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Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then on the tuesdaie following this sermon, there came to the Guildhall in London the duke of Buc|kingham, accompanied with diuerse lords and knights mo than happilie knew the message that they brought. And there in the east end of the hall, where the maior kéepeth the Hustings, the maior and all the aldermen being assembled about him, all the commons of the citie gathered before them. After silence commanded vpon great paine in the protec|tors name: the duke stood vp, and (as he was neither vnlearned, and of nature maruelouslie well spoken) he said vnto the people with a cleare and lowd voice in this maner of wise.

17.1. The duke of Buckinghams oration to the assemblie of the maior, aldermen, and commoners.

The duke of Buckinghams oration to the assemblie of the maior, aldermen, and commoners.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _FRiends, for the zeale and heartie fauour that we beare you, we be comen to breake vnto you of a matter right great and weigh|tie, and no lesse weightie than pleasing to God, and profitable to all the realme: nor to no part of the realme more profitable, than to you the citizens of this noble citie. For whie, that thing that we wote well ye haue long time lacked, and sore longed for, that yee would haue giuen great good for, that yee would haue gone farre to fetch; that thing we be come hither to bring you without your labour, paine, cost, aduen|ture or ieopardie. What thing is thatA notable persua [...]n. Certes the suertie of your owne bodies, the quiet of your wiues and your daugh|ters, the safegard of your goods: of all which things in times past ye stood euer|more in doubt. For who was there of you all, that would reckon himselfe lord of his own goods among so manie grens & traps as was set therefore, among so much pil|ling and polling, among so manie taxes and tallages, of which there was neuer end, & oftentimes no need? Or if anie were, it rather grew of riot, and vnreasonable wast, than anie necessarie or honourable charge.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 So that there was dailie pilled fro good men and honest, great substance of goods, to be lashed out among vnthrifts; so far forth, that fifteenes sufficed not, nor anie vsuall names of knowne taxes: but vnder an ea|sie name of beneuolence and good will, the commissioners so much of euerie man tooke as no man could with his good will haue giuen. As though that name of beneuo|lence had signified, that euerie man should paie, not what himselfe of his owne good will list to grant, but what the king of his good will list to take. Which neuer asked little, but euerie thing was hawsed aboue the measure, amercements turned into fines, fines into ransoms, small trespasses into misprison, misprison into treason. Whereof (I thinke) no man looketh that we should remember you of examples by name, as though Burdet were forgotten,Burdet that was for a word spoken in hast cruellie beheaded, by the misconstruing of the laws of this realme, for the princes pleasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 With no lesse honour to Markam then cheefe iustice,Markam that left [the benefit & digni|tie] of his office, rather than he would as|sent to the dishonestie of those, that either for feare or flatterie gaue that iudgement. What Cooke,Cooke. your owne worshipfull neighbour, alderman and maior of this no|ble citie, who is of you so either negligent that he knoweth not, or so forgetfull that he remembreth not, or so hard hearted that he pittieth not that worshipfull mans losse? What speake we of losse? His vtter spoile and vndeserued destruction, onelie for that it hapned those to fauour him whome the prince fauoured not. We need not (I suppose) to rehearse of these anie mo by name, sith there be (I doubt not) manie heere present, that either in themselues or in their nigh friends haue knowne, as well their goods as their persons greatlie in|dangered, either by feigned quarels, or small matters aggreeued with heinous names. And also there was no crime so great, of which there could lacke a pre|text.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For sith the king, preuenting the time of this inheritance, atteined the crowne by battell: it sufficed in a rich man for a pre|text of treason, to haue beene of kinred or a|liance, neer familiaritie, or legier acquain|tance with anie of those that were at anie EEBO page image 729 time the kings enimies, which was at one time and other more than halfe the relme. Thus were neither your goods in suertie, and yet they brought your bodies in ieo|pardie, beside the common aduenture of o|pen warre,Open warre not so ill as [...]. which albeit that it is euer the will and occasion of much mischeefe, yet is it neuer so mischeeuous, as where any peo|ple fall at distance among themselues, nor in none earthlie nation so deadlie and so pestilent, as when it hapneth among vs; and among vs neuer so long continued dis|sention, nor so manie batels in that season, nor so cruell and so deadlie fought, as was in that kings daies that dead is, God for|giue it his soule.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In whose time, and by whose occasion, what about the getting of the garland, keeping it, leesing and winning againe, it hath cost more English bloud, than hath twise the winning of France. In which inward war among our selues,Ciuill warre the occasion of manie great inconuenien|ces. hath beene so great effusion of the ancient noble bloud of this realme, that scarselie the halfe re|maineth, to the great infeebling of this no|ble land, beside manie a good towne ransac|ked and spoiled by them, that haue beene going to the field or comming from thence. And peace long after not much surer than war. So that no time was therein, which rich men for their monie, and great men for their lands, or some other for some feare, or some displeasure were not out of perill. For whom trusted he that mistrusted his owne brother? Whome spared he that killed his owne brother? Or who could per|fectlie loue him, if his owne brother could not?

Compare 1577 edition: 1 What maner of folke he most fauoured we shall for his honour spare to speake of. Howbeit this wote you well all, that who so was best, bare alwaie least rule; & more sute was in his daies to Shores wife, a vile and an abhominable strumpet,Shores wife more sued vn|to than all the lords in Eng|land. than to all the lords in England: except vnto those that made hir their proctor. Which simple woman was well named & honest, till the king for his wanton lust and sinfull affection bereft hir from hir husband, a right honest substantiall yoong man among you. And in that point, which in good faith I am sorie to speake of, sauing that it is in vaine to keepe in counsell that thing that all men know, the kings greedie appetite was insatiable, and euerie where ouer all the realme intollerable.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For no woman was there anie where, yoong or old, rich or poore, whome he set his eie vpon, in whome he anie thing liked, ei|ther person or fauour, speech, pase, or coun|tenance, but without anie feare of God, or respect of his honour, murmur or grudge of the world, he would importunelie pursue his appetite, and haue hir, to the great de|struction of manie a good woman, and great dolor to their husbands, and their other freends; which being honest people of them selues, so much regard the cleannesse of their house, the chastitie of their wiues, and their children, that them were leauer to leese all that they had beside, than to haue such a villanie doone them. And all were it that with this and other importa|ble dealing, the realme was in euerie part annoied:He directeth his spéech to ye communal|tie of the citie. yet speciallie yee heere the citi|zens of this noble citie, as well for that a|mongest you is most plentie of all such things as minister matter to such iniuries as for that you were neerest at hand, sith that neere heere abouts was commonlie his most abiding.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And yet be yee the people, whome he had as singular cause well and kindlie to in|treat, as anie part of his realme; not one|lie for that the prince (by this noble citie,London the kings especi|all chamber. as his speciall chamber, & the speciall well renowmed citie of this realme) much ho|nourable fame receiueth among all other nations: but also for that yee (not without your great cost, & sundrie perils & ieopar|dies in all his warres) bare euen your spe|ciall fauor to his part. Which your kind minds borne to the house of Yorke, sith he hath nothing worthilie acquited, there is of that house that now by Gods grace bet|ter shall: which thing to shew you is the whole summe and effect of this our present errand. It shall not (I wot well) need that I rehearse you againe, that yee haue al|readie heard of him that can better tell it, and of whome I am sure yee will better be|leeue it. And reason is that it so be.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I am not so proud, to looke therefore that yee should reckon my words of as great au|thoritie as the preachers of the word of God, namlie a man so cunning and so wise, that no man better woteth what he should saie, and thereto so good and vertuous,Doct. Shaw commended by the duke of Buckinghã. that he would not saie the thing which he wist he should not saie, in the pulpit namelie, into the which no honest man commeth to lie. Which honorable preacher, yee well re|member, substantiallie declared vnto you at Paules crosse, on sundaie last passed, the right & title that the most excellent prince Richard duke of Glocester, now protector of this realme, hath vnto the crowne and kingdome of the same. For as the worship|full man groundlie made open vnto you, the children of king Edward the fourth were neuer lawfullie begotten, forsomuch as the king (leauing his verie wife dame Elizabeth Lucie) was neuer lawfullie ma|ried vnto the queene their mother,A slanderous lie confirmed. whose bloud, sauing that he set his voluptuous pleasure before his honor, was full vnmeet|lie to be matched with his; and the ming|ling of whose blouds togither, hath beene the effusion of a great part of the noble bloud of this realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherby it may well seeme the mariage not well made, of which there is so much mischeefe growne. For lacke of which law|full coupling, & also of other things which the said worshipfull doctor rather signified than fullie explaned, & which things shall not be spoken for me, as the thing wherein euerie man forbereth to say that he know|eth EEBO page image 730 in auoiding displeasure of my noble lord protector, bearing (as nature requireth) a filiall reuerence to the duchesse his mother. For these causes (I say) before remembred, that is to wit, for lacke of other issue law|fullie of the late noble prince Richard duke of Yorke, to whose roiall bloud the crowne of England and of France is by the high authoritie of parlement intailed, the right and title of the same is by the iust course of inheritance (according to the cõmon lawes of the land) deuolued & commen vnto the most excellent prince the lord protector,The title of K. Richard to the crowne. as to the verie lawfullie begotten sonne of the foreremembred noble duke of Yorke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Which thing well considered, and the great knightlie prowesse pondered, with manifold vertues, which in his noble per|son singularlie abound; the nobles and commons also of this realme, and speciallie of the north part, not willing anie bastard bloud to haue the rule of the land, nor the abusions before in the same vsed anie lon|ger to continue, haue condescended and ful|lie determined, to make humble petition to the most puissant prince the lord protector, that it maie like his grace (at our humble request) to take vpon him the guiding and gouernance of this realme, to the wealth and increase of the same, according to his verie right and iust title.The dignitie and office of a king full of care & studie. Which thing I wote it well, he will be loth to take vpon him, as he whose wisdome well perceiueth the labor and studie both of mind and bodie, that come therewith, to whomsoeuer so will occupie the roome, as I dare say hee will, if he take it. Which roome I warne you well is no childs office. And that the great wise man well perceiued, when hee said: Vae regno cuius rex puer est: Wo is that realme that hath a child to their king.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherefore so much the more cause haue we to thanke God, that this noble perso|nage, which is so rightlie intituled thervn|to, is of so sad age, & thereto so great wise|dome ioined with so great experience, which albeit hee will bee loth (as I haue said) to take it vpon him, yet shall he to our petition in that behalfe more gratiouslie incline, if ye the worshipfull citizens of this the cheefe citie of this realme, ioine with vs the nobles in our said request. Which for your owne weale (we doubt not) but ye will: and nathelesse I heartilie pray you so to doo, whereby you shall doo great profit to all this realme beside, in choosing them so good a king, and vnto your selues speciall commoditie, to whom his maiestie shall e|uer after beare so much the more tender fauor, in how much he shall perceiue you the more prone and beneuolentlie minded toward his election. Wherin deere friends what mind you haue, wee require you plainlie to shew vs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 When the duke had said, and looked that the people, whome he hoped that the maior had framed before, should after this proposition made, haue cried; King Richard, king Richard: all was husht and mute, and not one word answered therevnto. Wherewith the duke was maruellouslie abashed, and taking the maior neerer to him, with other that were about him priuie to that matter, said vnto them softlie. What meaneth this, that the people be so still? Sir (quoth the maior) percase they perceiue you not well. That shall we mend (quoth he) if that will helpe. And by & by somewhat lowder he rehersed to them the same mat|ter againe in other order, and other words, so well and ornatlie, and nathelesse so euidentlie and plaine, with voice, gesture, and countenance so comelie, and so conuenient, that euerie man much maruelled that heard him, and thought that they neuer had in their liues heard so euill a tale so well told [insomuch that he séemed as cunning an orator, as he, of whome the poet spake to his high praise & cõmendation, saieng:

Quaelibet eloquio causa fit apta suo.]

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