearing that terrible noise (vnaccustomed to them in such multitude) remembring that they must fight in the middle of dead carcasses of their friends and kinred latelie slaine (a spectacle to discourage most valiant hearts) and somewhat abashed at the cheerefulnesse of the Scots standing against them (which they looked not for after the last battell) the English (I say) considering these things, retired towards the place from whence they came, and suffered the Scots to returne without anie other pursute against them. In the meane time, when Alexander Lindseie (taken as before, and as yet prisoner in Newcastell) chanced to be seene and knowne by Redman (his yeelded prisoner) he was most courteouslie (after congratulation of amitie betweene them) suffred to depart fro(m) Newcastell to Scotland.)

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