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5.73. Malgo.


[figure appears here on page 147]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AFter the deceaſſe of Vort [...]orus,Malgo. Malgo that was nephewe to Aurelius Conanus, (as ſome write) was made king of Britayne,Math. VVeſt. hath noted. 58 [...]. and began his reigne ouer the Britons, in the yeare of our Lord .580. in the .xv. yeere of the Emperor Iuſtinian, and in the . [...]7.580. yeere of the reigne of Childerick king of the Frenchmen.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Malgo is reported to haue beene the comelyeſt Gentleman in beautie and ſhape of perſonage that was to be founde in thoſe day [...] amongeſt all the Brytons, and therewith of a bolde and hardie courage.Gal. M [...]. Hee manfully defended the countrey which he had in gouer|naunce, from the malice of the Saxons, & ſub|dued the out Iſles, as Orkeneye and others. But notwithſtãding the noble qualities with the whiche his perſone was adorned, yet hee ſpotted them all with the foule filthie ſynne of Sodomie, ſo that he fell into the hatred of Al|mightie God, and being purſued of the Sax|ons, receyued many ouerthrowes at their han|des, as by the reporte of the Engliſhe writers is gathered more at large. Finallye when hee had reigned fiue yeeres and odde moneths, hee departed this lyfe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 It ſeemeth that this Malgo is named by Gildas Maglocunus,Math. VVeſt. compteth not paſt fiue yeeres to his reigne, vvhom Har [...]ſ folovveth, al|though other affirme that he reigned . [...]. yea|res. the whiche Gildas be|fore he ſpeaketh of him, inueyeth againſt one Cunegl [...]ſus, whom he reproueth, for that he warred both againſt God and man: againſt God with greuous ſins, as namely adulterie, in forſaking the companie of his lauful wife, and keeping to concubine a ſyſter of hirs, that hadde profeſſed chaſtitie: and againſte man with materiall armor and weapons whiche hee vſed to the diſtruction of his owne coun|treymen, with whome he kepe warres, and not againſt the enimies of the common wealth From Cuneglaſus he commeth to the forſayde Maglocune, whome hee nameth the Dragon EEBO page image 142 of the Iſles, and the expellet of many tyrants, not only out of their kingdomes, but alſo out of lyfe, the laſt of whome he entreateth (as he him|ſelfe ſayth) but the firſt in all miſchiefe and euil, greater than manye in power, and lykewiſe in malice: right liberall in giuing, but more plen|tifull in ſinne ſtrong and valiant in armes, but ſtronger in deſtruction of his owne ſoule. And ſo proceeding chargeth him with the ſinne of the Sodomites, and ſore blameth him for that wher it had pleaſed God to make him hygher than all the other Dukes of Britayne in kyngdome and degree, hee didde not ſhewe hymſelfe better, but contraryly worſe than they by farre in manners and conditions. Hee declareth alſo a little after that this Maglocune in his young yeares ſlewe in battayle his vncle being king with the moſt valiaunt ſouldiours in manner that he had.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo that where the ſame Maglocune tooke vpon him the profeſſion of a Monke, he after re|nounced the ſame, and becam a worſe liuer than euer he was before, abandoning his wyfe, and keeping his brothers ſonnes wife, whileſt hir huſ|bande yet lyued.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus by that whiche Gildas wryteth of the kings and rulers of the Britons whiche lyued in his dayes, ye may perceiue that they were giuen to all manner of wickedneſſe, and namely to ci|uill diſſention, rapine, adulterie and fornication: ſo that it maye bee thoughte, that God ſtirred vp the Saxons to be a ſcurge to them, and to worke his iuſte vengeaunce vppon them for theyr wic|ked and abhominable offences dayly committed againſt his diuine maieſtie, ſo that we fynde re|corded by writers howe that the Saxons in dy|uers conflictes agaynſt the Brytons hadde the better, and alſo tooke from them diuers townes as already partly hath bin and alſo hereafter ſhal be ſhewed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 IT is furthermore to be remembred, that a|bout the .14. yeare of the Britayn king Co|nanus his reigne, whiche was aboute the end of the yeare of Chriſte .559. Kenrike kyng of the Weaſtſaxons departed this lyfe,559. after he hadde reigned . [...] yeares complete.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Kenrike was a victorious Prince, and fought diuers battailes againſt the Britons. In the .xviij.H. Hunt. yeare of his reigne which was the .551. of Chriſt, we fynd that he fought againſt them, beeing come at that tyme vnto Saliſburie, and after greate ſlaughter made on bothe partes, at length the victorie remayned with the Saxons, and the Britons were chaſed. Agayne in the two and twentie yere of his reigne and .555. yere of Chriſt, the ſame Kenrik and his ſon Chevling fought with a greate power of Britons at Be|ranbury.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Britons were diuided into .ix. cõpanies, iij. in the foreward .iij. in the battayle . [...]iij in the rereward with their horſmen & archers, after the maner of the Romans. The Saxons being ran|ged in one entier bataile, valiantly aſſailed them, and notwithſtanding the ſhot of the Britons, yet they brought the matter to the triall of handblo|wes, til at length by the cõming on of the night, the victorie remained doubtfull: and no maruell is to be made therof (ſayeth Henry Archedeacon of Huntington) ſith the Saxons were menne of ſuche huge ſtatute, greate force and valya [...]t courage.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame yeare that Kenrike deceaſſed, Ida the king of Northumberlande alſo died: he was (as ye haue heard) a right valiãt prince, & enlar|ged the dominion of the Saxons greately. Hen|ner came in battaile Loth king of the Pictes, and Gorrane or rather Conrane king of Scots.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo about the yeare of Chriſt .560. Conanus (as yet gouerning the Britons) Irmenrike king of Kente, departed this lyfe,560 of whome ye haue heard before and Ethelberte his ſonne ſucceeded him .52. yeres.H. Hunt. Then after that the forſaid three princes were dead (as before ye haue heard) they had that ſucceded thẽ in their eſtates as here fol|loweth. After Kenrike, his ſonne Ceaulinus or Chevlyng ſucceeded in gouernment of the Weſt|ſaxons: and after Ida, one Ella or Alla reigned in Northumberland. After Irmenrike followed his ſonne Ethelberte in rule ouer the Kentiſhe Saxons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Ethelberte in proceſſe of tyme grewe to be a mightie prince, but yet in the beginnyng of his reign, he had but ſory ſucceſſe againſt ſome of his enimies:H. Hunt. [...]|lias VVi [...]| [...]asd [...] for hauing to do with the forſaid Chevlyng king of Weſtſaxons, he was of hym ouercome in battaile at Wilbaſdowne, where he loſt two of his dukes or chiefe Captaines, beſide other people. This was the firſt battail that was foughten betwixte the Saxons, one againſte an other within this land, after their firſt comming into the ſame And this chaunced in the yeare of of our Lorde .567. being the ſeconde yeare of the Emperour Iuſtinus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ABoute the yeare .570. Cutha the brother of king Chevlyng foughte with the Bry|tons at Bedforde and ouercame them,570. Cutha Aleſbuy [...] 581. and tooke from them foure townes, Liganbrough, Egleſ|broughe, or Ayleſburye, Beſington, and Eueſ|ſham. Alſo about the yeare of our Lorde .581. the foreſayde King Cheuling encountred with the Britaynes at a place called Dyorth, and obtey|ning the vpper hand, tooke from them the Cities of Bathe, Glouceſter, and Ciren [...]eeſter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At this battayle fought at Dyorth, were pre|ſente three kyngs of the Britons, whoſe names were theſe: Coinmagill, Candidan, and Fa|rimnagill, the whiche were ſlayne there through EEBO page image 143 the permiſſion of almightie God as then refu|ſing his people, the which through their heynous ſinnes and great wickedneſſe, had moſt greuouſ|ly offended his hygh and diuine Maieſtie, as by Gildas it may euidently appeare: for they hadde declined from the lawes of the Lorde, and were become abhominable in his ſight, euen from the Prince to the poore man, from the Prieſt to the Leuite, ſo that not one eſtate amongſt them walked vprightley, but contrarie to duetie was gone aſtraye, by reaſon whereof, the rightuous God had giuen them ouer as a pray to their eni|myes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo in the latter ende of Malgos dayes or a|bout the firſt beginning of the reigne of his ſuc|ceſſour Careticus,His brother as Math. VVeſt. [...]th. Chevling and his ſonne Cut|wyne fought with the Brytons at a place called Fechanley or Fedanley, or as ſome bookes haue, Frithenlye,H. Hunt. where Cutwyn was ſlayne, and the Engliſhemen chaſed: but yet Chevling repai|ring his armie, wan the victorie, and chaſed the Britons,Mat. VVest. and tooke from them many countreys, and wan great riches by the ſpoyle But Math. Weſtm. ſayth, that the victorie aboade with the Britons, and that the Saxons were chaſed quite out of the fielde. The Scottiſhe writers recorde, that their king Aydan was there in ayde of the Brytons, and Brudeus kyng of the Pictes in ayde of the Saxons: but the ſame writers name the place Deglaſton, where this battayle was foughte.

5.73.1. The beginning of the kingdome of Mercia.

The beginning of the kingdome of Mercia.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 143] Crida.ABoute the ſame time alſo and .585. of Chriſt, Hen. Hunt. This kingdom began in the yeare 585. as Math. VVeſt. hath. the kingdome of Mercie began vnder one Cri+da, that was deſcẽded from [...]en, and the tenth from him by lineall extraction.Ran. Ceſt. The boundes of this kingdom were of great diſtance hauing on the eaſt the ſea vnto Humber, and ſo on the North the ſayde riuer of Humber, and after the ryuer of Mercie, whiche falleth into the weaſt ſea at the corner of Wyr|hall and ſo comming aboute to the ryuer of Dee that paſſeth by Cheſter, the ſame ryuer boun|ded it on the Weaſt from Wales, and likewyſe Seuerne vp to Briſtow: on the ſouth is had the ryuer of Thames til it came almoſt to London: And in this ſort it conteyned Lincolneſhire, No|tinghamſhire, Derbyſhire, Che [...]ſhyre, Shrop|ſhire, Worceterſhire, Glouceterſhire, Oxford|ſhire, Buckinghamſhire, Hertefordſhire, Bed|fordſhire, Huntingtonſhire, Northamptonſhire, Leyceſterſhire, and Warwikeſhire.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus haue ye heard how the Saxons in [...]ro|ces of tyme remouing the Britons out of their ſeates, daylye wanne grounde of them, till at length they got poſſeſſion of the beſt part of this Iſle, and erected within the ſame ſeuen kingdo|mes, whiche were gouerned by ſeauen ſeuerall kings, which continued vntill at length the kin|ges of Weſtſaxõ brought them al into one Mo|narchie, as after ſhal appere. Mat. Weſtm. reck|neth .viij. kingdomes as thus. The kingdome of Kent, the kingdome of Suſſex, the kingdome of Eſſex, the kingdom of Eaſtangle, the kingdome of Mercia, the kyngdome of Weaſtſex, and the kyngdome of Northumberlande, whyche was diuided into two kyngdomes, that is to wit, into Deira and into Be [...]: wherevnto Hariſon addeth the nynth in the firſt part of his chronologie, and calleth it Wales.

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5.18. The begining of the kingdome of Mer|cia, the bounds of the same, the heptarchie or seuen regiments of the Saxons, how they grew to that perfection, and by whom they were reduced and drawne into a monar [...]ie; Careticus is created king of Britaine, the Saxons take occasion by the ciuill dissentions of the Britains to make a full conquest of the land they procure forren power to further them in their enterprise, Gurmundus king of the Africans arriueth in Britaine, the Bri|tish king is driuen to his hard shifts, the politike practise of Gurmundus in taking Chichester & setting the towne on fire, he deliuereth the whole land in possession to the Saxons, the English and Saxon kings put Careticus to flight, the Britains haue onelie three prouinces left of all their countrie which before they inhabited, their religion, church, and com|monwealth is in decaie, they are gouerned by three kings, Cheulings death is con|spired of his owne sub|iects. The xviij. Chapter.

The begining of the kingdome of Mer|cia, the bounds of the same, the heptarchie or seuen regiments of the Saxons, how they grew to that perfection, and by whom they were reduced and drawne into a monar [...]ie; Careticus is created king of Britaine, the Saxons take occasion by the ciuill dissentions of the Britains to make a full conquest of the land they procure forren power to further them in their enterprise, Gurmundus king of the Africans arriueth in Britaine, the Bri|tish king is driuen to his hard shifts, the politike practise of Gurmundus in taking Chichester & setting the towne on fire, he deliuereth the whole land in possession to the Saxons, the English and Saxon kings put Careticus to flight, the Britains haue onelie three prouinces left of all their countrie which before they inhabited, their religion, church, and com|monwealth is in decaie, they are gouerned by three kings, Cheulings death is con|spired of his owne sub|iects. The xviij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _ABout the same time also, Crida. H. Hunt. This king|dome began in the yeere 585, as Matt. VVestm. saith. Ran Cest. and 585 of Christ, the king|dome of Mercia began vn|der one Crida, who was des|cended from Woden, and the tenth from him by lineall ex|traction. The bounds of this kingdome were of great di|stance, hauing on the east the sea vnto Humber, and so on the north the said riuer of Humber, and after the riuer of Mercia, which falleth into the west sea at the corner of Wirhall, and so comming about to the riuer of Dee that passeth by Chester, the same riuer bounded it on the west from Wales, and likewise Seuerne vp to Bristow: on the south it had the ri|uer of Thames, till it came almost to London. And in this sort it conteined Lincolneshire, Notingam|shire, Derbishire, Chesshire, Shropshire, Worcester|shire, Glocestershire, Oxfordshire, Buckingham|shire, Hertefordshire, Bedfordshire, Huntington|shire, Northamptonshire, Leicestershire, and War|wikeshire.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶Thus haue ye heard how the Saxons in processe of time remoouing the Britains out of their [...]eats, dailie wan ground of them, till at length they got possession of the best part of this Ile, and erected within the same seuen kingdoms, which were gouer|ned by seuen seuerall kings, who continued vntill the kings of Westsaxon brought them all at length into one monarchie, as after shall appeere. Matth. Westmin. reckoneth eight kingdoms as thus; The kingdom of Kent, the kingdom of Sussex, the king|dom of Essex, the kingdom of Eastangle, the king|dom of Mercia, the kingdom of Westsex, and the kingdom of Northumberland, which was diuided into two kingdoms, that is to say, into Deira and into Bernicia: wherevnto W. Harison addeth the ninth in the first part of his chronologie, and calleth it Wales.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 AFter that Malgo or Maglocune was departed this life,Careticus 586 one Careticus, or (as some write him) Caretius, was made king of the Britains, and be|gan his reigne in the yéere of our Lord, 586, which was in the third yéere of the emperour Mauricius, and thirtéenth of Chilperike king of France. This Careticus was a nourisher of ciuill warre and dis|sention amongst his owne people the Britains, so that he was hated both of God and man, as writers testifie. The Saxons vnderstanding that the Bri|tains were not of one mind, but diuided in parta|kings, so as one was readie to deuoure an other, thought it good time for them to aduance their con|quests, and ceassed not to pursue the Britains by force and continuall warre, till they had constreined them EEBO page image 98 for refuge to withdraw into Wales. Gal. Mon. See more of this Gur|mundus in Ireland. Ranulf. Cest. And as some haue written, the Saxons meaning to make a full conquest of the land, sent ouer into Ireland, requi|ring one Gurmundus a king of the Affricans to come ouer into Britaine to helpe them against the Britains.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This Gurmundus appointing his brother Turge|sius to pursue the conquest of Ireland, came and ar|riued heere in Britaine, making such cruell warre in aid of the Saxons against the Britains, that Care|ticus was constreined to kéepe him within the citie of Chicester or Cirencester, and was there besieged, and at length by continuall assalts and skirmishes, when he had lost manie of his men, he was glad to forsake that citie, and fled into Wales. This Gur|mundus tooke Cirencester or Chichester, and destroi|ed it in most cruell maner. Some write, that he tooke this citie by a policie of warre, in binding to the féet of sparrowes which his people had caught, certeine clewes of thred or matches, finelie wrought & tem|pered with matter readie to take fixe, so that the spar|rowes being suffered to go out of hand, flue into the towne to lodge themselues within their neasts which they had made in stacks of corne, and eues of houses, so that the towne was thereby set on fire, and then the Britains issuing foorth, fought with their eni|mies, and were ouercome and discomfited.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But whilest the battell continued, Careticus stale away, and got him into Wales. After this, the fore|said Gurmundus destroied this land throughout in pitifull wise, and then deliuered it in possession to the Saxons, the which thankfullie receiued it: and be|cause they were descended of those that first came o|uer with Hengist, they changed the name of the land, and called it Hengistland, accordinglie as the same Hengist had in times past ordeined: the which name after for shortnesse of spéech was somewhat altered, and so lastlie called England, and the people En|glishmen. But rather it may be thought, that sith a great part of those people which came ouer into this land out of Germanie with the said Hengist, and o|ther capteins, were of those Englishmen which inha|bited Germanie, about the parts of Thoringhen, they called this land England, after their name, when they had first got habitation within it:Matt. VVest. and so both the land and people tooke name of them, being called Angli, a long time before they entered into this Ile (as before is shewed out of Cornelius Tacitus and others.) But now to returne where we left.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Of this Gurmundus the old English writers make no mention, nor also anie ancient authors of forren parties: and yet saith the British booke, that after he had conquered this land, and giuen it to the Saxons, he passed ouer into France, and there de|stroied much of that land, as an enimie to the faith of Christ. For which consideration he was the more rea|die to come to the aid of the Saxons, who as yet had not receiued the christian faith, but warred against the Britains, as well to destroie the faith of Christ within this land, as to establish to themselues conti|nuall habitations in the same.It should séeme that this historie of Gurmun|dus is but some fained tale except it may be that he was some Dane, Nor|wegian or Germane. There be, that omit|ting to make mention of Gurmundus, write thus of the expelling of the Britains out of this land at that time, when with their king Careticus they got them into Wales.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yéere of Grace 586,586 Matt. VVest. Careticus a louer of ciuill warre succéeded Malgo an enimie to God and to the Britains, whose inconstancie when the Eng|lish and Saxon kings perceiued, with one consent they rose against him, and after manie battels chased him from citie to citie, till at length incountering with him in a pight field, they droue him beyond Se|uerne into Wales. Héerevpon clerks and priests were driuen out of their places with bright swoords brandishing in all parts, and fire crackling in chur|ches, wherewith the same were consumed. The rem|nant of the Britains therefore withdrew into the west parts of the land, that is to say, into Cornwall, and into Wales, out of which countries they often|times brake out, and made insurrections vpon the Saxons, the which in maner aforsaid got possession of the chiefest parts of the land, leauing to the Bri|tains onlie three prouinces, that is to say, Cornwall, Southwales, and Northwales, which countries were not easie to be woone, by reason of the thicke woods inuironed with déepe mareshes and waters, and full of high craggie rocks and mounteins.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The English and Saxon kings hauing thus remoo|ued the Britains, inlarged the bounds of their domi|nions. There reigned in that season within this land, beside the Britaine kings, eight kings of the En|glish and Saxon nations, as Ethelbert in Kent, Cis|sa in Sussex, Ceauline in Westsex, Creda or Crida in Mercia, Erkenwine in Essex, Titila in Estan|gle, Elle in Deira, and Alfrid in Bernicia. In this sort the Britains lost the possession of the more part of their ancient seats, and the faith of Christ thereby was greatlie decaied: for the churches were destroi|ed; and the archbishops of Caerleon Arwiske, Lon|don and Yorke withdrew togither with their clear|gie into the mounteins and woods within Wales, taking with them the reliks of saints, doubting the same should be destroied by the enimies, and them|selues put to death if they should abide in their old habitations. Manie also fled into Britaine Armo|rike with a great fléete of ships, so that the whole church or congregation (as ye may call it) of the two prouinces, Loegria and Northumberland, was left desolate in that season, to the great hinderance and decaie of the christian religion. Careticus was dri|uen into Wales (as before is rehearsed) about the second or third yéere of his reigne, and there continu|ed with his Britains, the which ceassed not to inda|mage the Saxons from time to time as occasion still serued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But here is to be noted, that the Britains being thus remoued into Wales and Cornwall, were go|uerned afterwards by thrée kings, or rather tyrants, the which ceased not with ciuill warre to seeke others destruction,Wil. Mol [...]. till finallie (as saith the British booke) they became all subiect vnto Cadwallo, whome Be|da nameth Cedwallo. In the meane time, Ceauli|nus or Cheuling king of the Westsaxons, through his owne misgouernance and tyrannie, which to|wards his latter daies he practised, did procure not onelie the Britains, but also his owne subiects to conspire his death, so that ioining in battell with his aduersaries at Wodensdic, in the 33 yeare of his reigne, his armie was discomfited, and he himselfe constreined to depart into exile, and shortlie after ended his life before he could find meanes to be re|stored.

¶So that we haue here a mirror or liuelie view of a tyrant and a king, wherein there is no lesse ods in the manner of their gouernement, than there is re|pugnance in their names, or difference in their states. For he seeth but little into the knowledge of toongs, that vnderstandeth not what the office of a king should be, by the composition of his name, the same sounding in Gréeke [...], which being resolued is in effect [...], that is, the founda|tion or stay of the people; from which qualitie when he resulteth, he maketh shipwracke of that goodlie ti|tle, and degenerateth into a tyrant, than the which violent and inforced gouernement as there is none more perillous, so is it of all other the least in conti|nuance: this is prooued by historicall obseruation through the course of this historie.