The Holinshed Project

Holinshed Project Home

The Texts

Previous | Next

1.1. Of the nature of the ſoyle, and other incidentes. Chap. 2.

Of the nature of the ſoyle, and other incidentes. Chap. 2.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THe ſoyle is lowe and watriſh, encludeth diuers little Iſlandes, enuironned wyth lakes and marriſh. Higheſt hilles haue ſtan|dyng pooles in theyr tops. Inhabitantes eſpe|cially new come, are ſubiect to diſtillations, reumes and flires. For remedy wherof, they vſe an ordinary drinke of Aqua vitae, Aqua vitae. ſo qual|lified in the makyng, that it dryeth more, and enflameth leſſe then other whote confections. One Theoricus wrote a proper treatiſe of A|qua vitae, Theoric. E|piſc. Her|menenſis in Roma|nula iuxta Bononiam. wherein he prayſeth it to the ninth degrée. He deſtmguiſheth thrée ſortes therof, Simplex, compoſita, and Perfectiſſima. He de|clareth the ſimples and ingrediences thereto belongyng. He wiſheth it to be taken as well before meate as after. It dryeth vp the brea|kyng out of handes,The com|modities of Aqua vitae. and killeth the fleſhe wormes, if you waſh your handes therewith. It ſkoureth all ſkurſe and ſkaldes from the head, beyng therewith daily waſhte before meales. Beyng moderately taken, ſayth he, it ſloeth age, it ſtrengtheneth youth, it helpeth digeſtion, it cutteth fleume, it abandoneth melancholy, it reliſheth the hart, it lighteneth the mynd, it quickeneth the ſpirites, it cureth the hydropſie, it healeth the ſtrangury, it poũ|ceth the ſtone, it expelleth grauell, it puffeth away all Ventoſitie, it kepeth and preferueth the hed from whirlyng, the eyes from daze|lyng, the tongue from liſpyng, the mouth frõ mafflyng, the téeth frõ chatteryng, the throte from ratling, the weaſan from ſtieflyng, the ſtomacke from wambling, the harte from ſwellyng, the belly from wirtchyng, the guts from rumblyng, the handes from ſhiuering, the ſmowes from ſhrinkyng, the veynes frõ crumpling, the bones from akyng, the mar|raw from ſoakyng.Vlſt. in coe|lo philoſ. vel de ſe|cret. nat. cap. 11. Vlſtadius alſo aſcribeth thereto a ſinguler prayſe, and would haue it to burne beyng kindled, which he taketh to be a token to know the goodneſſe therof. And truly it is a ſoueraigne liquour, if it be order|ly taken.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ayre is very holeſome, not generally ſo cleare and ſubtill as that of Englande. The weather is more temperate, beyng not ſo warme in Sommer, nor colde in winter, as it is in Englande and Flaunders. The coun|trye is ſtoared with Bées, contrarye to the opinion of ſome wryters, who both in this & other errours, touching this countrye, maye eaſily be excuſed, as thoſe that wrote by here|ſay. No Vineyards, yet Grapes growe there as in Englande. They lacke the Roe buck, as Polichronicon writeth.Poli. lib. 2. cap. 32. They lack ye Bird cal|led the Pye. Howbeit in the Engliſhe pale to thys daye, they vſe to tearme a ſlye coſener, a wyly Pye. wily pye. Camb. par. 1. diſt. 3. Cambrienſe in his time cõplai|neth, that Irelande had exceſſe of woode, and very little champayne grounde, but now the Engliſh pale is to naked. Turfe is their moſt fewell and ſeacoale.No vene|mous worme in Ireland. No venemous créeping beaſte is brought forth, or nouriſhed, or can liue in Irelande, being brought or ſent. And therfore the ſpyder of Ireland is wel known not to be venemous, onely becauſe a frogge was found lying in the medowes of Water|forde ſomewhat before the conqueſt they con|ſtrued it, to importe their ouerthrowe.Camb. part 1. diſt. 1.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Bede wryteth that ſerpentes conueighed to Irelande did preſently die,Bed. lib. 1. Angl. Hiſt. cap. 1. beyng touched with the ſmell of the lande, that whatſoeuer came from Irelande was then of ſouereigne vertue againſt poyſõ. He exemplifieth in cer|tayne men, ſtung of Adders, who dranke in water, the ſcrapings of bookes, that had béene of Irelande, and were cured. Generally it is obſerued, the farther weſt, the leſſe annoiance of peſtilent creatures. The want whereof is to Irelande ſo peculiar, that whereas it laye long in queſtion, to whether realme Bry|tayne or Irelande the Ile of man ſhould ap|pertayne,The con|trouerſie of the Iſl [...] of man de|cided. the ſayd controuerſie was decyded: that forſomuch as venemous beaſtes were knowen to bréede therein, it coulde not be a naturall part of Ireland. And contrarywiſe the Orchades are adiudged to be appendaunt to Irelande, becauſe thoſe Iſlandes,

Orcades appendaunt to Irelãd. Hector Bo|eth. in Scot. reg. deſcrip [...] pag. 9. Sect. 50.

Camb. to|po. lib. 1. diſt. 1. rub. 29.

neyther bréede nor foſter any venemous worme, as Hector Boethus aduoucheth. Giraldus Cam|brienſe, writeth that he hearde certayne Mer|chaunts affirme, that when they had vnladen theyr ſhippes in Irelande, they founde by hap ſome toades, vnder theyr balaſt. And they had no ſooner caſt them on the ſhore, then they would puffe and ſwell vnmeaſurably, & ſhort|ly after turning vp theyr bellyes, they would burſt in ſunder. And not onely the earth & duſt of Irelande, but alſo the verye thonges of I|riſhe leather, haue the ſame force and vertue.Cam. ibid. rub. 30.31. I haue ſene it, ſaith Cambriẽſe, experimẽted, EEBO page image 5 that a toade being encompaſſed with a thong of Iriſhe leather,Iriſh lea|ther expel|leth vene|mous wormes. and créepyng thitherward, endeuouring to haue ſkipt ouer it, ſodenly re|culed backe, as though it had bene rapte in the hed: wherupon it began to ſpraule to the other ſide. But at length perceiuyng that the thong did embay it of all partes, it began to thyrle, and as it were to dig the earth, where findyng an hole, it ſluncke away in the pre|ſence of ſondry perſons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 It happened alſo in my tyme, ſayeth Giral|dus Cambrienſe, Cambri. in eodem lo|co. that in the North of Englãd a knot of yoongkers tooke a nap in the fieldes. As one of them lay ſnorting with his mouth gaping, as though he would haue caught flies, it happened that a Snake or Adder ſlipt into his mouth, and glyded downe into his bellye, where herboring it ſelfe, it be ganne to roame vp and downe and to feede on the young man his entralles. The pacient being ſore diſtrac|ted and aboue meaſure tormented wyth the byting pangues of this gréedie gueſt, ineeſ|ſantly prayed to God, that if it ſtoode wyth his gracious will, eyther wholly to berieue him of his lyfe, or elſe of his vnſpeakeable mercie to eaſe him of his payne. The worme woulde neuer ceaſe from gnawing the pa|cient his carkaſſe, but when he had taken his repaſt. And his meare was no ſooner digeſted, then it woulde giue a freſhe onſet in boaring his guttes. Diuers remedies were ſought, as medicines, pilgrimages to Sainctes: but all could not preuayle. Being at length ſchw|led by the graue aduiſe of ſome ſage and ex|pert father, that willed him to make his ſpée|die repayre to Ireland, would tract no time, but buſked himſelfe ouerſea, and arriued in Irelande. He dyd not ſooner drinke of the wa|ter of that Iſlande, and taken of the victuals of Ireland, but forthwith he kilde the Snake, auoyded it downewarde, and ſo being luſtye and liuely he returned into Englande. Thus farre Giraldus Cambrienſe. There be ſome, that mooue queſtion,whether venemous wormes wer expel|led Irelãd through ye prayers of [...]. Patrike. whither the want of ve|nemous Woormes be to be imputed to the propertie of the ſoyle, or to be aſcribed to the prayers of S. Patricke, who couerted that Iſlande. The greater parte father it on S. Patricke, eſpecially ſuch as wryte hys lyfe aſwell a parte, as in the legende of Iriſhe Sainctes. Giraldus Cambrienſe diſaffirmeth flatly that opinion, and taketh it to be a ſecret or hidden propertie naturally vnited to the ſoyle,Policht. lib. 1. cap. 32. from whome Polichronicon doth not ſwarne. For my part as I am wedded to nei|ther of both the opinions, ſo I woulde haue béene eaſily perſwaded being neyther hote nor colde in the matter, to reſt as a luke|warme Neuter in omitting the one and the other vnſkande, were it not that one M. Alan Cope, as ſome other that maſketh vnder hys viſours, more ſclaunderouſly then pithily had buſied himſelfe therin. Wherfore ſith I may with better warrant defende my natiue coũ|trey, then he or his betters may reprooue it, eſpecially, where his ſclaunderous reportes are vnderpropt wyth flimme flamme ſur|miſes: I purpoſe vnder M. Cope his correc|tion to coape and buckle with hym herein, and before he beare the ball to the goaſe, to trippe him, if I may, in the way. And becauſe (gentle Reader) I minde to make thée an in|different vmpyre in this controuerſie, for the better vnderſtanding of the matter, I will laye downe M. Cope his wordes, in ſuch wiſe as they are imprinted in his booke. Firſt ther|fore thou muſt vnderſtande, that his booke is made in dialogue wiſe, a kinde of writing as vſed, ſo commended of the learned. In theſe dialogues Ireneus an Engliſh man and Cri|tobulus a Germaine play the partes. Ireneus entreth into the ſtage; and in this wyſe be|ginneth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Incipiã à S. Paulo [...] noſti in Melita (quam ho|die Maltam appellant) Paulum viperam à ma|nu pendentem in ignem excuſſiſſe. Alan. Co|pus dialog. 3. acd. 28. In ea inſu|la Scorpiones, qui alibi ſunt letales, Pauli, vt creditur, munere ſunt innoxij.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Critobulus. Fortaſſe hoc habet a natura.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Iren. Falleris: nam infulani, vt Lucas refert, clamabant, delatum eo patricidã, cui cum mare peperciſſet, irati dij ſerpentes, qui cum collerẽt, immiſiſſent: nec quicquam magis quàm prae|ſentem eius mortem expectabant. A qua cùm ille tantum abeſſet, vt nihil omninò damni aut doloris inde ſentiret, in admirationem acti, di|xerunt, eum longe ſupra hominem eſſe, & de|um ſub humana ſpecte.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Crit. Sle eſt, vt dicis.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Iren. Caetera ita audi: E ſpecu, ad quem di|uertiſſe dicitur, colliguntur lapides in tota fer|me Europa ſalutates. Adhaec, quos naſci octauo Calendas Februarij contingit (qui dies conuer|ſionis elus memoriae dicatus eſt) quaecun cos orbis pars in lucem proferat, non horrent nec formidant angues, imò quod magis eſt, ſola ſa|liua horum morſibus medentur. Id quod ho|mo doctiſſimus & diligentiſſimus Thomas Fazellus nuper prodidit, vſu ipſo rerum,Thomas Fazellus. & certis, ni fallor, exemplis ab eo obſeruatum.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Crit. Iſta quidem digna ſunt obſeruatione: & iam recordor, melegiſſe ac ſaepius audiſſe, pre|cibus beati Patricij Hiberniae apoſtoli, ei regio|ni ſimile beneficium indultum, ne ea inſula ali|quid letale pariat. Dici fortaſsè inde à nonnul|lis ſolet, nihil eſſe in Hibernia venenati prae|ter ipſos homines, quod propter feros & agre|ſtes corum mores dictum a plaeriſ accipitur.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 578 Iren. Eam regionem nihil peſtiferum aut ve|nenatum alere,B [...]d. lib. 1. Ang. hiſt. c. 1. tum ex multorum ſermonibus, cum ex Beda intelligo: adeò vt terra illius re|gionis exportata, peſtifera ac venenata ani|malia extinguat. V [...]rùm id quicquid eſt, non Patricio, ſed naturae regionis tribuo, propterea quòd longè ante Patricium natum cõſtet,Sententia definitiua. Solin. c. 35. eam fuiſſe eius regionis dotem, quam non eſt diffi|cilè alibi reperiri.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

I will begin ſayth Ireneus, with S. Paule. You know that in Melita (which at this day is called Malta) S. Paule flung into the fire a Viper that ſtucke or did cleaue to his hand. In that Iſlande, Scorpions which are elſe|where deadly or venemous, are become tho|row the gift of S. Paule (as it is ſuppoſed) harmeleſſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

Tuſh, quoth Critobulus, that may be percaſe incident to the nature of the ſoyle.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

Nay then, replyeth Ireneus, you are in a wrong bore. For the Iſlanders, as S. Luke mencioneth, ſhowted, that a parentquellour was brought thither, and becauſe he was not ſwalowed in the gulfes of the ſea, the Gods beyng in their fuſtian fumes, ſent ſerpentes to ſlay hym. And they looked for nothyng ſoo|ner, then to ſée hym euen at a twincklyng to periſh. But whẽ they perceyued hym to be ſo far diſtant frõ death, as that he ſuſteyned no harme, ne felt any paine, the people therwith amazed, ſayd, he far ſurpaſt mans eſtate, and that he was a God inueſted in mã hys ſhape.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

You haue reaſon, anſwereth Critobulus, you haue hit the nayle on the hed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2

Yea, but I pray you, clip not my tale, ſayth Ireneus, but take me with you. Stones are culled in the caue or denne, wherin S. Paul is ſayd to haue bayted or ſoiorned, which ſtones in maner in all Europe are ſoueraigne me|dicines to cure the bitynges and ſtinges of Scorpions and ſerpentes. Furthermore they that are borne the xxv. of Ianuary (which day is named the conuerſion of S. Paul) in what part ſo euer of the world they are borne, they feare not or grudge not at ſnakes: Yea, that which is more to be admyred, the ſtinginges of poyſoned wormes are healed by the very ſpittle of this Ianuary broode. Which thyng hath bene of late publiſhed by a well lettered man, Thomas Fazellus, to haue bene curiouſ|ly noted of hym as well by proofe and experi|ence, as by ſure and ſubſtantiall examples, if I take not the matter amiſſe. Thẽ commeth in Critobulus, whom M. Cope maketh, I will not ſay the vice or hickſcorner, but the plea|ſaunt conceited gentleman of hys enterlude, and fetcheth a long leape (for I am ſure he could not iumpe ſo farre) from Malta to Ire|land, and frameth hys tale in this ſort.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

By the fayth of my body ſir, here is ſtuffe woorth the noting. And now I call to mynde, that I haue red and often heard, that the like benefite hath bene imparted to Ireland, tho|rough the prayers of S. Patrike the Apoſtle of the ſayd Iſland, that is to ſay, that Ireland bréedeth no venemous worme. And therupon percaſe ſome are accuſtomed to ſay, ye there is no poyſoned or venemous thing in Irelãd, but onely the people, which is taken to haue bene ſayd of moſt men for their brutiſhe and ſauage maners.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

To this ſayth Ireneus. I am done to vnder|ſtand by the report of diuers, & alſo by Bede, that no poyſoned or venemous thing is bred in that realme, in ſo much, that the earth of ye countrey being brought into other realms, killeth all venemous and poyſoned wormes. But let the matter fall out which way it wil.
I aſcribe that propertie not to S. Patricke,Iudge|ment. but to the nature of the ſoyle, becauſe it hath bene knowen long before S. Patricke was borne, that Irelande was indued with that property, which is elſewhere eaſy to be foũd. Hitherto M. Cope.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 In thys diſcourſe (gentle Reader) thou ſéeſt that M. Cope handleth two principall points, the proprety of Malta and the nature of Ire|lande in deſtroying venemous woormes, the one he aſcribeth to ye bleſſed Apoſtle ſ. Paule, the other he will not in any wyſe impute to S. Patricke. Touching the firſt, as I haue no occaſion to entermeddle therin, ſo I pur|poſe not, for the quarell I haue to the perſon, to diſprooue hys opinion ſo farre as it ſtan|deth with troth. Wherefore that God, that of his bountifull goodneſſe gaue the grace to Moſes, to turne Aaron his rod into a ſerpẽt, Exod. c. 7. verſ. 10. to turne the riuer into bloude, and to worke diuers other effectes that are mencioned in the ſcripture. To Ioſu. c. 10, verſ. 13. Ioſue, to ſtay the ſonne, To 3. Reg. 17 verſ. 22. & Eccleſ. 48. verſ. 50. Elias to raiſe ye dead childe, to Act. 3. verſ. 7. Peter to make the lame go, to heale Act. [...]. verſ. 34. Aeneas, to re|uiue Act. 9. verſ. 40. Tabytha, yea with his very Act. 5. verſ. 13. ſhadow to cure the ſicke, & the God that gaue to that Paule, of whome M. Cope ſpeaketh, his gra|cious gift to make the Act. 14. verſ. 10. lame go, to Act. 20. verſ. 10. [...] 11. quickẽ and rayſe the deceaſed, and for his ſake to Act. 27. verſ. 23. Act. 9. verſ. 43. Act. 28. verſ. 9. ſalue his fellow paſſangers: it is not to be denyed, but that God woulde imparte his goodneſſe to any region, euen the ſooner that any of his bleſſed ſeruauntes woulde herbo|rowe there. And as I doubt not, but Simon the Tanner his houſe was nothing ye woorſe, for lodging ſo happie a gueſt as Peter, ſo I am ſure, Malta was far the better, for her|bowring ſo bleſſed a traueyler or paſſenger as Paule. Which S. Luke letteth not to tell, declaring that all they, which were ſicke in EEBO page image 6 the Iſland, flocked to Paule and were cured: and alſo that the pacient that was father to Publius, in whoſe houſe they were thrée daies very courteouſly intertayned, was by Saint Paule healed. Which cure aſwell of that pa|cient, as of the reſidue of the Iſlanders, dyd not onely extende to their bodies, but chiefly and eſpecially to their ſoules, according to the opinion of the learned Diuines.A [...]gu. tract. 30. in Iohã. [...] Th. p. 3. q. 44.23. ad. 3 [...]. For as our ſauiour Ieſus Chriſt was neuer thought to cure any one his bodie, but he woulde alſo heale his ſoule, ſo it muſt be thought of his A|poſtles, in whoſe ſteppes both in lyfe and my|racles they traced. And therefore the learned holde opinion, that S. Paule, being in Malta, expelled from diuers of their ſoules the olde Serpent, that deceyued our Progenitours, Adam & Eue.Geneſ. 3. verſ. 13. For which God is to be mag|nified and glorified. Thus much I thought good here to enſert, as a clauſe not wholly ſwaruing from that we treate of, and alſo that I woulde be founde preſt and readie, as farre as my ſimple ſkill ſtretcheth, to vnder|pinne any opinion, that tendeth to the honor and glorie of God. Howbeit for ſo much as M. Cope hath ſo ſtraightly dealt with Irelãd, as wyth a countrey nothing appertayning to his matter, I truſt he will pardon me, to be ſomewhat bolde with him, touching the hyſtorie of Malta, that as his negligence ſhal be in the one diſſhrowed, ſo his ſclaunderous iudgemẽt may be in the other reuerſed. Firſt therefore where he writeth, that the inhabi|tantes of Malta clamabant, that is, cryed, or ſhowted, it was not ſo. The Gréeke text run|neth,Act. 28. verſ. 4. [...]. Dicebant adinui|cem, that is to ſay, they muttred one to ano|ther. And S. Luke paraphraſeth his meaning after. For when they perceyued, that the Vi|per dyd not anoy Paule, then ſayth S. Luke, Conuertentes ſe; dicebant, eum eſſe Deum. They turning one towardes the other, whiſ|pered or mutterd, that Paule was a God. Nowe put the caſe they cryed,S. Paule heard not the inha|bitants of Malta. as M. Cope ſayeth, is it lyke that Paule was ſo buſie in making of a fire, or that his eares dyd wan|der ſo far of, as that he could not heare them? And if he heard thẽ, thinke you that he would haue béene whiſt, in hearing God ſo far blaſ|phemed, as that he woulde ſuffer himſelfe to be deified? No truely. He woulde haue taken on, Act. 14. verſ. as he and Barnabas dyd at Lyſtris, whẽ the inhabitants named them Goddes, Bar|nabas to be Iupiter, and Paule, for that he was well ſpoken, to be Mercurie. For when the Apoſtles hearde of their Idolatrie, ren|ting their clothes, they ruſht into the thrõge, crying and ſpeaking, that they were mortall men. &c. In which place S. Luke putteth an expreſſe difference, as it were of ſet purpoſe, betwéene both the woordes, Clamantes & Di|centes. M. Cope addeth further, Delarum eo paricidam, and yet the Gréeke hath [...]. Omnino imterfector, or as the Vulgar text is, Vti homicida eſt homo hic. So that they tooke him to be but a manquello [...]r, yet M. Cope maketh hym a Paricide, which is woorſe. For although euerye Paricide be a manquellour, yet è conuerſo, euery manquel|lour is not a Paricide.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

M. Cope procéedeth further, Irati dij, ſerpẽ|tes, qui eum tollerent im [...]iſiſſent. The Gods being angry ſent ſerpents to diſpatch Paule.
And yet forſooth, all theſe ſerpentes were but one Viper, as is plainely expreſ [...] in the text, vnleſſe M. Cope would teache S. Luke, to tell his tale after the fineſt faſhiõ, leaſt the Apo|ſtle ſhould haue bene thought to haue [...]toned.A Parſon his ſermõ. As the Parſon that preached to his Parochi|ans of the Goſpell, wherin mention is made of them that Chriſt fed in the deſert, or wil|derneſſe. O, quoth the Parſon, what a Chriſt that was, that with fiue barly loaues, & fiue fiſhes fed fiue hundred perſons. The clareke hearing his maiſter to grate ouerlõg on that point, for he dyd often iterate that ſentence, ſtole vp to the pulpit, & plucking the perſon by his gowne, whiſpered in his eare ye Chriſt fed fiue thouſand. Holde thée contented thou fooliſhe fellow, qouth the Parſon, if I ſhoulde tell mine hearers of ſo great a nũber, I ſhold but diſcredite the Goſpeller, and they woulde not beléeue me. So it fadeth with M. Cope, be|like he miſtruſted, that if he had ſayde, that one Viper coulde haue ſlayne Paule, the rea|der woulde haue ſuſpected the vntruth of the matter, bycauſe it caryeth great likelyhoode with it, that one man coulde withſtande one Viper, and therefore to ſaue S. Luke hys credite, he increaſeth the number by putting the plurall for the ſingular. Whereas there|fore it ſtandeth with M. Cope his pleaſure, M. Cop his rhetoricke. to floriſh in his rhetoricall figure, named, Veri|tatis ſuperlatio, in terming muttering, ſhow|ting, a manquellour, a paricide, one Viper, ſerpentes: he muſt be borne withall, if in the heate of his figure he ſteppe a little awrie in the remnaunt of his diſcourſe. For thus he ſayeth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2

And therevppon it is reported perchaſe by ſome men, that there is nothing venemous or poyſoned in Irelande, but the men and wo|men. Which is taken to haue bene ſpoken by moſt men for their brutiſh and ſaluadge ma|ners.
Here (good Reader) thou muſt vnder|ſtande that M. Cope putteth the text downe & the gloſe, the text is, there is nothing in Ire|lande venemous but the inhabitauntes. The EEBO page image 579 gloſe is, this is ſayde to haue bene ſpoken for their brutiſh and ſauage conditiõs. Now well harpt by S. Lanckfield. Here is a gloſe, I vndertake you, ſuteable to the text. But let vs ſée, how cunningly M. Cope bequiteth him ſelfe. Firſt he obſerueth not decorũ perſonae, ſecondly he followeth not decorum dialogi, thirdlye he ſheweth herein little diuinitie. Touching the firſt point, who knoweth not, that theſe iapes and gybes are onely fitte for ruffians, vices, ſwaſhbucklers and to ſpottes. And truly they beſet a diuine aſwel, as for an Aſſe to twange chypaſſa on a harpe or gyt|tarne, or for an Ape to friſcke trenchemoore in a payre of buſkins and a dubblet. The hea|then miſliked in an orature ſquirilitie,Cic. lib. 2. de Orat. what ſhoulde be thought then of a diuine, whom S. Paule would haue to be ſober, modeſt, graue and wiſe.1. Timot. 3. verſ. & 3. Vnleſſe M. Cope leaning to the let|ter of S. Paule his wordes woulde beare vs in hande, that S. Paule would haue modeſtie to reſt onely in byſhops. We are commaun|ded, in the olde and newe teſtament, to loue our neighbors as our ſelues. Which doth im|ply, that we ought not to ſclaunder our neigh|bours. And ſhall a diuine then ſpeake vncha|ritably, not onely of one, but of an whole roy|alme, and not only ſpeake but alſo write, yea and that in the language that is vniuerſally ſpoken, through out the greater part of the worlde, vpon no ſure ground, but onely vpon heareſay weighing not what ye Prophet wri|teth, Pſal. 5. verſ. 7. Sapient. 1. Vide Au|guſt. in eũ|dem Pſal. perdes omnes qui loquuntur mendaciũ, thou ſhalt deſtroye all them that ſpeake vn|truthes. And were it that any ſuch flimme ſlamme flirtes were ſoothed by any perſonne of credite, yet, as me ſéemeth, it would ſtand more with the grauitie of a diuine, that ſuch childiſhe quippes, & ſcornefull tauntes ſhould ſooner by his meanes charitably bée whiſted, thẽ through his procuremẽt carpingly publi|ſhed.Math. 5. verſ. 22. I will ſtand no longer on this point, but onelye craue M. Cope to reſort to the fift of Mathew, and there peruſe Chriſt his verdict, touching ſclaunderous tongues. To come to the ſeconde parte, in which he obſerueth not decorum dialogi, thou ſhalt vnderſtand (good Reader) that Critabulus, or Critobulus, whom M. Cope maketh his bagpipe to belche out his rancour, is a Germaine borne, as M. Cope ſaith, who ſemeth to be Critobulus his godfa|ther. Now let any one, that is acquainted wt the maners of Germaines, iudge, if it be de|cent, that one of thẽ ſhoulde ſcoffe & ſcorne the conditions and faſhions of other countries. I wil not ſpeake by heare ſay, as M. Cope doth, but by eyeſight. I coul neuer eſpye nor pro|bably haue I hearde it reported no not of the méere ſauage Iriſh, ſuch quaffing, ſuch ſwil|ing, ſuch bowling, ſuch gulling, ſuch brutiſh or drunckenneſſe, ſuch ſurfeyting, ſuch vomi|ting as I haue ſéene ſome Germaines doe. In good ſooth it is knowen, and for my part I haue ſéene it being beyonde the ſeas,The Ger|maine his friendſhip. that in their carowſing & cup friendſhip, they threa|ten ſuch kindneſſe on their companions, that leaſt their felowes ſhould miſtruſt them with double dealing, they will not ſticke to ſhewe them the botome of their ſtomackes, & to the ende they ſhould take the better view therof, they will place it now & then in their neigh|bours boſome.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Thus whẽ they haue caſt their gorges, they clap on theyr thrumde hats, and runne lyke bedlem barretors into the ſtréetes with their naked flatchets, and there they kéepe ſuch a ſtinkyng ſturre with hackyng of ſtones, with hewyng of blockes, with thwitting of ſtocks, with ſtrikyng of ſtalles, with thumpyng at dores, that it would make a horſe breake hys halter, to ſée ſo dronken a pageant. In fiue, this qualitie is ſo naturally engraſſed in the greater part of them, that a famous deuine did not ſticke of late to ſay openly in his Lec|ture that dronkennes in that countrey men, was eyther peccatum originale, or accidens inſeparabile. I write not this, I take God to record, to the reproch or ſlaunder of that coũ|trey (beyng lothe to commit the ſelfe ſame fault that I reprehend in any other,) but on|ly my meanyng is to ſettle before the Rea|der his eyes the abſurditie of M. Cope, in fra|myng poore Critabolus to flout Ireland, con|ſideryng that if he caſt his eye homeward, he ſhall finde as filthy puddle in his owne coun|trey, as in other realmes. And therfore thys quippe ſate as vnſéemely in his mouth, as for an whoore to reprehend bitchery, or for an V|ſurer to condemne Simonie. For as there is nothyng leſſe to be tollerated, thẽ for any one to haue an other to accompt for his lyfe, that can yéelde no accompt of his owne: ſo there is nothyng that ought to moozell vp any one from rebuking other nations, then to ſée the miſdemeanor of hys owne natiue country. I would wiſhe M. Critabolus or M. Cope, if it ſhall pleaſe him to make vp the muſter, with indifferency to weigh the eſtate of Ireland, and ſo without parciality to frame his iudge|ment. Ireland,Irelande how it may be refor|med. and eſpecially the ruder part is not ſtored with ſuch learned men as Ger|many is. If they had ſounde preachers, & ſin|cere liuers, that by the embawming of theyr carian ſoules with the ſwéete and ſacred flo|wers of holy writ, would enſtruct them in the feare of God, in obeying their prince, in ob|ſeruyng the lawes, in vnderproppyng in eche man his vocation te weale publike. I doubt EEBO page image 7 not, but within two or three ages M. Critabulus his heyres should heare so good a reporte run of all the reformatio(n) of Ireland, as it would be reckoned as ciuill as the best part of Germany. Let the soyle be as fertile and betle as any would wish, yet if the husband man wyll not manure it, some tyme plough and eare it, sometyme harow it, sometime tyll it, somtyme marle it, sometyme delue it, sometyme dig it, and sowe it with good and sound corne, it will bryng forth weedes, bynde corne, cockle, darnell, brambles, bryers, and sondry wylde shootes. So it fareth with the rude inhabitantes of Irelande, they lacke Vniuersities, they want instructors, they are destitute of teachers, they are without preachers, they are deuoyde of all such necessaries as appertayne to the training vp of youth, and not|withſtandyng all theſe wantes, if any would be ſo frowardly ſet, as to require them, to vſe ſuch ciuilitie, as other regions, that are suffi|ciently furniſhed with the lyke helpes, he might be accounted as vnreaſonable, as he that would force a cripple that lacketh both his legs to runne, or one to pipe or whiſtle a galliard that wanteth hys vpper lippe. But ſuch is the corrupt nature of vs worldlings, and me thinketh ſuch vayne humors are not vtterly dryed vp in our ſage & mortyfied di|uines, we are moſt commonly giuen rather to taunt that which is amiſſe, then to prayſe that which is good, and rather we followe the ſpider in ſoakyng the poyſon, then in im [...]a|tyng the Bée by ſucking the hony. Now that it appeareth, that it was not ſittyng for the author beyng a deuine, to write ſo vncharita|bly, nor for M. Critabulus beyng a Germain, to carpe other countreys ſo ſnappiſhly: let vs ſée, what wholeſome diuinity hath bene here vttered, and how well the ſinewes of M. Cri|tabulus his argument ſhall be found to hang togither, when the Anatomy therof by péece|meable ſhall be examined.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

I call to mynd,  M. Critabulus, that I haue read & often heard that the like benefite hath bene graũted to Irelãd through the prayers of ſ. Patrike.
M. Critabulus hath read & heard, that by the prayers of S. Patricke, Ireland hath no venemous worme: ergo ſome holde opinion, that the poyſon reſteth onely in the people.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Truly this argument hangeth togyther by very straunge gymbols. And I dare say, M Cope neuer learned this kynde of reasonyng in the famous colledge of Magdalene in Oxford, what so euer M. Critabulus did in Germany. But let vs put the Logique apart, and scan the singular poynt of diuinitie. I woulde gladly learne at what part of Scripture, or in what auncient father M. Critabulus reade or heard (for most of hys learning hath bene, as it seemeth, purchased by heresay) that any holy prelate, that came of meere charity, to conuert a countrey from night to light, fro(m) rudeness to knowledge, from infidelitie to Christianitie, from vice to vertue, from the deuill to God, (which doth implye an especiall zeale in sauluying their soules) woulde purge the soyle of all venemous wormes, and leaue the soules, that haue more neede to be weeded, wholy enfected with the contagion of vice & sinne. Wherby ensueth that the place is better then the Inhabitaunts, and so consequently the saying of the Machabees must be falsified. Non propter locum gentem, Machab. [...] c. 5. verſ. 19 sed propter gentem, locum Deus elegit. God did not choose the people for that place, but hee elected the place in respect of the people. Luc. 8. verſ. 32. Our sauiour Iesus Christ dispossessing the pacient of the legion of deuils, permitted them to enter into an hierd of hogges. Critabulus woulde haue Christes saintes do the co(n)trary, to dispossesse the hogs, and to leaue the men possessed with deuils. For so he reporteth s.Patrike to haue done, by riddyng the lande of all poysoned wormes, and leauyng the rancour to lurke in the people. Truly if the matter stoode so farre out of ioynt, I doubt not, but the Islanders mought haue come as lawfully to hym, as the Gerasones came ingratefully to Christ, Luc. 2. verſ. 37. requiring hym to depart their country. For such a scoffing prelate, hys rowme had bene better the(n) his company, sith his abode would tende rather to the peruerting, then the conuertyng, of their Island

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Hitherto thou haſt heard (gentle Reader) how gallauntly Critabulus hath played hys parte, now ſhall I deſire thée to viewe, how ſagely Ireneus claſpeth vp all the whole con|trouerſie. He ſaith it is the nature of the ſolle, not to bréede any venemous worme, and that was incident thereto, before ſ. Patrike was borne. How prooue you that ſir. Pleaſeth you to ſkew your eye towardes the margent, and there ſhall you finde the 35. chapiter of Soli|nus ſolemnly quoted. Touchyng this matter, there is nothyng in Solinus but this. [...]lic. au [...]|guis nullus, a [...]ſ [...] rara. In Ireland is no ſnake, and ſeldome a byrde, and yet byrdes are as commonly there as in any other countrey. But I would gladly vnderſtand how this au|thoritie of Solinus furthereth M. Ireneus hys opinion. Ireland bred no ſnake before ſ. Pa|trick was borne: ergo, it engẽdered no [...]oade, no Adder, no Frogge, nor any other viruſent worme. As if a man would reaſon thus. Be|fore ſ. Patricke his tyme there was no horſe|myll in Ireland: ergo, before his tyme there EEBO page image 580 was no myllhorſe. Certers h [...]th [...] woulde winde vp his concluſion ſo fondly might be thought, to haue aſmuch witte, as a roſſed horſe. This autoritie of Solinus is ſo farre from vpholding Ireneus his aſſertion, as that it plainely ſeemeth to quite ouerthrow it, and as it were in his owne turne, it giuenth him a fail.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 For the cauſe why S. Patricke was mo|ued, to expell all the venemous: woormes out of Irelande, might probably haue béene con|iectured, to haue proceeded of this, yt he per|cry [...]ing, the lande to bréede no Suakes, ther|of was occaſioned, for the furthering of Chri|ſtian fayth, to expell other hinde of warmes, that lurcked there before his comming, as Toades, Adders, Blindwoormes, Frogs, &c. Here perchaſe M. Cope may blenche me,Obiection. in replying that Anguis may be confirmed ge|nerally for all kynde of Vermine, and ſo I might be taken tardie in buylding my diſ|courſe vpon a miſconſtruction.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Aunſwer.In good ſooth to omitte what ſtraunge and abſurde ſignification Anguis ſhould beare, by notifiyng a poyſoned ſpider and ſuch lyke, and, in mine opinion, further from the the pur|poſe, thẽ the father that diſwading his ſonne from playing on Sunday fortified his reaſon with the olde ſayde ſaw, non eſt bonuin [...]|dere cum ſanctis, it is not good, quoth hei, to play on Sondayes or holy dayes, is it, thinke you, fellonie or treaſon, to bring the credit of Solinus in queſtion, for miſtaking Anguis aſ|well as Auis. For as he was groſly deceyued in the one, in writing, that birdes were rare in Ireland, ſo might he haue ſtrayed as like|ly in the other, by diſburdening Irelande of all venemous woormes, bycauſe the Iſlande wanted in his time but one or two kindes, as a Snake and a Toade. Where a man buyl|deth vpon euerye twatling and pratling ru|mour, and his eye is not his iudge, he may be ſure,Rumour catcheth fethers. that ſuch flying tales will catche many feathers before they come at him, that is as farre diſtaunt from their neſtes, as Solinus was frõ Ireland, when he wrote his pamph|let. The proofe whereof as it is dayly tryed, ſo not many yeres paſt hath ben very pretily veryfied. There was a gentleman of mine acquaintance that mette his enemie in the fieldes, where they both vpon a tryſling qua|rell fought ſo friendly as they had more neede to haue béene grapled togither with cables, then parted by indifferent ſticklers. Howbe|it bycauſe the gentleman was neuer before fleſht, and yet nothing at al that day, for eche of their blowes dyd commonly light on the medowe, where they fought, a friende of hys reported well of him to an other, ſaying, that he was lyke in [...]me to pro [...] a proper [...] of hys handes, for the well handeling of hys weapon in his late combate. Wherevppon ſoone after the other doubling the gentleman his prayſe, gaue notice to another, that ſuch a gentleman, naming him, fought valiauntly ſuch a day, in ſuch a place. Immediately vpon this is a ſhyre [...]e two of it w [...] noyſed that the partie prayſed, fought with two at once: in ſuch a place, naming the medowe. [...] length it was bruted, that he fought ſolice ſe|uerall daies, and I am well, aſſured that wake the firſt fray that euer he made, & I thinked it will be the laſt, vnleſſe he be forced mangre him heart, to the contrarie. Not long lafter, it happened that a gentlman and I traueyled abroade the countrey of ſet purpoſe to diſport our ſelues, and ſo to returne a freſhe to our brokes, where entering in communication with a blunt countrey lobbe (yet ſuch an one an tooke his halfe peny to be good ſyluer) that knew the foreſaid champion. My companion and I made wyſe, as though we were not ac|quainted wyth him, or euer heard of the com|bate, now in good fayth gentlemen, quoth he you would d [...]e very well to enter in acquain|taunce with him, for ouer this,A friendly commen|dation. that he is a gentleman aboundantly endued wyth ſingu|lar good qualities, he is become of late ſo va|liant a cuttex, as he maketh blading his day|lye breakfaſt. By S. Mary, quoth my com|panion that is very colde roſte, & if his break|faſtes be no better then a péece of colde Iron, A little weigh, howe ſeldome I take a repaſt in his companie at any ſuch ordinarie. Nay my meaning is, quoth the other, that he vſeth to fight freſhe and faſting euery morning, in ſo much yt of late, I dare byde by it, he fought eyght dayes in one weeke. At which wordes I for my part coulde not refrayne frõ laugh|ing, ſéeing how demurely the fellow kept his countenanunce, & how that he ſpake bona fide. Wherevpon I ſhaped him an aunſwere, and ſayde, that I neuer hearde of any that fought eyght dayes in one weake, but onely in olde tyme, when fiue quarters made vp the yeare. The fellow perceyuing, that he ouerſhot him|ſelfe, replyed: Sir, you take me very ſhorte, as long and as very a lowbie as you imagine to make me: my meaning is, that he fought eyght ſeuerall tymes in one wéeke. Eyght tymes? quoth my companion, then belike he fought once aboue commons. For you tolde vs right now, that he made his fray his mor|ning breakefaſt, and whereas there are but ſeuen dayes in the wéeke, and he fought, as you reporte, eygth times; and you know, that eyght maketh one aboue ſeuen, & ſeuen ma|keth ſixe & one vnder eight, eyther you muſt EEBO page image 8 confeſſe that he fought out his breakfaſt, din|ner, beuer or ſupper, or elſe you muſt graunt, that there be eyght dayes in one weake, or at the leaſt two droakefaſtes in one day, & that, I am ſure, you will confeſſe to be as great an obſurdity, as ye other. Nay, quoth the clowne, and you intrap me with ſuch ſopheſtrie, you ſhall dine, ſupp [...] and breake your faſt alone for me, and there withall departed. Wherby may be gathered, that if he had béene ſoothed vp, and his tongue let to run at libertie vn|controulde, like a howſe that runneth in a ſmooth allye without any [...], he would haue brougth him [...] to that day, as he would not ſticke to ſay, that his friende had fought eight dayes in one h [...]. Wherefore as this pud|ding his pricke grewe at [...]nga [...] by reporte to an huge poſte, ſo the want of one venemous woorms in Ireland, being bruced in for rame royalanes, might haue béene ſo thwytted and mangled in the caryage before it came to Solinus his eares, as he might haue béene enformed, that the countrey was deouyde of all venemous Woormes, where as in deéde there lacke [...] but one kinde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Lyke as God of his iuſtice puniſheth a coũ|trey, that is harde hearted, with [...]atwarde woormes, ſo of his mercie, the yare remoued from a royalme, that is plya [...], to followe his lawes and preceptes. As when Pharao woulde not liſſen to God his threates be [...]oũ|ced hym by the preaching of God, Moſes and Aaron,Exod. 8. verſ. 7. [...] & 24. Vide Apoc. 9, verſ. 3. at a [...]eg. 8. verſ. 37. Egypt was puniſhed with froggles & diuers kinde of flyes, as is expreſt at full in holy writte, and agayne vpõ Pharao his ſey|ned promiſes (the ſecretes of whoſe hollowe heart God perfectly knewe) at the inſtraunce of Moſes, theſe plagues were appeaſed, & the vermine quite extinguiſhed, ſo, I pray you, is it ſo abſurde a poſition to helde, that Saint Patricke finding the Iriſh prieſt to embrace the Goſpell, as he dyd in very déede, might ſtande ſo higly in God his fauor, as through hir earneſt peticion made to God, the poyſo|ned woormes ſhoulde be abandoned? This is not ſo rare a thing vppon the implanting of Chriſtian fayth in any region, but rather a propertie incidẽt thereto, according to Chriſt his promiſe.Gregor. homel. 29. in euang. Marc. 16. verſ. 17. Signa autem eos, qui crediderint, haec ſequentur, In nomine meo daemonia eij|cient: linguis loquentur nouis: Serpentes tol|lent: & ſi mortiferum quid biberint, non eis nocebit: ſuper aegros manus imponẽt, & bene habebunt. And theſe token ſhal follow them the beléeue, In my Name ſhall they caſt out Deuils, they ſhall ſpeake with new tongues: they ſhall dryue awaye Serpentes, and if they drinke any deadly thing, if ſhal not hurt them: they ſhall lay handes on the ſicke, and they ſhall be cured. Wherefore, ſith it is ſo euidẽtly warranted by Scripture, that in the name of Ieſus, Serpentes may be driuen away, if Irelande be found through any ſuch meanes to be deuoyde of poyſoned woormes, we are aſcribe the glory hereof to God, ac|cording to the ſaying of the Prophete, A do|minio factum eſt iſtud, Pſal. 117. verſ. 22. & eſt mirabile in oculis noſtris, That hath béene done by God, and it ſéemeth woonderfull in our eyes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus farre (gentle Reader) enchroching vpon thy pacience I haue employed my tra|uaile in defending my natiue countrey, a|gainſt ſuch as labour to diſtayne it with their ſclaunderous ſcoffes. Touching the prici|pall queſtion, whether S. Patricke dyd expell poyſoned Woormes out of Irelande, or whe|ther it be the nature of the ſoyle, as I ſayd in the entrie of this diſcourſe, ſo I ſaye agayne, that I weigh not two chippes, which way the winde bloweth, bycauſe I ſée no incõuenience that may inſue either of the affirmatiue or negatiue opinion. And therefore if M. Cope had dealt as modeſtly as Cambrienſe, the auc|tour of Polichronicon, or others, that ſtoode to the denyall, haue done, he ſhoulde haue gone [...]trée with his complices, and haue made in Mounterbanckwyſe the moſt he coulde of his wares. But for that he woulde néedes ſée further in a milſtone, then others, & not onely ſolenberly diſprooue the tryniall opinion, but ſcornefullye ſclaunder an whole royalme, wherein he ſhall finde his ſuperiours in ho|nour, his betters in parentage, his Péeres in learning, his mates in wiſedom, his equalles in courteſie, his matches in honeſtie: I muſt craue him, to beare it paciently, if, by crying him quittaunce, I ſerued him with a diſhe of his owne cookerie. And if for this my ſtraight dealing wyth him (whereto I was the ſooner led, for that as it is courteſie to mollifie wilde ſpeaches with milde aunſweres, ſo I recken it for good pollicie nowe and then to cleane knurd knobbles with crabbled wedges) he wil ſéeme to take pepper in the noſe, for any re|compence he is like to haue at mine handes, he may wype his noſe in his ſléeue. And if it ſhall ſtande with his pleaſure, to reply either in Engliſhe, or in Latine (the occaſiõ of which is rather of him growen then by me giuen) he ſhall finde me willing, if God ſpare me health, to reioyne with him in ſo good a qua|rell, eyther in the one language or the other, and when both tales are hearde, I beſhrowe him, for any part, that ſhall be driuen to the wall.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cambrienſe reporteth of hys owne know|ledge,The Ber|nacie. and I heare it auowed by credible per|ſons, that Bernacles thouſandes at once are EEBO page image 581 noted along the ſhores in Ireland to hang by the beakes, about the edges of putrified tym|ber, as ſhips, oares, maſtes, anckerholdes, & ſuche lyke, which in proceſſe takyng liuely heate of the ſunne, become waterfoules, and at their tyme of ripeneſſe eyther fall into the ſea, or flye abroad into the ayre The ſame do neuer couple in ye act of generatiõ, but are frõ time to tyme multiplied, as before is expreſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Sabel. part. 3. Ene. 10. lib. 5. Camb. lib. topog. diſt. 1. rub. 15. Thom. p. 3. q. 31. ar. 4. corp. Aeneas Syluius writeth hymſelfe to haue purſued the like experiment in Scotlande, where he learned the truth hereof to be found in the Iſlandes Orchades. Giraldus Cambri|enſe gathereth hereof a pretye concluſion a|gainſt the Iewes in this wyſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Reſpice infoelix Iudaee, reſpice, vel ſerò, pri|mam

hominis generationem ex limo ſine mare & foemina: Secundamque ex mare ſine foemina, ob legis venerationem, diffiteri non audes: Tertiam ſolam ex mare ſcilicet & foe|mina, quia vſualis eſt, dura ceruice approbas & affirmas. Quartam veró, in quâ ſola ſalus eſt ex foemina ſcilicet ſine mare obſtinata malitia in propriam perniciem deteſtaris. Erubeſce mi|ſer, erubeſce, & ſaltem ad naturam recurte, qua [...] ad argumenta fidei, ad inſtructionem noſtram noua quotidie animalia ſine omni mare vel foemina procreat & producit. Prima ergo ge|neratio ex limo, & haec vltima ex ligno, Ill [...] quidem quoniam à domino naturae tantum ſemel, ideo ſemper obſtupenda proceſſit. Iſtam verò non minus admirabilem, minus tamen ad|mirandam (quia ſaepe fit) imitatrix natura ad|miniſtrat. Sic enim compoſita eſt humana na|tura, vt nihil, preter inuſitatum & rarò contin|gens vel precioſum ducat vel admirandũ. Solis ortum & occaſum, quo nihil in mundo pul|chrius, nihil ſtupore dignius, quia quotidie vi|demus, ſine omni admiratione praeterimus. E|clipſin verò ſolis, quia rarius accidit, totus or|bis obſtupeſcit. Ad idem etiam facere videtur, flatu ſolo, & occulta quadam inſpiratione citra omnem mixturam apum ex fauo procreatio.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

Marke thou wretched Iew, ſayth Cambri|enſe, marke yet at length, the firſt creation of man (that is of Adam) of earth without male or female. As for the ſeconde, of a man with|out a woman (that is to ſaye Eue) for that thou haſt the olde law in reuerence, thou da|reſt not deny. As for the third, both of man and woman, becauſe it is daily vſed as ſtiffe|neckt as thou art, thou doeſt acknowledge and confeſſe. But the fourth procreation, in which conſiſteth our onely iuſtification (he meaneth the incarnation of Chriſt) of a wo|man without man, with ſturdy and obſtinate rancor to thine vtter deſtruction thou doeſt deteſt. Bluſh therfore thou vnhappy Iew, be aſhamed of this thy folly, and at the leſt wyſe haue recourſe to nature, and ſettle hir works before thine eyes, that for the encreaſe of fayth, & to the leſſonyng of vs, daily breedeth and engendreth new liuing creatures, with|out ye coupling of maſcle of female. Adã was created of earth, the Bernacles are engende|red of wood, becauſe Adam was once created by him, who is Lord of nature, therfore it is continually admired. But for that dame na|ture the counterfaytreſſe of yt celeſtial work|man, eſtſoones bréedeth Bernacles, therefore theyr broode is accompted more maruellous, then to be marueiled, more wonderfull then woondered. For ſuch is the f [...]myng of man his nature, as he déemeth nothing precious or woonderfull, but ſuch thinges as ſeldome happen. What may be thought more beauti|full then the courſe of the ſunne? And yet be|cauſe we ſée it daily riſe and ſet, we let it o|uerſlip vs, as an vſuall cuſtome, without any ſtaring or gazyng. Yet we are amazed and a|ſtonied at the Eclipſe, becauſe it happeneth very ſeldome.Bées how they are increaſed.
The Bées that are engendred of the hony combe onely by a puſſe or ſecrete breathing, without any coupling, ſeme to vp|hold this procreation of Bernacles, Hitherto Cambrienſe, with whome concerning the en|gendryng of Bées,

Iohan. de. 5. Gem. in lib. de exempl. & ſimili. re|rum lib. 4. c. 31.

whether ye Bernacle be fiſhe or fleſhe.

Cambri. lib. 1. topog. diſt. [...]. r [...]. 1 [...] Polichr. lib. 1. c. 32.

Iohannes de ſancto Gemi|niano accordeth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 The inhabitantes of Ireland are accuſto|med to mooue queſtion, whether Bernacles be fiſhe or fleſhe, and as yet they are not fully reſolued, but moſt vſually the religious of ſtricteſt abſtinence doe eate thẽ on fiſh dayes. Giraldus Cambriẽſe, and after him Polichro|nicon, ſuppoſe, that the Iriſhe cleargy in this poynt ſtray. For they hold of certaintie, that Bernacles are fleſhe. And if a man ſay they had eaten a collop of Adam his leg, he had ea|ten fleſh. And yet Adam was not engendred of maſcle or female, but only created of clay, as the Bernacles of wood and rotten timber. But the Iriſhe clergy did not ſo farre ſtraye in their opinion, as Cambrienſe and Polichro|nicon, in their diſproofe. For the framing of Adam and Eue was ſupernatural,

Adam and Eue onely by God created.

Auguſt ſu|per Geneſ. ad lit. lib. 9. c. 18.

only done by God, and not by the helpe of Aungels, or any other creature. For like as it ſurpaſſeth natures courſe to raiſe the dead, to lighten or enſight the blynd, ſo it ſtoode not with the vſu|all and common linage of nature, but onely with the ſupereminent power of God, to frame a man of clay, & a woman of a mans rib. But the engendring of Bernacles is na|turall, and not ſo woonderfull as Cambrienſe maketh it. And therfore the examples are not lyke. Now it ſhould ſéeme that in Cambrienſe his tyme, the Iriſhe clergy builded their rea|ſon vpõ thys plot. What ſo euer is fleſh, is na|turally EEBO page image 9 begotten or engendred of fleſh. Ber|nacles are not naturally engendred of fleſhe, but onely of tymber and woode, Bernacles therfore are not fleſh, vnleſſe you would haue them to be wooden fleſh. And if the reaſon be ſo knit, it may not be diſioincted by Cambri|enſe his example. As if a man ſhould argue thus. She that is begotten of any man, muſt be of force daughter to that mã. [...]uef. 11. [...]ſ. 29. Melcha was begotten of Aran: ergo, Melcha was Arans daughter. This argument is of all partes ſo fortified, as it ſéemeth of all ſides to be em|pregnable. Yet a buſie brayne Sophiſter ca|uilling on the terme (begottẽ) might ſay, that Eue was begotten of Adam, and yet ſhe is not Adams daughter.

[...]e [...] and [...] of no [...]nt.

[...]m. p. 1. q [...]t. 2. ad. [...].

True it is that Adam was not Eues father, no more thẽ Eue was Adames mother, neither by that engendring was there any degrée of conſanguinitie ſprõg betwene them. But becauſe, the word (begot|ten) is taken in the argument for the naturall engendring of man and woman, the inſtance giuẽ of Eue doth not diſprooue the maior. And for the better vnderſtandyng of the queſtion; it is to be noted that the philoſophers diſtin|guiſh animalia ſenſitiua,

[...]m. p. 1. [...]art. 2. [...]m

Liuing [...]ngs are [...] [...]es.

[...]om. p. 1. [...] 10.1. m [...]enna.

that is, ſẽſible liuing thinges, into two ſortes, perfect and imper|fect. The perfect are they that are engendred of ſeede, the vnperfect without ſéede. Thoſe that are naturally engendred with ſéede, can neuer be naturally engendred without ſéede. Albeit Auicenna very erroniouſly holdeth ye contrary. As for example. Becauſe man is naturally engendred of man and woman, no man may naturally be engendred without the copulation of man and womã: yet ſuper|naturally it may be. [...]eneſ. 2. [...]erſ. 7. [...]eneſ. 2. [...]erſ. 21. [...]eth. 1. [...]erſ. 30. [...]a [...]e. 1. [...]erſ. 34. As Adam was made without man and woman: Eue framed with out woman: Our Sauiour Chriſt begotten without man. And therfore the Deuill could not haue attainted hym of originall ſinne. Contrarywiſe, the vnperfect may be engen|dred without ſéede by myre, mudde, dung, ca|rien, [...]de Ariſt. [...]. Meter. [...]p. 3.6.7. rotten timber or any other thyng, and chiefly by the ſecret influence and inſtillation of the celeſtiall planets, as the ſunne and ſhots other. As if you put the heire of an horſe taile, in mire, puddle, or in a dunghill for a certaine ſpace, it will turne to a little then ſpraulyng worme, which I haue often ſeene and experi|mented. And they are termed vnperfect, not in reſpect of their own nature, in which they are perfect, but in compariſon of other ſorte of liuyng thinges. Amonge this crew muſt Bernacles be ſetled. But here ſome will ſay: let them be perfect or vnperfect. What then? I would fayne knowe, whether Cambrienſe be in an errour, or the Iriſhe cleargy. For hi|therto I ſée nothyng, but Cambrienſe his rea|ſon diſproued. And it is often ſéene that a ſound opinion may be weakened by a féeble reaſon, as we ſée many fayre garmentes marde in the makyng. It is true: And if any be deſirous, to know my mynd herein, I ſup|poſe, according to my ſimple iudgement,The Ber|nacle ney|ther fiſhe nor fleſh. vn|der the correction of both parties, that ye Ber|nacle is neither fiſhe nor fleſhe, but rather a meane betwene both. As put the caſe it were enacted by parliament, that it wer high trea|ſon, to eate fleſh on Friday, and fiſh on Son|day. Truely I think that he that cateth Ber|nacles both theſe dayes, ſhould not be within the compaſſe of the eſtatute: yet I would not wiſh my frend, to hazard it, leaſt the Berna|cle ſhould be found in law fiſhe or fleſhe, yen and perhaps fiſhe and fleſh. As when the Ly|on, king of beaſtes made proclamation, that all horned beaſtes ſhould auoyde his courte, one beaſt hauing but a bunche of fleſhe in hys forehead, departed with the reaſ [...], leaſt it had bene founde in law that his bunche were an horne. But ſome wyll peraduenture mer|uaile, that there ſhould be any liuyng thyng, that were not fiſhe nor fleſhe. But they haue no ſuch cauſe at all. Neates, fleſhe wormes, bées, butterflies, caterpillers, ſnailes, graſſe|hoppers, béetels, earewicks, reremiſe, frogs wades, addors, ſnakes, and ſuch other, are li|uyng thinges, and yet they are neither fiſhe, nor fleſh, nor yet red hering. As they that are trayned in ſcholaſticall poyntes may eaſily iudge. And ſo I thinke, that if any were ſo ſharpe ſet (the eſtatute, aboue reherſed, pre|ſuppoſed) as to eate fryed flies, butterd bées, ſtued ſnailes, either on Friday or ſonday, he could not be therefore endited of hau [...]e trea|ſon, albeit I would not be his gueſt, vnleſſe I toke his table to be furniſh [...] with more whol|ſome and ſleopus diaund.

The ſell whether it be fiſhe or fleſh.

Thom. p. 1. a 71. a

The like queſtion may be mooued of the ſell, and if it were well canuaſſed, it would be found at the leaſt wyſe a moote caſe. But thus farre of Bernacles.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Irelande is ſtored of Cowes, of excellent horſes; of hawkes, of fiſhe and of foule. They are not without woolues and grayhoundes to h [...]ue them, bigger of bone and limme then a colt. Their cowes, as alſo ye reſt of their cat|taile, and commonly what [...]e ſo euer the countrey engendr [...]th (except man) is muche leſſe in quantitie then thoſe of England, or of other realms. Shéepe few,Shéepe. and thoſe bearing courſe fléeſes, whereof they ſpin notable rug. Their ſhéepe haue ſhort & cu [...]t tailes. They ſhéere their ſhéepe twiſe yearely, & if they be left vnſhorn, they are therwith rather pained then otherwiſe. The countrey is very fruite|full both of corne and graſſe. The graſſe (for default of good huſbandry) ſuffered vncutte, EEBO page image 582 groweth ſo rancke in the north partes, that oftentymes it rotteth theyr cattell.Egle. Egles are well known to bréede in Ireland, but neither ſo big,The Iriſh hobby. nor ſo many as bookes tell. The horſes are of pace eaſie, in running wonderful ſwift in gallop both falſe and full indifferent. The nagge or the hackney is very good for trauei|ling,The Nagge. albeit others report the contrary. And if he be broken accordingly, you ſhall haue a li|tle titte, that will traueyle a whole day with|out any bayt.The chiefe horſe. Their horſes of ſeruice are cal|led chiefe horſes, being well broken, they are of an excellent courage. They reyne paſſing|ly, and champe vppon their bridles brauely, commonly they amble not, but galloppe, and run. And theſe horſes are but for ſkirmiſhes, not for traueilyng, for their ſtomackes are ſuch, as they diſdaine to be hacknied. There|of the report grew, that the Iriſh hobby wyll not hold out in traueilyng.The moon|grel hobby. You ſhall haue of the third ſort, a baſtarde or mongrell hobby, néere as tall as the horſe of ſeruice, ſtrong in traueilyng, eaſie in amblyng, and very ſwift in running. Of the horſe of ſeruice they make great ſtore, as wherin, at tymes of nede, they repoſe a great péece of ſafetie.Volat lib. 3. Geog. Aſturcones This broode Volaterane writeth to haue come from Aſtu|rea, the country of Hiſpayne, betwene Galli|cia and Portugall, wherof they were named Aſturcones, a name now properly applied to the Hiſpaniſh Genet.

Previous | Next