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1.2. The deſcription of Britaine.¶Of the ſcituation and quantitie of the Iſle of Britayne. Cap. 1.

EEBO page image 1

The deſcription of Britaine.

¶Of the ſcituation and quantitie of the Iſle of Britayne. Cap. 1.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 How Bri|taine lyeth from the [...]ayne. _BRITANIA, or Britaine as we nowe terme it in our En|gliſhe tongue, is an Iſle lying in the Ocean ſea, directly a|gainſt that part of Fraunce, which conteyneth Picardie, Normandie, and therto the greateſt part of little Britaine, cal|led in time paſt Armorica of the ſcituation thereof vpon the ſea coaſt, and before ſuch time as a companie of Britons (eyther led o|uer by ſome of the Romayne Emperours, or flying thither from the tyrannie of ſuch as op|preſſed them here in this Iſlande) did ſettle themſelues there, & called it Britaine, after the name of their owne country, from whence they aduentured thither. It hath Irelande vp|on the Weſt ſide, on the North the mayne ſea, euen vnto Thule and the Hyperboreans, and on the Eaſt ſide alſo the Germaine Ocean, by which we paſſe daily thorowe by the trade of merchandiſe, not only into ye low countries of Belgie, but alſo into Germanie, Frizelande, Denmarke, and Norway, carying from hence thither, and bringing from thence hither, all ſuch neceſſarie commodities as the ſeuerall Countries doe yéelde: thorow which meanes, and beſides common amitie cõſerued, traffike is maintayned, and the neceſſitie of eche party abundantly relieued.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The lon|gitude and latitude of this Iſle.It contayneth in longitude taken by the middeſt of the Region 19. degrées exactly: and in latitude 53. degrées, and 30. min. after the o|pinions of thoſe that haue diligently obſerued the ſame in our dayes, and the faithfull report of ſuch writers as haue left notice therof vnto vs, in their learned treatiſes to be perpetually remembred. Howbeit wheras ſome in ſetting downe of theſe two lines, haue ſéemed to vary about the placing of the ſame, eche of them di|uerſly remembring the names of ſundrie Ci|ties and townes, wheerby they affirme thẽ to haue their ſeueral courſes: for my part I haue thought good to procéede ſomewhat after ano|ther ſort, that is, by deuiding the lateſt and beſt Cardes eche way into two equall partes, (ſo neare as I can poſſibly bring the ſame to paſſe) whereby for the middle of latitude, I product Caerloil and Newcaſtell vpon Tyne (whoſe lõgeſt day conſiſteth of 16. houres,Longeſt day. 48. minuts) & for the longitude, Newbery, War|wicke, Sheffeld, Skiptõ, &c. which dealing in mine opinion, is moſt eaſie & indifferent, and lykelieſt meane to come by the certayne ſtan|ding and ſcituation of our Iſlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Inlyke maner it hath in breadth from the Piere or poynt of Douer,The com|paſſe of Britaine. vnto the fartheſt part of Cornewall weſtwardes 320. myles: from thence agayne vnto the poynt of Cath|neſſe by the Iriſhe ſea, 800. Whereby Poli|dore and other doe gather that the circuite of the whole Iſlande of Britaine is 1720. myles, which is full 280. leſſe than Caeſar doth ſette downe, except there be ſome difference be|twéene the Romaine and Britiſhe myles, whereof heafter I maye make ſome farther conference.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The forme and facion of this Iſle is lyke vnto a Triangle, Baſtarde ſworde, Wedge,The forme or Parteſant, being broadeſt in the South part, and gathering ſtill narrower and nar|rower, till it come to the fartheſt poynt of Cathneſſe Northwarde where it is narroweſt of all, and there endeth in maner of a Promon|torie, which is not aboue 30. myles ouer, as dayly experience doth confirme.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſhorteſt & moſt vſuall [...]ut that we haue out of our Iſland to the maine,The di|ſtance frõ the mayne. is from Douer (the fartheſt part of Kent eaſtward) vnto Ca|lice in Picardie, where the breath of the ſea is not aboue 30. myles. Which courſe as it is now frequented and vſed for the moſt cõmon & ſafe paſſage of ſuch as come into our coũtrie out of Fraunce and diuers other Realmes, ſo it hath not bene vnknowne of olde time vnto the Romaynes, who for the moſt part vſed theſe two hauens for their paſſage and repaſ|ſage to and fro, although we finde that nowe and then, diuers of them came alſo from Bul|len and landed at Sandwiche, or ſome other places of the coaſt, as to anoyde the force of the wynde and weather, that often moleſted them in theſe narrowe ſeas, beſt liked for their ſafegardes. Betwéene the part of Hollande alſo, which lyeth nere the mouth of the Rhene, and this our Iſlande, are 900. furlonges, as Soſimus ſayeth, beſide diuers other writers,Lib. 4. which being conuerted into Engliſhe myles, doe yéelde one hundred and twelue, and foure odde furlongs, whereby the iuſt diſtaunce of Britayne from that part of the mayne alſo, doth certainly appeare to be much leſſe than the common Mappes of our Countrie haue hitherto ſet downe.

1.3. Of the auncient names of this Iſlande. Cap. 2.

Of the auncient names of this Iſlande. Cap. 2.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 IN the diligent peruſal of their treatiſes that haue written of the ſtate of this our Iſlande, I finde that at the firſt it ſéemed to be a percel of the Celtike kingdome,Dis, Samo|thes. whereof Dis other|wyſe called Samothes, one of the ſonnes of Ia|phet EEBO page image 10 was the Saturne or originall beginner, and of him thenceforth for a long time called Samothea. Afterwarde in proceſſe of tyme when as deſire of rule began to take holde in the myndes of men, & ech Prince endeuored to enlarge his owne dominiõs:Neptunus. Amphitrite Albion. Albion the ſonne of Neptune ſurnamed Mareoticus (whoſe mo|ther alſo was called Amphitrite) hearing of the commodities of the Countrie, and plenti|fulneſſe of ſoyle here, made a voyage ouer, & finding the thing not onely correſpondent vn|to,The firſt conqueſt of Britaine. but alſo farre ſurmounting the report that went of this Iſlande, it was not long after ere he inuaded ye ſame by force of armes, brought it to his ſubiection, and finally chaunged the name therof into Albion, whereby the former denomination after Samothes did fall into vtter forgetfulneſſe. And thus was this Iſland bereft at one time both of hir auncient name, and alſo of hir lawfull ſucceſſion of Princes deſcended of the lyne of Iaphet,Britaine vnder the Celts 341. yeares. vnder whome it had continued by the ſpace of 341. yeres and ix. Princes, as by the Hiſtorie folowing ſhall eaſily appeare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To ſpeake ſomewhat alſo of Neptune, (ſith I haue made mention of him in this place) it ſhall not be impertinent. You ſhal vnderſtand therefore that for his excellent knowledge in the Arte of Nauigation, he was reputed the moſt ſkilful Prince that liued in his time. Neptune God of the ſea. And therefore, and likewyſe for his courage and boldneſſe in aduenturing to and fro, he was after his deceaſe honoured as a god, and the protection of ſuch as trauayled by ſea commit|ted to his charge.The man|ner of dreſ|ſinge of ſhippes in olde time. So rude alſo was ye making of ſhippes wherewith to ſayle in his tyme, that for lacke of better experience to calke and trimme the ſame after they were builded, they vſed to nayle them ouer with rawe hydes, and with ſuch a kinde of Nauie: firſt Samothes, and then Albion arriued in this Iſlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 But to procéede, when the ſayde Albion had gouerned here in this Countrie by the ſpace of vij. yeares, it came to paſſe that both he and his brother Bergion were killed by Hercules at the mouth of Rhodanus, as the ſayd Hercu|les paſſed out of Spaine by the Celtes to go o|uer into Italy, and vpõ this occaſion (as I ga|ther amõg the writers) not vnworthy to be re|membred.Leſtrigo. It happened in tyme of Lucus king of the Celtes, that Leſtrigo and his iſſue (whõ Oſyris his grandfather had placed ouer the Ianigenes) dyd exerciſe great tyrannie, not onely ouer his owne kingdome, but alſo in mo|leſtation of ſuch Princes as inhabited rounde about him in moſt intollerable maner. Moreo|uer he was not a little incouraged in theſe his dooinges by Neptune his father,Neptune had xxxiij. ſonnes. who truſted greatly to leaue his xxxiij. ſonnes ſettled in the mightieſt kingdomes of the worlde, as men of whom he had already conceyued this opinion, that if they had once gotten foote into any Re|gion whatſoeuer, it woulde not be long ere they did by ſome meanes or other, Ianige [...] the po [...]|ty of [...] lying in Italy. not onelye eſtabliſhe their ſeates, but alſo increaſe their limites to the better maintenance of themſel|ues and their poſteritie for euermore. To be ſhort therefore, after the Gyantes, and great Princes, or mightie men of the world had con|ſpired and ſlaine the aforeſayd Oſyris: Hercu|les his ſonne, ſurnamed Libius, in the reuenge of his fathers death, proclaymed open warres agaynſt them all, and going from place to place, he ceaſed not to ſpoyle their kingdomes, and therewithall to kill them that fell into his handes. Finally, hauing among other ouer|come the Lomnimi or Geriones in Spayne,Lomnimi Geriones and vnderſtanding that Leſtrigo & his ſonnes did yet remayne in Italie, he directed his voy|age into thoſe parts, and taking the kingdome of the Celtes in his waye, he remayned for a ſeaſon with Lucus the king of that Countrie, where he alſo maried his daughter Galathea, Galathea. and beg at a ſonne by hir, calling him after his moothers name Galates, Galates. of whome in my Chronologie I haue ſpoken more at large. In the meane time Albion vnderſtanding howe Hercules intended to make warres agaynſt his brother Leſtrigo, he thought it good to ſtop him that tyde, and therefore ſending for hys brother Bergion, Bergion. out of the Orchades (where he alſo reygned as ſupreme Lorde and gouer|nour) they ioyned their powers,Pomponi|us Laetus. & ſayled ouer into Fraunce. Being arriued there, it was not long ere they met with Hercules and his ar|mie, neare vnto the mouth of the riuer called Rhodanus, where happened a cruell conflicte betwéene them, in which Hercules and hys men were lyke to haue loſt the daye, for that they were in maner weryed with lõg warres, and their munition ſore waſted in the laſt voi|age that he had made for Spaine. Herevppon Hercules perceyuing the courages of his ſoul|diours ſomewhat to abate, & ſéeing the want of munition likely to be the cauſe of his fatall day and preſent ouerthrowe at hande, it came ſodenly into his mynde to will eche of them to defende himſelfe by throwing of ſtones at hys enimie, wherof there lay great ſtore then ſcat|tered in the place. The policie was no ſooner publiſhed than put in execution, whereby they ſo preuayled in thende, that Hercules wan the fielde, their enemies were put to flight, and Albion and his brother both ſlayne,Albion ſlayne. and buried in that plot. Thus was Britaine ridde of a ty|rant, Lucus king of the Celtes deliuered frõ an vſurper (that daily incroched vpon him alſo euen in his owne kingdome on that ſide) and EEBO page image 2 Leſtrigo greatly weakened by the ſlaughter of his brethren. Of this inuention of Hercu|les in lyke ſort it commeth, that Iupiter fa|ther vnto Hercules (who in déede was none other but Oſyris) is feygned to throw downe ſtones from heauen vpon Albion and Bergi|on,It rayned [...]ones. in the defence of Hercules his ſon: which came ſo thick vpon them as if great drops of raine or hayle ſhould haue deſcended from a+boue, no man well knowing which waye to turne him from their violence, they came ſo faſt and with ſo great a ſtrength.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But to go forwarde, albeit that Albion and his power were thus diſcomfited and ſlayne, yet the name that he gaue vnto thys Iſlande dyed not, but ſtill remained vnto the time of Brute, who arriuing here in the 1127, before Chriſt, and 2840. after the creation, not onely chaunged it into Britayne (after it had bene called Albion, by the ſpace of 595. yeares) but to declare his ſouereigntie ouer the reaſt of the Iſlandes alſo that are about the ſame, he called them all after the ſame maner, ſo that Albion was ſayde in tyme to be Britanniarum inſula maxima, that is, the greateſt of thoſe Iſles that bare the name of Britayne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 It is altogither impertinent to diſcuſſe whether Hercules came into thys Iſlande after the death of Albion,Hercules [...]n Bri|tayne. or not, althoughe that by an auncient monument ſéene of late, and the Cape of Hartland in the Weſt coun|trie,Promonto|rium Her|culis. called Promontorium Herculis in olde tyme, diuers of our Brytiſhe wryters doe gather great likelyhoode that he ſhoulde alſo be here. But ſyth hys preſence or abſence maketh nothing wyth the alteration of the name of this our Region and Countrie, I paſſe it ouer as not incident to my purpoſe. Neyther will I ſpend any time in the deter|mination, [...]o. Marius Niger, cõ|ment. de Britannia. Cap. 2. whether Brittayne hath bene ſometyme a percell of the mayne, althoughe it ſhoulde well ſéeme ſo to haue bene, by|cauſe that before the generall floudde of Noah, we doe [...]t [...]eade of Iſlandes. As for the ſpéedie and timely inhabitation thereof, this is myne opinion, that it was inhabited ſhortly after the diuiſion of the earth: For I reade that when ech Captayne and his com|pany had their portions aſſigned vnto them by Noah in the partition that he made of the whole earth among hys poſteritie,Theophi|lus Antio|thenus ad Antolicum. they neuer ceaſed to trauayle and ſearch out the vtter moſt boundes of the ſame, vntill they founde out their parts allotted, and had ſéene and vewed the limites thereof, euen vnto the very pooles. It ſhall ſuffice therefore only to haue touched theſe things in this manner a farre of, and in returning to our purpoſe, to procéede with the reaſt concerning the deno|mination of our Iſland, which was knowen vnto moſt of the Gréekes for a long time, by none other name than Albion, and to ſay the truth, euen vnto Alexanders daies: notwith|ſtanding that Brute, as I haue ſayde, had chaunged the ſame into Britayne, manye hundred yeares before.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After Brutus I doe not find that any man attempted to chaunge it agayne, vntill the tyme that one Valentinus a rebell,Valentia. in the dayes of Valentinianus and Valens endeuo|red to reygne there,In ſupple|mento, Euſebij. lib 28. and therevppon as Ie|rome ſayth, procured it to be called Valen|tia. The lyke alſo dyd Theodoſius in the re|membraunce of the two aforeſayde Empe|rours, as Marcellinus ſaith, but as neyther of theſe tooke anye holde among the common ſort, ſo it retayned ſtil the name of Britaine, vntill the reygne of Echert, who about the 800. yeare of grace, gaue forth an eſpeciall Edict, dated at Wyncheſter, that it ſhoulde be called Angles land, or Angellandt,Angellãdt or Angles land. for which in our time we doe pronounce it Eng|land. And this is all, right Honourable, that I haue to ſay, touching the ſeuerall names of this Iſlande, vtterly miſlyking in the meane ſeaſon their deuiſes, which make Hengiſt the only parent of the later denomination, wher|as Echert, bicauſe his aunceſtours deſcended from the Angles (one of the ſeauen Nations that came wyth the Saxons into Britayne, for they were not all of one, but of diuers countries, as Angles, Saxons, Germaynes,Only Sa|xons arri|ued here at the firſt with Hen|giſt. Switchers, Norwegiens, &c. and all com|prehended vnder ye name of Saxons, bicauſe of Hengiſt the Saxon & his cõpany that firſt aryued here before any of the other) and ther|to hauing now the monarchie & preheminẽce in manner of this whole Iſlande, called the ſame after the name of his Countrie from whence his originall came, neyther Hengiſt, neyther any Quéene named Angla, neyther whatſoeuer deriuation ab angulo, as from a corner of the worlde bearing ſwaye, or ha|uing ought to doe at all in that behalfe.

1.4. What ſundry Nations haue inhabited in this Iſlande. Cap. 3.

What ſundry Nations haue inhabited in this Iſlande. Cap. 3.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AS fewe or no Nations can iuſtly boaſte themſelues to haue continued ſithence their countrie was firſt repleniſhed;No Nati|on voide of myxture, more or leſſe. wythout any myxture, more or leſſe, wyth other peo|ple, no more can this our Iſlande, whoſe ma|nifolde commodities haue oft allured ſundry Princes and famous captaynes of the world to conquere and ſubdue the ſame vnto theyr owne ſubiection. Many ſorts of people there|fore EEBO page image 11 haue comen hither and ſettled thẽſelues here in thys Iſle, and firſt of all other a per|cell of the image and poſteritie of Iapheth, brought in by Samothes in the 1910.Samothe|ans. after the creation of Adam. Howbeit in proceſſe of tyme, and after they had indifferently reple|nyſhed and furnyſhed this Iſlande with peo|ple (which was done in the ſpace of 335. yea|res) Albion the Gyaunt afore mencioned re|payred hither with a companye of his owne race procéeding from Cham, Chemmi|nites. and not onely ſubued the ſame to his owne dominion, but brought all ſuch in lyke ſort as he found here of the lyne of Iaphet, into miſerable ſerui|tude and thraldome. After hym alſo, and wythin leſſe than ſixe hundred yeares came Brute with a great traine of the poſteritie of the diſperſed Troianes in 324.Britaines ſhyppes: who rendring the lyke curteſie vnto the Chemmi|nites as they had done before vnto the ſéede of Iaphet, brought them alſo wholye vnder his rule and gouernaunce, and diuided the whole lande among ſuch Princes and Cap|taynes as he in his arriuall here had led out of Grecia with him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Romaines.From henceforth I doe not finde any ſound report of other natiõ, whatſoeuer that ſhuld aduenture hither to dwell, vntill the Romane Emperours ſubdued it to their dominion, ſa|uing of a fewe Galles; (and thoſe peraduen|ture of Belgie) who firſt comming ouer to robbe and pilfer vpon the coaſtes, did after|warde plant themſelues for altogither neare vnto the ſea, and there buylded ſundry cities and townes which they named after thoſe of the maine, from whence they came vnto vs. But after the comming of the Romaynes, it is harde to ſay with how many ſortes of peo|ple we were dayly peſtered, almoſt in euery ſtéede. For as they planted their forworne Legions in the moſt fertile places of the Realme, and where they might beſt lye for the ſafegarde of their conqueſtes: ſo their ar|mies did commonly conſiſt of many ſorts of people, and were as I may call them, a con|fuſed mixture of all other coũtries. Howbeit, I thinke it beſt, bicauſe they did all beare the tytle of Romaynes, to retayne onely that name for them all, albeit they were wofull gueſtes to this our Iſlande: ſith that wyth them came in all maner of vice and vicious liuing, all ryot and exceſſe of behauior, which their Legions brought hyther from eche cor|ner of their dominions, for there was no pro|uince vnder them from whence they had not ſeruitours.

Scottes Pictes.How and when the Scottes ſhould arriue here out of Irelande, and from whence the Pictes ſhoulde come vnto vs, as yet it is vn|certaine. For although their hiſtories doe ca|rie great countenance of their antiquitie and continuance in this Iſlande: yet (to ſay fréely what I thinke) I iudge them rather to haue ſtollẽ in hither, not much before the Saxons, than that they ſhould haue bene ſo long here, as from the one hundreth yeare after Chriſt. Reynulph Higden is of the opinion that the Pictes did come into this Iſland in the days of Seuerus, and that Fulgentius their cap|tayne was brother to Martia, the mother of Baſsianus. He addeth furthermore howe the Pictes forſooke Baſsianus, Li. 4. ca. [...] and held with Carauſius, who gaue thẽ a portion of Scot|lande to inhabite, and thus wryteth he. But if Herodian be well reade, you ſhal find that ye Pictes were ſettled in thys Iſle, before the time of Seuerus, & yet not ſo ſoone as that Ta|cicus can make any mention of thẽ in the cõ|queſt that Agricola his father in law made of ye North parts of this Iſland. Neyther doe I reade of the Scots or Pictes before the time of Antoninus Verus, in the begynning of whoſe thirde yere (which concurred with the xvij. of Lucius king of Britaine) they inuaded thys South part of the Iſle, and were redu|ced to obedience by Trebellius the Legate. Certes the tyme of Samothes and Albion haue ſome likely limitation, and ſo we maye gather of the cõming in of Brute. The voy|age that Caeſar made likewyſe is certainely knowne to fall out in the 54. before the birth of Chriſt. In lyke ſort that the Saxons arry|ued here in the 449. The Danes, and with them the Gothes, Vandales, Norwegians, &c. in the 791. Finally the Normans in 1066. And Flemminges in the tyme of Henry the firſt (although they came not in by conqueſt, but vppon their humble ſute had a place in Wales aſſigned them to inhabite in, by king Henry then reigning, after the drowning of their countrie) it is eaſie to be prooued.

But when the Pictes and Scottes ſhould enter, neither doe our hyſtories make any re|port, neyther their owne agrée among thẽ|ſelues by manye hundreth yeares. Where|fore as the tyme of their arriuall here is not to be founde out, ſo it ſhall ſuffice to gyue notice that they are but ſtrangers, and ſuch as by obſcure inuaſion haue neſtled in thys Iſlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Saxons became firſt acquainted with thys Iſle,Saxons by meanes of the pyracie which they daily practiſed vpon our coaſtes (after they had once begunne to aduenture themſel|ues alſo vpon the ſeas, thereby to ſéeke out more wealth then was nowe to begotten in theſe weſt partes of the mayne, which they & their neighbors had alreadie ſpoyled in moſt EEBO page image 3 lamentable and barbarous maner) howbeit they neuer durſt preſume to inhabite in this Iſland, vntill they were ſent for by Vortiger to ſerue him in his warres agaynſt ye Pictes & Scottes, after that the Romaines had gi|uen vs ouer, & left vs wholy to our owne de|fence & regiment. Being therefore comen in thrée bottomes or kéeles, & in ſhort time eſpi|ing the ydle & negligent behauiour of ye Bry|tons and fertilitie of our ſoyle, they were not a little inflamed to make a full conqueſt of ſuch as they came to ayde and ſuccour. Here|vpon alſo they fell by little and little to the winding in of greater nũbers of their coun|trymen with their wyues and children into this region, ſo that within a whyle they be|gan to moleſt the homelings (for ſo I finde ye word Indigena, to be engliſhed in an old booke that I haue, wherin Aduena is tranſlated al|ſo an homeling) and ceaſed not from time to time to cõtinue their purpoſe, vntill they had gotten poſſeſſion of the whole, or at the leaſt|wiſe the greateſt part of our coũtry, the Bri|tons in the meane ſeaſon being driuen eyther into Wales & Cornewall, [...]n altogither out of the Iſlande to ſéeke newe inhabitations.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Danes.In like maner the Danes (the next nation that ſuccéeded) came at the firſt onely to pil|fer & robbe vpon the frontiers of our Iſland, till that in the end being let in by the Welch|men or Brytons to reuenge them vpon the Saxons, they no leſſe plagued the one then the other, their friendes, then their aduerſa|ries, ſéeking by all meanes poſſible, to eſta|bliſh themſelues in the ſure poſſeſſiõ of Bry|tayne. But ſuch was their ſucceſſe, that they proſpered not long in their deuiſe, for ſo great was their lordlineſſe, their crueltie, and inſa|tiable deſire of riches, beſide their deteſtable abuſing of chaſt matrones, & young virgines (whoſe huſbandes and parentes were daily inforced to become their drudges and ſlaues whyleſt they ſate at home and fed like Drone bées of the ſwéet of their trauayle & labours) that God I ſay would not ſuffer thẽ to con|tinue any while ouer vs, but when he ſaw his time he remooued their yoke, and gaue vs li|bertie, as it were to breath vs, thereby to ſée whether this his ſharpe ſcourge coulde haue mooued vs to repentaunce and amendement of our lewde and ſinnefull liues, or not. But whẽ no ſigne therof appeared in our hearts, he called in an other nation to vexe vs [...] meane the Normans,The Nor|mans. a people of whom it is woorthily doubted, whether they were more harde and cruell to our countrymen then the Danes, or more heauye and intollerable to our Iſlande then the Saxons or Romaynes, yet ſuch was our lotte, in theſe dayes by the deuine appointed order, that we muſt néedes obey, ſuch as the Lorde dyd ſet ouer vs, & ſo much the rather, for that all power to reſiſte was vtterly taken from vs, and our armes made ſo weake and féeble, that they were not now able to remooue the importable loade of the Normanes from our ſurburdened ſhoul|ders: And this onely I ſay agayne, bycauſe we refuſed grace offred in time and woulde not heare when God by his Preachers did call vs ſo fauourably vnto him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus we ſée howe from time to time this Iſlande hath not onely bene a praye, but as it were a common receptacle for ſtraungers, the naturall homelinges being ſtill cut ſhor|ter and ſhorter, as I ſayde before, till in the ende they came not onely to be driuen into a corner of this region, but in tyme alſo verie like vtterly to haue ben extinguiſhed. For had not king Edward ſurnamed the ſainct in his time after grieuous warres, made vppon them (wherein Earle Harald, ſonne to Good|wine & after king of Englande was his ge|nerall) permitted the remnaunt of their wo|men to ioyne in maryage with the Engliſh|men (when the moſt part of their huſbandes & male children were ſlayne with the ſworde) it coulde not haue bene otherwyſe choſen, but their whole race muſt néedes haue ſuſtayned the vttermoſt confuſion, and thereby the me|morie of the Britons vtterly haue periſhed.

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1.2. Of the position, circuit, forme and quan|titie of the Ile of Britaine. Cap. 2.

Of the position, circuit, forme and quan|titie of the Ile of Britaine. Cap. 2.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _BRitannia or Britain,How Bri|taine lieth from the maine. as we now terme it in our English toong, or Brutania as some pronounce it (by reason of the letter y in the first syllable of the word, as antiquitie did sometime deliuer it) is an Ile lieng in the Ocean sea, directlie ouer against that part of France which conteineth Picardie, Norman|die, and thereto the greatest part of little Britaine, which later region was called in time past Armorica , of the situation thereof vpon the sea coast, vntill such time as a companie of Britons (either led ouer by some of the Romane Emperours, or flieng thither from the tyrannie of such as oppressed them here in this Iland) did setle themselues there, and called it Britaine, after the name of their owne countrie, from whence they aduentured thither. It hath Ireland vpon the west side, on the north the maine sea, euen to Thule and the Hyperboreans; and on the east side also the Germane Ocean, by which we passe dailie through the trade of merchandize, not onlie into the low countries of Bel|gie, now miserablie afflicted betwéene the Spanish power and popish inquisition (as spice betwéene the morter and the pestell) but also into Germanie, Friezeland, Denmarke, and Norwaie, carrieng from hence thither, and bringing from thence hither, all such necessarie commodities as the seuerall countries doo yéeld: through which meanes, and besides common a|mitie conserued, traffike is mainteined, and the neces|sitie of each partie abundantlie reléeued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It conteineth in longitude taken by the middest of the region 19. degrees exactlie:The longi|tude and la|titude of this Ile. and in latitude 53. de|grées, and thirtie min. after the opinions of those that haue diligentlie obserued the same in our daies, and the faithfull report of such writers as haue left notice there|of vnto vs, in their learned treatises to be perpetuallie remembred. Howbeit, whereas some in setting downe of these two lines, haue séemed to varie about the pla|cing of the same, each of them diuerstie remembring the names of sundrie cities and townes, whereby they affirme them to haue their seuerall courses: for my part I haue thought good to procéed somewhat after another sort; that is, by diuiding the latest and best chards each way into two equall parts (so neere as I can possible bring the same to passe) wherby for the middle of lati|tude, I product Caerlile and Newcastell vpon Tine, (whose longest day consisteth of sixtéene houres, 48. mi|nuts) and for the longitude, Newberie,Longest day. Warwike, Shef|field, Skipton, &c: which dealing, in mine opinion, is most easie and indifferent, and likeliest meane to come by the certeine standing and situation of our Iland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Touching the length and bredth of the same,The com|passe of Bri|taine. I find some variance amongst writers: for after some, there are from the Piere or point of Douer, vnto the farthest part of Cornewall westwards 320. miles: from thence againe to the point of Cathnesse by the Irish sea 800. Wherby Polydore and other doo gather, that the circuit of the whole Iland of Britaine is 1720. miles, which is full 280. lesse than Caesar dooth set downe, except there be some difference betwéene the Romane and British miles, as there is indéed; wherof hereafter I may make some farther conference.

Martianus writing of the bredth of Britaine, hath on|lie 300. miles, but Orosius hath 1200. in the whole com|passe. Ethicus also agreeing with Plinie , Martianus, and Solinus , hath 800. miles of length, but in the breadth he commeth short of their account by 120. miles. In like maner Dion in Seuero maketh the one of 891. miles: but the other; to wit, where it is broadest, of 289. and where it is narowest, of 37. Finally, Diodorus Siculus affirmeth the south coast to conteine 7000 furlongs, the second; to wit, à Carione ad Promontorium 15000. the third 20000. and the whole circuit to consist of 42000. But in our time we reckon the breadth from Douer to Cornewall, not to be aboue 300. miles, and the length from Douer to Cathnesse, no more than 500. which ne|uerthelesse must be measured by a right line, for other|wise I see not how the said diuision can hold.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The forme and fashion of this Ile is thrée cornered,The [...] as some haue deuised, like vnto a triangle, bastard sword, wedge, or partesant, being broadest in the south EEBO page image 3 part, and gathering still narrower and narrower, till it come to the farthest point of Cathnesse northward, where it is narrowest of all, & there endeth in maner of a promontorie called Caledonium & Orchas in British Morwerydh, which is not aboue 30. miles ouer, as dai|lie experience by actuall trauell dooth confirme.

The old writers giue vnto the thrée principall cor|ners, crags,Promonto|ries of Bri|taine. points, and promontories of this Iland, thrée seuerall names. As vnto that of Kent, Cantium, that of Cornewall, Hellenes, and of Scotland, Caledo|nium, and Orchas; and these are called principall, in re|spect of the other, which are Taruisium, Nouantum, Epi|dium, Gangacum, Octapites, Herculeum, Antiueste|um, Ocrinum, Berubium, Taizalum, Acantium, &c : of which I thought good also to leaue this notice, to the end that such as shall come after, may thereby take oc|casion to seeke out their true places, wherof as yet I am in maner ignorant, I meane for the most part; bicause I haue no sound author that dooth leade mée to their knowledge.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore,The distãce from the maine. the shortest and most vsuall cut that we haue out of our Iland to the maine, is from Douer (the farthest part of Kent eastward) vnto Calice a towne in Picardie 1300 miles from Rome, in old time called Petressa and Scalas , though some like better of black|nesse where the breadth of the sea is not aboue thir|tie miles. Which course, as it is now frequented and vsed for the most common and safe passage of such as come into our countrie out of France and diuers other realms, so it hath not beene vnknowne of old time vnto the Romans, who for the most part vsed these two hauens for their passage and repassage to and fro; al|though we finde, that now and then diuerse of them came also from Bullen, and landed at Sandwich, or some other places of the coast more toward the west, or betweene Hide and Lid; to wit, Romneie marsh, which in old time was called Romania or Romanorum insula) as to auoid the force of the wind & weather, that often molesteth seafaringmen in these narrowe seas, best liked them for their safegards. Betweene the part of Holland also, which lieth néere the mouth of the Rhene and this our Iland, are 900. furlongs, as Sosimus saith; and besides him, diuers other writers, which being con|uerted into English miles, doo yeeld 112. and foure od furlongs, whereby the iust distance of the neerest part of Britaine, from that part of the maine also dooth cer|teinlie appéere to be much lesse than the common maps of our countrie haue hitherto set downe.

1.3. Of the ancient names or deno|minations of this Iland. Cap. 3.

Of the ancient names or deno|minations of this Iland. Cap. 3.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _IN the diligent perusall of their treatises, who haue written of the state of this our Iland, I find that at the first it séemed to be a parcell of the Celtike king|dome,Dis, Sa|mothes. whereof Dis otherwise called Samothes , one of the sonnes of Iaphet was the Sa|turne or originall beginner, and of him thencefoorth for a long while called Samothea. Afterward in processe of time, when desire of rule began to take hold in the minds of men, and ech prince endeuouted to enlarge his owne dominions:Neptimus Marioticus. Albion the sonne of Neptune, Amphitrite surnamed Marioticus (bicause his domi|nions laie among the Ilands of the Mediterran sea, as those of Plutus did on the lower grounds neere vnto shore, as contrariwise his father Iupiter dwelled on the high hils néerer to heauen) hearing of the commo|dities of the countrie, and plentifulnesse of soile here, made a voiage ouer,The first conquest of Britaine. and finding the thing not onelie correspondent vnto, but also farre surmounting the re|port that went of this Iland, it was not long after yer he inuaded the same by force of armes, brought it to his subiection, in the 29. yeare after his grandfathers de|cease, and finallie changed the name thereof into Albi|on, whereby the former denomination after Samothes did grow out of mind, and fall into vtter forgetfulnesse. And thus was this Iland bereft at on time both of hir ancient name,Britaine vnder the Celts 341. yeares. and also of hir lawfull succession of prin|ces descended of the line of Iaphet, vnder whom it had continued by the space of 341. yeres and nine princes, as by the Chronologie following shall easilie appeere.

Goropius our neighbor being verie nice in the deno|mination of our Iland, as in most other points of his huge volume of the originall of Antwarpe lib. 6. (whom Buchanan also followeth in part) is brought into great doubt, whether Britaine was called Albion of the word Alb, white; or Alp an hill; as Bodinus is no lesse trou|bled with fetching the same ab Olbijs, or as he wresteth it, ab Albijs gallis. But here his inconstancie appeareth, in that in his Gotthadamca liber. 7. he taketh no lesse paines to bring the Britaines out of Denmarke, whereby the name of the Iland should be called Vrida|nia; Freedania, Brithania, or Bridania, tanquam libera Dania, as another also dooth to fetch the originall out of Spaine, where Breta signifieth soile or earth. But as such as walke in darkenesse doo often straie, bicause they wot not whither they go: euen so doo these men, whilest they séeke to extenuate the certeintie of our hi|stories, and bring vs altogither to vncerteinties & their coniectures. They in like maner, which will haue the Welshmen come from the French with this one que|stion, vnder Walli nisia Gallis, or from some Spanish colo|nie, doo greatlie bewraie their ouersights; but most of all they erre that endeuour to fetch it from Albine the imagined daughter of a forged Dioclesian , wherewith our ignorant writers haue of late not a little stained our historie, and brought the sound part thereof into some discredit and mistrust: but more of this hereafter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now to speake somewhat also of Neptune as by the waie (sith I haue made mention of him in this place) it shall not be altogither impertinent. Wherfore you shall vnderstand, that for his excellent knowledge in the art of nauigation (as nauigation then went) he was re|putedNeptune God of the sea. the most skilfull prince that liued in his time. And therfore, and likewise for his courage & boldnesse in ad|uenturing to and fro, he was after his decease honou|red as a god,The maner of dressing of ships in old time. and the protection of such as trauelled by sea committed to his charge. So rude also was the ma|king of ships wherewith to saile in his time (which were for the most part flat bottomed and broad) that for lacke of better experience to calke and trim the same after they were builded, they vsed to naile them ouer with rawe hides of bulles, buffles, and such like, and with such a kind of nauie (as they say) first Samothes, & then Albi|on arriued in this Iland, which vnto me doth not séeme a thing impossible. The northerlie or artike regions, doo not naile their ships with iron, which they vtterly want, but with wooden pins, or els they bind the planks togi|ther verie artificiallie with bast ropes, osiers, rinds of trées, or twigs of popler, the substance of those vessels being either of fir or pine, sith oke is verie deintie & hard to be had amongst them. Of their wooden anchors I speake not (which neuerthelesse are common to them, and to the Gothlanders) more than of ships wrought of wickers, sometime vsed in our Britaine, and coue|red with leather euen in the time of Plinie, lib. 7. cap. 56 . as also bofes made of rushes and réeds, &c. Nei|ther haue I iust occasion to speake of ships made of canes, of which sort Staurobates , king of India figh|ting against Semiramis, brought 4000. with him and fought with hir the first battell on the water that euer I read of, and vpon the riuer Indus, but to his losse, for he was ouercome by hir power, & his nauie either drowned or burned by the furie of hir souldiers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 13 But to proceed, when the said Albion had gouerned here in this countrie by the space of seauen yeares, it came to passe that both he and his brother Bergion were killed by Hercules at the mouth of Rhodanus, as the said Hercules passed out of Spaine by the Cel|tes to go ouer into Italie, and vpon this occasion (as I gather among the writers) not vnworthie to be remem|bred. It happened in time of Lucus king of the Celts,Lestrigo. that Lestrigo and his issue (whom Osyris his grandfa|ther had placed ouer the Ianigenes) did exercise great tyrannie,Ianigenes were the po|steritie of Noah in I|talie. not onelie ouer his owne kingdome, but also in molestation of such princes as inhabited round a|bout him in most intollerable maner. Moreouer he was not a little incouraged in these his dooings by Neptune his father,Neptune had xxxiii. sonnes. who thirsted greatly to leaue his xxxiii. sonnes settled in the mightiest kingdoms of the world, as men of whom he had alreadie conceiued this opinion, that if they had once gotten foot into any region whatsoeuer, it would not be long yer they did by some meanes or o|ther, not onelie establish their seats, but also increase their limits to the better maintenance of themselues and their posteritie for euermore. To be short therefore, after the giants, and great princes, or mightie men of the world had conspired and slaine the aforsaid Osyris, onelie for that he was an obstacle vnto them in their tyrannous dealing; Hercules his sonne, surnamed La|abin, Lubim, or Libius, in the reuenge of his fathers death, proclaimed open warres against them all, and going from place to place, he ceased not to spoile their kingdomes, and therewithall to kill them with great courage that fell into his hands. Finallie, hauing a|mong sundrie other ouercome the Lomnimi or Gerio|nes in Spaine,Lomnimi. Geriones. and vnderstanding that Lestrigo and his sonnes did yet remaine in Italie, he directed his viage into those parts, and taking the kingdome of the Celts in his waie, he remained for a season with Lu|cus the king of that countrie, where he also maried his daughter Galathea,Galathea. and begat a sonne by hir, calling him after his mothers name Galates, Galates or Kelts. of whom in my said Chronologie I haue spoken more at large.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time Albion vnderstanding how Her|cules intended to make warres against his brother Le|strigo, he thought good if it were possible to stop him that tide,Bergion. and therefore sending for his brother Bergi|on out of the Orchades (where he also reigned as su|preame lord and gouernour) they ioined their powers, and sailed ouer into France. Being arriued there,Pomponius Mela cap. de Gallia. it was not long yer they met with Hercules and his ar|mie, neare vnto the mouth of the riuer called Roen (or the Rhodanus) where happened a cruell conflict be|twéene them, in which Hercules and his men were like to haue lost the day, for that they were in maner wearied with long warres, and their munition sore wasted in the last viage that he had made for Spaine. Herevpon Hercules perceiuing the courages of his souldiours somewhat to abate, and seeing the want of artillerie like to be the cause of his fatall daie and pre|sent ouerthrowe at hand, it came suddenlie into his mind to will each of them to defend himselfe by throw|ing stones at his enimie,Strabo lib. 4. whereof there laie great store then scattered in the place. The policie was no sooner published than hearkened vnto and put in execu|tion, whereby they so preuailed in the end, that Hercu|les wan the field, their enimies were put to flight, and Albion and his brother both slaine, and buried in that plot. Thus was Britaine rid of a tyrant, Lucus king of the Celts deliuered from an vsurper (that dailie in|croched vpon him, building sundrie cities and holds, of which some were placed among the Alps & called after his owne name, and other also euen in his owne king|dome on that side) and Lestrigo greatlie weakened by the slaughter of his brethren. Of this inuention of Her|cules in like sort it commeth, that Iupiter father vnto Hercules (who indeed was none other but Osyris) is feigned to throw downe stones from heauen vpon Al|bion and Bergion, in the defense of his sonne: which came so thicke vpon them, as if great drops of raine or haile should haue descended from aboue, no man well knowing which waie to turne him from their force, they came so fast and with so great a violence.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to go forward, albeit that Albion and his power were thus discomfited and slaine, yet the name that he gaue vnto this Iland died not, but still remained vnto the time of Brute, who arriuing héere in the 1116. be|fore Christ, and 2850. after the creation of the world, not onelie changed it into Britaine (after it had beene called Albion, by the space of about 600. yeares) but to declare his souereigntie ouer the rest of the Ilands also that lie scattered round about it, he called them all af|ter the same maner, so that Albion was said in time to be Britanniarum insula maxima, that is, The greatest of those Iles that beare the name of Britaine, which Pli|nie also confirmeth, and Strabo in his first and second bookes denieth not . There are some, which vtterlie de|nieng that this Iland tooke hir name of Brute, doo affirme it rather to be so called of the rich mettals sometime carried from the mines there into all the world as growing in the same. Vibius Sequester also saith that Calabria was sometime called Britannia, Ob immensam affluentiam totius delitiae atque vbertatis, that was to be found heerein. Other contend that it should be written with P (Pritannia.) All which opini|ons as I absolutelie denie not, so I willinglie leane vnto none of them in peremptorie maner, sith the anti|quitie of our historie carrieth me withall vnto the for|mer iudgements. And for the same cause I reiect them also, which deriue the aforesaid denomination from Bri|tona the nymph, in following Textor (or Prutus or Prytus the sonne of Araxa) which Britona was borne in Creta daughter to Mars, and fled by sea from thence onelie to escape the villanie of Minos, who attempted to rauish and make hir one of his paramours: but if I should forsake the authoritie of Galfride , I would ra|ther leane to the report of Parthenius , whereof else|where I haue made a more large rehersall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It is altogither impertinent, to discusse whether Her|cules came into this Iland after the death of Albion, or not, although that by an ancient monument seene of late, as I heare, and the cape of Hartland or Harcland in the West countrie (called Promontorium Herculis in old time) diuers of our British antiquaries doo gather great likelihood that he should also be here. But sith his pre|sence or absence maketh nothing with the alteration of the name of this our region and countrie, and to search out whether the said monument was but some token e|rected in his honour of later times (as some haue beene elsewhere, among the Celts framed, & those like an old criple with a bow bent in one hand & a club in the other, a rough skin on his backe, the haire of his head all to be matted like that of the Irishmens, and drawing ma|nie men captiue after him in chaines) is but smallie a|uailable, and therefore I passe it ouer as not incident to my purpose. Neither will I spend any time in the de|termination, whether Britaine had beene sometime a parcell of the maine, although it should well séeme so to haue beene, bicause that before the generall floud of Noah, we doo not read of Ilands, more than of hils and vallies. Wherfore as Wilden Arguis also noteth in his philosophie and tractation of meteors, it is verie like|lie that they were onelie caused by the violent motion and working of the sea, in the time of the floud, which if S. Augustine had well considered, he would neuer haue asked how such creatures as liued in Ilands far distant from the maine could come into the arke, De ciuit. lib. 16. cap. 7 . howbeit in the end he concludeth with another matter more profitable than his demand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 As for the speedie and timelie inhabitation there|of, this is mine opinion, to wit, that it was inha|bited EEBO page image 5 shortlie after the diuision of the earth. For I read that when each capteinie and his companie had their portions assigned vnto them by Noah in the par|tition that he made of the whole among his posteri|tie, they neuer ceased to trauell and search out the vttermost parts of the same, vntill they found out their bounds allotted, and had seene and vewed their limits, euen vnto the verie poles. It shall suffice therefore onelie to haue touched these things in this manner a farre off, and in returning to our pur|pose, to procéed with the rest concerning the denomina|tion of our Iland,Yet Timeus, Ephorus, and some of the Grecians, know the name Britan|nia. as ap|peareth also by Diodorus. &c , before the comming of Cesar. which was knowne vnto most of the Gréekes for a long time, by none other name than Al|bion, and to saie the truth, euen vnto Alexanders daies, as appeareth by the words of Aristotle in his De mundo , and to the time of Ptolomie : notwithstanding that Brute, as I haue said, had changed the same into Bri|taine, manie hundred yeares before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After Brutus I doo not find that anie men attemp|ted to change it againe, vntill the time that Theodosius, in the daies of Ualentinianus and Ualens endeuou|red, in the remembrance of the two aforesaid Empe|rours, to call it Valentia, as Marcellinus saith. But as this deuise tooke no hold among the common sort, so it retained still the name of Britaine, vntill the reigne of Ecbert , who about the 800. yeare of Grace, and first of his reigne, gaue foorth an especiall edict, dated at Win|chester, that it should be called Angles land, or Angel|landt, for which in our time we doo pronounce it Eng|land. And this is all (right honorable) that I haue to say, touching the seuerall names of this Iland, vtterlie misliking in the meane season their deuises, which make Hengist the onlie parent of the later denomina|tion, whereas Ecbert, bicause his ancestours descen|ded from the Angles one of the sixe nations that came with the Saxons into Britaine (for they were not all of one, but of diuers countries, as Angles, Saxons, Germans, Switzers, Norwegiens, Iutes other|wise called Iutons, Uites, Gothes or Getes, and Uan|dals, and all comprehended vnder the name of Sax|ons, bicause of Hengist the Saxon and his companie that first arriued here before anie of the other) and ther|to hauing now the monarchie and preheminence in maner of this whole Iland, called the same after the name of the countrie from whence he deriued his ori|ginall,Of this opi|nion is Bel|forest, lib. 3. cap. 44 . neither Hengist, neither anie Queene named Angla, neither whatsoeuer deriuation ab Angulo, as from a corner of the world bearing swaie, or hauing ought to doo at all in that behalfe.

1.4. What sundrie nations haue dwel|led in Albion. Cap. 4.

What sundrie nations haue dwel|led in Albion. Cap. 4.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _AS few or no nations can iustlie boast themselues to haue con|tinued sithence their countrie was first replenished, without any mixture, more or lesse, of forreine inhabitants; no more can this our Iland, whose mani|fold commodities haue oft allu|red sundrie princes and famous capteines of the world to conquer and subdue the same vnto their owne sub|iection. Manie sorts of people therfore haue come in hi|ther and settled themselues here in this Ile, and first of all other, a parcell of the linage and posteritie of Ia|phet,Samothe|ans. brought in by Samothes in the 1910. after the creation of Adam. Howbeit in processe of time, and after they had indifferentlie replenished and furnished this Iland with people (which was doone in the space of 335. yeares) Albion the giant afore mentioned, repai|red hither with a companie of his owne race procéeding from Cham, and not onelie annexed the same to his owne dominion, but brought all such in like sort as he found here of the line of Iaphet, into miserable serui|tude and most extreame thraldome. After him also, and within lesse than sixe hundred and two yeares, came Brute the sonne of Syluius with a great traine of the posteritie of the dispersed Troians in 324. ships: Britains. who rendering the like courtesie vnto the Chemminits as they had doone before vnto the séed of Iaphet,Chemmi|nits. brought them also wholie vnder his rule and gouernance, and dispossessing the peeres & inferior owners of their lands and possessions, he diuided the countrie among such princes and capteines as he in his arriuall here had led out of Grecia with him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From hencefoorth I doo not find any sound report of other nation whatsoeuer,Romans. that should aduenture hither to dwell, and alter the state of the land, vntill the Ro|mane emperours subdued it to their dominion, sa|uing of a few Galles, (and those peraduenture of Belgie) who first comming ouer to rob and pilfer vpon the coasts, did afterward plant themselues for altogi|ther neere vnto the shore, and there builded sundrie ci|ties and townes which they named after those of the maine, from whence they came vnto vs. And this is not onelie to be gathered out of Cesar where he wri|teth of Britaine of set purpose, but also else-where, as in his second booke a litle after the beginning: for spea|king of Deuiaticus king of the Swessions liuing in his time, he affirmeth him not onelie to be the mightiest prince of all the Galles, but also to hold vnder his sub|iection the Ile of Britaine, of which his sonne Galba was afterward dispossessed. But after the com|ming of the Romans, it is hard to say with how manie sorts of people we were dailie pestered, almost in euerie steed. For as they planted their forworne legions in the most fertile places of the realme, and where they might best lie for the safegard of their conquests: so their armies did commonlie consist of manie sorts of people, and were (as I may call them) a confused mixture of all other countries and nations then liuing in the world. Howbeit, I thinke it best, bicause they did all beare the title of Romans, to re|teine onelie that name for them all, albeit they were wofull ghests to this our Iland: sith that with them came all maner of vice and vicious liuing, all riot and excesse of behauiour into our countrie, which their legi|ons brought hither from each corner of their domini|ons: for there was no prouince vnder them from whence they had not seruitours.

How and when the Scots,Scots. Picts. a people mixed of the Scithian and Spanish blood, should arriue here out of Ireland, & when the Picts should come vnto vs out of Sarmatia, or from further toward the north & the Scithi|an Hyperboreans, as yet it is vncerteine. For though the Scotish histories doo carrie great countenance of their antiquitie in this Iland: yet (to saie fréelie what I thinke) I iudge them rather to haue stolne in hither within the space of 100. yeares before Christ, than to haue continued here so long as they themselues pre|tend, if my coniecture be any thing. Yet I denie not, but that as the Picts were long planted in this Iland be|fore the Scots aduentured to settle themselues also in Britaine; so the Scots did often aduenture hither to rob and steale out of Ireland, and were finallie called in by the Meats or Picts (as the Romans named them, be|cause they painted their bodies) to helpe them against the Britains, after the which they so planted them|selues in these parts, that vnto our time that portion of the land cannot he cleansed of them. I find also that as these Scots were reputed for the most Scithian-like and barbarous nation, and longest without letters; so they vsed commonlie to steale ouer into Britaine in leather skewes, and began to helpe the Picts about or not long before the beginning of Cesars time. For both EEBO page image 6 Diodorus lib. 6 . and Strabo lib. 4. doo seeme to speake of a parcell of the Irish nation that should inhabit Bri|taine in their time, which were giuen to the eating of mans flesh, and therefore called Anthropophagi. Ma|mertinus in like sort dooth note the Redshanks and the Irish (which are properlie the Scots) to be the onelie enimies of our nation, before the comming of Caesar, as appeareth in his panegyricall oration, so that hereby it is found that they are no new ghestes in Britaine. Wherefore all the controuersie dooth rest in the time of their first attempt to inhabit in this Iland. Certein|lie I maruell much whie they trauell not to come in with Cantaber and Partholonus : but I see perfectlie that this shift should be too grosse for the maintenance of their desired antiquitie. Now, as concerning their name, the Saxons translated the word Scotus for Irish: whereby it appeareth that those Irish, of whom Strabo and Diodorus doo speake, are none other than those Scots, of whom Ierome speaketh A duersus Iouini|anum, lib. 2. who vsed to féed on the buttocks of boies and womens paps, as delicate dishes. Aethicus writing of the Ile of Man, affirmeth it to be inhabited with Scots so well as Ireland euen in his time. Which is another proofe that the Scots and Irish are all one people. They were also called Scoti by the Romans, bicause their I|land & originall inhabitation thereof were vnknowne, and they themselues an obscure nation in the sight of all the world. Now as concerning the Picts,Of the Picts. whatso|euer Ranulphus Hygden imagineth to the contrarie of their latter enterance, it is easie to find by Herodian and Mamertinus (of which the one calleth them Meates, the other Redshankes and Pictones) that they were setled in this Ile long before the time of Seuerus, yea of Caesar, and comming of the Scots. Which is proofe suffi|cient, if no further authoritie remained extant for the same. So that the controuersie lieth not in their com|ming also, but in the true time of their repaire and ad|uenture into this Iland out of the Orchades (out of which they gat ouer into the North parts of our coun|trie, as the writers doo report) and from whence they came at the first into the aforsaid Ilands. For my part I suppose with other, that they came hither out of Sar|matia or Scythia: for that nation hauing how al|waies an eie vnto the commodities of our countrie, hath sent out manie companies to inuade and spoile the same. It may be that some will gather, those to be the Picts, of whom Caesar saith that they stained their faces with wad and madder, to the end they might ap|peare terrible and fearefull to their enimies; and so in|ferre that the Picts were naturall Britans. But it is one thing to staine the face onelie as the Britans did, of whom Propertius saith,

Nunc etiam infectos demummutare Britannos,
And to paint the images and portrattures of beasts, fish and foules ouer the whole bodie, as the Picts did, of whom Martial saith,
Barbara depictis veni Bascauda Britannis.
Certes the times of Samothes and Albion, haue some likelie limitation: and so we may gather of the comming in of Brute, of Caesar, the Saxons, the Danes, the Normans, and finallie of the Flemmings, (who had the Rosse in Wales assigned vnto them 1066. after the drowning of their countrie.) But when first the Picts, & then the Scots should come ouer into our. I|land, as they were obscure people, so the time of their arriuall is as far to me vnknowne. Wherefore the reso|lution of this point must still remaine In tenebris. This neuerthelesse is certeine, that Maximus first Le|gate of Britaine, and afterward emperour, draue the Scots out of Britaine, and compelled them to get ha|bitation in Ireland, the out Iles, and the North part of the maine, and finallie diuided their region betwéene the Britaines and the Picts. He denounced warre also against the Irishmen, for receiuing them into their land: but they crauing the peace, yéelded to subscribe, that from thence-foorth they would not receiue any Scot into their dominions; and so much the more, for that they were pronounced enimies to the Romans, and disturbers of the common peace and quietnesse of their prouinces here in England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Saxons became first acquainted with this Ile, by meanes of the piracie which they dailie practi|sed vpon our coastes (after they had once begun to ad|uenture themselues also vpon the seas, thereby to seeke out more wealth than was now to be gotten in the West parts of the maine, which they and their neigh|bours had alreadie spoiled in most lamentable and bar|barous maner) howbeit they neuer durst presume to inhabit in this Iland,The hurt by forren aid. vntill they were sent for by Vor|tiger to serue him in his warres against the Picts and Scots, after that the Romans had giuen vs ouer, and lest vs wholie to our owne defense and regiment. Be|ing therefore come vnder Hengist in three bottoms or kéeles , and in short time espieng the idle and negligent behauiour of the Britaines, and fertilitie of our soile, they were not a little inflamed to make a full conquest of such as at the first they came to aid and succour. Herevpon also they fell by little and little to the wind|ing in of greater numbers of their countrimen and neighbours, with their wiues and children into this re|gion, so that within a while these new comlings began to molest the homelings, and ceased not from time to time to continue their purpose, vntill they had gotten possession of the whole, or at the leastwise the greatest part of our countrie; the Britons in the meane sea|son being driuen either into Wales and Cornewall, or altogither out of the Iland to séeke new habitati|ons.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In like maner the Danes (the next nation that succéeded) came at the first onelie to pilfer and robbe vpon the frontiers of our Iland,Danes. till that in the end, being let in by the Welshmen or Britons through an earnest desire to be reuenged vpon the Saxons, they no lesse plagued the one than the other, their fréends than their aduersaries, seeking by all meanes possible to establish themselues also in the sure pos|session of Britaine. But such was their successe, that they prospered not long in their deuise: for so great was their lordlinesse, crueltie, and infatiable desire of riches, beside their detestable abusing of chast matrons, and yoong virgins (whose husbands and pa|rents were dailie inforced to become their drudges and slaues, whilest they sat at home and fed like drone bées of the sweet of their trauell and labours) that God I say would not suffer them to continue any while ouer vs, but when he saw his time he remooued their yoke, and gaue vs libertie as it were to breath vs, thereby to see whether this his sharpe scourge could haue mooued vs to repentance and amendment of our lewd and sinfull liues, or not. But when no signe thereof appeared in our hearts, he called in an other nation to vex vs, I meane the Normans,The Nor|mans. a people mixed with Danes, and of whom it is worthilie doubted, whether they were more hard and cruell to our countrimen than the Danes, or more heauie and intollerable to our Iland than the Saxons or the Romans. This nation came out of Newstria, the people thereof were called Nor|mans by the French, bicause the Danes which sub|dued that region, came out of the North parts of the world: neuerthelesse, I suppose that the ancient word Newstria , is corrupted from West-rijc, bi|cause that if you marke the situation, it lieth oppo|site from Austria or Ost-rijc, which is called the East region, as Newstria is the Weast: for Rijc in the old Scithian toong dooth signifie a region or kingdome, as in Franc-rijc, or Franc-reich, Westsaxon-reich, Ost saxon-reich, Su-rijc, Angel-rijc, &c, is else to be séene. But howsoeuer this falleth out, these Normans EEBO page image 7 or Danish French, were dedlie aduersaries to the Eng|lish Saxons, first by meane of a quarell that grew be|twéene them in the daies of Edward the Confessour, at such time as the Earle of Bullen, and William Duke of Normandie, arriued in this land to visit him, & their freends; such Normans (I meane) as came ouer with him and Emma his mother before him, in the time of Canutus and Ethelred. For the first footing that euer the French did set in this Iland, sithence the time of Ethel|bert & Sigebert, was with Emma, which Ladie brought ouer a traine of French Gentlemen and Ladies with hir into England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After hir also no small numbers of attendants came in with Edward the Confessour, The cause of the conquest by the Nor|mans. whome he pre|ferred to the greatest offices in the realme, in so much that one Robert a Norman , became Archbishop of Canturburie, whose preferment so much enhanced the minds of the French, on the one side, as their lord|lie and outragious demeanour kindled the stomachs of the English nobilitie against them on the other: in|somuch that not long before the death of Emma the kings mother, and vpon occasion of the brall hapning at Douer (whereof I haue made sufficient mention in my Chronologie, not regarding the report of the French authors in this behalfe, who write altogither in the fauour of their Archbishop Robert, but following the authoritie of an English préest then liuing in the court ) the English Peeres began to shew their disli|king in manifest maner. Neuerthelesse, the Normans so bewitched the king with their lieng and bosting, Ro|bert the Archbishop being the chéefe instrument of their practise, that he beléeued them, and therevpon vexed sundrie of the nobilitie, amongst whom Earle Good|wijn of Kent was the chéefe, a noble Gentleman and father in law to king Edward by the mariage of his daughter. The matter also came to such issue against him, that he was exiled, and fiue of his sonnes with him, wherevpon he goeth ouer the sea, and soone after returning with his said sonnes, they inuaded the land in sundrie places, the father himselfe comming to Lon|don, where when the kings power was readie to ioine with him in battell, it vtterlie refused so to doo: affir|ming plainelie, that it should be méere follie for one Englishman to fight against another, in the reuenge of Frenchmens quarels: which answer entred so déep|lie into the kings mind, that he was contented to haue the matter heard, and appointing commissioners for that purpose; they concluded at the vpshot, that all the French should depart out of England by a day, few excepted, whom the king should appoint and nominate. By this means therfore Robert the Archbishop,Archbishop of Can. exi|led, and the rest of the French. & of se|cret counsell with the king, was first exiled as princi|pall abuser & seducer of the king, who goeth to Rome, & there complaineth to the Pope of his iniurie receiued by the English. Howbeit as he returned home a|gaine with no small hope of the readeption of his See, he died in Normandie, whereby he saued a killing. Cer|tes he was the first that euer tendered complaint out of England vnto Rome, & with him went William Bi|shop of London (afterward reuoked) and >Vlfo of Lin|colne , who hardlie escaped the furie of the English no|bilitie. Some also went into Scotland, and there held themselues, expecting a better time. And this is the true historie of the originall cause of the conquest of Eng|land by the French: for after they were well beaten at Douer, bicause of their insolent demeanour there shewed, their harts neuer ceased to boile with a desire of reuenge that brake out into a flame, so soone as their Robert possessed the primacie, which being once obtei|ned, and to set his mischéefe intended abroch withall, a contention was quicklie procured about certeine Kentish lands, and controuersie kindled, whether he or the Earle should haue most right vnto them. The king held with the priest as with the church, the nobilitie with the Earle. In processe also of this businesse,Erle Good|wine slande|red by the French wri|ters. the Archbi|shop accused the Earle of high treason, burdening him with the slaughter of Alfred the kings brother, which was altogither false: as appeareth by a treatise yet extant of that matter , written by a chaplaine to king Edward the Confessour, in the hands of Iohn Stow my verie fréend, wherein he saith thus, Alfredus incautè agens in aduentu suo in Angliam a Danis circumuen|tus occiditur. He addeth moreouer, that giuing out as he came through the countrie accompanied with his few proud Normans, how his meaning was to recouer his right vnto the kingdome, and supposing that all men would haue yéelded vnto him, he fell into their hands, whome Harald then king did send to apprehend him, vpon the fame onelie of this report brought vnto his eares. So that (to be short) after the king had made his pacification with the Earle, the French (I say) were exiled, the Quéene restored to his fauour (whom he at the beginning of this broile had imprisoned at Wilton, allowing hir but one onlie maid to wait vpon hir) and the land reduced to hir former quietnesse, which conti|nued vntill the death of the king. After which the Nor|mans not forgetting their old grudge, remembred still their quarell, that in the end turned to their conquest of this Iland. After which obteined, they were so cruellie bent to our vtter subuersion and ouerthrow, that in the beginning it was lesse reproch to be accoun|ted a slaue than an Englishman,The miserie of the Eng|lish vnder the French. or a drudge in anie filthie businesse than a Britaine: insomuch that eue|rie French page was superiour to the greatest Peere; and the losse of an Englishmans life but a pastime to such of them as contended in their brauerie, who should giue the greatest strokes or wounds vnto their bodies, when their toiling and drudgerie could not please them, or satisfie their gréedie humors. Yet such was our lot in those daies by the diuine appointed order, that we must needs obey such as the Lord did set ouer vs, and so much the rather, for that all power to resist was vtterlie ta|ken from vs, and our armes made so weake and feeble that they were not now able to remooue the importable load of the enimie from our surburdened shoulders. And this onelie I saie againe,The cause of our miserie. bicause we refused grace offered in time, and would not heare when God by his Preachers did call vs so fauourablie vnto him. Oh how miserable was the estate of our countrie vnder the French and Normans, wherein the Brittish and English that remained, could not be called to any func|tion in the commonwealth, no not so much as to be con|stables and headburowes in small villages, except they could bring 2. or 3. Normans for suerties to the Lords of the soile for their good behauiour in their offices! Oh what numbers of all degrées of English and Brittish were made slaues and bondmen, and bought and sold as oxen in open market! In so much that at the first comming, the French bond were set free; and those that afterward became bond, were of our owne coun|trie and nation, so that few or rather none of vs re|mained free without some note of bondage and ser|uitude to the French. Hereby then we perceiue, how from time to time this Iland hath not onelie béene a prey, but as it were a common receptacle for strangers, the naturall homelings or Britons being still cut shorter and shorter, as I said before, till in the end they came not onelie to be driuen into a corner of this region, In this voi|age the said Harald buil|ded Porta|schith, which Caradoch ap Griffin afterward ouerthrew, and killed the garrison that Ha|rald left therein. but in time also verie like vtterlie to haue beene extinguished. For had not king Edward, surna|med the saint, in his time, after greeuous wars made vpon them 1063. (wherein Harald latelie made Earle of Oxenford , sonne to Goodwin Earle of Kent, and af|ter king of England, was his generall) permitted the remnant of their women to ioine in mariage with the Englishmen (when the most part of their husbands and male children were slaine with the sword) it could not haue béene otherwise chosen, but their whole race must EEBO page image 8 needs haue susteined the vttermost confusion, and there|by the memorie of the Britons vtterlie haue perished a|mong vs.

Thus we see how England hath six times beene subiect to the reproch of conquest. And wheras the Scots séeme to challenge manie famous victories also ouer vs, be|side gréeuous impositions, tributs, & dishonorable com|positions: it shall suffice for answer, that they deale in this as in the most part of their historie, which is to seeke great honor by lieng, & great renowme by prating and craking. Indeed they haue doone great mischéefe in this Iland, & with extreme crueltie; but as for any conquest the first is yet to heare of. Diuers other conquests also haue béene pretended by sundrie princes sithence the conquest, onelie to the end that all pristinate lawes and tenures of possession might cease, and they make a new disposition of all things at their owne pleasure. As one by king Edw. the 3 . but it tooke none effect. An|other by Henrie the 4. who neuerthelesse was at the last though hardlie drawne from the challenge by William Thorington , then cheefe Iustice of England. The third by Henrie the 7 . who had some better shew of right, but yet without effect. And the last of all by Q. Marie , as some of the papists gaue out, and also would haue had hir to haue obtained, but God also staied their mali|ces, and hir challenge. But beside the six afore menti|oned, Huntingdon the old historiographer speaketh of a seuenth, likelie (as he saith) to come one daie out of the North, which is a wind that bloweth no man to good, sith nothing is to be had in those parts, but hunger & much cold. Sée more hereof in the historie of S. Albons, and aforsaid author which lieth on the left side of the librarie belonging now to Paules : for I regard no prophesies as one that doubteth from what spirit they doo procéed, or who should be the author of them.