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5.72. Vortiporus.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 [figure appears here on page 140] VOrtiporus,Vorti|porus. ye ſonne of Au|relius Conanus ſucceeded his fa|ther, and began to reygne ouer the Britons,Math. VVe [...]. noteth. 57 [...]. in the yeare of oure Lorde fiue hun|dred ſeuentie and ſixe, in the ele|uenth yeare of the Emperoure Flauius Anicius Iuſtinus, in the fourthe yeare of the reigne of EEBO page image 147 Childerike king of Fraunce, and in the fourth yeare of Ciephis the Gotiſhe king in Italy. This Vortiporus vanquiſhed the Saxons in batayle, as the Britiſhe hiſtories make menti|on, and valiantly defended his lande and ſub|iectes the Brytons, from the daunger of them & other their alies. In the tyme of this ky [...]g [...] reigne the foreſayde Ella began to rule in the ſouth parte of the kingdome of Northumber|lande called De [...]ra, as before is mencioned, according to the accõpt of ſome authors, who alſo take this Vortiporus to begin his reigne in the yeare . [...]48. [...]th. VVeſt. [...]th. 3. yeres. Fynally after that Vortipo|rus hadde ruled the Britons the ſpace of .iiij. yeares, he departed this lyfe, and left no iſſue behynde him to ſuccede him in the kingdome: Againſt whome alſo Gildas turning his tale beginneth with him thus: [...]da And why ſtandeſt thou as one ſtarke amazed, thou (I ſay) Vor|tiporus, the tyraunt of Southwales, lyke to the Panther in manners and wickedneſſe, dy|uerſly ſpotted as it were with many colours, with thy hore head in thy throne full of decey|tes, craftes, and wyles, and defiled euen from the loweſt part of thy bodie vp to the crowne of the heade, with diuers ſundrye murthers committed in thyne owne kinne, and filthye adulteries, thus prouing a naughtie ſonne of a good king, as Manaſſes was to Ezechias: how chanceth it that the violente ſtreames of ſinnes, which thou ſwalloweſt vp lyke plea|ſant wyne, or rather arte deuoured of them, (the ende of thy lyfe by little and little nowe drawyng neere,) can not yet ſatiſfye thee? What meaneſt thou that with fornication of all euyls, as it were the ful heape, thyne owne wyfe beeing putte awaye, and by hir honeſte death doeſt oppreſſe thy ſoule wyth a certayne burdeyn that can not bee auoyded, of thyne vnſhamefaſt daughter? Conſume not (I pray ther) the reſydue of thy [...]ayes to the offence of God, and ſo foorth, exhorting him to repen|taunce, wyth admonitions taken oute of the Scriptures, bothe for his comforte and war|nyng.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 If the circumſtaunce of thys that Gildas writeth of Vortiporus bee marked, it maye bee perceyued, that Geffrey of Monmouthe, and alſo Mathewe of Weſtminſter, the Au|thour of the Floures of hiſtories, are decey|ued in that they take hym to bee the ſonne of Aurelius Conanus: and rather it maye hee gathered, that not onely the ſame Aurelius Conanus and Vortiporus, but alſo Conſtan|tinus, yea and Cuneg [...]aſus, and Maglocu|nus, of the whiche he alſo intreateth (as part|ly ſhall bee hereafter touched) liued, and reig|ned all at one tyme in ſeuerall partes of thys Iſle, and not as Monarkes of the whole Bri|tiſhe nation but as rulers eche of them in his quarier, after the manner as the ſtate of I [...]|lande hath bin in tymes paſſe before the coun|trey came vnder the Engliſhe ſubiection, if my coniecture herein doe not deceyue me.

5.73. Malgo.


[figure appears here on page 147]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AFter the deceaſſe of Vort [...]orus,Malgo. Malgo that was nephewe to Aurelius Conanus, (as ſome write) was made king of Britayne,Math. VVeſt. hath noted. 58 [...]. and began his reigne ouer the Britons, in the yeare of our Lord .580. in the .xv. yeere of the Emperor Iuſtinian, and in the . [...]7.580. yeere of the reigne of Childerick king of the Frenchmen.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Malgo is reported to haue beene the comelyeſt Gentleman in beautie and ſhape of perſonage that was to be founde in thoſe day [...] amongeſt all the Brytons, and therewith of a bolde and hardie courage.Gal. M [...]. Hee manfully defended the countrey which he had in gouer|naunce, from the malice of the Saxons, & ſub|dued the out Iſles, as Orkeneye and others. But notwithſtãding the noble qualities with the whiche his perſone was adorned, yet hee ſpotted them all with the foule filthie ſynne of Sodomie, ſo that he fell into the hatred of Al|mightie God, and being purſued of the Sax|ons, receyued many ouerthrowes at their han|des, as by the reporte of the Engliſhe writers is gathered more at large. Finallye when hee had reigned fiue yeeres and odde moneths, hee departed this lyfe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 It ſeemeth that this Malgo is named by Gildas Maglocunus,Math. VVeſt. compteth not paſt fiue yeeres to his reigne, vvhom Har [...]ſ folovveth, al|though other affirme that he reigned . [...]. yea|res. the whiche Gildas be|fore he ſpeaketh of him, inueyeth againſt one Cunegl [...]ſus, whom he reproueth, for that he warred both againſt God and man: againſt God with greuous ſins, as namely adulterie, in forſaking the companie of his lauful wife, and keeping to concubine a ſyſter of hirs, that hadde profeſſed chaſtitie: and againſte man with materiall armor and weapons whiche hee vſed to the diſtruction of his owne coun|treymen, with whome he kepe warres, and not againſt the enimies of the common wealth From Cuneglaſus he commeth to the forſayde Maglocune, whome hee nameth the Dragon EEBO page image 142 of the Iſles, and the expellet of many tyrants, not only out of their kingdomes, but alſo out of lyfe, the laſt of whome he entreateth (as he him|ſelfe ſayth) but the firſt in all miſchiefe and euil, greater than manye in power, and lykewiſe in malice: right liberall in giuing, but more plen|tifull in ſinne ſtrong and valiant in armes, but ſtronger in deſtruction of his owne ſoule. And ſo proceeding chargeth him with the ſinne of the Sodomites, and ſore blameth him for that wher it had pleaſed God to make him hygher than all the other Dukes of Britayne in kyngdome and degree, hee didde not ſhewe hymſelfe better, but contraryly worſe than they by farre in manners and conditions. Hee declareth alſo a little after that this Maglocune in his young yeares ſlewe in battayle his vncle being king with the moſt valiaunt ſouldiours in manner that he had.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo that where the ſame Maglocune tooke vpon him the profeſſion of a Monke, he after re|nounced the ſame, and becam a worſe liuer than euer he was before, abandoning his wyfe, and keeping his brothers ſonnes wife, whileſt hir huſ|bande yet lyued.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus by that whiche Gildas wryteth of the kings and rulers of the Britons whiche lyued in his dayes, ye may perceiue that they were giuen to all manner of wickedneſſe, and namely to ci|uill diſſention, rapine, adulterie and fornication: ſo that it maye bee thoughte, that God ſtirred vp the Saxons to be a ſcurge to them, and to worke his iuſte vengeaunce vppon them for theyr wic|ked and abhominable offences dayly committed againſt his diuine maieſtie, ſo that we fynde re|corded by writers howe that the Saxons in dy|uers conflictes agaynſt the Brytons hadde the better, and alſo tooke from them diuers townes as already partly hath bin and alſo hereafter ſhal be ſhewed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 IT is furthermore to be remembred, that a|bout the .14. yeare of the Britayn king Co|nanus his reigne, whiche was aboute the end of the yeare of Chriſte .559. Kenrike kyng of the Weaſtſaxons departed this lyfe,559. after he hadde reigned . [...] yeares complete.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Kenrike was a victorious Prince, and fought diuers battailes againſt the Britons. In the .xviij.H. Hunt. yeare of his reigne which was the .551. of Chriſt, we fynd that he fought againſt them, beeing come at that tyme vnto Saliſburie, and after greate ſlaughter made on bothe partes, at length the victorie remayned with the Saxons, and the Britons were chaſed. Agayne in the two and twentie yere of his reigne and .555. yere of Chriſt, the ſame Kenrik and his ſon Chevling fought with a greate power of Britons at Be|ranbury.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Britons were diuided into .ix. cõpanies, iij. in the foreward .iij. in the battayle . [...]iij in the rereward with their horſmen & archers, after the maner of the Romans. The Saxons being ran|ged in one entier bataile, valiantly aſſailed them, and notwithſtanding the ſhot of the Britons, yet they brought the matter to the triall of handblo|wes, til at length by the cõming on of the night, the victorie remained doubtfull: and no maruell is to be made therof (ſayeth Henry Archedeacon of Huntington) ſith the Saxons were menne of ſuche huge ſtatute, greate force and valya [...]t courage.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame yeare that Kenrike deceaſſed, Ida the king of Northumberlande alſo died: he was (as ye haue heard) a right valiãt prince, & enlar|ged the dominion of the Saxons greately. Hen|ner came in battaile Loth king of the Pictes, and Gorrane or rather Conrane king of Scots.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo about the yeare of Chriſt .560. Conanus (as yet gouerning the Britons) Irmenrike king of Kente, departed this lyfe,560 of whome ye haue heard before and Ethelberte his ſonne ſucceeded him .52. yeres.H. Hunt. Then after that the forſaid three princes were dead (as before ye haue heard) they had that ſucceded thẽ in their eſtates as here fol|loweth. After Kenrike, his ſonne Ceaulinus or Chevlyng ſucceeded in gouernment of the Weſt|ſaxons: and after Ida, one Ella or Alla reigned in Northumberland. After Irmenrike followed his ſonne Ethelberte in rule ouer the Kentiſhe Saxons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Ethelberte in proceſſe of tyme grewe to be a mightie prince, but yet in the beginnyng of his reign, he had but ſory ſucceſſe againſt ſome of his enimies:H. Hunt. [...]|lias VVi [...]| [...]asd [...] for hauing to do with the forſaid Chevlyng king of Weſtſaxons, he was of hym ouercome in battaile at Wilbaſdowne, where he loſt two of his dukes or chiefe Captaines, beſide other people. This was the firſt battail that was foughten betwixte the Saxons, one againſte an other within this land, after their firſt comming into the ſame And this chaunced in the yeare of of our Lorde .567. being the ſeconde yeare of the Emperour Iuſtinus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ABoute the yeare .570. Cutha the brother of king Chevlyng foughte with the Bry|tons at Bedforde and ouercame them,570. Cutha Aleſbuy [...] 581. and tooke from them foure townes, Liganbrough, Egleſ|broughe, or Ayleſburye, Beſington, and Eueſ|ſham. Alſo about the yeare of our Lorde .581. the foreſayde King Cheuling encountred with the Britaynes at a place called Dyorth, and obtey|ning the vpper hand, tooke from them the Cities of Bathe, Glouceſter, and Ciren [...]eeſter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At this battayle fought at Dyorth, were pre|ſente three kyngs of the Britons, whoſe names were theſe: Coinmagill, Candidan, and Fa|rimnagill, the whiche were ſlayne there through EEBO page image 143 the permiſſion of almightie God as then refu|ſing his people, the which through their heynous ſinnes and great wickedneſſe, had moſt greuouſ|ly offended his hygh and diuine Maieſtie, as by Gildas it may euidently appeare: for they hadde declined from the lawes of the Lorde, and were become abhominable in his ſight, euen from the Prince to the poore man, from the Prieſt to the Leuite, ſo that not one eſtate amongſt them walked vprightley, but contrarie to duetie was gone aſtraye, by reaſon whereof, the rightuous God had giuen them ouer as a pray to their eni|myes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo in the latter ende of Malgos dayes or a|bout the firſt beginning of the reigne of his ſuc|ceſſour Careticus,His brother as Math. VVeſt. [...]th. Chevling and his ſonne Cut|wyne fought with the Brytons at a place called Fechanley or Fedanley, or as ſome bookes haue, Frithenlye,H. Hunt. where Cutwyn was ſlayne, and the Engliſhemen chaſed: but yet Chevling repai|ring his armie, wan the victorie, and chaſed the Britons,Mat. VVest. and tooke from them many countreys, and wan great riches by the ſpoyle But Math. Weſtm. ſayth, that the victorie aboade with the Britons, and that the Saxons were chaſed quite out of the fielde. The Scottiſhe writers recorde, that their king Aydan was there in ayde of the Brytons, and Brudeus kyng of the Pictes in ayde of the Saxons: but the ſame writers name the place Deglaſton, where this battayle was foughte.

5.73.1. The beginning of the kingdome of Mercia.

The beginning of the kingdome of Mercia.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 143] Crida.ABoute the ſame time alſo and .585. of Chriſt, Hen. Hunt. This kingdom began in the yeare 585. as Math. VVeſt. hath. the kingdome of Mercie began vnder one Cri+da, that was deſcẽded from [...]en, and the tenth from him by lineall extraction.Ran. Ceſt. The boundes of this kingdom were of great diſtance hauing on the eaſt the ſea vnto Humber, and ſo on the North the ſayde riuer of Humber, and after the ryuer of Mercie, whiche falleth into the weaſt ſea at the corner of Wyr|hall and ſo comming aboute to the ryuer of Dee that paſſeth by Cheſter, the ſame ryuer boun|ded it on the Weaſt from Wales, and likewyſe Seuerne vp to Briſtow: on the ſouth is had the ryuer of Thames til it came almoſt to London: And in this ſort it conteyned Lincolneſhire, No|tinghamſhire, Derbyſhire, Che [...]ſhyre, Shrop|ſhire, Worceterſhire, Glouceterſhire, Oxford|ſhire, Buckinghamſhire, Hertefordſhire, Bed|fordſhire, Huntingtonſhire, Northamptonſhire, Leyceſterſhire, and Warwikeſhire.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus haue ye heard how the Saxons in [...]ro|ces of tyme remouing the Britons out of their ſeates, daylye wanne grounde of them, till at length they got poſſeſſion of the beſt part of this Iſle, and erected within the ſame ſeuen kingdo|mes, whiche were gouerned by ſeauen ſeuerall kings, which continued vntill at length the kin|ges of Weſtſaxõ brought them al into one Mo|narchie, as after ſhal appere. Mat. Weſtm. reck|neth .viij. kingdomes as thus. The kingdome of Kent, the kingdome of Suſſex, the kingdome of Eſſex, the kingdom of Eaſtangle, the kingdome of Mercia, the kyngdome of Weaſtſex, and the kyngdome of Northumberlande, whyche was diuided into two kyngdomes, that is to wit, into Deira and into Be [...]: wherevnto Hariſon addeth the nynth in the firſt part of his chronologie, and calleth it Wales.

5.74. Careticus or Caretius K. of Brita [...]n.

Careticus or Caretius K. of Brita [...]n.

[figure appears here on page 143]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AFter that Malgo or Maglocune was de|parted this lyfe,Careti|cus. one Careticus (or as ſome write hym Caretius) was made Kyng of the Britons and began his Reigne in the yeare of our Lorde .586 whiche was in the thyrde yeare of the Emperoure Mauritius and thirteenth of Chilperike king of Fraunce.586.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Careticus was a noriſher of ciuill reacte and diſcention amongſt his own people the Bri|tons, ſo that he was hated doth of god and man as writers teſtifye.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Saxons vnderſtanding that the Britons were not of one mind; but deuided in partakings, ſo as one was ready to deuore an other, they thought it good time for them to aduaunce theyr conqueſts, and ſeaſed not to par [...]e the Britons by force and continuall warre till they had con|ſtrained them for refuge to withdraw into Wa|les. And as ſome haue written, Galf. Mon. See more of this Gurmun|d [...]s in Ireland. the Saxons meanyng to make a full conqueſt of the lande, ſent ouer into Ireland, requiring one Gurmun|dus a kyng of the A [...]ticanes to come ouer into Britayne to healpe them agaynſte the Bry|taynes.Ranulf. Cest.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 144This Gurmundus appoyntyng his brother Turgeſius to purſue the conqueſt of Irelande, came and arriued here in Britayn, making ſuche cruell warre in ayde of the Saxons agaynſt the Britons, that Careticus was conſtreyned to keepe him within the citie of Ciceſter, or Ciren|ceſter, [figure appears here on page 144] and was there beſieged, and at length by continuall aſſaults and ſkirmiſhes, when he had loſt manie of his men, hee was glad to forſake that citie, and fled into Wales

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Gourmonde tooke Cirenceſter or Chicheſter, and deſtroyed it in moſte cruell manner. Some write, that he tooke this citie by a policie of war, in bynding to the feet of Sparrowes whiche his people had caught, certaine clewes of threede or matches, finely wrought and tempred with mat|ter readie to take fire, ſo that the Sparrowes be|ing ſuffered to goe out of hande flewe into the towne to lodge them ſelues within their neſtes whiche they had made in ſtackes of corne, and eues of houſes, ſo that the towne was thereby ſet on fyre, and then the Brytons iſſuing foorth, foughte with their enimies, and were ouercome and diſcomfited.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But whyleſt the battayle continued, Care|ticus ſtale away, and got him into Wales. Af|ter this, the foreſayd Gurmonde deſtroyed thys lande throughout in pitifull wyſe, and then de|liuered it in poſſeſſion to the Saxons, the whiche thankfully receiued it and bicauſe they were de|ſcended of thoſe that firſte came ouer with Hen|gul, they chaunged the name of the lande, and called it Hengiſtlande, accordingly as the ſame Hengiſt had in tymes paſt ordeined: the whiche name after for ſhortneſſe of ſpeeche was ſome|what altered, and ſo laſtly called Englande, and the people Engliſhmen.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But rather it may be thought, that ſith a great part of thoſe people whiche came ouer into thys lande out of Germanie with the ſayde Engiſte, and other captaines, were of theſe Engliſh men whiche inhabited Germanie, about the parties of Thoringhen they called this land England, af|ter their name,Mat. VV [...] when they had firſt got habitatiõ within it: and ſo both the iande and people tooke name of them, beeing called Angli long tyme before they entered into this Iſle (as before is ſhewed out of Cornelius Tacitus and others.) But nowe to returne where we lefte.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of this Gurmounde the olde Engliſh wry|ters make no mention, nor alſo any aunciente authors of foreyn parties: and yet ſayth the Bri|tiſh booke, that after he had conquered this land, & giuẽ it to the Saxons he paſſed ouer into Frãce, and there deſtroyed muche of that lande, as an enemy to the faith of Chriſte: For whiche conſi|deration, he was the more ready to come to the ayde of the Saxons, who as yet hadde not re|ceyued the Chriſtian fayth, but warred againſt the Brytaynes, as well for ſo deſtroy the faith of Chryſte within this lande, as to eſtablyſhe to them ſelues contynuall habitations in the ſame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There bee, It should [...] that this [...]|rie of G [...] is h [...] ſome [...]ned [...]a [...]e [...] it may be [...] he vva [...] [...] Dane, Nor|vvegi [...] of Germaine. that omittyng to make mention of Gurmounde, write thus of the expulsing of the Brytaynes oute of this lande at that tyme when wyth their king Careticus they got them into Wales.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 IN the yeare of grace. 586.586. Kareticus a lo|ner of ciuil war ſucceded Malgo an enimie to God and to the Britons, whoſe inconſtan|cie when the Engliſhe and Saxon kinges per|ceiued, with one conſent they roſe againſte him,Mat. VVe [...]. and after many battails chaſed him from citie to citie, till at lengthe encountring wyth him in a pight field, they droue him beyond Seuerne into Wales. Herevpon clerks and prieſtes were dry|uen oute of theyr places with brighte ſwoor [...] EEBO page image 145 bran [...]iſhing in all partes, and fire crackling in Churches, wherewith the ſame were conſumed. The remnante of the Britaynes therefore with|drew into the Weſt partes of the land, that is to witte into Cornewale, and into Wales, out of which countreys they oftentimes brake out, and made reyſes vppon the Saxons, the whyche in manner aforeſayde, go [...]e poſſeſſion of the chiefeſt partes of the lande, leauing to the Britaynes on|ly three prouinces, that is to witte, Cornewale, Southwales, and Northwales, which cou [...]e [...] were not eaſie to be wonne, by reaſon of the thick wooddes enui [...]oned with deepe mariſhes and wa|ters, & full of high craggy rockes, & Mountaines.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The Engliſh and Saxon Kings hauing thus remooued the Britaynes, enlarged the boundes of their dominions. There raigned in that ſeaſon within this land beſide the Britaine Kings right Kings of the Engliſhe and Saxon nations, as Ethelbert in Kent, Ciſſa in Suſſex, Crau [...]iue in Weſtſex, Credda or Crida in Mercia, Erken|wine in Eſſex, Titila in Eſfangle, Elle in Dei|ra, and Alfrid in Bernicia. In this ſort the Bri|taynes loſt the poſſeſſion of the more part of theyr auntiente ſeates, and the faithe of Chriſt thereby was greatly decayed: for the Churches were de|ſtroyed, & the Archbiſhops of Caerleon Arwſke, London, and Yorke, withdrewe togither with their Cleargie into the Mountaynes and woods within Wales, taking with them the relikes of Saintes for doubt the ſame ſhoulde be deſtroyed by the enimies, and thẽſelues put to deathe if they ſhould abide in their olde habitations. Many alſo fled into Britaine Armorike with a greate fleete of Shippes, ſo that the whole Church or congre|gation (as yee may call it) of the two prouinces, Loegria and Northumberland, was left deſolate in that ſeaſon, to the great hinderance and decay of the Chriſtian Religion. Careticus was driuẽ into Wales (as before is rehearſed) about the ſe|cond or third yeare of his raigne, and there conti|nued with his Britaines, the which ceaſſed not to endomage the Saxons from time to time as oc|caſiõ ſerued. But heere is to be noted, that ye Bri|tanes being thus remoued into Wales & Corne|wall, were gouerned afterwardes by three kings, or rather Tirants, the which ceaſſed not with ci|uill warre to ſeeke eache others deſtruction, till fi|nally as ſayth the Brittiſh booke, they became all ſubiect vnto Cadwallo, whome Bede nameth Cedwallo.VVil. Mal. In ye mean time, Ciaulinus or Cheu|ling King of the Weſt Saxons, through hys owne miſgouernance and tyrannie whiche to|wardes his latter dayes hee practiſed, did procure not only the Britaines, but alſo his own ſubiects to conſpire his deathe, ſo that ioyning in battell with his aduerſaries at Wodeneſdic in the .3 [...]. yere of his raigne, his army was diſcomfited, and he himſelfe conſtreyned to departe into exile, and ſhortly after ended his life before he coulde fynde meanes to be reſtored.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 [figure appears here on page 145] AFter this Chevling,Celric. his Nephewe Celri|cus or Ceolric that was ſonne vnto Cutw [...] ye ſonne of the foreſayde Cheuling, raigned as Kyng ouer the Weſt Saxons fiue yeares fiue monethes. In like man|ner the ſame yeare dyed Ella or Alla Kyng of Northum [...]erland, after [...] ſucceeded [...] the ſonne of Ida, & raigned but fiue yeares, being a man well ſtept into age before he came to be King. About three yeares after this, the Sax|ons and Britaines fought a battel at Wode [...]| [...]ourne, where the Britaynes beeing [...] in good order, the Saxons ſet vpon them [...] in|deede, but diſordredly, ſo that the victory remay|ned with the Britaynes. The Saxons the [...] valiant they had ſhewed themſelues in battel be|fore that time, ſo much the more ſlowe and vnto|wardly did they ſhewe themſelues nowe in run|ning away to ſaue themſelues, ſo that an huge [...]umber of them were ſlayne. Alſo about ye ſame time dyed Crida King of Mertia vz. 594.594 after whome his ſonne Wi [...]as or Wipha ſucceeded. And after the deceſſe of Ethelrike, one Edelfert or Edelfride ſurnamed the wilde, ſucceeded in go|uernement of the Northumbers. But to returne to our purpoſe. Ethelbert King of Kent not diſ|couraged with the euill chance whiche hapned in the beginning, but rather occaſioned thereby to learne more experience in feates of warre,Beda. VVil. Mal. prooued ſo perfect a maſter therein, that in proceſſe of time hee ſubdued by force of armes all thoſe Engliſhe Saxons whiche lay betwixte the boundes of hys countrey, and the Riuer of Humder. Alſo to haue friendſhip inforraine partes, he procured a Wife for himſelfe of the French nation, named the La|dy Bertha, being King Cheribertes daughter of France, but with condition that he ſhould per|mit hir to continue and vſe the rites and lawes of the Chriſtian faith and Religion, and to haue a Biſhop whoſe name was Luydhard, appoynted to come and remayne with hir here in this lande for hir better inſtructiõ in the lawes of the Lorde ſo that they two with other of the French nation that came ouer with them remaining in ye Court and vſing to ſerue God in prayers and otherwiſe according to the cuſtome of the Chriſtian Reli|gion, began vndoubtedly to giue light to ye kings mind as yet darkned with the Cloude [...] of [...]|niſme, ſo as the bright beames of ye [...] all [...]|neſſe of vnderſtanding remoued the thicke [...] EEBO page image 146 of his vnbeleeſt in proceſſe of time, and prepared his hart to the receyuing of the Goſpell, which af|ter by heauenly prouidẽce was preached to him, by occaſion,Beda. Mat. VVeſt. hath. 596. and in manner as followeth. In the yeare of our Lord. 596. which was about the .14. yeare of the raigne of the Emperour Mauritius, and after the comming of the Engliſh Saxons into this land,47. hath the ſame Author. about an hundred and. 47. yeares almoſt complete, the Biſhop of Rome, Grego|ry ye firſt of that name, and ſurnamed Magnus, ſe [...]e Auguſtinus a Monke, with other learned men into this Iſle to preach the Chriſtian faythe vnto the Engliſh Saxons, whiche nation as yet ha [...] not receyued the Goſpell.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Beda. VV. Mal.It is recorded by diuers writers, that the firſte occaſion whereby Gregory was moued thus to ſend Auguſtine into this lãd, roſe by this meanes: It chanted whileſt the ſame Gregory was as yet but Archdeacon of the Sea of Rome, certayne yong boyes were brought thither to be ſolde out of Northumberland, according to the cuſtomable vſe of that countrey, in ſo muche that as we haue in our time ſeene (ſaith Wil. Mal.) the people of that prouince haue not yet doubted to ſell away their neere kinſfolke for a ſmall price. Whẽ thoſe children whiche at that time were brought from thence to Rome, had by reaſon of their excellente beauties and comely ſhape of limmes and body, turned the eyes in manner of all the Citizens to the beholding of them, it fortuned that Gregory alſo came amongſt other to beholde them, and when hee conſidered and well viewed their fayre ſkinnes,Vita Gregorij magni. their ſweete viſages, and beautifull buſ|ſhes of their bright and yellow heares, be deman|ded out of what region or land they came, vnto whome aunſwere was made, that they were brought out of Britayne, the inhabitants of whi|che countrey were of the like beautifull aſpect: thẽ he aſked whether the men of that countrey were Chriſtians, or as yet entangled with blinde hea|the [...]i [...]h errors, wherevnto it was aunſwered, that they were not chriſtned, but followed the Reli|gion of the Gentiles, whereat Gregory fet [...]hyng [...] a deepe ſigh, ſayd: oh alas that the author of dark|neſſe doth as yet poſſeſſe n [...] of ſo brightſome coũ|tenances, & that with the grace of ſuche faire ſhi|ning viſages, they beare about minds voyde of in|ward grace. He demanded againe by what name ye people were called, & anſwere was made, yt they wer called Angli, that is to ſay Engliſhmẽ. And worthily (ſaith he) for they haue angels faces, and ſuch as ought to be made fellow heires with An|gels in Heauen. Then aſked he ye name of ye pro|uince frõ whẽce they were brought, & it was tolde him they were of Deira. It is well ſayd hee, they are to be deliuered de ira dei, that is to ſay, from the ire and wrath of God, & called to the mercy of Chriſt our Lord. What name (ſayde he) hath the King of that prouince, wherevnto anſwere was made that he was called Alla, whervpõ alluding to ye name, he ſaid, that Alleluia ought to be ſong in thoſe partes to the praiſe & honor of God ye cre|ator. And herevpõ comming to Benedict the firſt of ye name as then Biſhop of Rome,Pelagius the ſeconde. VVil. M [...]. hee required him yt ſome learned mẽ might be ſent into Eng|lãd to preach ye Goſpel vnto the Engliſhmẽ, offe|ring himſelfe to be one of the number: but though Benedict was cõtented to graunt his requeſt,Pelagius. yet ye Romanes had him in ſuch eſtimatiõ that they would not cõſent yt he ſhould depart ſo farre from ye citie, ſo that by thẽ he was at that time ſtayed of that his godly purpoſe. But whẽ he came to be Biſhop, he thought to performe it, though not by himſelf, yet by other: & ſo Auguſtine & his felowes wer ſent by him about it (as before is ſayd,M. Fox.) By the way as they were paſſing in their iourney, ſuch a ſoddayne feare entred into their harts, that (as ſome write) they returned all. Other write, that Auguſtine was ſent back to Gregory to ſue that they might be releaſs;ed of that voyage ſo dã|gerous and vncertain amongſt ſuch a barbarous people, whoſe language they neyther knewe, nor whoſe rudeneſſe they wer able to reſiſt. Thẽ Gre|gory with pithie perſwaſions confirming and cõ|forting him, ſente him againe with letters vnto the Biſhop of Arles, willing him to help and ayd the ſayde Auſtine and his company in all what ſo euer his neede required. Alſo other letters he di|rected by the foreſaide Auſtine vnto hys fellowes, exhorting them to goe forewarde boldly in the Lordes worke, as by the tenor of the ſayde E|piſtle heere following may appeare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Gregorius ſeruus ſeruorum Dei Domini nostre Quia melius fueratbona non incipere quà [...]ab ijs quae cepta ſunt cogitatione retrorſum redire. &c. In Engliſh, Gregory the ſeruant of Gods ſer|uauntes, to the ſeruantes of oure Lorde. For as muche as it is better not to take good thyngs in hande, than after they bee begunne, to thynke to reuolte backe from the ſame agayne, therefore EEBO page image 147 now you may not nor cannot (deere children) but with all feruente ſtudie and labour muſt needes goe forwarde in that good buſineſſe, whiche tho|rough the helpe of God you haue well begunne. Neyther let the labour of youre iourney, nor the ſlaunderous tongues of men apall you, but that with all inſtance and feruencie yeẽ proceede and accompliſh the thing which the Lord hath ordey|ned you to take in hãd, knowing that your great trauell ſhall be recompenſed with reward of grea|ter glory hereafter to come. Therefore as we ſend heere Auſtin to you agayne, whome alſo we haue ordeyned to be your gouernoure, ſo do you hum|bly obey him in all things, knowing that it ſhall be profitable for your ſoules what ſoeuer at hys admonitiõ ye ſhall doe. Almighty God with hys grace defende you, and graunt me to ſee in the e|ternall countrey the fruite of your labour, that al|though I cannot labour in the ſame felowſhippe with you togither, the Lorde God keepe you ſafe moſt deere and welbeloued children. Dated the tenth before the Calẽdes of Auguſt, in the raigne of our ſoueraigne Lorde Mauritius moſt vertu|ous Emperour, the fourteenth of his Empire.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus they [...] loued and comforted through the good wordes and wholeſome exhortation of Gregory, ſet forward agayne, and ſpeeding forth their iourney, they firſt arriued at ye [...] Tha|net in Kente in the moneth of Iuly, being in nũ|ber about fortie perſons, of the whiche dyuers were interpreters whom they brought with them out of Fraunce. Theſe they ſente vnto King E|thelbert, ſignifying to him the occaſion of theyr comming, who hearing the meſſengers within a fewe dayes after, went into that Iſle, and there abrode out of any houſe ſate downe, and cauſed Auguſtine and hys fellowes to come before him, for he would not come vnder any roofe with thẽ, ſore doubting to bee bewitched by them, beeyng perſwaded that they were practiſed in nigromã|cie. But they comming to him, not by the power of the Deuill (as they ſayd) but by the myght and power of Almightie God, bearing in ſteede of a banner a Croſſe of ſyluer,The ſeuen|fold Letanies of S. Gregory were not yet deuiſed. and an Image of our Lord & Sauioure paynted in a Table, & thereto ſinging ye Letanies, made interceſſiõ vnto the L. for the euerlaſting preſeruation of themſelues, & of all them for whome and to whome they came.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 And when they being ſet downe by commã|dement of the King, had preached the worde of life to him and to all thoſe that came thither with him, he made them this anſwere, that their words and promiſes were good: but for as much as the ſame were new and vncertayne to him that had bin brought vp in the contrary doctrine, he could not raſhly aſſent to their admonitions, and leaue that beleefe which he and the Engliſh nation had ſo long a time obſerued and kept: but (ſayd he) by|cauſe ye haue trauelled farre to the intent to make vs partakers of thoſe things whiche ye beleeue to bee moſt true and perfecte, wee will thus muche graunt vnto you, that yee ſhall bee receyued into this countrey, and haue herbrough with thyngs ſufficient found vnto you for your mayntenance and ſuſtentation neither will we hinder you, but yt ye may by Preaching aſſociat & ioyne as many of our ſubiectes as ye can vnto your law and be|liefe. They had therefore aſſigned vnto them a place to lodge in within the City of Canterbury, which was ye head citie of al his dominion. It is ſaid yt as they approched ye citie according to their manner, they had a croſſe borne afore them, with an image of our Lorde Ieſus Chriſte, and they followed in ſinging this Letany: Deprecamur te Domine in omni miſericordiae tua, ot auferatur fu|ror tuus & ira tua à ciuitate iſta & de domo San|cta tua, quoniã peccauimus alleluya. That is to ſay VVe beſech the O Lord in al thy mercy that thy EEBO page image 148 fury and wrath may be taken from this citie, and from thy holy [...] wee haue ſynned. Prayſe be to thee oh Lorde. After they were re|ceyued into Canterbury, [...]hey began to followe the trade of lyfe whiche the Apoſtles vſed in the primatiue Churche,Beda. Mat. VVeſt. that is to witte, exerciſing themſelues in continuall prayer, watching, fa|ſting, and in preaching the worde to as many as they coulde, deſpiſing all worldly pleaſures, as not apperteyning to them, receyuing onely (of them whome they taughte) thyngs that ſeemed neceſſary for the ſuſtenance of their life, and liuing in all poyntes according to the doctrine whyche they ſet foorthe, hauing theyr mindes ready to ſuffer in patience all aduerſities what ſo euer, yea and death it ſelfe, for the confirming of that whi|che they nowe preached.The Chriſtian faith receyued of the Eng|liſhmen. Heerevppon, many of the Engliſhe people beleeued and were baptiſed, hauing in greate reuerence the ſimplicitie of the innocente liues of thoſe men, and the ſweeteneſſe of their heauenly doctrine. There was a Churche neere to the Citie on the Eaſt parte thereof dedi|cated in the honor of Saint Martine, and buyly+ded of old time whileſt the Romaynes as [...]|habited Britayne, in the whiche the Quéene [...]|ing (as we haue ſayd) a Chriſtian, vſed to make hir prayers. To this Churche Auſtine and hys fellowes at their firſt comming accuſtomed to re|ſorte, and there to ſing, to pray, to ſay Maſſe, to preach and to baptiſe, till at length the Kyng be|ing conuerted, graunted them licence to preache in euery place, and to buylde and reſtore? Chur|ches where they thought good. After that ye King being perſwaded by their doctrine, good examples giuing, and diuers miracles ſhewed, was once baptiſed, the people in great number begã to giue eare vnto the Preaching of the Goſpell, and re|nouncing their heatheniſh beleefe, became Chri|ſtians, in ſo much that as Gregory remembreth, Lib. 7. cap. [...] ther were baptiſed tenne thouſand perſons in one [figure appears here on page 148] day, being the feaſt of the natiuitie of our Saui|our. . [...]97. [...]ndictione. Policron But ſome write how thys ſhould chance towarde the latter ende of Augu|ſtines dayes, after he was admitted to preach the Goſpell amongſt them that inhabited about Yorke (as ſome write) which affirme, that the ſaid number of tenne thouſande was baptiſed in the Riuer of S [...]ale, whiche as William Harriſon ſayeth, cannot be verified, bycauſe of the indiction and death of Gregory. But to procede: The king reioiced at the conuerſion thus of his people, how|beit, he would not force any man to be baptiſed, but only ſhewed by his behauiour,Beda lib. 1. cap. 26. & 27. that be fauored thoſe that beleeued more than other, as fellowe Citizens with him of the heauenly Kingdome: for he learned of them that had inſtructed hym in the faith,Religion not to [...], but t [...]ughte and preached. that the obedience due to Chriſt oughte not to be inforced, but to come of good wil. More|ouer, he prouided for Auguſtine and his fellowes a conuenient place for their habitation within the Citie of Canterbury, and further gaue them ne|ceſſary reuenewes in poſſeſſion for their maynte|nance. After that the faith of Chriſte was thus receyued of the Engliſhmen,Auguſtine ordeyned Archbiſhop of the Engliſh nation. Auguſtine went in|to Fraunce, and there of the Archbiſhop of At [...]s named Etherius, he was ordeined Archbiſhop of the Engliſhe nation, according to the order pre|ſcribed by Gregorie before ye departure of the ſaide Auguſtine frõ Rome. After his returne into Br [...]+tane, he ſent Laurẽce a Prieſt,Laurence a Prieſt. & Peeter a Monke vnto Rome, to giue knowledge vnto Gregory the Biſhop, howe the Engliſhmen had receyued the faith, and that hee was ordeyned Archbiſhop of the land, according to that he had commaun|ded, if the worke proſpered vnder his hande as it had done. He alſo required to haue Gregories ad|uice touching certain ordinances to be made and obſerued in the new Church of England: where|vpon EEBO page image 150 Gregory in ſending backe the meſſengers wrote aunſwer vnto all his demaundes, and firſt touching the conuerſation of Archbiſhops with ye Cleargie, and in what forte the Churche goodes oughte to be employed, he declareth that the aun|tient cuſtome of the Apoſtolike See was to giue commaundemente vnto Biſhops ordeyned, [...] reuenews [...]e Church [...]e deuided [...]. 4. partes. that the profytes & reuenewes of their benefices ought to be deuided into foure partes, whereof the firſte ſhould be appoynted to the Biſhop and his fami|ly for the maynetenane [...] of hoſpitalitie: the ſecond ſhould be aſſigned to the Cleargie: the thirde to be giuen to the poore: and the fourth to be employed vpon repayring of temples. Alſo as touching the diuerſitie of cuſtomes in Churches. And where in the Churche of Rome one cuſtome in ſaying of Ma [...] or ye Liturgie was obſerued, [...]urgia. and an other cuſtome in France, concerning ſuch Church ſer|uice. [...]urch ſer| [...]e. Gregory aduiſed Auguſtine that if he found anye thing either in the Churche of Rome, ey|ther in the Churche of Fraunce, or in anye o|ther Churche whiche mighte moſt pleaſe the al|mightie God, he ſhould diligently chooſe it foorth, and inſtruct the Church of England (now beyng new) according to that forme whiche hee ſhoulde gather foorth of the ſayd Churches: for the thyngs are not loued for the places ſake, but the places for the things ſake.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 [...]ch as did [...]eale.Alſo for the puniſhing of ſuche as had ſtol|len things out of Churches, ſo neere as mighte bee, the offender ſhoulde bee chaſtiſed in cha|ritie, ſo as he might know his fault, and if it were poſſible, reſtore the thing taken away. Alſo as touching degrees in mariages, Engliſhmẽ might take to their wiues,Marriages. women that touched them in the third and fourth degree without reprehenſion, and if any vnlawfull marriages were founde a|mongſt the Engliſhmẽ, as if the ſonne had mar|ried the fathers wife, or the brother the brothers wife they ought to be warned in any wiſe to ab|ſteyne, and vnderſtand it to be a greeuous ſinne: yet ſhoulde they not for that thing be depriued of the Communiõ of the body & bloud of our Lord, leaſt thoſe things mighte ſeeme to be puniſhed in them wherein they had offended (before their con|uerſion to the Chriſtian fayth) by ignorance:Diſcipline of [...]he Church. for at this ſeaſon ye Church (ſayth he) correcteth ſome things of a feruente earneſtneſſe, ſuffereth ſome things of a gẽtle mildneſſe, and diſſimuleth ſome things of a prudent conſideration, and ſo beareth and diſſimuleth the ſame, that oftentimes the e|uill which ſhe abhorreth by ſuch bearing and diſ|ſimuling, is reſtreyned and reformed. Moreouer, touching the ordeyning of Biſhops, hee woulde they ſhould be ſo placed, that the diſtance of place mighte not bee a lette,Ordeyning of [...]iſhops. but that when a Biſhoppe ſhoulde bee conſecrated, there mighte bee three or foure preſente.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Also touching the Bishoppes of Fraunce, hee willed Augustine in no wise to intermeddle with them, otherwise than by exhortacion and good admonitions to be giuen, but not to presume any thing by authority, sith the Archbishop of Arles had receyued the Palle in tymes past, whose authoritie hee mighte not deminishe, least he should seeme to put his sicle into another mans haruest. But as for the Bishops of Britayne, he committed them vnto him, that the vnlearned might be taught, the weake with wholesome perswasions strengthned, Women with childe. and the frowarde by authoritie reformed. Moreouer, that a woma(n) with childe myghte bee Baptised, and shee that was deliuered after. 33. dayes of a man childe, and after .46. days of a woman childe should be purified, but yet myghte shee enter the Church before if she woulde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 The reſidue of Auguſtines demaundes [...] [...]u [...]i|ſ [...]ed in theſe poynts,Matters in queſtion a|bout trifles. v [...] within what ſpa [...] [...] ſhould be Chriſtened after it was borne for doubt to be preuẽted by death alſo, within what [...] a man might company with his wife after ſhe was brought to bedde: whether a woman hauing the floures, mighte enter the Churche or receyue the Communion: alſo whether a man hauing com|panyed with hys Wife, might enter the Churche, or receyue the Communion, before he was wa|ſhed with water. And whether after polution by night in dreames, a man mighte receyue the Cõ|munion: or if he were a Prieſt whether he might ſay Maſſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To theſe queſtions Gregory maketh aun|ſwere at full in the Booke and place before cit [...]d, which for breefeneſſe we paſſe ouer. He ſent al|ſo at that tyme with the meſſengers aforeſayde at their returne into Englande dyuers learned men to help Auguſtine in the harueſt of ye Lorde. The names of the cheefeſt were theſe,Aſsiſtance to Auguſtine. The Pall. Mellitus, Iuſtus, Paulinus, and Rufinianus. He ſente al|ſo the Palle whyche is the ornament of an Arch|biſhop with veſſels and appartell whiche ſhoulde be vſed in Churches by the Archbiſhop and other miniſters.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He alſo ſente with the Pall other letters vnto Auguſtine to lette hym vnderſtande what num|ber of Biſhops hee woulde haue hym to ordeyne within this lande. Alſo after that Mellitus, and the other before mentioned perſons were departed from Rome, hee ſent a letter vnto the ſame Mel|litus, beeyng yet on his way towardes Britayne, touching further matter concerning the Chur|ches of England, wherein he confeſſeth that ma|ny thinges are permitted to bee vſed of the peo|ple lately broughte from the errors of gentilitie, in keeping feaſtes on the dedication dayes whi|che haue reſemblaunce with their olde ſuper|ſtitious rytes of the Pagane Religion, for EEBO page image 150 to hard and obſtinate mindes (ſayth he) it is not poſſible to cutte away all things at once,Bearing with them that had newly recey|ued the fayth, whereof ſu|perſtition grewe and increaſed. for hee that coueteth to the higheſt place, goeth vp by ſteppes and not by leapes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo the ſame time, Gregory did ſende letters vnto Auguſtine touching the miracles whych by reporte he vnderſtoode were ſhewed by the ſame. Auguſtine,Miracles. counſelling him in no wiſe to glory in the ſame, but rather in reioycing to feare, and conſider that God gaue him the gifte to worke ſuche ſignes for the welth of them, to whome hee was ſente to preach the Goſpell: he aduiſed hym therefore to beware of vayne glory and preſump|tion, for the Diſciples of the trueth (ſayth he) haue no ioy, but onely that which is common with all men, of whyche there is no end, for not euery one that is elect worketh miracles, but euery of the e|lect haue their names written in heauen.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theſe letters, with the other whiche Gregory ſent at this time vnto Auguſtine, were dated the tenth day of the Calendes of Iuly, in the yeare of oure Lord .602.602 whiche was the nineteenth yeare of the Emperour Mauritius.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Moreouer, he ſente moſt curteous letters by theſe meſſengers vnto King Ethelberte, [...] whyche hee greatly commendeth him, in that he had receyued the Chriſtian fayth, and exhorteth him to continue in that moſt holy ſtate of life, whereby hee myghte worthyly looke for rewarde at the handes of almighty God. But nowe to the doings of Auguſtine. We fynd,Beda. that after he was eſtabliſhed Archbiſhop, and had his See appoyn|ted to him at Canterbury, he reſtored in that Ci|tie another Church whiche had bin erected there in times paſt by certayne of the Romaynes [...] were Chriſtians, and did dedicate the [...] in honor of Chriſt our Sauioure.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He alſo began the foundation of a Monaſtery without that Citie, ſtãding towarde the Eaſt, in the whiche by his exhortation, King Ethelberte built a Churche euen from the grounde, whiche was dedicated vnto the holy Apoſtles Peeter and Paule, in the whiche the body of the ſayde Augu|ſtine was buried, and likewiſe the bodies of all the Archbiſhops of Canterbury and Kings of Kent [...] of long time after.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Abbey was called Saint Auſtines after his name,One Peeter was the firſt Abbot. one Peeter being the firſt Abbot therof. The Churche there was not conſecrated by Au|guſtine, but by his ſucceſſor Laurẽce after that he was dead.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer, King Ethelbert at the motion of Auguſtine builded a Church in the Citie of Lõ|don (whiche he lately had conquered) and dedica|ted it vnto Saint Paule: but whether he buylded or reſtored this Church of Saint Paule it maye bee doubted, for there bee dyuers opinions of the building thereof.Ran. Ceſtren. Some haue written that it was firſte buylded by King Lud (as before is mentioned.) Other agayne write, that it was builded afterwarde by Sigeberte King of the Eaſt Saxons.Beda. Alſo Kyng Ethelberte buylded the Churche of Saint Andrew in Rocheſter. I [...] is likewiſe remembred by writers, Ran Ceſt. Weſtminſter Church [...]. that the ſame King Ethelberte procured a Citizen of London to buyld a Church of Sainte Peeter without the Citie of London towarde the Weſt in a place then called Thorney, that is to witte, the Iſle of Thornes, & now is called Weſtminſter, though other haue written that it was buylte by Lucius King of Britaine, or rather by Siberte Kyng of the Eaſt Saxons. This Church was eyther newly builte or greatly enlarged by Kyng Ed|warde ſurnamed the Confeſſor, and after that, the thirde Henry King of England did make there a beautifull Monaſterie, and very richly EEBO page image 151 endowed the ſame with greate poſſeſſions and ſumptuous iewels. The place was ouergrowen with vnderwooddes, as thornes and brembles before that the Church was begun to be builded there in this King Ethelbertes dayes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus the fayth of Chriſt being once begunne to bee receyued of the Engliſhmen, tooke won|derfull increaſe within a ſhort time.Ran. Cest. Beda. Sigebertus. an. 19. Mauri|cij imperato|ris.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 In the meane ſeaſon by the help of King E|thelbert, Auguſtine cauſed a counſell to be called at a place in the confynes of the Weſt Saxons, whiche place long after was called Auſtynes Oke,A Synode. Auſtines oke. where he procured the Biſhops or Doctors of the prouinces of the Britaines to come before [figure appears here on page 151] him.Galfrid. lib. 8 cap. 4. Amongſt the Britaynes or Welchmen, Chriſtianite as yet remayned in force, whyche from the Apoſtles time had neuer fayled in that nation. When Auguſtine came into this land, he found in their prouinces ſeuen Biſhops Sees, and an Archbiſhops See, wherin ſate right godly and moſt Religious Prelates, and many Ab|bots, in the which the Lordes flocke kept their righte order: but bycauſe they differed in obſer|uing the Feaſt of Eaſter, and other rites from the vſe of ye Romane Church,Beda lib. 2. cap. 2. Auguſtine thought it neceſſary to moue them to agree with hym in vnitie of the ſame, but after long diſputation and reaſoning of thoſe matters, they could not be en|duced to giue their aſſente in that behalfe. Augu|ſtine to prooue his opinion good, wroughte a mi|racle in reſtoring ſight to one of the Saxon na|tion that was blinde. The Britaynes that were preſente moued with this miracle, confeſ|ſed, that it was the righte waye of Iuſtice and righteouſneſſe which Auguſtine taught, but yet they ſayd that they might not forſake theyr aun|cient cuſtomes withoute conſente and licence of their nation.Another Sinode. Wherevppon, they required ano|ther Sinode to be holden, wherat a greater num|ber of them myght be preſent. This being gran|ted, there came as it is reported ſeuen Biſhops of the Britaynes and a greate number of learned menne,The Mona|ſterie of Bangor. Abbot Dio|noth. ſpecially of the famous Monaſterie of Bangor, whereof in thoſe dayes one Dionoth was Abbot, the whiche as they wente towardes that counſell, came firſt to a certaine wiſe man, whych lyued amongſt them an Ankers life, and aſked his aduice whether they ought to forſake theyr traditions at the Preaching of Auguſtine or not: who made thys aunſwere: If he bee the man of God followe hym: then ſayde they: howe ſhall wee prooue whether hee be ſo or not.The anſwer [...] of a godly man touching Auſtin the Engliſhmens Apoſtle. Then ſayde hee: the Lorde ſayeth take vp my yoke and learne of mee, for I am meeke and humble in harte: if Auguſtine bee humble and meeke in hart, it is to be beleeued that hee alſo beareth the yoke of Chriſte, and offereth it to you to beare, but if hee bee not meeke but proude, it is certayne that hee is not of God, nor hys worde is not to bee regarded: And how ſhall wee perceyue that (ſayde they?) Fynde meanes (ſayde he) that hee maye fyrſte come to the place of the Synode with thoſe of hys ſyde, and if hee ariſe to receyue you at your comming, then knowe that he is the ſeruaunt of God, and obey him. But if hee de|ſpiſe you and ariſe not againſt you, where as you bee more in number, lette him bee deſpi [...]e [...] of you.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 They did as he commaunded, and it chanced, that when they came, they found Auguſtine ſit|ting in his chaire: which whẽ they beheld,Three things required by Auſtin of the Britaynes to be obſerued. ſtraight wayes they conceyued an indignation, and [...]o|ting him of pride, laboured to reprooue all hys ſayings. He tolde thẽ that they vſed many things contrary to the cuſtome of the vniuerſal Church, and yet if in three things they woulde obey hym, EEBO page image 152 that is to witte, in keeping the feaſt of Eaſter in due time, and miniſter Baptiſme according to the cuſtome of the Romaine Churche, and preach to the Engliſhmen the word of life with him and his fellowes, then would he be contented to ſuffer all other things paciently which they did, though the ſame were contrary to the manners and cu|ſtomes of the Romayne iuriſdiction. But they flatly denyed to do any of thoſe things, and gaue a playne aunſwere that they woulde not receyue him for their Archbiſhoppe, for they laying theyr heads togither thus thoughte, that if hee refuſed now to ryſe vnto vs, how much the more will he contemne vs if we ſhould become ſubiect to him.Auſtine thret|neth. Vnto whome as it is ſayde Auguſtine in threat|ning wiſe tolde them aforehande, that if they woulde not receyue peace with their breethren, they ſhoulde receyue warre of the enimies, and if they would not preach to the Engliſhmen ye way of life, they ſhould ſuffer puniſhment by death at the handes of them: whiche thing indeede after came to paſſe as in place conueniente ſhall be ex|preſſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 604After this in the yeare of our Lorde .604. the Archbiſhop Auguſtine ordeyned two Biſhops, that is to ſay,Biſhops ordei|ned at London and Rocheſter Mellitus at Londõ, that he might preache the worde of God to the Eaſt Saxons, whiche were deuided from them of Kente by the Riuer of Thames, and Iuſtus in the Citie of Rocheſter within the limittes of Kent.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AT that time Sabart reigned ouer the Eaſt Saxons, but hee was ſubiect vnto Ethel|bert King of Kent, whoſe Nephewe he was alſo by his ſiſter Ricula that was married vnto king Sledda yt ſucceeded after E [...]chenwine ye firſt K. of ye Eaſt Saxons &, begate on hir this Sabert yt receyued ye faith. After ye Auguſtine had ordeyned Mellitus to be Biſhop of London, as before is ſayd, King Ethelbert builded (as ſome write) the Churche of Sainte Paule within the ſame Ci|tie,The Church of Saint Paule builded where the ſame Mellitus and his ſucceſſors might keepe their See. And alſo for the like pur|poſe he builded the Church of Saint Androw the Apoſtle at Rocheſter, that Iuſtus and his ſuc|ceſſors myghte haue theyr See in that place ac|cording to Auguſtines inſtitution: hee beſtowed great giftes vpon both theſe Churches, endowing them with lands and poſſeſſions very bountiful|ly to the vſe of them that ſhould be attendante in the ſame with the Biſhops.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Ran. Ceſtr [...].Finally Auguſtine after hee had gouerned as Archbiſhop the Churche of Canterburie by the ſpace of twelue yeares current, departed this life the ſixe and twentith of May, and was buryed firſt without the Citie neere to the Church of the Apoſtles Peeter and Paule (whereof mention is made before) bicauſe the ſame Church as yet was not finiſhed nor dedicated, but after it was dedi|cated, his body was broughte into the Churche, and reuerently buried in the North Ile there.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 He ordeyned by his life time Laurence to bee his ſucceſſor in the Sea of Canterbury, of whom yee ſhall heare hereafter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus haue ye heard in what maner the Eng|liſhmen were firſt brought from the worſhipping of falſe Goddes, and baptiſed in the name of the liuing God by the foreſayde Auguſtine, as wee fynde in Beda and other writers, and nowe wee will returne to other doyngs chancing in the meane tyme amongſt the people of thys Iſle.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AFfter the deceaſſe of Chelricus Kyng of the Weſt Saxons,Mat. VVe [...]. hath. 34. wee finde that Ceovulf or Ceoloulph ſucceeded in gouernmente of that Kingdome, and raigned twelue yeares. Hee be|gan his raigne (as ſhould appeare by ſome wri|ters)607. [...] VVeſt. hath. about the yeare of our Lord .597. and ſpente EEBO page image 153 his time for the more part in warres, not gyuing place to ydleneſſe, but ſeeking eyther to defende or enlarge the confines of his dominion. He was the ſonne of Cutha, which was the ſon of Ken|rike, that was the ſonne of Certike.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AFter Wybba or Wypha king of Mercia, (who nothing inferiour to his father, did not onely defend his kingdome, but alſo enlarge it by ſubduing the Brytaynes on eche ſide) one Ceor|lus ſucceeded in that kingdome, beeing not hys ſonne but his kinſman.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Ceorlus king of Martia. [figure appears here on page 153] THis Ceor|lus began his raigne a|boute the yeare of oure Lorde 594. as Mat. Weſtm. recor|deth.594

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beda. Edelferd.Yee haue heard that E|delferde, whiche otherwiſe is cal+led alſo by writers Edelfride, ſurnamed the wild, gouerned ſtill the Northumbers, whiche Edel|ferde did more domage to the Brytaynes than a|ny one other king of the Engliſh Nation. None of them deſtroyed theyr countreyes more than he did: neyther did any Prince make mo of the Bry|taynes tributaries, or inhabited more of theyr Countreys with Engliſh people than he.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Herevpon Edan king of thoſe Scots which inhabited Brytayne, beeing therewith moued to ſee Edelferd proſper thus in his conqueſtes, came agaynſt him with a mightie armie: but ioyning in battaile with Edelferd and his power, at a place called Degſaſtane, or Degſaſtone, or De|glaſton, he loſt the moſte part of his people, and with the reſidue that were left aliue, he eſcaped by flight.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This was a ſore foughten battaile, wyth much bloudſhed on both parties. For notwith|ſtanding that the victorie remayned with the Northumbers, Theodbaldus the brother of E|delferd was ſlaine, with all that part of the Eng|liſh hoſt, which he gouerned: and it was fought in the yeare of our Lorde .603. in the .xix. 603 Henric. Hũt. Beda. li. 1. cap. 34. yeare of the raigne of the foreſayde Edelferd, and in the ſixt yeare of Co [...]wulf king of the Weſt Saxons, and in the firſt yeare of the Emperour Focas, or ra|ther in the laſt yeare of hys predeceſſour Mau|ritius.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 From that day til [...] the dayes of Beda, not one of the Scottiſh kings durſt preſume to enter into Brytaine againe to giue battaile againſt the Engliſh Nation, as Beda himſelfe wryteth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But the Scottiſh writers make other report of this matter, VVil. Malm [...] See in Scot|land [...]. as in the Hyſtorie of Scotland ye may finde recorded.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Brytaynes that dwelt aboute Cheſter, through their ſtoutneſſe prouoked the aforeſayde Ethelferd king of the Northumbers vnto warre: wherevpon the ſame Ethelferd to tame theyr lof|tie ſtomackes, aſſembled an armie, and came for|warde to beſiege the Citie of Cheſter,Cheſter as ye [...] in poſſeſsion of the Bry|tayns. then called of the Brytaynes Carleon ardour deué. The Ci|tizens coueting rather to ſuffer all things than a ſiege, and hauing a truſt in their great multitude of people,Iohn Leyland VVil. Malm. came forth to giue battaile abrode in the fieldes, whom he compaſſing about with ambu|ſhes, got them within his daunger, and eaſily diſ|comfited them.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beda.It chaunced that he had eſpied before the bat|taile ioyned (as Bede hath) where a great number of the Brytiſh Prieſts were got aſide into a place ſomewhat out of daunger, that they might there make their interceſſion to God for the good ſpeede of theyr people, being then readie to giue battaile to the Northumbers.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The number of Monkes in the Monaſtery of Bangor.Many of them were of that famous Mona|ſterie of Bangor, in the which it is ſaid, that there was ſuch a number of Monkes, that where they were deuided into ſeuen ſeuerall partes, with their ſeuerall gouernours appoynted to haue rule ouer them, euery of thoſe partes conteyned at the leaſt three hundred perſons, the which liued altogither by the labour of theyr handes. Many therefore of thoſe Monkes hauing kept a ſolemne feaſt for three dayes togither, were come to the armie with other to make prayer, hauing for their defender one Brocmale, or Bro [...]ma [...]l, Earle (or Conſull as ſome call him) of Cheſter,Brocmal [...]. which ſhoulde pre|ſerue them (being giuen to prayer) from the edge of the enimies ſworde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 154King Edelferd hauing (as is ſayde) eſpyed theſe men, aſked what they were, and what their intent was? and beeing informed of the whole circumſtance, and cauſe of their beeing there, hee ſayde. Then if they call to theyr God for his aſ|ſiſtãce againſt vs, ſurely though they beare no ar|mour, yet do they fight againſt vs, being buſied in prayer for our deſtruction. Wherevpon hee com|maunded the firſt onſet to be giuen on them,The Brytaines diſcomfited and ſlaine. and after ſlue downe the reſidue of the Brytiſh armie, not without great loſſe of his owne people.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of thoſe Monkes and Prieſtes which came to pray (as before is mencioned) there died at that battaile about the number of .xij. hundred, ſo that fiftie of them onely eſcaped by flight.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Brocmale, or Broemael at the firſt approche of the enimies, turning his backe with his compa|nie, left them (whom he ſhould haue defended) to be murthered through the enmies ſworde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And thus was the prophecie of Auguſtine ful|filled, though he was long before departed this life (as Beda hath.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Henric. Hũt.But if this battaile was fought in the ſeuenth yeare of Ciovulf king of Weſtſaxons (as ſome haue written) and that Auguſtin liued .xij. yeares after his entrance into the gouernment of the ſea of Canterburie, (as ſome write) it is euident that he liued foure yeares after this ſlaughter made of the Brytiſhe Prieſtes and Monkes by Ethelferd (as before is recited.) For Ciovulf beganne his raigne (as before is mentioned) about the yeare of our Lorde .596. and in the ſeuenth yeare of hys raigne the battail was fought, at Degſaſta [...]e be|twixt Engliſhmen and Scottes, which chaunced in the yeare of our Lorde .604. as Bede himſelfe recordeth. Hitherto out of our olde writers.

Of which battaile alſo William Hariſon tel|leth another maner of tale, whoſe wordes (though he liue in our time, and his Chronologie bee not yet extant) are not to be omitted: which be theſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Athelbright, or Edilfride, king of the Northũ|bers, and Ethelbert of Kent, hauing Auguſtine in their cõpanie, in the .8. yeare after his arriuall, doe make warre vpon ſuche Brytaynes as refuſe to obſerue the Canons of the late Councell mentio|ned .603. and kill 1200. Monkes of the Monaſte|rie of Bangor, which laboured earneſtly, and in the ſweate of their browes, thereby to get theyr liuings. &c. Thus farre maiſter Hariſon.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Verily. Galf. Mon wryteth, that Ethelbert king of Kent (after he ſawe the Brytaynes to diſ|daine and denie their ſubiection vnto Auguſtine, by whom he was conuerted to the chriſtian faith) ſtirred vp Ethelfred king of the Northumbers to warre againſt the Brytains. But hereof maiſter Foxe doubteth, and therfore ſayth,Acts and Mo|numents. Pag. 160. that of vncer|taine things hee hath nothing certainly to ſay, much leſſe to iudge.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 But now to the matter where we left. After that King Edelferd had made ſlaughter of the Brytaines (as before is rehearſed) hee entred the Citie of Cheſter, and from thence marched to|wardes Bangor.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Britains in the meane time had aſſẽbled their power vnder three Captains, that is to wit,Blederik [...] of Cornewal, Margadud K. of Southwales, Cadwan king of Northwales Blederike Duke of Cornewall, Margadud king of Southwales, and Cadwane king of North|wales. Theſe ioyning in battaile with Ethel|ferd, ſlue .10066. of his Souldiers, and conſtray|ned him to flee out of the fielde for ſafegarde of [figure appears here on page 154] his life, after hee had receyued many woundes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Gal. Mon.On the part of the Brytaynes the foreſayde Bledrike, which was chiefe captaine of the fielde in that battaile chaunced to be ſlaine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus hath Gal. Mon. but the auncient wri|ters of the Engliſh kings (as Bede. Wil. [...]alm. and Henrie Hunt.) make no mention of this laſt battaile and victorie obteyned by the Brytaynes in maner as aboue is expreſſed in Galfrids booke. But contrarily we finde, that Ethelferd hauing ſuch good ſucceſſe in his buſineſſe abroade as hee coulde wiſhe,Edwin the ſonne of king Alla [...] vpon purpoſe to auoyde daunger at home, baniſhed Edwin the ſonne of Alla or Elle a yong Gentleman of great towardneſſe, lately EEBO page image 155 come to the kingdom of the Northumbers by the death of his father. But this Edwine in time of his exile, beeing long toſſed from place to place, and finding no ſtedfaſt friendſhip now in time of his aduerſitie, at length came to Redwalde, that was king at that time of the Eaſt Angles, the thirde from Vffa, as ſucceſſor to Titullus, which Titullus did ſucceede next after the ſayde Vffa,592 the firſt king of Eaſt Angles (as before is men|tioned.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edelferd.This Redwalde did verie honourably inter|taine Edwine, inſomuch that Edelferd being in|formed thereof, he was highly diſpleaſed, and ſent Ambaſſadors vnto Redwalde, to requyre him either to deliuer Edwine into his handes, or elſe if he refuſed ſo to do, to declare and denounce vnto him open warres.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Redwalde encouraged by his wife (that coun|ſelled him in no wiſe to betray his friende, to whõ he had giuen his fayth, for the menaces of his e|nimie) aſſembled forthwith an armie,617 and vpon the ſodaine comming vpon Ethelferd, ſet vppon him ere he coulde haue time to aſſemble his peo|ple, togither. But yet the ſayd Ethelfred,H. Hunt. though he was entrapped and brought in daunger at vn|wares, he dyed not vnreuenged: for putting him|ſelfe in defence with ſuch power as he coulde then get togyther, he boldely encountred the enimies, and gyuing battaile, ſlue Remerius the ſonne of Redwalde and after was ſlaine himſelfe,Ethelferd ſlain [...] ha|uing raigned ouer the Northumbers about .xxij. yeares.

[figure appears here on page 155]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This battaile was fought neare to the water of Idle.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſayde Ethelferd had iſſue by his wyfe Acca the daughter of Alla, and ſiſter to Edwine, two ſonnes, Oſwalde being about two yeares of age, and Oſwyn about foure yeares, the which (their father beeing thus ſlaine) were by helpe of their gouernours, conueyed away into Scotland with all ſpeede that might be made.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Hen. Hunt. Math. VVeſt. hath. 34. Ceovulf king of the Weſt Saxons, after hee had raigned the ſpace of .xij. yeares, departed this life, who in his time had mainteyned great warre agaynſt many of his neghbours, the which for briefeneſſe I paſſe ouer.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 One great battaile he fought agaynſt them of Suſſex, in which the armies on both ſides ſu|ſteyned great domage,The South Saxons ſu|ſtaine the greater loſſe. but the greater loſſe fell to the South Saxons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cicegiſ|cus.AFter the foreſayde Ceovulf raigned Cinegiſ|cus, or Kingils, whiche was the ſonne of Ceola, that was ſonne to Cutha or Cutwyn, the ſonne of Kenricke, which was ſonne to king Certicke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the fourth yeare of his raigne, VVil. Malm. ſayeth that O [...]nichilinus was the brother o [...] Cinegiſcus. he receyued into felowſhip with him in gouernaunce of the kingdome his ſonne Richelinus, or Onichelinus, and ſo they raigned ioyntly togither in great loue and concorde, a thing ſeldome ſeene or heard of.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 They fought with the Brytaynes at Bean|dune,Beandune, or Beanton. where at the firſt approch of the battailes togyther, the Brytaynes fled, but to late, for there died of them that were ouertaken .2062.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In this meane time,Beda. li. 2. cap. 4. Laurence Archbiſhop of Canterburie, that ſucceeded next after Auguſtine, admitted thereto by him in his life time (as before is ſayde) did his indeuour to augment and bring to perfection the Church of Englande, the foundation wherof was lately layde by his pre|deceſſor the foreſayde Auguſtine: and ſtudied not onely for the encreaſe of this new Church, which was gathered of the Engliſhe people, but alſo he was buſie to employ his paſtor like cure vpon the people that were of the olde inhabitants of Bry|taine, and likewiſe of the Scottes that remayned in Irelande: For when he had learned that the Scottes there in ſemblable wiſe as the Brytains EEBO page image 156 in theyr Countrey ledde not theyr lyues in ma|ny poyntes according to the Eccleſiaſtical rules, aſwel in obſeruing the feaſt of Eaſter cõtrarie to the vſe of the Romain church, as in other things, he wrote vnto thoſe Scottes letters exhortatorie, requyring them moſte inſtauntly to an vnitie of Catholique orders as myght bee agreeable with the Church of Chriſt, ſpredde and diſperſed through the worlde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theſe letters were not written onely in his owne name, but ioyntly togyther in the name of the Biſhops Melitus and Iuſtus (as thus.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To our deare brethren, the Biſhops & Abbots through all Scotland, Laurence, Mellitus & Iu|ſtus, Biſhops, the ſeruants of the ſeruants of God, wiſhe health. Where as the Apoſtolike Sea, (according to hir maner) had ſent vs to preach vn|to the Heathen people in theſe weſt partes, as o|therwiſe through the worlde, and that it chaun|ced vs to enter into this Ile which is called Bry|tayne, before we knewe and vnderſtoode the ſtate of things, wee had in greate reuerence bothe the Scottes and Brytaynes, which beleeued, bycauſe (as we tooke the matter) they walked according to the cuſtome of the vniuerſall Churche: but after we had knowledge of the Brytaynes, we iudged the Scottes to be better, but we haue learned by Byſhop Daganus, comming into this Ile, and by Columbanus the Abbot cõming into France, that the Scottes nothing differ in theyr conuer|ſation from the Brytaynes, for Biſhop Dagan comming vnto vs, would neyther eate with vs, no nor yet within the houſe where wee did eate.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſayde Laurence alſo with his fellow Bi|ſhops, did write to the Brytaines, other letters worthie of his degree, doing what hee coulde to confyrme them in the vnitie of the Romaine Church: but it profited little, as appeareth by that which Beda wryteth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About the ſame tyme, Mellitus the Biſhop of London wente to Rome to commune wyth Pope Boniface, for neceſſarie cauſes touching the the Church of Englande, and was preſent at a Sinode holden by the ſame Pope at that ſeaſon, for ordinances to bee made touching the ſtate of religious men, and ſate in the ſame Sinode, that with ſubſcribing, he might alſo with his autho|ritie confirme that whiche was there orderly de|creed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Sinode was holden the third kalends of March, in the laſt yeare of the Emperour Fo|cas, which was about the yeare after the byrth of our ſauiour .610.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Mellitus at his returne, brought with him from the Pope, decrees commaunded by the ſayd Pope to be obſerued in the Engliſh Church, with letters alſo directed to the Archbiſhop Laurence, and to king Ethelbert.

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5.16. The beginning of the kingdome of Brenitia, of whome the king of Kent, Mer|tia, and west Saxons descended, Ida the Sax|on commended, the originall of the kingdome of Deira, the circuit and bounds therof, of Ella the go|uernour of the same, when the partition of the kingdome of Northumberland chanced; Vortiporus reigneth ouer the Britains, he vanquisheth the Saxons; Gyldas sharp|lie reprooueth Vortiporus for manie greeuous offenses, and exhorteth him to amendement. The xvj. Chapter.

The beginning of the kingdome of Brenitia, of whome the king of Kent, Mer|tia, and west Saxons descended, Ida the Sax|on commended, the originall of the kingdome of Deira, the circuit and bounds therof, of Ella the go|uernour of the same, when the partition of the kingdome of Northumberland chanced; Vortiporus reigneth ouer the Britains, he vanquisheth the Saxons; Gyldas sharp|lie reprooueth Vortiporus for manie greeuous offenses, and exhorteth him to amendement. The xvj. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 _IN the yeare of the Lord 547,Ida. which was about the first yeare of the reigne of Aure|lius Conanus,547 the kingdome of Brenitia bagan vnder a Saxon ruler there called I|da, H. Hunt. The kingdom of Brenitia. began. & descended of Woden, For where the said Woden had three sonnes, Weldecius, Withlegris, and Bel|decius; of the first, the kings of Kent were lineallie extracted: of the second, the kings of Mertia: and of the third sonne came the kings of Westsaxon, and also of him was this Ida descended, being the ninth in lineall succession from the said Beldecius and the tenth from Woden. The same Ida was vndoub|tedlie a right noble personage, and changed first that dukedome into a kingdome, where before that time the Saxons that ruled there, were subiects vn|to the kings of Kent. Whether he tooke vpon him of his owne accord to vsurpe the kinglie title and roiall authoritie, or whether that the same was gi|uen to him by consent of other, the certeintie appea|reth not. But sure it is, that he being a woorthie prince, did not degenerate from his noble ancestors inuincible in warre abroad and at home, quali|fieng his kinglie seueritie with a naturall kind of courteous humanitie. The bounds of his kingdome called (as is said) Brenitia, began in the south at the riuer of Tine, and ended in the north at the Forth in Scotland, in the British toong called Werd.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the same time,Ella. or rather about 14 yeares after, one Ella a Saron also reigned as king in Diera,561. The begin|ning of the kingdome of Deira. which kingdome began at the said riuer of Tine in the north, & ended at the riuer of Hum|ber toward the south. These two kingdomes were sometime gouerned by two seuerall kings, and af|terwards at other times they were ioined in one, and gouerned by one onelie king, and named the kingdome of Northumberland, which in processe of time was much inlarged, so that it included the shires of Yorke, Notingham, Darbie, Lancaster, the bishoprike of Durham, Copland, and other coun|tries betwixt the east and the west seas, euen vnto the riuer of Mersie.The riuer of Mersie. The foresaid Ella was sonne to Iffus, being descended from Woden, as the 12 in succession from him, though not by right line as William Malmesburie hath noted. Ida (as the same Malmesburie dooth testifie) reigned 14 yeares.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Now Ella who was successor to Ida (as he saith) reigned thirtie yeares, and verie valiantlie inlarged his kingdome.Matth. West. But one author writeth how Ida reigned but 12 yeares, and that he builded the ca|stell of Bamburge, first fensing it with pales, and af|ter with a wall of stone. The same Ida had by his wife six sonnes, begotten in lawfull bed,Hen. Hunt. Ada, Ebric, Theodoric, Athelric, Osmer, and Theofred.Matt. West. More|ouer he begat of certeine concubines (which he kept) six bastard sonnes, Oga, Aleric, Ettha, Osbale, Segor, and Segother. These came altogither into this land, and arriued at Flemesburke with fortie ships, as Matthaeus Westmonasteriensis hath recor|ded. The partition of the kingdome of Northum|berland chanced after the deceasse of Ida, as the same author signifieth: for Ada the sonne of the fore|said Ida succéeded his father in the kingdome of Brenitia, reigning therein seuen yeares: and Ella the sonne of Histria, a most valiant duke, began to gouerne Deira, as both the said Matth. Westm. and other doo affirme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 VOtiporus the sonne of Aurelius Conanus suc|ceeded his father,Vortipo|rus. and began to reigne ouer the Britains, in the yéere of our Lord 576, in the 11, yeare of the emperour Flauius Anicius Iustinus, in the fourth yeare of the reigne of Childeric king of France, Matth. West. noteth 578. and in the fourth yeare of Clephis the Gothish king in Italie. This Uortiporus vanqui|shed the Saxons in battell, as the British histories make mention, and valiantlie defended his land and subiects the Britains, from the danger of them and other their allies. In the time of this kings reigne, the foresaid Ella began to rule in the south part of the kingdome of Northumberland called Deira, as before is mentioned, according to the account of some authors, who also take this Uortiporus to be|gin his reigne in the yeare 548. After that Uorti|porus had ruled the Britans the space of 4 yeares, Matth. West. noteth 3 years he departed this life, and left no issue behind him to succéed him in the kingdome.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Against this Uortiporus Gyldas also whetting his toong, beginneth with him thus: And why stan|dest thou as one starke amazed?

Thou (I say) Uorti|porus the tyrant of Southwales, like to the panther in maner and wickednesse diuerslie spotted as it were with manie colors, with thy hoarie head in thy throne, full of deceits, crafts and wiles, and defiled e|uen from the lowest part of thy bodie to the crowne of thy head, with diuers & sundrie murthers commit|ted on thine owne kin, and filthie adulteries, thus proouing a naughtie sonne of a good king, as Manas|ses was to Ezechias. How chanceth it that the vio|lent streames of sinnes which thou swallowest vp like pleasant wine, or rather art deuoured of them, (the end of thy life by little and little now drawing EEBO page image 96 néere) can not yet satisfie the? What meanest thou that with fornication of all euils, as it were the full heape, thine owne wife being put away, thou by hir honest death dooest oppresse thy soule with a certeine burthen that can not be auoided, of thine vnshame|fast daughter? Consume not (I pray thée) the resi|due of thy daies to the offense of God, &c.
These and the like woords vttered he, exhorting him to repen|tance, with admonitions taken out of the scriptures both for his comfort and warning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶If the circumstance of this that Gyldas wri|teth of Uortiporus be marked, it may be perceiued, that Geffrey of Monmouth, and also Matthew of Westminster, the author of the floures of histories, are deceiued, in that they take him to be the sonne of Aurelius Conanus: and rather it may be gathered, that not onlie the same Aurelius Conanus and Uor|tiporus, but also Constantinus, yea & Cuneglasus, and Maglocunus, of the which he also intreateth (as partlie shall be hereafter touched) liued and reigned all at one time in seuerall parts of this Ile, and not as monarchs of the whole British nation, but as ru|lers each of them in his quarter, after the maner as the state of Ireland hath béene in times past before the countrie came vnder the English subiection, if my coniecture herein doo not deceiue me.

5.17. Malgo reigneth ouer the Britains, the noble qualities wherewith he was beauti|fied by his filthie sinnes are blemished, Gyldas reproueth Cuneglasus for making warre against God and man, and this Malgo for his manifold offen|ses, the vile iniquities wherevnto the British rulers were in|clined, the valiantnesse of Kenrike king of the Westsaxons, his victories against diuers people his enimies, succession in the gouernment of the Westsaxons, Northumberland, and Ken|tish Saxons; the first battell that was fought betwixt the Saxons in this Iland, Cheuling with his Westsaxons encounter with the Britains and get the vpper hand, three kings of the Britains slaine, and their people spoiled of their lands, goods and liues. The xvij. Chapter.

Malgo reigneth ouer the Britains, the noble qualities wherewith he was beauti|fied by his filthie sinnes are blemished, Gyldas reproueth Cuneglasus for making warre against God and man, and this Malgo for his manifold offen|ses, the vile iniquities wherevnto the British rulers were in|clined, the valiantnesse of Kenrike king of the Westsaxons, his victories against diuers people his enimies, succession in the gouernment of the Westsaxons, Northumberland, and Ken|tish Saxons; the first battell that was fought betwixt the Saxons in this Iland, Cheuling with his Westsaxons encounter with the Britains and get the vpper hand, three kings of the Britains slaine, and their people spoiled of their lands, goods and liues. The xvij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 _AFter the deceasse of Uor|tiporus,Malgo. Malgo the nephue of Aurelius Conanus (as some write) Matth. West. hath noted 581 was made king of Britaine, & began his reigne ouer the Britaines, in the yéere of our Lord 580,580 in the fiftéenth yéere of the empe|rour Iustinian, and in the 37 yéere of the reigne of Childerike king of the Frenchmen. This Malgo is reported to haue béene the comeliest gentleman in beautie and shape of personage that was to be found in those daies amongst all the Britains, and there|with of a bold and hardie courage.Gal. Mon. He manfullie de|fended the country which he had in gouernance from the malice of the Saxons, and subdued the out Iles, as Orkenie and others. But notwithstanding the noble qualities with the which his person was ador|ned, yet he spotted them all with the filthie sinne of Sodomie, so that he fell into the ha [...]red of almightie God, and being pursued of the Saxons, receiued ma|nie ouerthrowes at their hands, as by the report o [...] the English writers is gathered more at large. Fi|nallie, when he had reigned fiue yéeres and od mo|neths, he departed this life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It séemeth that this Malgo is named by Gyl|das, Maglocunus, Matt. Westm. counteth not cast fiue yeres to his reigne though other affirme that he reigned 35 yéeres. the which Gyldas (before he spea|keth of him) inueieth against one Cimeglasus, whom he reprooueth, for that he warred both against God and man: against God, with grieuous sinnes, as namelie adulterie, in forsaking the companie of his lawfull wife, and kéeping to concubine a sister of hirs, that had professed chastilie: & against man with materiall armor and weapons, which he vsed to the destruction of his owne countrimen, with whom he kept warres, and not against the enimies of the common wealth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 From Cuneglasus he commeth to the foresaid Magl [...]cunus, whome he nameth the dragon of the Iles, and the expeller of manie tyrants, not onelie out of their kingdoms, but also out of life, the last of whom he treateth (as he himselfe saith) but the first in all mischéefe & euill, greater than manie in power, and likewise in malice: verie liberall in giuing, but more plentifull in sinne, strong and valiant in arms, but stronger in destruction of his owne soule. And so procéeding, chargeth him with the sinne of the So|domits, & sore blameth him, for that where it had plea|sed God to make him higher than all other dukes of Britaine in kingdome and degrée, he did not shew himselfe better, but contrarilie far woorse than they both in maners and conditions. He declareth also a little after, that this Maglocune in his yoong yéeres slue in battell his vncle being king, with the most va|liant souldiers in maner that he had. Also that where the said Maglocune tooke vpon him the profession of a moonke, he after renounced the same, and became a woorsse liuer than euer he was before, abandoning his wife, and kéeping his brothers sonnes wife, while hir husband yet liued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus by that which Gyldas writeth of the kings and rulers of the Britains, which liued in his daies, ye may perceiue that they were giuen to all manner of wickednesse, and namelie to ciuill dissention, ra|pine, adulterie, and fornication: so that it may be thought, that GOD stirred vp the Saxons to be a scourge to them, and to worke his iust vengeance vpon them for their wickednesses and abhominable offenses dailie cõmitted against his diuine maiestie, so that we find recorded by writers, how that the Saxons in diuers conflicts against the Britains had the better, and also tooke from them diuers townes, as alreadie partly hath beene and also hereafter shall be shewed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 It is furthermore to be remembred, that about the 14 yeere of the Britaine king Conanus his reigne, which was about the end of the yere of Christ 559,559 Kenrike king of the Westsaxons departed this life, after he had reigned xxv. yéeres complet. This Kenrike was a victorious prince,Hen. Hunt. and fought diuers battels against the Britains. In the 18 yeere of his reigne, which was the 551 of Christ, we find that he fought against them, being come at that time vnto Salisburie, and after great slaughter made on both parts, at length the victorie remained with the Sax|ons, and the Britains were chased. Againe in the two and twentith yéere of his reigne, and 555 yéere of Christ, the fame Kenrike and his sonne Cheuling fought with a great power of Britains at Bran|burie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Britains were diuided into nine compa|nies, three in the fore ward, thrée in the battell, and thrée in the rere ward, with their horssemen and ar|chers, after the maner of the Romans. The Saxons being ranged in one entire battell, valiantlie assai|led them, and notwithstanding the shot of the Bri|tains, yet they brought the matter to the triall of handblowes, till at length by the comming on of the night, the victorie remained doubtfull: and no mar|uell is to be made therof (saith Henrie archdeacon of Huntington) sith the Saxons were men of huge sta|ture, great force, & valiant courage. The same yéere that Kenrike deceassed, Ida the king of Northum|berland also died: he was (as ye haue heard) a right EEBO page image 97 valiant prince, & inlarged the dominion of the Sax|ons greatlie, he ouercame Loth king of the Picts in battell, and Gorran king of Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Also about the yéere of Christ 560,560 Conanus (as yet gouerning the Britains) Irmen [...]ike king of Kent departed this life, of whome ye haue heard be|fore, & Ethelbert his sonne succéeded him 52 yéeres. Then after that the foresaid thrée princes were dead (as before ye haue heard)Hen. Hunt. they had that succéeded them in their estates as here followeth. After Ken|rike, his sonne Ceaulinus or Cheuling succéeded in gouernement of the Westsaxons: and after Ida, one Ella or Alla reigned in Northumberland: after Irmenrike followed his sonne Ethelbert in rule o|uer the Kentish Saxons.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Ethelbert in processe of time grew to be a mightie prince, but yet in the begining of his reigne he had but sorie successe against some of his enimies: for hauing to doo with the foresaid Cheuling king of Westsaxons,Hen. Hunt. A [...]d. Wip|handune. he was of him ouercome in battell at Wilbasdowne, where he lost two of his dukes or cheefe capteins, beside other people. This was the first battell that was fought betwixt the Saxons, one against another within this land, after their first comming into the same. And this chanced in the yere of our Lord 567, being the second yéere of the empe|rour Iustinus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 ABout the yéere 570,570. Cutha. Cutha the brother of king Cheuling fought with the Britains at Bed|ford, vanquished them, [...]ilsburie. 581 & tooke from them 4 townes, Liganbrough, Eglesbrough or Ailsburie, Besing|ton, and Euesham. Also about the yéere of our Lord 581, the foresaid king Cheuling incountered with the Britains at a place called Diorth, and obteining the vpper hand, tooke from them the cities of Bath, Glocester, and Cirencester. At this battell fought at Diorth, were present thrée kings of the Britains, whose names were these: Coinmagill, Candidan, and Farimnagill, which were slaine there through the permission of almightie God as then refusing his people, the which through their heinous sinnes and great wickednesses, had most gréeuouslie offended his high and diuine maiestie, as by Gyldas it may e|uidentlie appeare. For they had declined from the lawes of the Lord, and were become abhominable in his sight, euen from the prince to the poore man, from the priest to the Leuit, so that not one estate among them walked vprightlie, but contrarie to dutie was gone astray, by reason whereof the righteous God had giuen them ouer as a prey to their enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Also in the latter end of Malgos daies or about the first beginning of the reigne of his successor Ca|reticus,His brother as Matt. West. saith. Cheuling and his sonne Cutwine fought with the Britains at a place called Fechanley or Fedanley, or (as some bookes haue) Frithenlie, where Cutwine was slaine,H. Hunt. & the Englishmen chased: but yet Cheuling repairing his armie, wan the victorie, and chasing the Britains, tooke from them manie countries, and wan great riches by the spoile. But Matth. West. saith,Matt. West. that the victorie aboad with the Britains, and that the Saxons were chased quite out of the field. The Scotish writers record, that their king Aidan (who is noted to haue béene the 49 suc|cessiuelie possessing the regiment of that land, part|lie with griefe of hart for the death of Columba a graue and wise gentleman, whome he tenderlie lo|ued, and partlie with age [for he was growne horie|headed, and had reigned 34 yéeres] ended his life) was there in aid of the Britains, and Brudeus king of the Picts (betwixt whom and the said Aidan a sore battell was fought) in aid of the Saxons: but the same writers name the place Deglaston, where this battell was made, and the forces of both sides by a sharpe incounter tried.

5.18. The begining of the kingdome of Mer|cia, the bounds of the same, the heptarchie or seuen regiments of the Saxons, how they grew to that perfection, and by whom they were reduced and drawne into a monar [...]ie; Careticus is created king of Britaine, the Saxons take occasion by the ciuill dissentions of the Britains to make a full conquest of the land they procure forren power to further them in their enterprise, Gurmundus king of the Africans arriueth in Britaine, the Bri|tish king is driuen to his hard shifts, the politike practise of Gurmundus in taking Chichester & setting the towne on fire, he deliuereth the whole land in possession to the Saxons, the English and Saxon kings put Careticus to flight, the Britains haue onelie three prouinces left of all their countrie which before they inhabited, their religion, church, and com|monwealth is in decaie, they are gouerned by three kings, Cheulings death is con|spired of his owne sub|iects. The xviij. Chapter.

The begining of the kingdome of Mer|cia, the bounds of the same, the heptarchie or seuen regiments of the Saxons, how they grew to that perfection, and by whom they were reduced and drawne into a monar [...]ie; Careticus is created king of Britaine, the Saxons take occasion by the ciuill dissentions of the Britains to make a full conquest of the land they procure forren power to further them in their enterprise, Gurmundus king of the Africans arriueth in Britaine, the Bri|tish king is driuen to his hard shifts, the politike practise of Gurmundus in taking Chichester & setting the towne on fire, he deliuereth the whole land in possession to the Saxons, the English and Saxon kings put Careticus to flight, the Britains haue onelie three prouinces left of all their countrie which before they inhabited, their religion, church, and com|monwealth is in decaie, they are gouerned by three kings, Cheulings death is con|spired of his owne sub|iects. The xviij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _ABout the same time also, Crida. H. Hunt. This king|dome began in the yeere 585, as Matt. VVestm. saith. Ran Cest. and 585 of Christ, the king|dome of Mercia began vn|der one Crida, who was des|cended from Woden, and the tenth from him by lineall ex|traction. The bounds of this kingdome were of great di|stance, hauing on the east the sea vnto Humber, and so on the north the said riuer of Humber, and after the riuer of Mercia, which falleth into the west sea at the corner of Wirhall, and so comming about to the riuer of Dee that passeth by Chester, the same riuer bounded it on the west from Wales, and likewise Seuerne vp to Bristow: on the south it had the ri|uer of Thames, till it came almost to London. And in this sort it conteined Lincolneshire, Notingam|shire, Derbishire, Chesshire, Shropshire, Worcester|shire, Glocestershire, Oxfordshire, Buckingham|shire, Hertefordshire, Bedfordshire, Huntington|shire, Northamptonshire, Leicestershire, and War|wikeshire.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶Thus haue ye heard how the Saxons in processe of time remoouing the Britains out of their [...]eats, dailie wan ground of them, till at length they got possession of the best part of this Ile, and erected within the same seuen kingdoms, which were gouer|ned by seuen seuerall kings, who continued vntill the kings of Westsaxon brought them all at length into one monarchie, as after shall appeere. Matth. Westmin. reckoneth eight kingdoms as thus; The kingdom of Kent, the kingdom of Sussex, the king|dom of Essex, the kingdom of Eastangle, the king|dom of Mercia, the kingdom of Westsex, and the kingdom of Northumberland, which was diuided into two kingdoms, that is to say, into Deira and into Bernicia: wherevnto W. Harison addeth the ninth in the first part of his chronologie, and calleth it Wales.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 AFter that Malgo or Maglocune was departed this life,Careticus 586 one Careticus, or (as some write him) Caretius, was made king of the Britains, and be|gan his reigne in the yéere of our Lord, 586, which was in the third yéere of the emperour Mauricius, and thirtéenth of Chilperike king of France. This Careticus was a nourisher of ciuill warre and dis|sention amongst his owne people the Britains, so that he was hated both of God and man, as writers testifie. The Saxons vnderstanding that the Bri|tains were not of one mind, but diuided in parta|kings, so as one was readie to deuoure an other, thought it good time for them to aduance their con|quests, and ceassed not to pursue the Britains by force and continuall warre, till they had constreined them EEBO page image 98 for refuge to withdraw into Wales. Gal. Mon. See more of this Gur|mundus in Ireland. Ranulf. Cest. And as some haue written, the Saxons meaning to make a full conquest of the land, sent ouer into Ireland, requi|ring one Gurmundus a king of the Affricans to come ouer into Britaine to helpe them against the Britains.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This Gurmundus appointing his brother Turge|sius to pursue the conquest of Ireland, came and ar|riued heere in Britaine, making such cruell warre in aid of the Saxons against the Britains, that Care|ticus was constreined to kéepe him within the citie of Chicester or Cirencester, and was there besieged, and at length by continuall assalts and skirmishes, when he had lost manie of his men, he was glad to forsake that citie, and fled into Wales. This Gur|mundus tooke Cirencester or Chichester, and destroi|ed it in most cruell maner. Some write, that he tooke this citie by a policie of warre, in binding to the féet of sparrowes which his people had caught, certeine clewes of thred or matches, finelie wrought & tem|pered with matter readie to take fixe, so that the spar|rowes being suffered to go out of hand, flue into the towne to lodge themselues within their neasts which they had made in stacks of corne, and eues of houses, so that the towne was thereby set on fire, and then the Britains issuing foorth, fought with their eni|mies, and were ouercome and discomfited.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But whilest the battell continued, Careticus stale away, and got him into Wales. After this, the fore|said Gurmundus destroied this land throughout in pitifull wise, and then deliuered it in possession to the Saxons, the which thankfullie receiued it: and be|cause they were descended of those that first came o|uer with Hengist, they changed the name of the land, and called it Hengistland, accordinglie as the same Hengist had in times past ordeined: the which name after for shortnesse of spéech was somewhat altered, and so lastlie called England, and the people En|glishmen. But rather it may be thought, that sith a great part of those people which came ouer into this land out of Germanie with the said Hengist, and o|ther capteins, were of those Englishmen which inha|bited Germanie, about the parts of Thoringhen, they called this land England, after their name, when they had first got habitation within it:Matt. VVest. and so both the land and people tooke name of them, being called Angli, a long time before they entered into this Ile (as before is shewed out of Cornelius Tacitus and others.) But now to returne where we left.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Of this Gurmundus the old English writers make no mention, nor also anie ancient authors of forren parties: and yet saith the British booke, that after he had conquered this land, and giuen it to the Saxons, he passed ouer into France, and there de|stroied much of that land, as an enimie to the faith of Christ. For which consideration he was the more rea|die to come to the aid of the Saxons, who as yet had not receiued the christian faith, but warred against the Britains, as well to destroie the faith of Christ within this land, as to establish to themselues conti|nuall habitations in the same.It should séeme that this historie of Gurmun|dus is but some fained tale except it may be that he was some Dane, Nor|wegian or Germane. There be, that omit|ting to make mention of Gurmundus, write thus of the expelling of the Britains out of this land at that time, when with their king Careticus they got them into Wales.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yéere of Grace 586,586 Matt. VVest. Careticus a louer of ciuill warre succéeded Malgo an enimie to God and to the Britains, whose inconstancie when the Eng|lish and Saxon kings perceiued, with one consent they rose against him, and after manie battels chased him from citie to citie, till at length incountering with him in a pight field, they droue him beyond Se|uerne into Wales. Héerevpon clerks and priests were driuen out of their places with bright swoords brandishing in all parts, and fire crackling in chur|ches, wherewith the same were consumed. The rem|nant of the Britains therefore withdrew into the west parts of the land, that is to say, into Cornwall, and into Wales, out of which countries they often|times brake out, and made insurrections vpon the Saxons, the which in maner aforsaid got possession of the chiefest parts of the land, leauing to the Bri|tains onlie three prouinces, that is to say, Cornwall, Southwales, and Northwales, which countries were not easie to be woone, by reason of the thicke woods inuironed with déepe mareshes and waters, and full of high craggie rocks and mounteins.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The English and Saxon kings hauing thus remoo|ued the Britains, inlarged the bounds of their domi|nions. There reigned in that season within this land, beside the Britaine kings, eight kings of the En|glish and Saxon nations, as Ethelbert in Kent, Cis|sa in Sussex, Ceauline in Westsex, Creda or Crida in Mercia, Erkenwine in Essex, Titila in Estan|gle, Elle in Deira, and Alfrid in Bernicia. In this sort the Britains lost the possession of the more part of their ancient seats, and the faith of Christ thereby was greatlie decaied: for the churches were destroi|ed; and the archbishops of Caerleon Arwiske, Lon|don and Yorke withdrew togither with their clear|gie into the mounteins and woods within Wales, taking with them the reliks of saints, doubting the same should be destroied by the enimies, and them|selues put to death if they should abide in their old habitations. Manie also fled into Britaine Armo|rike with a great fléete of ships, so that the whole church or congregation (as ye may call it) of the two prouinces, Loegria and Northumberland, was left desolate in that season, to the great hinderance and decaie of the christian religion. Careticus was dri|uen into Wales (as before is rehearsed) about the second or third yéere of his reigne, and there continu|ed with his Britains, the which ceassed not to inda|mage the Saxons from time to time as occasion still serued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But here is to be noted, that the Britains being thus remoued into Wales and Cornwall, were go|uerned afterwards by thrée kings, or rather tyrants, the which ceased not with ciuill warre to seeke others destruction,Wil. Mol [...]. till finallie (as saith the British booke) they became all subiect vnto Cadwallo, whome Be|da nameth Cedwallo. In the meane time, Ceauli|nus or Cheuling king of the Westsaxons, through his owne misgouernance and tyrannie, which to|wards his latter daies he practised, did procure not onelie the Britains, but also his owne subiects to conspire his death, so that ioining in battell with his aduersaries at Wodensdic, in the 33 yeare of his reigne, his armie was discomfited, and he himselfe constreined to depart into exile, and shortlie after ended his life before he could find meanes to be re|stored.

¶So that we haue here a mirror or liuelie view of a tyrant and a king, wherein there is no lesse ods in the manner of their gouernement, than there is re|pugnance in their names, or difference in their states. For he seeth but little into the knowledge of toongs, that vnderstandeth not what the office of a king should be, by the composition of his name, the same sounding in Gréeke [...], which being resolued is in effect [...], that is, the founda|tion or stay of the people; from which qualitie when he resulteth, he maketh shipwracke of that goodlie ti|tle, and degenerateth into a tyrant, than the which violent and inforced gouernement as there is none more perillous, so is it of all other the least in conti|nuance: this is prooued by historicall obseruation through the course of this historie.