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Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 For the remembraunce of which riuer ſo notoriouſly faw [...]uſed, a [...] can [...]th great likely|hoode that the name ſhould be to the whole realme, generally aforebed. Sundry latin au|thors write Ireland, Inuerna; others Iuerna, Inuerna. Ioan. Ca|mertes in cap. 35. So|lini. dingus I [...]erna Claudius nameth it Iberno. The diue [...] ſ [...]e of which names grew; for that [...] their tyme the true and certayne name was not knowen, ſo that they were contented to take it, as they found it, which matters is hãd|led by Hermolaus Barbards. Hermol. Barb. c. 16. in lib. 4. Plin. caſtig. The name Iriſhe and Ireland curiouſly ſeuered.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There are ſome of the endes fort ſo quaint in ſeueryng the name Iriſh and Ireland, as that they word be named Ireland men, but in no wyſe Iriſhmen. But certes, in my fan|taſie ſuche curious diſtinctors may be very aptly reſembled to the fooliſhe butcher, that offred to haue fold his metton for xv. grotes, and yet woulde not taken crowne. Who ſo will grate vpõ ſuch nice diuerſities in reſpect yt he is aſhamed of his country, truly in mine opinion, his [...]ntry may be aſhamed of him.

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EEBO page image 9

A TREATISE CON|teining a plaine and perfect description of Ire|land, with an Introduction to the better vnderstan|ding of the histories apperteining to that Iland: compiled by Richard Stanihurst.

1.1. The names of Ireland, with the com|passe of the same, also what shires or coun|ties it conteineth, the diuision or partition of the land, and of the language of the people. The first chapter.

The names of Ireland, with the com|passe of the same, also what shires or coun|ties it conteineth, the diuision or partition of the land, and of the language of the people. The first chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe more part aswel of Cosmo|graphers, as Chrono|graphers, do with on accorde af|firme, that the nation of Ireland (the vtter|most wea|sterne Ile known) is halfe as big as Britannia. Which I take to be true, if the word Britannia so farre displaie the significati|on, that it comprise England, Wales, and Scotland. To which opinion Giraldus Cambrensis relieth, sai|eng, The length and breadth of Ireland. Girald. Cam|brens. lib. 1. topog. dist 1. rub. 2. Polych. lib. 1. cap. 32. that Britannia conteineth in length eight hun|dred miles, and two hundred in breadth. Ireland he taketh to be in length from the mounteins called Torrach (the author of Polychronicon termeth them Brendane his hilles) to saint Columbe his Iland eight daies tourneie, rating of long Irish miles for|tie miles to the daie: and in breadth from Dublin to saint Patrike his hilles and the sea of Connaght foure daies torneie, according to the foriner rate. So as by Cambrensis his surueie, who was a curious insearcher therof, Ireland is thrée hundred & twentie miles long of Irish miles, and one hundred and three score miles broad. And accounting thrée hundred and twentie Irish miles to amount to foure hundred English miles, which may well be reckoned accor|ding to their indgements that haue trauelled in the Irish territories; Ireland will be found halfe as big as Britannia: which Girald. Cambrensis anoucheth, saieng, that Ireland is as big as Wales and Scot|land. Ireland hath on the east, England, within one daies sailing; on the southeast it hath France; His|paine on the south, distant thrée daies sailing; on the west the maine ocean sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Touching the name Ibernia, historiographers The name Iberni [...] whense it procéedeth. are not yet agreed from whense it is deducted. Some write it Hibernia corruptlie, and suppose that the strangers finding it in an od end of the world, foistie and moistie, tooke it at the first for a verie cold coun|trie, and thereof named it Hibernia, as to saie, the Winterland. But this error being vpon short expe|rience reformed, it could not be that the name should haue liued long, especiallie the first impositors suru [...]|uing the triall, and able to alter the first nomination. Others bring a ghesse, that it should be named of Ir|lamale. Ireland. But because I read nothing of them in anie probable historie, I purpose not to build vpon that coniecture.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Most crediblie it is holden, that the Hispaniards (the founders of the Irish) for deuotion towards Hispaine, called then Iberia of Iberius the sonne of Iberus the Hispanish riuer. Iuball, and the rather, for that themselues had dwel|led beside the famous riuer Iberus, named the land Iberia (for so Leland and manie forren chroniclers Leland. in cyg. cant. write it) or Ibernia, adding the letter (n) for diffe|rence sake. And from Ibernia procéedeth Iberland, or Iuerland; from Iuerland, by contraction Ireland: forsomuch as in corruption of common talke we find that (u) with his vocale is easilie lost and suppres|sed; so we saie ere for euer, nere for neuer, shoole for shoouell, ore for ouer, ene for euen, dile for diuell. At the same time it was also named Scotia, in reue|rence Scotia. Scotach. Gathelus. of Scotach the wife of Gathelus, ancient cap|teine of those Iberians that flitted from Hispaine into Ireland: & the said Scotach was old grandame to Hiberus and Hermon after the Scotish chroni|cles, who in anie wise will haue their countrimen deriued from the Irish, and not from the Britons. The name Scotia is of late yeares so vsuallie taken Iohan. maior. Scot. lib. 1. ca. 9. for that part of Britaine that compriseth Scotland, that diuerse ancient Irish authors are holden to be borne in Scotland, wheras in verie déed their natiue soile is Ireland. As the famous schooleman Io|hannes Iohannes do|minus Scotus borne in Ire|land. Duns Scotus, otherwise named Doctor subti|lis, for his subtill quiddities in scholasticall contro|uersies, was an Irish man borne, and yet is taken for a Scot.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Some hold opinion that he was borne in Thash|mon, a market towne fiue miles distant from Weiseford. Others anouch, and that more trulie, that he was borne in Downe, an old ancient ciuitie in the north of Ireland, and thereof they ghesse him to be named Dunensis, and by contraction Duns, Why schoole|men are cal|led Dunses. which tearme is so triuiall and common in all schools, that whoso surpasseth others either in cauilling sophi|strie, or subtill philosophie, is forthwith nickenamed a Duns. Wherefore as Scotland is named Scotia mi|nor, EEBO page image 10 so Ireland is tearmed Scotia maior, as the head Scotia maior. Scotia minor. from [...]hense the name of Scotia minor tooke his of|spring. The Irish also were named of the foresaid Gathelus, or Gaudeilus, Gaudeili. In their Irish Gaudeili. rithmes, they tearme Ireland verie often Banno. I cannot diuine what reason should lea [...] their makers Banno. therto, vnlesse it be the riuer in the countie of Weise|ford, named the Banne, where the Britons vpon the conquest first arriued. The place otherwise is called The riuer Bann [...]. Bagganbun, according to the old ancient rithme:

At the creeke of Bagganbun,
Ireland was lost and wun. Bagganbun.
For the remembrance of which riuer so notoriouslie famosed, it carieth great likelihood, that the name should be to the whole realme generallie ascribed. Sundrie Latine authors write Ireland Inuerna, o|thers Inuerna. Ioan. Camet|te [...] in cap. 35. Solini. Iuerna, diuerse Ijerna. Claudius nameth it Iberna. The diuersitie of which names grew, for that in their time the true and certeine name was not knowne, so that they were contented to take it as they found it, which matter is handled by Hermo|laus Barbarus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 There are some of the ruder sort so quaint in seue|ring Hermol. Barb. ca. 16. in lib. 4. Plin. castig. The name I|r [...]sh and Ire|land curiously seuered. the name Irish and Ireland, as that they would be named Ireland men, but in no wise Irishmen. But certes, in my fantasie such curious distinctors may be verie aptlie resembled to the foolish butcher, that offred to haue sold his mutton for fiftéene grots, and yet would not take a crowne. Who so will grate vpon such nice diuersities, in respect that he is asha|med of his countrie; trulie (in mine opinion) his countrie maie be ashamed of him. Ireland is diui|ded into foure regions, Leinster, east: Connaght, 1. Lagenia. 2. Connatia. 3. Hultonia. 4. Momonia. 5. Media. west Méeth & cast Méeth. west: Ulster, north: Mounster, south: and into a fift plot, de falked from euerie fourth part, and yet mea|ring on each part, called thereof Media, Méeth, comprising as well east Méeth, as west Méeth: Lein|ster butteth vpon England, Ulster vpon the Scotish Islands: which face with Hebriades scattered be|tweene both the realms, wherin at this daie the Irish Hebriedes. Scot, successor of the elder Scithian, Pict, or Red|shanke dwelleth. Ech of these fiue, where-they are fra|mable to ciuilitie, & answer the writs of the princes courts, be sundred into shires or counties in this ma|ner. In Leinster lieth the counties of Dublin, Kil|dare, The shires and counties of Ireland. Weiseford or Gueisford, Catherlach, Kilken|nie, the counties of Leise & Ophalie, called the kings and quéenes counties: these two latelie so named by parlement, in the reignes of Philip and Marie, ha|uing shire townes accordant, Philips towne, and Marie bourgh. Connaght hath the countie Clare: Ulster the counties of Louth, Doune, Antrim, one moitie of the towne of Droghedagh (for the rest is in Méeth) and Carregfergus. In Mounster lie the coun|ties of Waterford, Limerike, Corke, the countie palantine of Tipperarie, Kerie, & the crosse of Tippe|rarie. Mounster was of old time diuided into cast Mounster, Ormond, west Mounster, Desmond, south Mounster, Toonmound. The occasion why Ireland was parted into these fiue principall regions grew of this. There arriued in Ireland fiue brethren, that were valiant & martiall gentlemen; to wit, Gandius, An. mun. 2533. Cambrens. lib. 1. dist. 3: [...]ub. 5. & 6. Genandius, Sagandus, otherwise named Gangan|dus, Rutheragus or Rutheranus, & Slanius. These fiue perceiuing that the countrie was not sufficient|lie peopled, were agreed (as it were) to cast lots, and to share the whole realme betwéene themselues. The foure elder brethren seuering the countrie into foure parts, and being loth to vse their yoongest brother like an outcast or stepsonne, condescended that each of them foure should of their owne portion allot to Slanius a paring or parcell of their inheritance. Which being as heartilie receiued of Slanius, as it was bountifullie granted by them, he setled himselfe therein, and of that partition it tooke the appellation of Media, Méeth. The foure parts méet at a certeine Méeth [...] it is named. stone at Méeth, néere the castell of Kilaire, as an in|different meare to seuer the foure regions.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But although Slanius in the beginning had the least parcell, yet in short space he stood so well to his tacklings, and incroched so far vpon his neighbors, that he obteined the whole monarchie of Ireland. At Méeth ap|pointed for the king his ta [...]. which time he did not suppresse in obliuion his inheri|tance of Meeth; but did inlarge it, and decreed it should be a countrie appendant to the monarch his diet or table. And albett the confines thereof were by Slanius stretched, yet it conteineth not so much land as anie of the other foure parts comprehendeth; but rather by indifferent surueie, the halfe deale, where of also it is not vnlikelie named Méeth. For whereas in the time of Slanius, each of the foure parts compriseth two and thirtie cantreds, Meeth conteineth but sixteene cantreds. A cantred is named Cantred. so much land as conteineth an hundred towneships. This Slanius is intoomed at an hill in Méeth, which of him is named Slane. There hath béene in anci|ent Slane. time one Galfride Geneuile, lord of the libertie of Meeth. This noble man became a frier preacher, Galfride Geneui [...]. and decesed in the yeare of our Lord 1314, the twen|tith of October, and was intoomed in the abbeie of the Blacke friers at Trim.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There is also another diuision of Ireland, into the The Eng|lish pale. English pale, and Irishrie. For when Ireland was subdued by the English, diuerse of the conquerors planted themselues néere to Dublin, and the con|fines thereto adioining, and so as it were inclosing and impaling themselues within certeine lists and territories, they feazed awaie the Irish; insomuch as that countrie became méere English, and there|of it was termed the English pale: which in ancient time stretched from Dundalke to Catherlagh or Kilkennie. But now what for the slacknesse of mar|chours, and incroching of the Irish enimie, the scope of the English pale is greatlie impaired, & is cram|perned and coucht into an od corner of the countrie named Fingall, with a parcell of the king his land, Méeth, the countries of Kildare and Louth, which parts are applied chieflie with good husbandrie, and taken for the richest and ciuilest soiles in Ireland. But Fingall especiallie from time to time hath bin Finguls ex|celleth in husbandrie. so addicted to all the points of husbandrie, as that they are nickenamed by their neighbours, for their continuall drudgerie, Collonnes, of the Latine word Collonnes of Fingall. Clowne. Coloni, wherevnto the clipt English word clowne seemeth to be answerable.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The word Fingall counternaileth in English Fingall, why so named. the race or sept of the English or estrangers, for that they were solie seized of that part of the Iland, gri|ping with their talants so firmelie that warme nest, that from the conquest to this daie the Irish ensmie could neuer rouse them from thense. The inhabi|tants of the English pale haue béene in old time so much addicted to their ciuilitie, and so farre seques [...]e|red from barbarous sauagenesse, as their onelie mo|ther toong was English. And trulie, so long as these The ci [...] of Ireland in ancient time. impaled dwellers did sunder themselues as well in land as in language from the Irish: rudenesse was daie by daie in the countrie supplanted, ciuilitie in|graffed, good lawes established, loialtie obserued, re|bellion suppressed, and in fine the coine of a yoong England was like to shoot in Ireland. But when their posteritie became not altogither so warie in kéeping, as their ancestors were valiant in conque|ring, the Irish language was frée dennized in the English pale: this canker tooke such déepe root, as the bodie that before was whole and sound, was by little and little festered, and in maner wholie putri|fied. And not onlie this parcell of Ireland grew to EEBO page image 11 that ciuilitie, but also Ulster and the greater part of Mounster, as by the sequele of the Irish historie shall plainlie appéere. But of all other places, Weis|ford with the territorie baied and perclosed within the riuer called the Pill, was so quite estranged weisford wholie En|glish. The Pill. from Irishrie, as if a traueller of the Irish (which was rare in those daies) had pitcht his foot within the Pill and spoken Irish, the Weisfordians would command him foorthwith to turne the other end of his toong and speake English, or els bring his trouch|man with him. But in our daies they haue so as|quainted themselues with the Irish, as they haue made a mingle mangle or gallimaufreie of both the languages, and haue in such medleie or checkerwise so crabbedlie iumbled them both togither, as com|monlie the inhabitants of the meaner sort speake neither good English nor good Irish.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There was of late daies one of the péeres of En|gland The saieng of a noble man touching the English of weisford. sent to Weisford as commissioner, to decide the controuersies of that countrie; and hearing in affable wise the rude complaints of the countrie clowns, he conceiued here & there some time a word, other whiles a sentence. The noble man being verie glad, that vpon his first comming to Ireland, he vn|derstood so manie words, told one of his familiar friends, that he stood in verie great hope to become shortlie a well spoken man in the Irish, supposing that the blunt people had pratled Irish, all the while they iangled English. Howbeit to this daie, the dregs of the old ancient Chaucer English are kept as well there as in Fingall, as they terme a spider, an attercop, a wisp, a wad, a lumpe of bread, a poc|ket, Old English in weisford and Fingall. or a pucket, a sillibucke, a copprous, a faggot, a blease, or a blaze, for the short burning of it (as I iudge) a physician, a leach, a gap, a shard, a base court or quadrangle, a bawen, or rather (as I doo suppose) a barton, the houshold or folks, meanie, sharpe, kéene, estrange, vncouth, easie, éeth or éefe, a dunghill, a mi|zen. As for the word bater, that in English purpor|teth Bater. a lane, bearing to an high waie, I take it for a méere Irish word that crept vnwares into the En|glish, through the dailie intercourse of the English and Irish inhabitants. And whereas commonlie in all countries the women speake most neatlie and pertlie, which Tullie in his third booke De oratore, spea|king in the person of Crassus séemed to haue obser|ued: yet notwithstanding in Ireland it falleth out contrarie. For the women haue in their English The pronun|tiation of the Irish women. toong an harsh & brode kind of pronuntiation, with vttering their words so péeuishlie and faintlie, as though they were halfe sicke, and readie to call for a posset. And most commonlie in words of two syl|lables they giue the last the accent: as they saie, markeat, baskeat, gossoupe, pussoat, Kobart, Ni|clase, &c: which doubtles dooth disbeautifie their En|glish aboue measure. And if they could be weaned from that corrupt custome, there is none that could dislike of their English.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here percase some snappish carper will take me at rebound, and snuffinglie snib me for debasing the Irish language: but trulie, whosoeuer shall be found so ouerthwartlie bent, he takes the matter farre a|wrie. For as my skill is verie simple therein, so I would be loth to disueile my rashnes, in giuing light verdict in anie thing to me vnknowen: but onelie my short discourse tendeth to this drift, that it is not expedient that the Irish toong should be so vniuer|sallie gagled in the English pale: because that by proofe and experience we sée, that the pale was neuer in more florishing estate than when it was wholie English, and neuer in woorsse plight than s [...]nce it hath infranchised the Irish. But some will saie, that I shew my selfe herein as friuolous as some loosing The supersti|tion of gam|sters. gamsters séeme superstitious, when they plaie them|selues drie, they gogle wish their eies hither and thi|ther, and if they can prie out anie one that giueth them the gaze, they stand lumping and lowring, fretting and fuming, for that they imagine that all their euill lucke procéeded of him: and yet if the stander by depart, the looser may be found as drie shauen as he was before. And euen so it fareth with you, because you sée all things run to ruine in the English pale, by reason of great enormities in the countrie, either openlie practised, or couertlie win|ked at; you glanse your sie on that which standeth next you, & by beating Iacke for Gill, you impute the fault to that which perhaps would little further the weale publike if it were exiled. Now trulie you shoot verie néere the marke. But if I may craue your patience till time you sée me shoot my bolt, I hope you will not denie, but that as néere the pricke as you are, and as verie an hagler as I am, yet the scantling shall be mine. First therefore take this with you, that a conquest draweth, or at the leastwise ought to draw to it thrée things, to wit, law, apparell, A conquest implieth thrée things. and language. For where the countrie is subdued, there the inhabitants ought to be ruled by the same law that the conqueror is gouerned, to weare the same fashion of attire wherwith the victor is vested, and speake the same language that the vanquisher parleth. And if anie of these thrée lacke, doubtlesse the conquest limpeth. Now whereas Ireland hath bin by lawfull conquest brought vnder the subiection of England, not onelie in king Henrie the second his reigne, but also as well before as after (as by the dis|course of the Irish historie shall euidentlie be deci|phered) and the conquest hath béene so absolute and perfect, that all Leinster, Meth, Ulster, the more part of Connagh and Mounster, all the ciuities and burroughs in Ireland haue béene wholie Englished, and with English conquerors inhabited; is it decent (thinke you) that their owne ancient natiue toong shall be shrowded in obliuion, and suffer the enimies language, as it were a tettar or ringworme, to har|bor it selfe within the iawes of English conquerors? No trulie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And now that I haue fallen vnwares into this discourse, it will not be farre amisse to stand some|what roundlie vpon this point. It is knowen, and by the historie you may in part perceiue, how braue|lie Ulster whilom florished. The English families were there implanted, the Irish either vtterlie ex|pelled or wholie subdued, the laws dulie executed, the reuenue great, and onelie English spoken. But what brought it to this present ruine and decaie? I doubt not but you gesse before I tell you. They were inuironed and compassed with euill neighbours. Neighbourhood bred acquaintance, acquaintance wasted in the Irish toong, the Irish hooked with it attire, attire haled rudenesse, rudenesse ingendered ignorance, ignorance brought contempt of lawes, the contempt of lawes bred rebellion, rebellion ra|ked thereto warres, and so consequentlie the vtter decaie and desolation of that worthie countrie. If these chinks, when first they began to chap, had beene diligentlie by the dwellers stopped; hir maiestie at this daie, to hir great charges, should not haue béene occasioned to dam vp with manie thousand pounds, yea and with the worthie carcases of valiant soul|diors, the gaps of that rebellious northerne coun|trie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now put the case that the Irish toong were as sa|cred as the Hebrue, as learned as the Gréeke, as fluent as the Latine, as amarous as the Italian, as courteous as the Spanish, as courtlike as the French; yet trulie (I know not which waie it falleth out) I sée not but it may be verie well spared in the English pale. And if reason will not lead you to EEBO page image 12 thinke it, trulie experience must force you to grant it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In old time, when the Romans were first ac|quainted with the Gréeke toong, as it is commonlie the nature of man to be delighted with newfangle wares: so he was accounted no gallant among the Romans, that could not pratle and that Gréeke. Marcus Cicero father to Tullie, being at that time Cic. lib. [...]. de [...]. stept in yeares, perceiuing his countrimen to be|come changelings, in being bilwise and polmad, and to sucke with the Gréeke the conditions of the Gre|cians, as to be in words talkatine, in behauiour light, in conditions quaint, in manners hautie, in promises vnstedfast, in othsrash, in bargains wa|uering (which were reckoned for Gréekish proper|ties in those daies) the old gentleman not so much respecting the neatnesse of the language, as the naughtie fruit it brought with it; said, that his coun|trimen the Romans resembled the bondslaues of Siria; for the more perfect they were in the Greeke, the worse they were in their manners and life. If this gentleman had béene now liuing, and had séene what alteration hath happened in Ireland, through the intercourse of languages, he would (I dare saie) breake patience, and would demand whie the Eng|lish pale is more giuen to learne the Irish, than the Irishman is willing to learne English: we must Oneile whie he would not learne Eng|lish. imbrace their language, and they detest ours. One demanded merilie whie Oneile that last was would not frame himselfe to speake English? What (quoth the other) in a rage, thinkest thou that it standeth with Oneile his honor to writh his mouth in clatte|ring English? and yet forsooth we must gag our lawes in gibbrishing Irish? But I dwell too long in so apparant a matter. As all the ciuities & towns in Ireland, with Fingall, the king his land, Meth, the countie of Kildare, Louth, Weisford, speake to this daie English (whereby the simplicitie of some is to be derided, that iudge the inhabitants of the Eng|lish pale, vpon their first repaire into England, to learne their English in three or foure daies, as though they had bought at Chester a grotes worth of English, and so packt vp the rest to be carried af|ter them to London) euen so in all other places their natiue language is Irish.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I find it solemnlie aduouched, aswell in some of the Camb. lib. 1. dist. 3. rub. 8. The founder of the Irish language. Irish pamphlets as in Girald. Camb. that Gathelus or Gaidelus, & after him Simon Brecke, deuised the Irish language out of all other toongs then extant in the world. And thereof (saith Cambrensis) it is called Gaidelach, partlie of Gaidelus the first founder, and partlie for that it is compounded of all languages. But considering the course of interchanging and blending of speeches togither, not by inuention of art, but by vse of talke, I am rather led to beléeue (séeing Ireland was inhabited within one yeare af|ter the diuision of toongs) that Bastolenus a branch of Iaphet, who first seized vpon Ireland, brought Bastolenus. thither the same kind of spéech, some of the 72 that to this familie befell at the desolation of Babell. Un|to whom succeeded the Scithians, Grecians, Egyp|tians, Spaniards, Danes, of all which the toong must Epiphan. cont. har. lib. 1. 1. tom. 1. néeds haue borowed part, but especiallie reteining the steps of Spanish then spoken in Granado, as from their mightiest ancestors. Since then to Hen|rie Fitzempresse the conqueror no such inuasion happened them, as whereby they might be driuen to infect their natiue language, vntouched in manner for the space of seuenteene hundred yeares after the arriuall of Iberius. It séemeth to borrow of the Spanish the common phrase, Commestato, that is, How doo you? or how fareth it with you? It fetcheth sundrie words from the Latine, as arget of Argen|tum, monie; salle of Sal, salt; cappoulle of Caballus, a plough horsse, or (according vnto the old English terme) a caball or caple; birreat of the old mothea|ten Latine word Birretum, a bonnet. The toong is sharpe and sententious, & offereth great occasion to quicke apophthegms and proper allusions. Where|fore their common iesters and rimers, whom they terme Bards, are said to delight passinglie these Bards. that conceiue the grace and propertie of the toong. But the true Irish indéed differeth so much from The obscuri|tie of the true Irish. that they commonlie speake, that scarse one in fiue hundred can either read, write, or vnderstand it. Therefore it is preserued among certeine of their poets and antiquaries. And in verie déed the lan|guage The difficul|tie. carrieth such difficultie with it, what for the strangenesse of the phrase, and the curious featnes of the pronuntiation, that a verie few of the coun|trie can atteine to the perfection thereof, and much lesse a forrener or stranger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A gentleman of mine acquaintance reported, that he did see a woman in Rome, which was pos|sessed with a babling spirit, that could haue chatted anie language sauing the Irish; and that it was so difficult, as the verie diuell was grauelled there|with. A gentleman that stood by answered, that he tooke the speech to be so sacred and holie, that no damned féend had the power to speake it; no more than they are able to saie (as the report goeth) the verse of saint Iohn the euangelist, Et verbum care Iohn. 1. verse 14. factum est. Naie by God his mercie man (quoth the other) I stand in doubt (I tell you) whether the a|postles in their copious mart of languages at Ieru|salem could haue spoken Irish, if they were appo|sed: whereat the companie heartilie laughed. As fluent as the Irish toong is, yet it lacketh diuerse words, and borroweth them verbatim of the Eng|lish. As there is no vulgar Irish word (vnlesse there be some od terme that lurketh in anie obscure The [...] the Irish. shrowds or other of their storehouse) for a cote, a gowne, a dublet, an hat, a drinking cup: but one|lie they vse the same words with a little inflexion. They vse also the contracted English phrase, God morrow, that is to saie, God giue you a good mor|ning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I haue apposed sundrie times the expertest men that could be had in the countrie, and all they could No Irish word for knaue. neuer find out an equiualent Irish word for knaue. The Grecians (according to Tullie his iudgement) were in the same predicament as touching the terme Ineptus: his words are these. Ego meherculè ex Lib. [...]. de orat. Ineptus. omnibus Latinis verbis, huius verbi vim vel maximam semper putaui. Quem enim nos ineptum vocamus, is mihi videtur ab hoc nomen habere ductum, quòd non sit aptus, idque in sermonis nostri consuetudine perlatè patet. Nam qui aut tempus, quo quid postulet, non videt, aut plura loquitur, aut se ostentat, aut eorum, quibuscum est, vel dignitatis vel commodi rationem non habet, aut denique in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus est, is ineptus esse dicitur. Hoc vitio cumulata est eruditissima illa Grae|corum natio. Itaque qui vim huius mali Graeci non vide|dent, ne nomen quidem ei vitio imposuerunt. Vt enim quaeras omnia, quomodo Graeci ineptum appellent, non re|peries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes I haue béene of opinion (saith Tullie) that amongest the whole crue of Latine terms the word Ineptus hath béene of greatest importance or weight. For he, whom we name Ineptus, seemeth to me to haue the etymologie or of spring of his name here hense deriued, that he is not apt; which stretch|eth far and wide in the vsuall custome of our dailie spéech or communication. For he that dooth not perceiue what is sitting or decent for euerie sea|son, or gableth more than he hath commission to doo, or that in bragging, bosting, or peacockwise set|teth himselfe foorth to the gaze, by making more of EEBO page image 13 the broth, than the flesh is worth; or he that regar|deth not the vocation and affaires of them, with whome he intermedleth: or in fine, who so is stale without grace, or ouer tedious in anie matter, he is tearmed Ineptus; which is asmuch in English, in my phantasie, as saucie, or malapert. The famous & lear|ned Gréeke nation is generallie dusked with this fault. And for that the Grecians could not spie the Saucines. enormitie thereof, they haue not so much as framed a terme thereto. For if you should ransacke the whole Gréeke language, you shall not find a word to coun|teruaile Ineptus. Thus far Tullie. Yet Budaeus would not séeme to acknowledge this barrennesse, but that the Gréeke word [...] is equipollent to Inep|tus: but that I referre to the iudgement of the lear|ned, being verie willing to find out some other Bu|daeus, that could fashion an Irish word for knaue, Budae. lib. 2. de Asse. & part. ciue. whereof this discourse of Ineptus grew. As the whole realme of Ireland is sundred into foure principall parts, as before is said, so each parcell differeth ve|rie much in the Irish toong, euerie countrie hauing his dialect or peculiar maner in speaking the lan|guage: therefore commonlie in Ireland they as|cribe a propertie to each of the foure countries in this sort. Ulster hath the right Irish phrase, but not the true pronunciation; Munster hath the true pro|nunciation, but not the phrase; Leinster is deuoid of the right phrase, and true pronunciation; Con|naght hath both the right phrase and true pronuncia|tion. There is a cholerike or disdainfull interiection vsed in the Irish language called Boagh, which is as much in English as twish. The Irish both in Irish boagh. ancient time and to this daie commonlie vse it, and therefore the English conquerors called them Irish poghes, or pogh Morrice. Which tawnting terme is at this daie verie wrongfullie ascribed to them of the English pale. The English interiection, Fough, Fough. which is vsed in lothing a ranke or strong sauour, seemeth to be sib to the other.

1.2. Of the nature of the soile, and other incidents. The second chapter.

Of the nature of the soile, and other incidents. The second chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe soile is low and wate|rish, including diuerse little Ilands, inuironed with lakes & marrish. Highest hils haue standing pooles in their tops. Inhabitants especialllie new come, are subiect to distilla|tions, rheumes and fluxes. For remedie whereof, they vse an ordinarie drinke of Aqua vitae, being so qualified in the making, that it drieth more, and also inflameth lesse than other Aqua vitae. hot confections doo. One Theoricus wrote a proper treatise of Aqua vitae, wherein he praiseth it vnto the ninth degrée. He distinguisheth thrée sorts there|of, Theoric. Episc. Hermenensis in Romanula iuxta Bononi|am. Simplex, Composita, and Perfectissima. He declareth the simples and ingrediences thereto belonging. He wisheth it to be taken as well before meat as after. It drieth vp the breaking out of hands, and killeth the flesh wormes, if you wash your hands therewith. The commo|dities of A|qua vitae. It scowreth all scurfe & scalds from the head, being therewith dailie washt before meales. Being mo|deratlie taken (saith he) it sloweth age, it strength|neth youth, it helpeth digestion, it cutteth flegme, it abandoneth melancholie, it relisheth the heart, it lighteneth the mind, it quickeneth the spirits, it cureth the hydropsie, it healeth the strangurie, it pounceth the stone, it expelleth grauell, it putteth awaie all ventositie, it kéepeth and preserueth the head from whirling, the eies from dazeling, the toong from lisping, the mouth from ma [...]ling, the teeth from chattering, and the throte from ratling: it kéepeth the weasan from stifling, the stomach from wambling, and the heart from swelling, the bellie from wirtching, the guts from rumbling, the hands from shiuering, & the sinewes from shrinking, the veines from crumpling, the bones from aking, & the marrow from soaking. Vlstadius also ascribeth Vlst. in coelo philos. vel de secret. [...]t. cap. 11. thereto a singular praise, and would haue it to burne being kindled, which he taketh to be a token to know the goodnesse thereof. And trulie it is a souereigne liquor, if it be orderlie taken.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The aire is verie holesome, not generallie so cleare and subtill as that of England. The weather is more temperat, being not so warme in summer, nor cold in winter, as it is in England and Flan|ders. The countrie is stored with bees, contrarie to the opinion of some writers, who both in this and o|ther errors, touching this countrie, may easilie be excused, as those that wrote by hearesaie. No vine|yards, yet grapes grow there as in England. They doo lacke the Robucke, as Polychronicon writeth. Poly. lib. 1. cap. 32. They also lacke the bird called the pie. Howbeit in the English pale to this day, they vse to tearme a flie cousener, a wilie pie. Giraldus Cambrensis in his Wilie pie. Camb. part. 1. dist. 3. time complaineth, that Ireland had excesse of wood, & verie little champaine ground; but now the English pale is too naked: turffe is their most fewell and No vene|mous worme in Ireland. seacole. No venemous creeping beast is brought forth, or nourished, or can liue in Ireland, being brought or sent. And therefore the spider of Ireland is well knowne not to be venemous, onelie because a frog was found lieng in the medowes of Water|ford Camb. part. 1. dist. 1. somewhat before the conquest, they construed it to import their ouerthrow.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Bede writeth, that serpents conuesed into Ire|land Bed. lib. 1. Angl. Hist. cap. 1. did presentlie die, being touched with the smell of the land, that whatsoeuer came from Ireland was then of souereigne vertue against poison. He exem|plifieth in certeine men, stung of adders, who dranke in water the scrapings of bookes that had béene of Ireland, and were cured. Generallie it is obserued, the further west, the lesse annoiance of pestilent cre|tures. The want whereof is to Ireland so peculi|ar, that whereas it laie long in question, to whether realme, Britaine or Ireland, the Ile of Man should The contro|uersie of the Ile of Man decided. apperteine: the said controuersie was decided, that for somuch as venemous beasts were knowen to bréed therein, it could not be a naturall part of Ire|land. And contrariwise, the Orchades are adiudged Orchades opp [...]ant to Irela [...] Hector Boet. in Scot. reg. descrip. pag. 9. Sect. 50. Camb. topo. lib. 1. dist. 1. rub. 29. to be appendant to Ireland, because those Ilands, neither bréed nor foster anie venemous worme, as Hector Boetius auoucheth. Giraldus Cambrensis writeth that he heard certeine merchants affirme, that when they had vnladen their ships in Ireland they found by hap some toads vnder their balast. And they had no sooner cast them on the shore, than they would puffe and swell vnmeasurablie, & shortlie after turning vp their bellies, they would burst in sunder. And not onelie the earth and dust of Ire|land, but also the verie thongs of Irish leather haue the verie same force and vertue. I haue séene it, saith Cambrensis, experimented, that a toad being Cam. ibid. rub. 30. 31. incompassed with a thong of Irish leather, and crée|ping thitherward, indeuering to haue skipt ouer it, Irish leather expelieth ve| [...]mous wormes. suddenlie reculed backe, as though it had béene rapt in the head: wherevpon it began to sprall to the o|ther side. But at length perceiuing that the thong did embaie it of all parts, it began to thirle, and as it were to dig the earth, where finding an hole, it siunke awaie in the presence of sundrie persons.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It happened also in my time, saith Giraldus Cam|brensis, Cambr. in co. dem loco. that in the north of England a knot of yong|kers tooke a nap in the fields: as one of them laie snorting with his mouth gaping, as though he would EEBO page image 14 haue caught flies, it happèned that a snake or adder slipt into his mouth, and glided downe into his bel|lie, where harboring it selfe, it began to roame vp and downe and to féed on the yoong man his entrals. The patient being sore distracted and aboue mea|sure tormented with the biting pangs of this grée|die ghest, incessantlie praied to God, that if it stood with his gratious will, either wholie to bereaue him of his life, or else of his vnspeakeable mercie to ease him of his paine. The worme would neuer ceasse from gnawing the patient his carcasse, but when he had taken his repast, and his meat was no sooner digested, than it would giue a fresh onset in boring his guts. Diuerse remedies were sought, and medi|cins, pilgrimages to saints, but all could not pre|uaile. Being at length schooled by the graue aduise of some sage and expert father, that willed him to make his spéedie repaire to Ireland, would tract no time, but busked himselfe ouer sea, and arriued in Ireland. He did no sooner drinke of the water of that Iland, and taken of the vittels of Ireland, but forthwith he kild the snake, auoided it downe|ward, and so being lustie and liuelie he returned in|to England. Thus far Giraldus Cambrensis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There be some that moue question, whether the want of venemous wormes be to be imputed to the whether ve|nemous wormes were expelied Ire|land through the praiers of saint Patrike. propertie of the soile, or to be ascribed to the praiers of saint Patrike, who conuerted that Iland. The greater part father it on saint Patrike, especiallie such as write his life aswell apart, as in the legend of Irish saints. Giraldus Cambrensis disaffirmeth flatlie that opinion, and taketh it to be a secret or hidden propertie naturallie vnited to the soile, from whom Polychronicon dooth not swarue. For my part as I am wedded to neither of both the opinions, so Polychr. lib. 1. cap. 32. I would haue béene easilie persuaded, being neither hot nor cold in the matter, to rest as a lukewarme neuter, in omitting the one and the other vnskand, were it not that one maister Alan Cope, or some o|ther that masketh vnder his visours, more slan|derouslie than pithilie had busied himselfe therein. Wherefore, sith I may with better warrant defend my natiue countrie, than he or his betters may re|prooue it, especiallie where his slanderous reports are vnderpropt with flim flam surmises: I purpose vnder maister Cope his correction to cope and buc|kle with him herein: and before he beare the ball to the goale, to trip him if I may in the way. And be|cause (gentle reader) I mind to make thée an indif|ferent vmpier in this controuersie, for the better vn|derstanding of the matter, I will laie downe mai|ster Cope his words, in such wise as they are im|printed in his booke. First therefore thou must vn|derstand, that his booke is made in dialog wise, a kind of writing as it is vsed, so commended of the learned. In these dialogs Irenaeus an English|man and Critobulus a Germane plaie the parts. Irenaeus entresh into the [...]age, and in this wise be|ginneth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Incipiam à sancto Paulo: nosti in Melita (quam hodie Alan. Copus dialog. 3. acd. 28. Maltam appellant) Paulum viperam à manu pendentem in ignem excussisse. In ea insula scorpiones, qui alibi sunt laetales, Pauli, vt creditur, munere sunt innoxij.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Critobulus. Fortasse hoc habet à natura.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Irenaeus. Falleris: nam insulant, vt Lucas refert, clama|bant, delatum eò parricidam, cui cùm mare pepercisset, trati dij serpentes, qui eum tollerent, immisissent: nec quicquam ma|gis quàm praesentem eius mortem expectabant. A qua cùm ille tantùm abesset, vt nihil omnino damni aut doloris inde sentiret, in admirationem acti, dixerunt, eum longè supra hominem esse, & deum sub humana specie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Critobulus. Sic est, vt dicis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Irenaeus. Caetera itaque audi. Especu, ad quem diuertis|se dicitur, colliguntur lapides in tota fermè Europa salutares Adhaec, quos nasci octauo calendas Februarij contingit (qui di|es conuersionis eius memoriae dicatus est) quaecunque eos orbis pars in lucem proferat, non horrent nec formidant angues, imò, quod magis est, sola saliua horum morsibus medentur. Id quod homo doctissimus & diligentissimus Thomas Fazellus nuper Thomas Fazellus. prodidit, vsu ipso rerum, & certis, ni fallor, exemplis ab eo obseruatum.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Critobulus. Ista quidem digna sunt obseruatione: & iam recordor, me legisse ac saepiùs audisse, precibus beati Patri|cij Hiberniae apostoli, ei regioni simile beneficium indultum, ne ea insula aliquid laetale pariat. Dicifortassè inde à nonnullis solet, nihil esse in Hibernia venenati praeter ipsos homines, quod propter feros & agrestes eorum mores dictum à plerisque accipitur.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Irenaeus. Eam regionem nihil pestiferum aut venenatum alere, tum ex multorum sermonibus, tum ex Beda intelligo: Bed. lib. 1. Ang. hist. c. 1. adeò vt terra illius regionis exportata, pestifera ac venenata animalia extinguat. Verùm id quicquid est, non Patricio, sed Sententia de|finitiua Solin, cap 35. naturae regionis tribuo, propterea quòd longè antè Patricium natum constet, eam fuisse eius regionis dotem, quam non est difficile alibi reperiri.

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I will begin (saith Irenaeus) with saint Paule. You know that in Melita (which at this daie is called Malta) saint Paule flung into the fire a viper that stucke or did cleaue to his hand. In that Iland scor|pions which are elsewhere deadlie or venemous, are become through the gift of saint Paule (as it is sup|posed) harmelesse.

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Tush (quoth Critobulus) that may be percase incident to the nature of the soile.

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Naie then (replieth Irenaeus) you are in a wrong box. For the Ilanders (as saint Luke mentioneth) showted, that a parentquellor was brought thither, and because he was not swallowed in the gulfes of the sea, the gods being in their fustian fumes, sent serpents to slaie him. And they looked for nothing sooner than to see him euen at a twinkling to perish. But when they perceiued him to be so farre distant from death, as that he susteined no harme, ne felt a|nie paine, the people therewith amazed, said he far surpassed mans estate, & that he was a god inuested in man his shape.

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You haue reason (answereth Critobulus) you haue hit the naile on the head.

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Yea but I praie you clip not my tale (saith Ire|naeus) but take me with you. Stones are culled in the caue or den wherein saint Paule is said to haue bai|ted or soiorned, which stones in maner in all Europe are souereigne medicines to cure the bitings and stinges of scorpions and serpents. Furthermore, they that are borne the fiue and twentith of Ianua|rie (which daie is named the conuersion of S. Paule) in what part soeuer of the world they are borne, they feare not or grudge not at snakes: yea, that which is more to be admired, the stingings of poisoned worms are healed by the verie spittle of this Ianuarie brood. Which thing hath béene of late published by a well lettered man Thomas Fazellus, to haue béene curi|ouslie noted of him, as well by proofe and experience, as by sure and substantiall examples, if I take not the matter amisse.

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Then commeth in Critobulus, whome maister Cope maketh (I will not saie the vice or hicscorner) but the plesant conceipted gentleman of this enter|lude, and fetcheth a long leape (for I am sure he could not iumpe so farre) from Malta to Ireland, and fra|meth his tale in this sort. By the faith of my bodie sir, here is stuffe woorth the noting. And now I call to mind, that I haue read and often heard, that the like benefit hath béene imparted to Ireland, through the praiers of saint Patrike the apostle of the said I|land, that is to saie, that Ireland breedeth no vene|mous worme. And therevpon percase some are ac|customed to saie, that there is no poisoned or vene|mous EEBO page image 15 thing in Ireland, but onelie the people, which is taken to haue beene said of most men for their brutish and sauage maners.

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To this (saith Irenaeus) I am doone to vnderstand by the report of diuerse, and also by Bede, that no poi|soned or venemous thing is bred in that realme: in somuch that the verie earth of that countrie being brought into other realmes, killeth all venemous and poisoned worms.
But let the matter fall out which waie it will; I ascribe that propertie not to Iudgement. saint Patrike, but to the nature of the soile, because it hath béen knowen long before saint Patrike was borne, that Ireland was indued with that propertie, which is elsewhere easie to be found. Hitherto Mai|ster Cope.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this discourse (gentle reader) thou seest that Maister Cope handleth two principall points, the propertie of Malta, and the nature of Ireland in de|stroieng venemous worms, the one he ascribeth to the blessed apostle saint Paule, the other he will not in anie wise impute to saint Patrike. Touching the first, as I haue no occasion to intermeddle there|in, so I purpose not for the quarell I haue to the person, to disprooue his opinion so farre as it standeth with truth. Wherefore that God that of his bounti|full goodnesse gaue the grace to Moses, to turne Aa|rons rod into a serpent, to turne the riuer into Exod. c 7. verse 10. bloud, and to worke diuerse other effects that are mentioned in the scripture; to Iosu. c. 10 verse 13. Iosue, to staie the sun; to 3 Reg 17 verse 22. and Eccles. 48 verse 50. Elias to raise the dead child; to Act 3 vers. 7. Peter to make the lame go; to heale Act 9. ver. 34. Eneas; to reuiue Act 9 vers 40 Ta|bitha; yea with his verie Act 5 vers. 13. shadow to cure the sicke; and the God that gaue to that Paule, of whome mai|ster Cope speaketh, his gratious gift to make the Act. 14 verse 10. lame go; to Act 20 verse 10 & 11. quicken and raise the deceased, and for his sake to Act. 27 ver [...] 23 Act. 9 vers. 43 Act. 28 verse 9. salue his fellow passengers: it is not to be denied, but that God would impart his goodnes to anie region, euen the sooner that any of his blessed seruants would harborough there. And as I doubt not but Simon the tanners house was nothing the woorse for lodging so happie a ghest as Peter: so I am sure Malta was farre the better for harboring so blessed a traueller or passenger as Paule. Which S. Luke letteth not to tell, declaring that all they which were sicke in the Iland, flocked to Paule, and were cured; and also that the patient that was father to Publius, in whose house they were thrée daies verie courteouslie interteined, was by S. Paule healed. Which cure as well of that patient, as of the residue of the Ilanders, did not onlie extend to their bodies, but chéetlie & especiallie to their soules, according to the opinion of the learned diuines. For as our saui|or Augu. tract. 30 in Iohan. Th. p 3 q. 44. u. 3 ad. 3 m. Iesus Christ was neuer thought to cure anie ones bodie, but he would also heale his soule: so it must be thought of his apostles, in whose steps both in life and miracles they traced. And therfore the learned hold opinion, that S. Paule being in Malta expelled from diuerse of their soules the old serpent that deceiued our progenitors Adam and Eue; for which God is Gen. 3 vers. 13. to be magnified and glorified. Thus much I thought good here to insert, as a clause not wholie swaruing from that we treat of, and also that I would be found prest and readie, as farre as my simple skill stretch|eth, to vnderstand anie opinion that tendeth to the honor and glorie of God.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit forsomuch as M. Cope hath so strictlie dealt with Ireland, as with a countrie nothing ap|perteining to this matter, I trust he will pardon me, to be somewhat bold with him, touching the hi|storie of Malta, that as his negligence shall be in the one disshrowed, so his slanderous iudgement maie be in the other reuersed. First therfore where he wri|teth, that the inhabitants of Malta Clamabant, that is, tried, or showted, it was not so. The Gréeke text run|neth, [...], Dicebant ad inuicem, that is Act. 28. vers. 4. to saie, They mutte [...]ed one to an other. And saint Luke paraphraseth his meaning after. For when they perceiued that the viper did not annoie Paule, then saith saint Luke, Conuertentes se, dicebant eum esse deum; They turning the one towards the other, whi|spered or muttered that Paule was a god. Now put Saint Paul [...] heard not the inhabitants of Malta. the case they cried, as M. Cope saith, is it like that Paule was so busie in making of a fire, or that his eares did wander so farre off, as that he could not heare them? And if he heard them, thinke you that he would haue béene whist, in hearing God so farre blasphemed, as that he would suffer himselfe to be de|f [...]ed? No trulie. He would haue taken on, as he and Act. 14. vers. [...] 12, 13, 14. Barnabas did at Listris, where the inhabitants named them gods, Barnabas to be Iupiter, and Paule, for that he was well spoken, to be Mercurie. For when the apostles heard of their idolatrie, ren|ting their clothes, they rusht into the throng, crieng and speaking, that they were mortall men, &c. In which place S. Luke putteth an expresse difference as it were of set purpose, betwéene both the words, Clamantes & dicentes. M. Cope addeth further, Dela|tum eò parricidam, and yet the Gréeke hath [...], Omninò interfector, or as the vulgar text is, Vtique homicida est homo hic. So that they tooke him to be but a manquellor, yet M. Cope maketh him a parricide, which is woorse. For although euerie parricide be a manquellor, yet E conuerso, euerie manquellor is not a parricide.

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M. Cope procéedeth further, Irati dij, serpentes, qui cum tollerent, immisissent: The gods being angrie sent serpents to dispatch Paule.
And yet forsooth, all these serpents were but one viper, as is plainelie exprest in the text, vnlesse M. Cope would teach saint Luke to tell his tale after the finest fashion, least the apo|stle should haue béene thought to haue [...]itoned. As A parson his sermon. the parson that preached to his parishoners of the go|spell, wherein mention is made of them that Christ fed in the desert, or wildernesse. O (quoth the parson) what a Christ was that, that with fiue barlie loaues, and fiue fishes fed fiue hundred persons. The clerke hearing his master to grate ouerlong on that point, for he did often iterate that sentence, stole vp to the pulpit, and plucking the parson by his gowne, whi|spered in his eare that Christ fed fiue thousand. Hold thee contented thou foolish fellow (quoth the parson) if I should tell mine hearers of so great a number, I should but discredit the gospeller, and they would not beléeue me. So it fareth with M. Cope. Belike he mistrusted, that if he had said, that one viper could haue slaine Paule, the reader would haue suspected the vntruth of the matter: bicause it carrieth great likelihood with it, that one man could withstand one viper: and therefore to saue saint Luke his credit, he increaseth the number by putting the plurall for the singular. Whereas therefore it standeth with M. M. Cope his rhetorike. Cope his pleasure, to florish in his rhetoricall figure named, Veritatis superlatio; in terming muttering, showting, a manquellor, a parricide, one viper, ser|pents: he must be borne withall, if in the heat of his figure he step a little awrie in the remnant of his dis|course. For thus he saith.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And therevpon it is reported percase by some men, that there is nothing venemous or poisoned in Ireland, but the men and women. Which is taken to haue beene spoken by most men for their brutish and sauage maners. Here (good reader) thou must vnder|stand that M. Cope putteth the text downe and the glose. The tert is, There is nothing in Ireland vene|mous but the inhabitants. The glose is, This is said to haue béen spoken for their brutish and sauage con|ditions. Now well harpt by saint Lankfield. Here is a glose, I vndertake you, sutable to the text. But EEBO page image 16 let vs sée, how cunninglie M. Cope beequiteth him|selfe. First he obserueth not Decorum personae, second|lie he followeth not Decorum dialogi, thirdlie he shew|eth herein little diuinitie. Touching the first point, who knoweth not, that these iapes and gibes are one|lie fit for ruffians, vices, swashbucklers & tospots. And trulie they beeset a diuine as well, as for an asse to twang quipassa on a harpe or gitterne, or for an ape to friske trenchmoore in a paire of buskins and a doublet. The heathen misliked in an orator squiri|litie, what should be thought then of a diuine, whome Cic. lib. 2. de orat. saint Paule would haue to be sober, modest, graue, and wise? Unlesse M. Cope leaning to the letter of saint Paule his words would beare vs in hand, that 1. Tim 3. vers. 2. & 3. saint Paule would haue modestie to rest onelie in bishops. We are commanded in the old and new te|stament, to loue our neighbors as our selues. Which dooth implie, that we ought not to slander our neigh|bours.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And shall a diuine then speake vncharitablie, not onelie of one, but of an whole realme, and not onelie speake but also write, yea and that in the language that is vniuersallie spoken, thoroughout the greater part of the world, vpon no sure ground, but onelie vpon hearesaie, weieng not what the prophet writeth, Perdes omnes qui loquuntur mendaciũ, Thou shalt destroie Psal. 5. ver. 7. Sapient. 1. Vide August in cundem Psal. all them that speake vntruths? And were it that anie such flim flam flirts were soothed by anie person of credit; yet (as me seemeth) it would stand more with the grauitie of a diuine, that such childish quips, and scornefull tawnts should sooner by his meanes chari|tablie be whisted, than thorough his procurement car|pinglie published. I will stand no longer on this point, but onelie craue M. Cope to resort to the fift Matth. 5. vers. 22. of Matthew, and there peruse Christ his verdict tou|ching slanderous toongs. To come to the second part, in which he obserueth not Decorum dialogi, thou shalt vnderstand (good reader) that Critabulus, or Crito|bulus, whome M. Cope maketh his bagpipe to belch out his rancour, is a Germane borne, as M. Cope saith, who séemeth to be Critabulus his godfather. Now let anie one, that is acquainted with the ma|ners of Germans, iudge, if it be decent, that one of them should scoffe and scorne the conditions and fa|shions of other countries. I will not speake by heare saie, as M. Cope dooth, but by eiesight. I could ne|uer espie nor probablie haue I heard it reported, no not of the méere sauage Irish, such quaffing, such swilling, such bolling, such gulling, such brutish drunkennesse, such surfetting, such vomitting, as I haue seene some Germans doo. In good sooth it is knowne, and for my part I haue seene it being be|yond The German his friendship. the seas, that in their carowsing and cup friend|ship, they threaten such kindnesse on their compani|ons, that least their felowes should mistrust them with double dealing, they will not sticke to shew them the bottome of their stomachs; & to the end they should take the better view thereof, they will place it now and then in their neighbors bosome.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus when they haue cast their gorges, they clap on their thrumd hats, and run like bedlem barre|tors into the stréets with their naked flatchets, and there they keepe such a stinking sturre with hacking of stones, with hewing of blocks, with thwitting of stocks, with striking of stalles, with thumping at doores, that it would make a horsse breake his halter, to see so drunken a pageant. In fine, this qualitie is so naturallie ingraffed in the greater part of them, that a famous diuine did not sticke of late to saie o|penlie in his lecture, that drunkennesse in that coun|trie man, was either Peccatum originale or Accidens in|separabile. I write not this (I take God to record) to the reproch or slander of that countrie (being loth to commit the selfe same fault that I reprehend in anie other) but onelie my meaning is to settle before she reader his eies the absurditie of M. Cope, in fra|ming poore Critabolus to flout Ireland, considering that if he cast his eie homeward, he shall find as fil|thie puddle in his owne countrie, as in other realms. And therefore this quip sate as vnseemelie in his mouth, as for an whoore to reprehend bitcherie, or for an vsurer to condemne simonie. For as there is nothing lesse to be tollerated, than for anie one to haue an other to account for his life, that can yeeld no account of his owne: so there is nothing that ought to moozzell vp anie one from rebuking other nations, than to sée the misdemeanor of his owne natiue countrie. I would wish M. Critabolus or M. Cope, if it shall please him to make vp the mu|ster, with indifferencie to weie the estate of Ireland, and so without parcialitie to frame his iudgement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Ireland, and especiallie the ruder part is not sto|red Ireland hem it maie be re|formed. with such learned men as Germanie is. If they had sound preachers, and sincere liuers, that by the imbalming of their carian soules with the swéet and sacred flowers of holie writ, would instruct them in the feare of God, in obeieng their prince, in obser|uing the lawes, in vnderpropping in ech man his vo|cation the weale publike; I doubt not, but within two or thrée ages M. Critabolus his heires should heare so good a report run of the reformation of Ire|land, as it would be reckoned as ciuill as the best part of Germanie. Let the soile be as fertile and betle as anie would wish, yet if the husbandman will not manure it, sometime plow and eare it, sometime harrow it, sometime till it, sometime marle it, some|time delue it, sometime dig it, and sow it with good and sound corne, it will bring foorth wéeds, bindcorne, cockle, darnell, brambles, briers, and sundrie wild shoots. So it fareth with the rude inhabitants of Ire|land, they lacke vniuersities, they want instructors, they are destitute of teachers, they are without prea|chers, they are deuoid of all such necessaries as ap|perteine to the training vp of youth: and notwith|standing all these wants, if anie would be so fro|wardlie set, as to require them, to vse such ciuilitie, as other regions, that are sufficientlie furnished with the like helps; he might be accounted as vnrea|sonable, as he that would force a créeple that lacketh both his legs to run, or one to pipe or whistle a gali|ard that wanteth his vpper lip.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But such is the corrupt nature of vs worldings, and me thinketh such vaine humors are not vtterlie dried vp in our sage and mortified diuines. We are most commonlie giuen rather to tawnt that which is amisse, than to praise that which is good; and rather we follow the spider in soking the poison, than in imitating the bee by sucking the honie. Now that it appeareth, that it was not sitting for the author being a diuine, to write so vncharitablie, nor for M. Crita|bolus being a Germane to carpe other countries so snappishlie: let vs see what wholesome diuinitie hath beene here vttered, and how well the sinewes of M. Critabolus his argument shall be found to hang to|gither, when the an atomie therof by peecemeale shall be examined. I call to mind (quoth M. Critabolus) that I haue read and often heard, that the like benefit hath béene granted to Ireland through the praiers of S. Patrike. M. Critabolus read & heard that by the praiers of S. Patrike, Ireland hath no venemous worme: Ergo some hold opinion, that the poison re|steth onlie in the people. Truly this argument hang|eth togither by verie strange gimbols. And I dare say, M. Cope neuer learned this kind of reasoning in the famous college of Magdalene in Oxford, what so|euer M. Critabulus did in Germanie. But let vs put the logike apart, & scan the singular point of diui|nitie. I would gladlie lerne in what part of scripture EEBO page image 17 or in what ancient father M. Critabulus read or heard (for most of his learning hath béene, as it séemeth, purchased by heare-saie) that anie holie pre|lat, that came of meere charitie to conuert a coun|trie from night to light, from rudenesse to know|ledge, from infidelitie to christianitie, from vice to vertue; from the diuell to God (which dooth implie an especiall zeale in saluing their soules) would purge the soile of all venemous wormes, & leaue the soules that haue more néed to be wéeded, wholie infected with the contagion of vice and sinne. Wherby insueth that the place is better than the inhabitants, and so consequentlie the saieng of the Machabées must be falsified: Non propter locum gentem, sed propter gentem lo|cum Deus elegit: God did not choose the people for the 2. Mac. 5. ver. 19. place, but he elected the place in respect of the peo|ple. Our sauiour Iesus Christ dispossessing the pati|ent of the legion of diuels, permitted them to enter Luc. 8. ver. 32. into an heard of hogs. Critabulus would haue Christs saints doo the contrarie, to dispossesse the hogs, and to leaue the men possessed with diuels. For so he reporteth saint Patrike to haue doone, by rid|ding the land of all poisoned wormes, & leauing the rancour to lurke in the people. Trulie if the matter stood so farre out of ioint, I doubt not, but the Ilan|ders might haue come as lawfullie to him, as the Gergesens came ingratefullie to Christ, requiring him to depart their countrie. For such a scoffing pre|lat, Luc. 2. ver. 37. his roome had béene better than his companie, sith his abode would tend rather to the peruerting, than the conuerting of their Iland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Hitherto thou hast heard (gentle reader) how gal|lantlie Critabulus hath plaied his part: now shall I desire thée to view how sagelie Ireneus claspeth vp all the whole controuersie. He saith it is the nature of the soile, not to breed anie venemous worme, and that was incident thereto before saint Patrike was borne. How prooue you that sir? Pleaseth you to skew your ele towards the margent, and there shall you find the fiue and thirtith chapter of Solinus solemn|lie quoted. Touching this matter, there is nothing in Solinus but this: Illic anguis nullus, auis rara, In Ire|land is no snake, and seldome a bird, & yet birds are as commonlie there as in anie other countrie. But I would gladlie vnderstand how this authoritie of Solinus furthereth M. Ireneus his opinion. Ire|land bred no snake before saint Patrike was borne: Ergo it ingendred no toad, no adder, no frog, nor anie other virulent worme. As if a man would reason thus: Before saint Patrike his time there was no horssemill in Ireland: Ergo before his time there was no milhorsse. Certes he that would wind vp his conclusion so fondlie, might be thought to haue as much wit as a rosted horse. This authoritie of So|linus is so far from vpholding Ireneus his asserti|on, as that it plainelie séemeth quite to ouerthrow it, & as it were in his owne turne, it giueth him a fall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For the cause whie saint Patrike was mooued to expell all the venemous wormes out of Ireland, might probablie haue béene coniectured, to haue pro|céeded of this; that he perceiuing the land to bréed no snakes, therof was occasioned, for the furthering of christian faith, to expell other kind of wormes that lucked there before his comming, as toades, adders, blindworms, frogs, &c. Héere perchase M. Cope may blench me, in replieng that Anguis may be [...]ction. construed generallie for all kind of vermine, and so I might be taken tard [...]e in building my discourse vpon a misconstruction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In good sooth to omit what strange and absurd sig|nification [...]. Anguis should beare, by notifieng a poiso|ned spider and such like, and in mine opinion further from the purpose, than the father that dissuading his sonne from plaieng on sundaie, fortified his reason with the old said saw, Non est bonum ludere cum sanctis, It is not good, quoth he, to plaie on sundaies or holie daies. Is it (thinke you) fellonie or treason, to bring the credit of Solinus in question, for mistaking An|guis aswell as Auis? For as he was grossie deceiued in the one, in writing that birds were rare in Ire|land; so might he haue straied as likelie in the other, by disburdening Ireland of all venemous wormes, bicause the Iland wanted in his time but one or two kinds, as a snake and a toad. Where a man buildeth vpon euerie twatling and pratling rumor, and his Rumor cat|cheth [...]ethers. eie is not his iudge, he may be sure, that such flieng fales will catch manie feathers before they come at him that is as far distant from their nests, as So|linus was from Ireland when he wrote his pamph|let. The proofe whereof as it is dailie tried, so not ma|nie yeares past hath béene verie pretilie verefied. There was a gentleman of mine acquaintance that met his enimie in the fields, where they both vpon a trifling quarell fought so fréendlie, as they had more néed to haue beene grapled togither with cables, than parted by indifferent sticklers. Howbeit, bicause the gentleman was neuer before flesht, and yet no|thing at all that daie, for each of their blowes did commonlie light on the medow where they fought; a friend of his reported well of him to an other, sai|eng, that he was like in time to prooue a proper man of his hands, for the well handling of his weapon in his late combat. Wherevpon soone after, the other doubling the gentleman his praise, gaue notice to an other, that such a gentleman (naming him) fought valiantlie such a daie in such a place. Immediatlie vpon this in a shire or two off, it was noised that the partie praised, fought with two at once in such a place, naming the medow. At length it was bruted, that he fought foure seuerall daies; and I am well as|sured that was the first fraie that euer he made, and I thinke it will be the last, vnlesse he be forced mau|gre his heart to the contrarie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Not long after it happened, that a gentleman and I trauelled abroad the countrie of set purpose to dis|port our selues, and so to returne afresh to our books, where entering in communication with a blunt countrie lob (yet such an one as tooke his halfepenie to be good siluer) that knew the foresaid champion. My companion and I made wise, as though we were not acquainted with him, or euer heard of the combat: Now in good faith gentleman (quoth he) A fréendlie commenda|tion. you would doo verie well to enter in acquaintance with him; for ouer this, that he is a gentleman a|bundantlie endued with singular good qualities, he is become of late so valiant a cutter, as he maketh blading his dailie breakefast. By saint Marie, quoth my companion, that is verie cold rosse, and if his breakefasts be no better than a péece of coldyron, I little weigh how seldome I take a repast in his com|panie at anie such ordinarie. Naie, my meaning is (quoth the other) that he vseth to fight fresh and fast|ing euerie morning, in so much that of late, I dare bide by it, he fought eight daies in one weeke. At which words I for my part could not refraine from laughing, séeing how demurelie the fellow kept his countenance, and how that he spake Bonafide. Where|vpon I shaped him an answer and said, that I neuer heard of anie that fought eight daies in one weeke, but onelie in old time, when fiue quarters made vp the yeare.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The fellow perceiuing that he ouershot himselfe, replied: Sir, you take me verie short, as long and as verie a lowbie as you imagine to make me: my meaning is, that he fought eight seuerall times in one weeke. Eight times (quoth my companion) then belike he fought once aboue commons. For you told vs right now, that he made his fraie his morning EEBO page image 18 breakefast, and whereas there are but seauen daies in the wéeke, & he fought (as you report) eight times, and you know that eight maketh one aboue seauen, and seauen maketh six and one vnder eight; either you must confesse that he fought out his breakfast, dinner, beuer or supper; or else you must grant that there be eight daies in one wéeke, or at the least two breakefasts in one daie: and that I am sure you will confesse to be as great an absurditie as the other. Naie (quoth the clowne) and you intrap me with such sophistrie, you shall dine, sup and breake your fast a|lone for me, and therewithall departed. Wherby may be gathered, that if he had bin soothed vp, & his toong let to run at libertie vncontrold, like a bowle that runneth in a smooth allie without anie rub, he would haue brought himselfe to that baie, as he would not sticke to saie that his fréend had fought eight daies in one houre. Wherefore as this pudding his pricke grew at length by report to an huge post, so the want of one venemous worme in Ireland, being bruted in forten realmes, might haue beene so thwitted and mangled in the cariage before it came to Solinus his eares, as he might haue beene informed, that the countrie was denoid of all venemous woormes, whereas indéed there lacked but one kind.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Like as God of his iustice punisheth a countrie that is hardhearted, with outward wormes: so of his mercie they are remooued from a realme that is pliant to follow his lawes and precepts. As when Pharao would not listen to God his threats denoun|ced him by the preachers of God, Moses and Aaron, E [...]od. [...]. vers. 7, 17, [...] 24. Vide Apoc. 9. verse 3, at 2. Reg. 8. verse. 37. Egypt was punished with frogs and diuerse kind of flies, as is exprest at full in holie writ: and againe vpon Pharao his feined promises (the secrets of whose hollow heart God perfectlie knew) at the in|stance of Moses, these plagues were appeased, and the vermine quite extinguished: so I praie you, is it so absurd a position to hold, that saint Patrike find|ing the Irish priest to embrace the gospell, as he did in verie deed, might stand so highlie in God his fauor, as through his earnest petition made to God, the poisoned woormes should be abandoned? This is not so rare a thing vpon the implanting of christian faith in anie region, but rather a propertie incident there|to, according to Christ his promise: Signa autem eos, qui crediderint, haec sequentur; In nomine meo daemonia eijcient: Gregor. hom. 29. in euang. Mar. 16. v. 17. linguis loquentur nouis: serpentes tollent: & si mortiferum quid biberint, non eis nocebit: super aegros manus imponent, & bene habebunt. And these tokens shall follow them that beléeue; In my name shall they cast out diuels, they shall speake with new toongs, they shall driue awaie serpents, and if they drinke anie deadlie thing it shall not hurt them: they shall laie hands on the sicke, and they shall be cured. Wherefore, sith it is so euidentlie warranted by scripture, that in the name of Iesus, serpents may be driuen awaie, if Ireland be found through anie such means to be deuoid of poisoned wormes, we are to ascribe the glorie hereof to God, according to the saieng of the prophet; A do|mino factum est istud, & est mirabile in oculis nostris, That hath béene doone by God, and it séemeth woonderfull Psalm. 117, verse. 22. in our eies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus farre (gentle reader) incroching vpon thy patience, I haue imploied my trauell in defending my natiue countrie, against such as labour to di|staine it with their slanderous sco [...]es. Touching the principall question, whether S. Patrike did expell poisoned wormes out of Ireland, or whether it be the nature of the soile, as I said in the entrie of this discourse; so I saie againe, that I weigh not two chips which waie the wind bloweth, bicause I sée no inconuenience that may insue either of the affirma|tiue or negatiue opinion. And therefore if M. Cope had dealt as modestlie as Cambrensis, the author of Polychronicon or others, that stood to the deniall, h [...]ue doone; he should haue gone scotfree with his complices, and haue made in mounterbankwise the most he could of his wares. But for that he would needs sée further in a milstone than others, and not onelie slenderlie disprooue the triuiall opini|on, but scornefullie slander an whole realme, wherein he shall find his superiors in honour, his betters in parentage, his peeres in learning, his mates in wis|dome, his equals in courtesie, his matches in hone|stie: I must craue him to beare it patientlie, if by crieng him quittance, I serued him with a dish of his owne cookerie. And if for this my streict dea|ling with him (wherevnto I was the sooner led, for that as it is courtesie to mollifie wild speaches with mild answers, so I reckon it for good policie now and then to cleaue knurd knobs with crabbed wedges) he will séeme to take pepper in the nose, for anie recom|pense he is like to haue at mine hands, he may wipe his nose on his sléeue. And if it shall stand with his pleasure, to replie either in English or in Latine (the occasion of which is rather of him growne than by me giuen) he shall find me willing, if God spare me health, to reioine with him in so good a quarrell, ei|ther in the one language or the other: and when both tales are heard, I beshrow him, for my part, that shall be driuen to the wall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Cambrensis reporteth of his owne knowledge, The bar|nacle. and I heare it auowed by credible persons, that bar|nacles thousands at once are noted along the shores in Ireland to hang by the beakes, about the edges of putrified timber, as ships, oares, masts, anchor holds, and such like, which in processe taking liuelie heat of the sunne, become waterfoules, and at their time of ripenesse either fall into the sea, or flie abroad into the aire. The same doo neuer couple in the act of generation, but are from time to time multiplied, as before is exprest.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Aeneas Syluius writeth himselfe tohaue pursued Sabel. part. [...]. Ene. 10. lib. 5. Cam. lib. to|pog. dist. 1. rub. 15. Thom. p. 3. q. 31. ar. 4. corp. the like experiment in Scotland, where he learned the truth hereof to be found in the Ilands Orchades. Giraldus Cambrensis gathereth hereof a pretie con|clusion against the Iewes in this wise following:

Respice infoelix Iudaee, respice, vel serò, primã hominis generati|onem ex limo sine mare & foemina. Secundámque ex mare sine foemina, ob legis venerationem, diffiteri non audes. Tertiam solam ex mare scilicet & foemina, quia vsualis est, dura cer|uice approbas & affirmas. Quartam verò, in qua sola salus est ex foemina scilicet sine mare obstinata malicia in propriam per|niciem detestaris. Erubesce miser, erubesce, & saltem ad natu|ram recurre, quae ad argumenta fidei, ad instructionem no|stram noua quotidie animalia sine omni mare vel foemina procreat & producit. Prima ergo generatio ex limo, & haec vltima ex ligno. Illae quidem quoniam à Domino naturae tan|tùm semel, ideò semper obstupenda processit. Istam verò non minùs admirabilem, minus tamen admirandam (quia saepè fit) imitatrix natura administrat. Sic enim composita est huma|na natura, vt nihil, praeter inusitatum & rarò contingens vel pretiosum ducat vel admirandum. Solis ortum & occasum, quo nihil in mundo pulchrius, nihil stupore dignius, quia quo|tidie videmus, sine omni admiratione praeterimus. Eclipsin verò solis, quia rariùs accidit, totus orbis obstupescit. A [...] idem etiam facere videtur, flatu solo, & occulta quadam inspira|tione citra omnem mixturam apum ex fauo procreatio.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

Marke thou wretched Iew, saith Cambrensis, marke yet at length the first creation (that is of A|dam) of earth without male or female. As for the se|cond, of a man without a woman (that is to saie Eue) for that thou hast the old law in reuerence, thou darest not denie. As for the third, both of man and woman, bicause it is dailie vsed as stiffeneckt as thou art, thou dooest acknowledge and confesse. But the fourth procreation, in which consisteth our onelie iustification (he meaneth the incarnation of Christ) EEBO page image 19 of a woman without man, with sturdie and obstinat rancor to thine vtter destruction thou doost detest. Blush therefore thou vnhappie Iew, be ashamed of this thy follie, and at the least wise haue recourse to nature, and settle hir works before thine eies, that for the increase of faith, and to the lessoning of vs, dailie bréedeth & ingendreth new liuing creatures, without the coupling of mascle or female. Adam was created of earth, the barnacles are ingendred of wood, bicause Adam was once created by him, who is Lord of nature, therefore it is continuallie admi|red. But for that dame nature the counterfeitresse of the celestiall workeman, est soones bréedeth barna|cles, therefore their brood is accompted more mar|uellous than to be maruelled, more woonderfull than woondered. For such is the framing of man his na|ture, as he deemeth nothing pretious or woonderfull, but such things as seldome happen. What may be thought more beautifull than the course of the sunne? And yet bicause we sée it dailie rise and set, we let it ouerslip vs as an vsuall custome, without anie sta|ring or gazing. Yet we are amazed and astonied at the eclipse, bicause it happeneth verie seldome.
The bées that are ingendred of the honie combe, onlie by a puffe or secret breathing without anie coupling, Bées how they are in|gendered. séeme to vphold this procreation of barnacles. Hi|therto Cambrensis, with whom concerning the in|gendring of bées Iohannes de sancto Geminiano accordeth. Iohan. de S. Gem. in lib. de exempl. & si|mili. rerum li. 4. c. 31, whether the barnacle be fish or flesh. Cambr. lib. 1. topog. dist. 1. [...]ub. 15. Polychr. lib. 1. c. 32.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The inhabitants of Ireland are accustomed to mooue question, whether barnacles be fish or flesh, & as yet they are not fullie resolued; but most vsuallie the religious of streictest abstinence doo eat them on fish daies. Giraldus Cambrensis, and after him Po|lychronicon suppose, that the Irish cleargie in this point straie. For they hold of certeintie that barna|cles are flesh. And if a man saie they had eaten a collop of Adam his leg, he had eaten flesh. And yet Adam was not ingendred of mascle or female, but onelie created of claie, as the barnacles of wood & rotten timber. But the Irish clergie did not so farre straie in their opinion, as Cambrensis & Polychro|nicon, in their disproofe. For the framing of Adam Adam & Eue onelie created by God. August. super Genes. ad lit. lib. 9. c. 18. and Eue was supernaturall onelie doone by God, & not by the helpe of angels or anie other creature. For like as it surpasseth natures course to raise the dead, to lighten or insight the blind, so it stood not with the vsuall & common linage of nature, but onlie with the supereminent power of God, to frame a man of claie, and a woman of a mans rib. But the ingendring of barnacles is naturall, & not so woon|derfull as Cambrensis maketh it. And therefore the examples are not like.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now it should séeme that in Cambrensis his time, the Irish clergie builded their reason vpon this plot. What soeuer is flesh, is naturallie begotten or in|gendred of flesh; barnacles are not naturallie in|gendred of flesh, but onelie of timber and wood; bar|nacles therfore are not flesh, vnlesse you would haue them to be wooden flesh. And if the reason be so knit it may not be disiointed by Cambrensis his example. As if a man should argue thus. She that is begotten of anie man, must be of force daughter to that man; Melcha was begotten of Aran; Ergo Melcha was A|rans Genes 11. verse 29. daughter. This argument is of all parts so for|tified, as it séemeth of all sides to be impregnable. Yet a busie braine sophister cauilling on the terme (begotten) might saie, that Eue was begotten of A|dam, and yet she is not Adams daughter. True it is Adam & Eua of no kin. Thom. p. 1. q 92. art. 2. ad. 3. [...]. that Adam was not Eues father, no more than Eue was Adams mother, neither by that ingendring was there anie degree of consanguinitie sprong be|twéene them. But bicause the word (begotten) is ta|ken in the argument for the naturall ingendring of man and woman, the instance giuen of Eue dooth not disproue the Maior. And yet for the better vn|derstanding of the question, it is to be noted that the philosophers distinguish Animalia sensitiua, that is, sen|sible Thom. p. 1. q. 91. art. 2. ad 2. m Liuing things are of two sorts. Thom. p. 1. q. 71. 1. 0. 1. m. Auicenna. liuing things, in two sorts, perfect and vnper|fect. The perfect are they that are ingendred of seed, the vnperfect without seed. Those that are naturallie ingendred with séed, can neuer be naturallie ingen|dred without séed: albeit Auicenna verie erronious|lie holdeth the contrarie: as for example.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Bicause man is naturallie ingendred of man and woman, no man may naturallie be ingendred with|out the copulation of man and woman: yet super|naturallie it may be. As Adam was made without Gen. 2. vers. 7. Gen. 2. ver. 21. Mat. 1. ver. 10 Luc. 1. vers. 34 man and woman: Eue framed without woman: our sauiour Christ begotten without man. And ther|fore the diuell could not haue attainted him of origi|nall sinne. Contrariwise, the vnperfect may be in|gendred without séed by mire, mud, doong, carien, rotten timber, or anie other thing; and chieflie by the secret influence and instillation of the celestiall pla|nets, Vide Arist. lib. 1. Meteor. ca. 3. 6. 7. as the sunne and such other. As if you put the haire of an horsse taile in mire, puddle, or in a doong|hill for a certeine space, it will turne to a little thin spralling worme, which I haue often séene & experi|mented. And they are termed vnperfect, not in re|spect of their owne nature, in which they are perfect, but in comparison of other sorts of liuing things. Among this crue must barnacles be setled. But here some will saie; Let them be perfect or vnperfect, what then? I would faine know, whether Cambrensis be in an errour, or the Irish clergie. For hitherto I sée nothing, but Cambrensis his reason disprooued. And it is often séene that a sound opinion may be weake|ned by a féeble reason, as we sée manie faire gar|ments mard in the making. It is true: and if anie be desirous to know my mind herein, I suppose, ac|cording The barnacle neither fish nor flesh. to my simple iudgement, vnder the correc|tion of both parties, that the barnacle is neither fish nor flesh, but rather a meane betwéene both. As put the case it were enacted by parlement, that it were high treason to eat flesh on fridaie, and fish on sun|daie. Trulie I thinke that he that eateth barnacles both these daies, should not be within the compasse of the estatute: yet I would not wish my friend to hazard it, least the barnacle should be found in law fish or flesh, yea and perhaps fish and flesh. As when the lion king of beasts made proclamation, that all horned beasts should auoid his court, one beast ha|uing but a bunch of flesh in his forehead departed with the rest, least it had béene found in law that his bunch were an horne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But some will peraduenture maruell, that there should be anie liuing thing, that were not fish nor flesh. But they haue no such cause at all. Nits, fleshwormes, bees, butterflies, caterpillers, snailes, grassehoppers, beetels, earewikes, reremise, frogs, toads, adders, snakes, & such other, are liuing things, and yet they are neither fish nor flesh, nor yet red her|ring: as they that are trained in scholasticall points may easilie iudge. And so I thinke, that if anie were so sharpe set (the estatute aboue rehearsed, presuppo|sed) as to eat fried flies, butterd bees, stued snailes, either on fridaie or sundaie, he could not be therefore indicted of haulte treason; albeit I would not be his ghest, vnlesse I tooke his table to be furnisht with more wholesome and licorous viands. The like que|stion The sell whe|ther it be fish or flesh. Thom. p. 1. a. 7 [...] a. 1. 0. 3. 0. may be mooued of the sell, and if it were well canuassed, it would be found at the leastwise a moot case. But thus farre of barnacles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Ireland is stored of cowes, of excellent horsses, of hawkes, of fish and of foule. They are not without woolues & greihounds to hunt them, bigger of bone and lim than a colt. Their cowes as also the rest of EEBO page image 20 their cattell, and commonlie what else soeuer the countrie ingendreth (except man) is much lesse in quantitie than those of England, or of other realms. Shéepe few, and those bearing course fleeses, whereof they spin notable rug. Their shéepe haue short and Shéepe. curt tailes. They shéere their shéepe twise yearelie, and if they be left vnshorne, they are therewith ra|ther pained than otherwise. The countrie is verie fruitfull both of corne and grasse. The grasse (for de|fault of good husbandrie) suffered vncut, groweth so ranke in the north parts, that oftentimes it rotteth their cattell. Egles are well knowen to bréed in I|reland, Egle. but neither so big, nor so manie as bookes tell. The horsses are of pase easie, in running woonder|full The Irish hobbie. swift, in gallop both false and full indifferent. The nag or the hackeneie is verie good for trauel|ling, albeit others report the contrarie. And if he be The nag. broken accordinglie, you shall haue a little tit that will trauell a whole daie without anie bait. Their horsses of seruice are called chiefe horsses, being The chiefe horsse. well broken they are of an excellent courage. They reine passinglie, and champe vpon their bridels brauelie, commonlie they amble not but gallop and run. And these horsses are but for skirmishes, not for trauelling, for their stomachs are such, as they dis|daine to be hacknied. Thereof the report grew, that the Irish hobbie will not hold out in trauelling. You shall haue of the third sort a bastard or mongrell hob|bie, The mongrell hobbie. néere as tall as the horsse of seruice, strong in trauelling, easie in ambling, and verie swift in run|ning. Of the horsse of seruice they make great store, as wherin at times of néed they repose a great péece of safetie. This brood Volaterane writeth to haue Volat. lib. 3. Geog. Asturcones. come from Austurea, the countrie of Hispaine, be|twéene Gallicia and Portugall, whereof they were named Asturcones, a name now properlie applied to the Hispanish genet.

1.3. The names of the ciuities, boroughs and hauen townes in Ireland. The third chapter.

The names of the ciuities, boroughs and hauen townes in Ireland. The third chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _DUblin the beautie and eie of Ireland, hath béene named Dublinum. by Ptolome, in ancient time, Eblana. Some terme it Du|blina, others Dublinia, ma|nie write it Dublinum, au|thors of better skill name it Dublinium. The Irish call it, Ballée er Cleagh, that is, a towne planted vp|on hurdels. For the common opinion is, that the plot vpon which the ciuitie is builded, hath béene a marish ground; and for that by the art or inuention of the first founder, the water could not be voided, he was forced to fasten the quakemire with hurdels, and vpon them to build the citie. I heard of some that came of building of houses to this foundation: and other hold opinion that if a cart or waine run with a round and maine pase through a stréet called the high stréet, the houses on ech side shall he percei|ued to shake. This citie was builded, or rather the buildings thereof inlarged, about the yeare of our Dublin builded. Lord 155. For about this time there arriued in I|reland thrée noble Easterlings that were brethren, Auellanus, Sitaracus, and Yuorus. Auellanus be|ing Auellanus the founder of Dublin. the eldest brother builded Dublin, Sitaracus Waterford, and Yuorus Limerike. Of the foun|der Auellanus, Dublin was named Auellana, and after by corruption of speach Eblana. This citie, as Auellana. Eblana. it is not in antiquitie inferiour to anie citie in Ire|land, so in pleasant situation, in gorgious buildings, in the multitude of people, in martiall chiualrie, in obedience and loialtie, in the abundance of wealth, in largenesse of hospitalite, in maners and ciuilitie it is superiour to all other cities and townes in that realme. And therefore it is commonlie called the I|rish or yoong London. The seat of this citie is of all Dublin the Irish Lon|don. The situation of Dublin. sides pleasant, comfortable, and wholesome. If you would trauerse hils, they are not far off. If champi|on ground, it lieth of all parts. If you be delited with fresh water, the famous riuer called the Liffie, na|med The Liffie. of Ptolome Lybnium, runneth fast by. If you will take the view of the sea, it is at hand. The on|lie fault of this citie is, that it is lesse frequented of merchant estrangers, bicause of the bare hauen. Their charter is large, King Henrie the fourth gaue The sword giuen to Du|blin. Shiriffes of Dublin 1547. this citie the sword, in the yeare of our Lord 1409, and was ruled by a maior and two bailiffes, which were changed into shiriffes by a charter granted by Edward the sixt, in the yeare of our Lord 1547. In which yeare Iohn Rians and Robert Ians, two worshipfull gentlemen, were collegues in that of|fice, & thereof they are named the last bailiffes & first shiriffes that haue beene in Dublin. It appeereth by the ancient seale of this citie, called Signum praepositu|rae, Dublin go|uerned by [...] prouest. that this citie hath beene in old time gouerned by a prouost.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The hospitalitie of the maior and the shiriffes for The hospita|litie of the maior and shiriffes. the yeare being, is so large and bountifull, that sooth|lie (London forepriced) verie few such officers vnder the crowne of England kéepe so great a port, none I am sure greater. The maior, ouer the number of officers that take their dailie repast at his table, kee|peth for his yeare in maner open house. And albeit in tearme time his house is frequented as well of the nobilitie as of other potentats of great calling: yet his ordinarie is so good, that a verie few set feasts are prouided for them. They that spend least in their maioraltie (as those of credit, yea and such as bars the office haue informed me) make an ordinarie ac|count of fiue hundred pounds for their viand and di|et that yeare: which is no small summe to be be|stowed in houskéeping, namelie where vittels are so good cheape, and the presents of friends diuerse and sundrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There hath beene of late yeares a worshipfull gen|tleman, 1551 Patrike Scarsefield his hospita|litie. named Patrike Scarsefield, that bare the office of the maioraltie in Dublin, who kept so great port in this yeare, as his hospitalitie to his fame and renowme resteth as yet in fresh memorie. One of his especiall and entire friends entring in commu|nication with the gentleman, his yeare being well neere expired, mooued question, to what he thought his expenses all that yeare amounted? Trulie Iames (so his friend was named) quoth maister Scarsefield, I take betwéene me and God, when I entered into mine office, the last saint Hierome his The maior o [...] Dublin when he is sworne. daie (which is the morrow of Michaelmasse, on which daie the maior taketh his oth before the chiefe baron, at the excheker within the castell of Dublin) I had thrée barnes well stored and thwackt with corne, and I assured my selfe, that anie one of these thrée had bene sufficient to haue stored mine house with bread, ale, and béere for this yeare. And now God and good companie be thanked, I stand in doubt, whether I shall rub out my maioraltie with my third barne, which is well nigh with my yeare ended. And yet no|thing smiteth me so much at the heart, as that the knot of good fellowes that you sée here (he ment the sergeants and officers) are readie to flit from me, and make their next yeares abode with the next maior.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And certes I am so much wedded to good fellow|ship, as if I could mainteine mine house to my con|tentation, with defraieng of fiue hundred pounds yearelie; I would make humble sute to the citizens, EEBO page image 21 to be their officer these thrée yeares to come. Ouer this, he did at the same time protest with oth, that he spent that yeare in housekéeping twentie tuns of claret wine, ouer and aboue white wine, sacke, mal|meseie, muscadell, &c. And in verie deed it was not to be maruelled: for during his maioraltie, his house was so open, as commonly from fiue of the clocke in the morning, to ten at night, his butterie and cellars were with one crew or other frequented. To the haunting of which, ghests were the sooner allured, for that you should neuer marke him or his bedfellow (such was their buxomnesse) once frowne or wrin|kle their foreheads, or bend their browes, or glowme their countenances, or make a sowre face at anie ghest, were he neuer so meane. But their intertein|ment was so notable, as they would sauce their bountifull & deintie faire with heartie and amiable chéere. His porter or anie other officer durst not for both his eares giue the simplest man that resorted to his house Tom drum his interteinment, which is, to Tom drum his intertein|ment. hale a man in by the head, and thrust him out by both the shoulders. For he was fullie resolued, that his worship and reputation could not be more distained, than by the currish interteinment of anie ghest. To be briefe (according to the golden verses of the an|cient and famous English poet Geffreie Chaucer:

An housholder, and that a great, was hee, Chaucer in the prolog of his Can|turburie tales
Saint Iulian he was in his countrie.
His bread, his ale, was alwaie after one,
A better viended man was no where none.
Without bakte meat was neuer his house,
Of fish and flesh, and that so plenteouse.
It shewed in his house of meat and drinke,
Of all deinties that men could thinke.
After the sundrie seasons of the yere,
So changed he his meat and his suppere.
Full manie a fat partrich had he in mew,
And manie a breme, and manie a luce in stew.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Some of his friends, that were s [...]udging penie|fathers, would take him vp verie roughlie for his lauishing & his outragious expenses, as they tearme it. Tush my maisters (would he saie) take not the matter so hot: who so commeth to my table, and hath no néed of my meat, I know he commeth for the good will he beareth me; and therefore I am be|holding to thanke him for his companie: if he resort for néed, how maie I bestow my goods better, than in reléening the poore? If you had perceiued me so far behind hand, as that I had bene like to haue brought haddocke to paddocke, I would patientlie permit you, both largelie to controll me, and friendlie to re|proue me. But so long as I cut so large thongs of mine owne leather, as that I am not yet come to my buckle, and during the time I kéepe my selfe so farre aflote, as that I haue as much water as my ship draweth: I praie pardon me to be liberall in spending, sith God of his goodnesse is gratious in sending.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And in déed so it fell out. For at the end of his maioraltie he owght no man a dotkin. What he dis|pended was his owne: and euer after during his life, he kept so woorthie a standing house, as that hée séemed to surrender the princes sword to other ma|iors, and reserued the port & hospitalitie to himselfe. Not long before him was Nicholas Stanihurst their maior, who was so great and good an houshol|der, Nicholas Stanihurst. that during his maioraltie, the lord chancellor of the realme was his dailie and ordinarie ghest. There hath beene of late worshipfull ports kept by maister Fian, who was twise maior, maister Sedgraue, Thomas Fitz Simons, Robert Cusacke, Walter Cusacke, Nicholas Fitz Simons, Iames Bedlow, Christopher Fagan, and diuerse others. And not one|lie The hospita|litis of Dub|lin. their officers so farre excell in hospitalitie, but al|so the greater part of the ciuitie is generallie addic|ted to such ordinarie and standing houses, as it would make a man muse which waie they are able to beare it out, but onelie by the goodnesse of God, which is the vpholder and furtherer of hospitalitie. What should I here speake of their charitable almes, dailie and hourelie extended to the néedie? The poore prisoners both of the Newgate and the castell, with three or foure hospitals, are chieflie, if not onelie, relieued by the citizens.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore, there are so manie other extraor|dinarie beggers that dailie swarme there, so chari|tablie succored, as that they make the whole ciuitie in effect their hospitall. The great expenses of the citi|zens maie probablie be gathered by the woorthie and fairlike markets, weeklie on wednesdaie and fridaie kept in Dublin. Their shambles is so well stored with meat, and their market with corne, as not onelie in The shambles and markets at Dublin. Ireland, but also in other countries you shall not sée anie one shambles, or anie one market better furni|shed with the one or the other, than Dublin is. The citizens haue from time to time in sundrie conflicts so galled the Irish, that euen to this daie, the Irish feare a ragged and fagged blacke standard that the The blacke standard. citizens haue, almost through tract of time worne to the hard stumps. This standard they carrie with them in hostings, being neuer displaied but when they are readie to enter into battell, and come to the shocke. The sight of which danteth the Irish aboue measure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And for the better training of their youth in mar|tiall The musters of Dublin. exploits, the citizens vse to muster foure times by the yeare: on Blacke mondaie, which is the mor|row of Easterdaie, on Maiedaie, saint Iohn Bap|tist his eeue, and saint Peter his eeue. Whereof two are ascribed to the maior & shiriffes: the other two, to wit, the musters on Maie daie and saint Peter his éeue, are assigned to the maior and shiriffes of the Bull ring. The maior of the Bull ring is an office e|lected The maior of the Bull ring by the citizens, to be as it were capteine or gar|dian of the batchelers and the vnwedded youth of the ciuitie. And for the yeare he hath authoritie to chastise and punish such as frequent brothelhouses, and the like vnchast places. He is tearmed the maior of the Bull ring, of an iron ring that sticketh in the corne|market, to which the bulles that are yearelie bated be vsuallie tied: which ring is had by him and his companie in so great price, as if anie citizen batchel|ler hap to marrie, the maior of the Bull ring and his crue conduct the bridegroome vpon his returne from church, to the market place, and there with a solemne kisse for his Vltimum vale, he dooth homage vnto the Bull ring.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Blacke mondaie muster sproong of this oc|casion. The blacke mondaie. Soone after Ireland was conquered by the Britons, & the greater part of Leinster pacified, di|uerse townesmen of Bristow flitted from thense to Dublin inha|bited by the Bristollians. This was a|bout the yeare of our Lord 1209. Dublin, and in short space the ciuitie was by them so well inhabited, as it grew to bée verie populous. Wherevpon the citizens hauing ouer great affiance in the multitude of the people, and so consequentlie being somewhat retchlesse in héeding the mounteine enimie that lurked vnder their noses, were woont to rome and roile in clusters, sometime thrée or foure miles from the towne. The Irish enimie spieng that the citizens were accustomed to fetch such od vaga|ries, especiallie on the holie daies, & hauing an ink|ling withall by some false clatterfert or other, that a companie of them would haue ranged abrode, on mondaie in the Easter weeke towards the wood of Cullen, which is distant two miles from Dublin, they laie in staie verie well appointed, and laid in sun|drie places for their comming. The citizens rather minding the pleasure they should presentlie inioy, EEBO page image 22 than forecasting the hurt that might insue, flockt vn|armed out of the ciuitie to the wood, where being in|tercepted by them that laie hoouing in ambush, they were to the number of fiue hundred miserablie slaine. Wherevpon the remnant of the citizens dee|ming that vnluckie time to be a crosse or a dismall daie, gaue it the appellation of Blacke mondaie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The citie soone after being peopled by a fresh sup|plie of Bristollians, to dare the Irish enimie, agréed to banket yearelie in that place, which to this daie is obserued. For the maior and the shiriffs with the citi|zens repaire to the wood of Cullen, in which place the maior bestoweth a costlie dinner within a mote or a rundell, and both the shiriffs within another: where they are so well garded with the youth of the ciuitie, as the mounteine enimie dareth not attempt to snatch as much as a pastie crust from thense. Dublin hath at this daie within the citie and in the suburbs these churches that insue, of which the greater num|ber The churches of Dublin. are parioch churches, onelie Christs church with a few oratories and chappels excepted. Christs church, otherwise named Ecclesia sanctaetrinitatis, a cathedrall Christs church. church, the ancientest that I can find recorded of all the churches now standing in Dublin. I take it to haue beene builded, if not in Auellanus his time, yet soone after by the Danes. The building of which was both repared & inlarged by Critius prince of Dub|lin, at the earnest request of Donat the bishop, and soone after the conquest it hath béene much beautified by Robert Fitz Stephans and Strangbow the erle of Penbroke, who with his sonne is in the bodie of the church intoomed. The chappell that standeth in the chore, commonlie called the new chappell, was buil|ded by Gerald Fitz Thomas earle of Kildare, in the yeare of our Lord 1510, where he is intoomed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Saint Patrikes church, a cathedrall church, in|dued with notable liuings, and diuerse fat benefi|ces. It hath a chappell at the north doore which is cal|led the paroch church. This church was founded by the famous and woorthie prelate Iohn Commin, a|bout the yeare of our Lord 1197. This foundation The contro|uersie be|tweene Christ church and saint Patriks church. was greatlie aduanced by the liberalitie of king Iohn. There hath risen a great contention betwixt this church and Christes church for antiquitie, where|in doubtlesse S. Patrike his church ought to giue place, vnlesse they haue further matter to shew, and better reasons to build vpon than their foundations, in which this church by manie yeares is inferror to the other. Saint Nicholas, Saint Michaell, Saint Uerberesse, or Saint Uarburgh, so called of a Chef|shire virgine. The citizens of Chester founded this church, with two chappels thereto annexed; the one called our ladies chappell, the other S. Martins chap|pell. Hir feast is kept the third of Februarie. This church with a great part of the citie was burned in the yeare 1301: but againe by the parochians reedified. Saint Iohn the euangelist, Saint Au|deon, which is corruptlie called Saint Ouen, or Owen. His feast is solemnized the fourtéenth of August. The paroch of this church is accounted the best in Dublin, for that the greater number of the aldermen and the worships of the citie are demur|rant within that paroch.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Saint Tullocke now prophaned. In this church in old time, the familie of the Fitz Simons was for Fitz Si|mons. the more part buried. The paroch was meared from the Crane castell, to the fish shambles, called the Cockhill, with Preston his innes, & the lane thereto adioining, which scope is now vnited to Saint Iohn his paroch. S. Katharine, S. Michan or Mighan, S. Iames his faire. Saint Iames; his feast is celebrated the fiue and twentith of Iulie, on which daie in ancient time was there a woorthie faire kept at Dublin, continuing sir daies, vnto which resorted diuers merchants, as well from England, as from France and F [...]|ders. And they afforded their wares so dogcheape, in respect of the citie merchants, that the countrie was yeare by yeare sufficientlie stored by strangers: and the citie merchants not vttering their wares, but to such as had not readie chinkes, and there vpon forced to run on the score, were verie much impoue|rished. Wherefore partlie thorough the canuasing of the towne merchants, and partlie by the winking of the rest of the citizens, being woon vpon manie gaie glosed promises, by plaieng b [...]péepe to beare themselues ouerlie in the matter, that famous mart was supprest, and all forren saile wholie abandoned. Yet for a memoriall of this notable faire, a few cot|tages, booths, and alepoles are pitched at Saint Iames his gate. Saint Michaell of Poules, aliâs Paules, Saint Brigide, Saint Keuin, Saint Pe|ter Demonte, or vpon the hill, appendant to Saint Patrikes church. Saint Stephan; this was erec|ted for an hospitall for poore, lame, and impotent la|zers, where they abide to this daie, although not in such chast and sincere wise, as the founders will was vpon the erection thereof. The maior with his bre|thren on Saint Stephan his daie (which is one of their station daies) repaireth thither, and there dooth offer. Saint Andrew now prophaned.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Both the gates neere the White friers, Saint Ke|uen The [...] of the gates of the citie and suburbs of Dublin. his gate, Hogs gate, Dammes gate, Poule gate, aliâs Paules gate, Newgate, a goale or pri|son, Wine tauerne gate, Saint Audeon his gate, hard by the church going downe towards the Corke|stréet. The reason why this gate, and the Wine ta|uerne gate were builded, procéeded of this. In the yeare 1315, Edward Bruise a Scot, & brother to Robert Bruise king of Scots arriued in the north of Ireland. From whence he marched on forwards with his armie, vntill he came as far as Castle|knocke. The citizens of Dublin being sore amazed at the sudden & Scarborough approch of so puissant an enimie, burned all the houses in Saint Thomas his stréet, least he should vpon his repaire to Dub|lin haue ante succour in the suburbs. The maior (named Robert Notingham) and communaltie be|ing in this distresse, razed downe an abbete of the frier preachers, called Saint Sauiour his monaste|rie, and brought the stones thereof to these places, where the gates now stand; and all along that waie did cast a wall for the better fortifieng of the cruitie, mistrusting that the wals that went along both the keies, should not haue béene of sufficient force to outhold the enimie. The Scots hauing intelligence of the fortifieng of Dublin, and reckoning it a folie to laie siege to so impregnable a ciuitie, marched to|ward a place not far from Dublin, called the Sal|mon leape, where pitching their tents for foure daies, they remooued towards the Naas. But [...]ert the ciuitie was past this danger, king Edward the second gaue strict commandement to the citizens to build the abbeie they razed; saieng, that although lawes were squarted in warre, yet notwithstanding they ought to be reuiued in peace. Gurmund his gate, hard by the Cucull, or Coockolds post. Some suppose, that one Gurmundus builded this gate, and thereof to take the name. Others iudge, that the Irish assaulting the ciuitie, were discomfited by the earle of Ormond, then by good hap soiourning at Dublin. And because he issued out at that gate, to the end the valiant exploit and famous conquest of so woorthie a potentate should be ingrailed in per|petuall memorie, the gate bare the name of Or|mond his gate. The bridge gate, Saint Nicholas his gate, Saint Patrike his gate, Bungan his gate, the Newstreet gate, Saint Thomas his gate, Saint Iames his gate.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 23 The Dam [...]es stréet, the Castle street, stretching to the pillorie, Saint Uerberosses stréet, Saint Iohn The names of the stréets, bridge [...], lanes and other no|torious places in Dublin. his stréet, aliâs fish shamble street, Skinners rew rea|ching from the pillorie to the tolehall, or to the high crosse. The High street bearing to the high pipe. This pipe was builded in the yeare 1308, by a Iohn Decer. woorthis citizen named Iohn Decer, being then maior of Dublin. He builded not long before that time the bridge hard by Saint Woolstans, that rea|cheth ouer the Liffie. The Newgate stréet, from the Newgate to Saint Audoen his church. Saint Nicholas his stréet, the Wine tauerne street, the Cooke street, the Bridge stréet. This stréet with the greater part of the keie was burnt in the yeare 1304. The Woodkeie, the Merchant keie, Osmon|towne, so called of certeine Easterlings or Nor|mans, properlie the Danes that were called Ost|manni, Ostmanni. They planted themselues hard by the wa|ter side neere Dublin, and discomfited at Clontarfe in a skirmish diuerse of the Irish. The names of the Irish capteins slaine were Brian Borrough, 1050 Miagh macke Bren, Tadie Okellie, Dolin Ahertegan, Gille Barramede. These were I|rish potentates, and before their discomfiture they ruled the rost. They were interred at Kilmai|nanne ouer against the great crosse. There arriued a fresh supplie of Easterlings at Dublin in the yeare 1095. and setled themselues on the other side of the ciuitie, which of them to this daie is called Ost|mantowne, 1095 Ostman|towne, why so called. that is, the towne of the Ostmannes, whereof there ariseth great likelihood to haue béene a separat towne from the citie, being parted from Dublin by the Liffie, as Southworke is seuered from London by Thames. Saint Thomas his street; this street was burnt by mishap in the yeare 1343. The New buildings, the New stréet, Saint Francis his stréet, the Kowme, Saint Patrike his street, the backeside of Saint Sepulchres, Saint Ke|uen his street, the Poule, or Paulmilstréet, Saint Brigids stréet, the Shéepe street, aliâs the Ship stréet. For diuerse are of opinion, that the sea had passage that waie, and thereof to be called the Ship stréet.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This as it séemesh not wholie impossible, con|sidering that the sea floweth and ebbeth hard by it: so it carieth a more colour of truth with it, because there haue béene found there certeine iron rings fastned to the towne wall, to hold and graple botes withall. Saint Uerberosses lane, vp to Saint Nicholas his stréet, now inclose [...], Saint Michaell his lane, be|ginning The lanes. at Saint Michaell his pipe, Christchurch lane, Saint Iohn his lane, Ram lane, aliâs the Schoolehouse lane, Saint Audoen his lane, Kesers lane. This lane is stéepe & slipperie, in which other| [...]iles, they that make more hast, than good spéed, clinke their bums to the stones. And therefore the ruder sort, whether it be through corruption of spéech, or for that they giue it a nickename, commonlie terme it, not so homelie, as trulie, Kisse arsse lane. Rochell lane, aliâs Backelane, on the southside of the flesh shambles, the Cookestréet lane, Frapper lane, Giglottes hill, Marie lane, Saint Tullocke his lane, Scarlet lane, aliâs Isouds lane, Saint Pul|chers lane, Saint Kenin his lane, the White friers lane, Saint Stephan his lane, Hogs lane, the Sea lane, Saint George his lane, where in old time were builded diuerse old and ancient monuments. And as an insearcher of antiquities may (by the view there to be taken) coniecture, the better part of the suburbs of Dublin should séeme to haue stret|ched that waie. But the inhabitants being dailie and hourelie molested and preided by their prolling mounteine neighbors, were forced to suffer their buildings fall in decaie, and embaied themselues wi [...] in the citie wals.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Among other monuments, there is a place in The old Es|cacar. that lane called now Collets innes, which in old time was the Escacar or E [...]cheker. Which should implie that the princes court would not haue béene kept there, vnlesse the place had béene taken to be cocksure. But in fine it fell out contrarie. For the baron sitting there solemnlie, and as it seemed, retch|les [...]ie: the Irish espieng the oportunitie, rushed into the court in plumps, where surprising the vnweapo|ned multitude, they committed horrible slaughters by sparing none that came vnder their dint; and with|all, as far as their Scarborough leasure could serue them, they ransacke the prince his the saure, vpon which mishap the excheker was from thense remoo|ued. S. George his chappell. There hath beene also in that lane a chappell de|dicated to saint George, likelie to haue béene foun|ded by some worthie knight of the garter. The mai|or with his brethren was accustomed with great tri|umphs and pageants yéerelie on saint George his feast to repaire to that chappell, and there to offer. This chappell hath beene of late razed, and the stones therof by consent of the assemblie turned to a com|mon ouen, conuerting the ancient monument of a doutie, aduenturous, and holie knight, to the cole|rake The bridges. swéeping of a pufloafe baker. The great bridge going to Ostmantowne, saint Nicholas his bridge, the Poule gate bridge, repared by Nicholas Stani|hurst about the yeere one thousand fiue hundred for|tie 1544. & foure, the Castell bridge, S. Iames his bridge.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The castell of Dublin was builded by Henrie The castell. Loundres (sometime archbishop of Dublin, and lord iustice of Ireland) about the yéere of our Lord one thousand two hundred and twentie. This castell 1220. hath beside the gate house foure goodlie and substan|tiall towers, of which one of them is named Ber|mingham Bermingham his tower. his tower, whether it were that one of the Berminghams did inlarge the building thereof, or else that he was long in duresse in that tower. This 1566. castell hath béene of late much beautified with sun|drie and gorgious buildings in the time of sir Hen|rie Sidneie, sometimes lord deputie of Ireland. In the commendation of which buildings an especi|all welwiller of his lordships penned these verses:

Gesta libri referunt multorum clara virorum,
Laudis & in chartis stigmata fixa manent.
Verùm Sidnaei laudes haec saxa loquuntur,
Nec iacet in solis gloria tanta libris.
Si libri pereant, homines remanere valebunt,
Si pereant homines, ligna manere queunt.
Lig náque si pereant, non ergò saxa peribunt,
Saxáque si pereant tempore, tempus erit.
Si pereat tempus, minimè consumitur aeuum,
Quod cum principio, sed sine fine manet.
Dum libri florent, homines dum viuere possunt,
Dum quoque cum lignis saxa manere valent,
Dum remanet tempus, dum denique permanet [...]uum,
Laus tua, Sidnaei, digna perire nequit.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There standeth neere the castell ouer against a void roome called Preston his [...]nnes, a tower named Isouds tower. It tooke the name of la Beale Isoud, Isouds to|wer. daughter to Anguish king of Ireland. It séemeth to haue béene a castle of pleasure for the kings to recre|at themselues therein. Which was not vnlike, con|sidering that a meaner tower might serue such single soule kings as were at those daies in Ireland. There is a village hard by Dublin, called of the said la Chappell Isoud. Beale, chappell Isoud.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Saint Pulchers, the archbishop of Dublin his Saint Pulchers. house, as well pleasantlie sited, as gorgeouslie buil|ded. Some hold opinion, that the beautifuller part of this house was of set purpose fired by an archbishop, to the end the gouernors (which for the more part laie there) should not haue so goodliking to the house: not far disagréeing from the policie that I heard a noble EEBO page image 24 man tell he vsed, who hauing a surpassing good horse, and such a one as ouer ran in a set race other choise horses, did bobtaile him vpon his returne to the sta|ble, least anie of his fréends casting a fantasie to the beast, should craue him. The noble man being so bountifullie giuen, as that of liberalitie he could not, & of discretion he would séeme to giue his fréend the repulse in a more weightie request than that were.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Saint Stephans gréene, Hegging gréene, the The names of the fields adioining to Dublin. Scald|brother. Steine, Ostmantowne gréene. In the further end of this field is there a hole commonlie termed Scald brothers hole, a labyrinth reaching two large miles vnder the earth. This hole was in old time frequen|ted by a notorious théefe named Scaldbrother, wherein he would hide all the bag and baggage that he could pilfer. The varlet was so swift on foot, as he hath estsoones outrun the swiffest and lustiest yoong men in all Ostmantowne, maugre their heads, bea|ring a pot or a pan of theirs on his shoulders to his den. And now and then, in derision of such as pur|sued him, he would take his course vnder the gal|lows, which standeth verie nigh his caue (a fit signe for such an inne) and so being shrowded within his lodge, he reckoned himselfe cocksure, none being found at that time so hardie as would aduenture to intangle himselfe within so intricat a maze. But as the pitcher that goeth often to the water, commeth at length home broken: so this lustie youth would not surcease from open catching, forcible snatching, and priuie prolling, till time he was by certeine gaping groomes that laie in wait for him, intercepted, flée|ing toward his couch, hauing vpon his apprehension no more wrong doone him, than that he was not soo|ner hanged on that gallowes, through which in his Scaldbrother executed. youth and iolitie he was woont to run. There stan|deth in Ostmantowne gréene an hillocke, named little Iohn his shot. The occasion proceeded of this. Litle Iohn.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yéere one thousand one hundred foure score 1189. and nine, there ranged three robbers and outlaws in England, among which Robert Hood and little Iohn were cheefeteins, of all theeues doubtlesse the most courteous. Robert Hood being betraied at a nunrie in Scotland called Bricklies, the remnant of the Robert Hood. crue was scattered, and euerie man forced to shift for himselfe. Wherevpon little Iohn was faine to flée the realme by sailing into Ireland, where he so|iornied for a few daies at Dublin. The citizens be|ing doone to vnderstand the wandering outcast to be an excellent archer, requested him hartilie to trie how far he could shoot at randon: who yéelding to their behest, stood on the bridge of Dublin, and shot to that mole hill, leauing behind him a monument, ra|ther by his posteritie to be woondered, than possiblie by anie man liuing to be counterscored. But as the repaire of so notorious a champion to anie countrie would soone be published, so his abode could not be long concealed: and therefore to eschew the danger of lawes, he fled into Scotland, where he died at a towne or village called Morauie. Gerardus Mer| [...]ator Little Iohn deceased. in his cosmographie affirmeth, that in the same towne the bones of an huge and mightie man are kept, which was called little Iohn, among which bones, the hucklebone or hipbone was of such large|nesse, as witnesseth Hector Boetius, that he thrust his arme through the hole thereof. And the same bone being suted to the other parts of his bodie, did argue the man to haue béene fourteene foot long, which was a pretie length for a little Iohn. Whereby appeereth that he was called little Iohn ironicallie, like as we terme him an honest man whom we take for a knaue in graine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Neere to the citie of Dublin are the foure ancient manors annexed to the crowne, which are named The king his land. to this daie, the Kings land; to wit, Newcastell, Massaggard, Eschire, and Crumlin. The manor of Crumlin Crumlm paieth a greater chéefe rent to the prince than anie of the other thrée, which procéeded of this. The seneschall being offended with the tenants for their misdemeanor, tooke them vp verie sharplie in the court, and with rough and minatorie spéeches be|gan to menace them. The lobbish and desperat clob|beriousnesse, taking the matter in dudgeon, made no more words, but knockt their seneschall on the co|stard, and left him there spralling on the ground for dead. For which detestable murther their rent was inhansed, and they paie at this daie nine pence an acre, which is double to anie of the other thrée ma|nors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Waterford was founded by Sitaracus (as is Waterford. aforesaid) in the yeere one hundred fiftie and fiue. Ptolome nameth it Manapia, but whie he appropria|teth Manapia that name to this citie, neither dooth he declare, nor I ghesse. This citie is properlie builded, and verie well compact, somewhat close by reason of their thicke buildings and narrow stréets. The hauen is passing good, by which the citizens through the inter|course of forren traffike in short space atteine to a|bundance of wealth. The soile about it is not all of the best, by reason of which the aire is not verie sub|till, yea nathelesse the sharpnesse of their wittes sée|meth to be nothing rebated or duld by reason of the grossenesse of the aire. For in good sooth the townes|men, and namelie students are pregnant in concei|uing, quicke in taking, and sure in kéeping. The citizens are verie héedie and warie in all their pub|like affaires, slow in the determining of matters of weight, louing to looke yer they leape. In choosing their magistrate, they respect not onlie his riches, but also they weigh his experience. And therefore they elect for their maior neither a rich man that is yoong, nor an old man that is poore. They are chéerfull in the interteinment of strangers, hartle one to another, nothing giuen to factions. They loue no idle bench|whistlers, nor luskish faitors: for yoong and old are wholie addicted to thriuing, the men commonlie to traffike, the women to spinning and carding. As they distill the best Aqua vitae, so they spin the choisest rug in Ireland. A fréend of mine being of late de|murrant in London, and the weather by reason of an hard hoare frost being somwhat nipping, repaired to Paris garden, clad in one of these Waterford rugs. The mastifs had no sooner espied him, but dée|ming he had béene a beare, would faine haue baited him. And were it not that the dogs were partlie muz|led, and partlie chained, he doubted not, but that he should haue béene well tugd in this Irish rug; where|vpon he solemnlie vowed neuer to see beare baiting in anie such wéed. The citie of Waterford hath con|tinued to the crowne of England so loiall, that it is not found registred since the conquest to haue béene distained with the smallest spot, or dusked with the least freckle of treason; notwithstanding the sundrie assaults of traitorous attempts: and therefore the ci|ties armes are deckt with this golden word, Intacta The posie of Waterford. manet: a posie as well to be hartilie followed, as greatlie admired of all true and loiall townes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Limerike called in Latine Limericum was buil|ded Limerike. by Yuorus, as is before mentioned, about the yéere one hundred fiftie and fiue. This citie coasteth Sennan the riuer of Li|merike. on the sea hard vpon the riuer Sennan, whereby are most notablie seuered Mounster and Connaght: the Irish name this citie Loumneagh, and thereof in English it is named Limerike. The towne is Limerike whie so called. planted in an Iland, which plot in old time, before the building of the citie was stored with grasse. During which time it happened, that one of the Irish po|tentates, raising warre against another of his peers, EEBO page image 25 incamped in that Ile, hauing so great a troope of horssemen, as the horsses eate vp the grasse in foure and twentie houres. Wherevpon for the notorious number of horses, the place is called Loum ne augh; that is, the horse bare, or a place made bare or eaten vp by horses. The verie maine sea is thrée score miles distant from the towne, and yet the riuer is so nauigable, as a ship of two hundred tuns may saile to the keie of the citie. The riuer is termed in Irish Shaune amne, that is, the old riuer; for shaune is old, & amne is a riuer, deducted of the Latine word Amnis. The building of Limerike is sumptuous and substantiall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Corke, in Latine Coracium, or Corracium, the fourth citie of Ireland happilie planted on the sea. Their ha|uen Corke. is an hauen roiall. On the land side they are in|combred with euill neighbors, the Irish outlaws, that they are faine to watch their gates hourlie, to kéepe them shut at seruice times, at meales from sun to sun, nor suffer anie stranger to enter the citie with his weapon, but the same to leaue at a lodge appoin|ted. They walke out at seasons for recreation with power of men furnished. They trust not the coun|trie adioining, but match in wedlocke among them|selues onelie, so that the whole citie is welnigh lin|ked one to the other in affinitie. Drogheda, accoun|ted the best towne in Ireland, and trulie not far be|hind Drogheda. some of their cities. The one moitie of this towne is in Meth, the other planted on the further side of the water lieth in Ulster. There runneth a blind prophesie on this towne, that Rosse was, Du|blin is, Drogheda shall be the best of the three.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Rosse, an hauen towne in Mounster not far from Waterford, which séemeth to haue béene in ancient Rosse. time a towne of great port. Whereof sundrie & pro|bable coniectures are giuen, as well by the old dit|ches that are now a mile distant from the wals of Rosse, betweene which wals and ditches the reliks of the ancient wals, gates, and towers, placed be|tweene both are yet to be seene. The towne is buil|ded in a barren soile, and planted among a crue of naughtie and prolling neighbours. And in old time when it florished, albeit the towne were sufficientlie peopled, yet as long as it was not compassed with wals, they were formed with watch & ward, to keepe it from the gréedie snatching of the Irish enimies. With whome as they were generallie molested, so the priuat cousening of one pezzant on a sudden, in|censed them to inuiron their towne with strong and substantiall wals. There repaired one of the Irish to this towne on horssebacke, & espieng a peece of cloth on a merchants stall, tooke hold thereof, and bet the cloth to the lowest price he could. As the merchant and he stood dodging one with the other in cheaping the ware, the horsseman considering that he was well mounted, and that the merchant and he had growne to a price, made wise as though he would haue drawne to his purse, to haue defraied the mo|nie. The cloth in the meane while being tucked vp and placed before him, he gaue the spur to his horsse and ran awaie with the cloth, being not imbard from his posting pase, by reason the towne was not per|closed either with ditch or wall. The townesmen be|ing piched at the heart, that one rascall in such scornefull wise should giue them the slampaine, not so much weieng the slendernesse of the losse, as the shamefulnesse of the foile, they put their heads togi|ther, consulting how to preuent either the sudden ru|shing, or the post hast flieng of anie such aduenturous rakeheil hereafter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In which consultation a famous Dido, a chast wi|dow, Ro [...]e, of Rosse. a politike dame, a bountifull gentlewoman, called Rose, who representing in sinceritie of life the swéetnesse of that hearbe whose name she bare, vn|folded the deuise, how anie such future mischance should be preuented: and withall opened hir coffers liberallie, to haue it furthered: two good properties in a councellor. Hir deuise was, that the towne should incontinentlie be inclosed with wals, & there|withall promised to discharge the charges, so that they would not sticke to find out labourers. The de|uise of this worthie matrone being wise, and the of|fer liberall, the townesmen agreed to follow the one, and to put their helping hands to the atchiuing of the other. The worke was begun, which thorough the multitude of hands séemed light. For the whole towne was assembled, tag and rag, cut and long taile: none exempted, but such as were bedred and impotent. Some were tasked to delue, others ap|pointed with mattocks to dig, diuerse allotted to the vnheaping of rubbish, manie bestowed to the ca|riage of stones, sundrie occupied in tempering of morter, the better sort busied in ouerséeing the work|men, ech one according to his vocation imploied, as though the ciuitie of Carthage were afresh in buil|ding, as it is featlie verified by the golden poet Vir|gil, and neatlie Englished by master doctor Phaer.

The Moores with courage went to worke, some vnder burdens grones:
Some at the wals and towrs with hands were tumbling vp the stones.
Some measurd out a place to build their mansion house within:
Some lawes and officers to make in parlment did begin.
An other had an hauen cast, and deepe they trench the ground,
Some other for the games and plaies a statelie place had found.
And pillers great they cut for kings, to garnish foorth their wals.
And like as bees among the flours, when fresh the summer fals,
In shine of sunne applie their worke, when growne is vp their yoong:
Or when their hiues they gin to stop, and honie sweet is sproong,
That all their caues and cellars close with dulcet liquor fils,
Some doo outlade, some other bring the stuffe with readie wils.
Sometime they ioine, and all at once doo from their mangers fet
The slothfull drones, that would consume, and nought would doo to get.
The worke it heats, the honie smels of flours and thime ywet.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to returne from Dido of Carthage, to Rose of Rosse, and hir worke. The labourers were so ma|nie, the worke, by reason of round and excheker pai|ment, so well applied, the quarrie of faire marble so néere at hand (for they affirme, that out of the tren|ches and ditches hard by their rampiers, the stones were had: and all that plot is so stonie, that the foun|dation is an hard rocke) that these wals with diuerse braue turrets were suddenlie mounted, and in man|ner sooner finished, than to the Irish enimies noti|fied: which I wisse was no small corsie to them. These wals in circuit are equall to London wals. It hath three gorgeous gates, Bishop his gate, on the east side: Algate, on the east southeast side: and South|gate, on the south part. This towne was no more fa|moused for these wals, than for a notable woodden bridge that stretched from the towne vnto the other side of the water, which must haue béene by reasona|ble surueie twelue score, if not more. Diuerse of the poales, logs, and stakes, with which the bridge was vnderpropt, sticke to this daie in the water. A man EEBO page image 26 would hére suppose, that so flourishing a towne, so firmelie builded, so substantiallie walied, so well peo|pled, so plentiouslie with thrifstie artificers stored, would not haue fallen to anie sudden decaie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But as the secret and deepe iudgements of God [...]. are veiled within the couerture of his diuine maie|st [...], so it standeth not with the dulnesse of man his wit, to beat his braines in the curious insearching of hidden mysteries. Wherefore I, as an historian vndertaking in this treatise, rather plainelie to de|clare what was doone, than rashlie to inquire why it should be doone: purpose, by God his assistance, to accomplish, as neere as I can, my dutie in the one, leauing the other to the friuolous deciding of busie heads. This Rose, who was the foundresse of these former rehearsed wals, had issue thrée sonnes (how|beit some hold opinion, that they were but hir ne|phues) who being bolstered out thorough the wealth of their moother, and supported by their traffike, made diuerse prosperous voiages into forren countries. But as one of the thrée chapmen was imploied in his traffike abroad, so the prettie peplet his wife be|gan to be a fresh occupieng giglot at home, and by re|port fell so farre acquainted with a religious cloiste|rer of the towne, as that he gat within the lining of hir smocke. Both the parties wallowing ouer|long in the stinking puddle of adulterie, suspicion be|gan to créepe in some townesmens brains: and to b [...] briefe, it came so farre. thorough the iust iudge|ment of God, to light, whether it were that she was with child in hir husband his absence, or that hir lo|uer vsed hir fondlie in open presence, as the presump|tion was not onelie vehement, but also the fact too apparent: hir vnfortunat husband had no sooner no|tice giuen him vpon his returne of these sorowfull newes, than his fingers began to nibble, his teeth to grin, his eies to trickle, his eares to dindle, his head to dazell, insomuch as his heart being scared with gelousie, and his wits installed thorough phrensie, he The pangs o [...] gelousie. became as mad as a March hare.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But how heauilie soeuer hir husband tooke it, dame Rose and all hir friends (which were in effect all the townesmen, for that she was their common benefactresse) were galled at their hearts, as well to heare of the enormious adulterie, as to sée the bed|lem pangs of brainsicke gelousie. Wherevpon di|uerse of the townesmen grunting and grudging at the matter, said that the fact was horrible, and that it were a deed of charitie vtterlie to grub awaie such wild shrubs from the towne: and if this were in a|nie dispunishable wise raked vp in the ashes, they should no sooner trauerse the seas, than some other would inkindle the like fire afresh, and so conse|quentlie dishonest their wiues, and make their hus|bands to become changelings, as being turned from sober mood to be hornewood, because rutting wiues make often rammish husbands, as our prouerb dooth inferre. Others soothing their fellowes in these muti|nies turned the priuat iniurie vnto a publike quar|rell, and a number of the townesmen conspiring togither flocked in the dead of the night, well ap|pointed, to the abbeie, wherein the frier was cloi|stered (the monument of which abbeie is yet to be séene at Rosse on the south side) where vnderspar|ring the gates, and bearing vp the dormitorie doore, they stabbed the adulterer with the rest of the co|uent thorough with their weapons. Where they left them goaring in their bloud, roaring in their cab|bins and gasping vp their flitting ghosts in their couches.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The vprore was great, and they to whome the slaughter before hand was not imparted, were won|derfullie the reat astonied. But in especiall the rem|nant of the cleargie bare verie hollow hearts to the townesmen; and how freendlie their outward coun|tenances were, yet they would not with inward thought forget nor forgiue so horrible a murther, but were fullie resolued, whensoeuer oportunitie ser|ued them, to sit in their skirts, by making them soulfe as sorowfull a kyrie. These thrée brethren not long after this bloudie exploit, sped them into some out|landish countrie to continue their trade. The religi|ous men being doone to vnderstand, as it seemed, by some of their neighbors, which foresailed them home|ward, that these thrée brethren were readie to be im|barked, slunkt priuilie out of the towne, and resor|ted to the mouth of the hauen, néere a castell, named Hulke tower, which is a notable marke for pilots, in Hulke tower. directing them which waie to sterne their ships, and to eschew the danger of the craggie rocks there on euerie side of the shore peking. Some iudge that the said Rose was foundresse of this tower, and of pur|pose did build it for the safetie of hir children, but at length it turned to their bane. For these reuengers nightlie did not misse to laie a lanterne on the top of the rocks, that were on the other side of the water. Which practise was not long by them continued, when these three passengers bering saile with a lustie gale of wind, made right vpon the lanterne, not doubting, but it had béene the Hulke tower. But they tooke their marke so farre amisse, as they were not ware, till time their ship was dasht and pasht a|gainst the rocks, and all the passengers ouerwhirled in the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This heauie hap was not so sorowfull vnto the townesmen, as it was gladsome to the religious, thinking that they had in part cried them acquit|tance, the more that they, which were drowned, were the archbrochers of their brethrens bloud. Howbeit they would not crie hoa here, but sent in post some of their couent to Rome, where they inhansed the slaughter of the fraternitie so heinouslie, and concea|led their owne prankes so couertlie, as the pope ex|commenged the towne, the towne accurssed the fri|ers: so that there was such curssing and banning of all hands, and such dissentious hurlie burlie raised betwéene themselues, as the estate of that flourish|ing towne was turned arsie versie, topside the other|waie, and from abundance of prosperitie quite ex|changed to extreame penurie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The wals stand to this daie, a few streets and hou|ses The present estate of Rosse in the towne, no small parcell thereof is turned to orchards and gardens. The greater part of the towne is stéepe and steaming vpward. Their church is called Christs church, in the north side whereof is placed a monument called the king of Denmarke his toome: whereby coniecture may rise, that the Danes were founders of that church. This Rosse New Rosse, old Rosse. is called Rosse Noua, or Rosse Ponti, by reason of their bridge. That which they call old Rosse, beareth east thrée miles from this Rosse, into the countrie of Weisford, an ancient manour of the earle of Kil|dares. Rosse I|barcan. There is the third Rosse on the other side of the water, called Rosse Ibarcan, so named, for that it standeth in the countrie of Kilkennie, which is diuided into thrée parts, into Ibircan, Ida, & I|douth. Weisford a hauen towne not far from Rosse, Weisford. I find no great matters thereof recorded, but onelie that it is to be had in great price of all the English posteritie, planted in Ireland, as a towne that was the first fostresse and harboresse of the English con|querors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Kilkennie, the best vplandish towne, or (as they Kilkennie. terme it) the properest drie town in Ireland, it is par|ted into the high towne, and the Irish towne. The Irish towne claimeth a corporation apart from the high towne, whereby great factions grow dailie be|twéene the inhabitants. True it is, that the Irish EEBO page image 27 towne is the ancienter, and was called the old Kil|kennie, being vnder the bishop his becke, as they are or ought to be at this present. The high towne was builded by the English after the conquest, and had a parcell of the Irish towne thereto vnited, by the bi|shop his grant, made vnto the founders vpon their earnest request. In the yeare 1400, Robert Talbot 1400 Robert Talbot. a worthie gentleman, inclosed with wals the better part of this towne, by which it was greatlie fortified. This gentleman deceased in the yeare 1415. In this towne in the chore of the frier preachers, Willi|am Marshall earle marshall and earle of Penbroke William Marshall. was buried, who departed this life in the yeare 1231. Richard brother to William, to whome the inheri|tance descended, within thrée yeares after deceased at Kilkennie, being wounded to death in a field gi|uen in the heath of Kildare, in the yeare 1234, the twelfe of Aprill, and was intoomed with his bro|ther, 1234 according to the old epitaph héere mentioned:

Hîc comes est positus Richardus vulnere fossus,
Cuius sub fossa Kilkenia continet ossa.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This towne hath thrée churches, saint Kennies The churches of Kilkennie. church, our ladies church, aliàs S. Maries church; and S. Patrikes church, with the abbeie of S. Iohn. S. Kennies church is their chéefe and cathedrall church, a worthie foundation as well for gorgeous buildings, as for notable liuings. In the west end of the church|yard of late haue beene founded a grammar schoole by the right honorable Pierce or Peter Butler erle The gram|mer shcoole. P [...]ce Bu [...]er. M [...]rgaret Fitzgerald. of Ormond and Ossorie, and by his wife the coun|tesse of Ormond, the ladie Margaret fitz Gerald, sister to Girald fitz Girald the earle of Kildare that last was. Out of which schoole haue sprouted such pro|per impes, through the painefull diligence, and the laboursome industrie of a famous lettered man M. Peter White (sometime fellow of Oriall college in Peter White. Oxford, and schoole maister in Kilkennie) as general|lie the whole weale publike of Ireland, and especial|lie the southerne parts of that Iland are greatlie thereby furthered. This gentlemans method in trai|ning vp youth was rare and singular, framing the education according to the scholers veine. If he found him frée, he would bridle him like a wise Iso|crates from his booke; if he perceiued him to be dull, he would spur him forward; if he vnderstood that he were the woorse for beating, he would win him with rewards: finallie, by interlasing studie with recrea|tion, sorrow with mirth, paine with pleasure, sower|nesse with sweetnesse, roughnesse with mildnesse, he had so good successe in schooling his pupils, as in good sooth I may boldlie bide by it, that in the realme of Ireland was no grammar schoole so good, in Eng|land I am well assured none better. And bicause it was my happie hap (God and my parents be than|ked) to haue béene one of his crue, I take it to stand with my dutie, sith I may not stretch mine abilitie in requiting his good turnes, yet to manifest my good will in remembring his paines. And certes, I ac|knowledge my selfe so much bound and beholding to him and his, as for his sake I reuerence the meanest stone cemented in the wals of that famous schoole. This towne is named Kilkennie, of an holie and Kilkennie [...] so cal|led. The life of Kanicus. learned abbat called Kanicus, borne in the countie of Kilkennie, or (as it is in some bookes recorded) in Connaght. This prelat being in his suckling yeres fostered, through the prouidence of God, with the milke of a cow, and baptized and bishoped by one Lu|racus, thereto by Gods especiall appointment depu|ted, grew in tract of time to such deuotion and lear|ning, as he was reputed of all men to be as well a mirrour of the one, as a paragon of the other: where|of he gaue sufficient coniecture in his minoritie. For being turned to the kéeping of sheepe, and his fellow shéepheards, wholié yéelding themselues like lus [...]ish vagabunds to slouth and sluggishnesse, yet would he still find himselfe occupied in framing with osiars and twigs, little wodden churches, and in fashioning the furnitures thereto apperteining. Being stept further in yeares, he made his repaire into Eng|land, where cloistering himselfe in an abbeie, wherof one named Doctus was abbat, he was wholie wed|ded to his booke, and to deuotion: wherein he conti|nued so painefull and diligent, as being on a certeine time penning a serious matter, and hauing not ful|lie drawne the fourth vocall, the abbeie bell tingd to assemble the couent to some spirituall exercise. To which he so hastened, as he left the letter in semicir|clewise vnfinished, vntill he returned backe to his booke. Soone after being promoted to ecclesiasticall orders, he trauelled by the consent of his fellow moonks to Rome, and in Italie he gaue such mani|fest proofe of his pietie, as to this daie in some parts thereof he is highlie renowmed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thomas towne, a proper towne builded in the Thomas towne. Thomas Fitzantonie. countie of Kilkennie, by one Thomas Fitzantonie an Englishman. The Irish thereof name it Ballie mac Andan: that is, the towne of Fitzantonie. This gentleman had issue two daughters, the one of them was espoused to Denne, the other married to Archdeacon, or Mackodo, whose heires haue at this daie the towne betwéene them in coparcenarie. But bicause the reader may sée in what part of the countrie the cities and cheefe townes stand, I take it not far amisse to place them in order as insueth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Drogheda, Carregfargus, Downe, Armagh, Ar|glash, The names of the cheefe townes in Ulster. Cloagher, Muneighan, Doonnegaule, Karreg mac Rosse, Newrie, Carlingford, Ardie, Doon|dalke, Louth. Dublin, Bulrudrie, Luske, Swords, The names of the cheefe townes in Leinster. Tashaggard, Lions, Newcastle, Rathcoule, Ough|terarde, Naas, Clane, Mainooth, Kilcocke, Ra|thaimgan, Kildare, Luianne, Castletowne, Philips towne, Mariborough, Kilcullen, Castle Marten, Thistledermot, Kilca, Athie, Catherlaugh, Leighe|len, Gauranne, Thomas towne, Enestiocke, Ca|shelle, Callanne, Kilkennie, Knocktofer, Rosse, Clonmelle, Weiseford, Fernes, Fidderd, Enescor|tie, Tathmon, Wickloa, Ackloa. Waterford, Lis|more, Doongaruan, Yoghill, Corke, Limerike, Chéefe towns in Mounster. Kilmallocke. Aloane, Galuoie, Anrie, Louaghriagh, Chéefe towns in Connaght. Clare, Toame, Sligagh, Rossecomman, Arctlowne. Trimme, Doonshaghlenne, Rathlouth, Nauanne, Chéefe towns in Meeth. Abooie, Scrine, Taraugh, Kemles, Doonboine, Gréenocke, Duléeke. Molingare, Fowre, Lough|seude, Chéefe towns in westméeth. Kilkeniwest, Moilagagh, Deluinne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the foure and thirtith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the eight, it was enacted in a parlement 1542 holden at Dubline before sir Anthonie Sentleger knight, lord deputie of Ireland, that Méeth should be diuided and made two shires, one of them to be cal|led the countie of Meeth, the other to be called the countie of Westméeth, and that there should be two shiriffes and officers conuenient within the same shires, as is more exprest in the act.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Loughfoile, the Banne, Wolderfrith, Crareg|fergus, The names of the chiefe hauen towns in Ireland. Strangford, Ardglas, Lougheuen, Car|lingford, Kilkeale, Dundalke, Kilclogher, Dunane, Drogheda, Houlepatrike, Nanie, Baltraie, Bri|more, Balbriggen, Roggers towne, Skerrish, Rush, Malahide, Banledoo [...]le, Houth, Dublin, Dal|kée, Wickincloa, Arckloa, Weisford, Bagganbun, the Passage, Waterford, Dungaruan, Rosse noua, Youghille, Corke mabegge, Corke, Kinsale, Kierie, Rosse Ilbere, Dorrie, Baltinimore, Downenere, Downeshead, Downelounge, Attannanne, Crag|hanne, Downenebwme, Balineskililiedge, Dau|gine Ichouse, Tralie, Seninne, Cassanne, Kilne|wine, Limerike, Inniskartée, Belalenne, Arine|newme, Glanemaugh, Balliweiham, Binwarre, EEBO page image 28 Dowris, Woran, Roskam, Galwaie, Killinillie, Innesbofinne, Owran, Moare, Kilcolken, Burske, Belleclare, Rathesilbene, Bierweisowre, Buraueis hare, Ardne makow, Rosbare, Kilgolinne, Wal|lalele, Rabranne, Strone, Burweis now, Zaltra, Kalbalie, Ardnocke, Adrowse, Sligaghe, Innes Bowsenne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Cambrensis obserued in his time, that when the Camd. lib. 1. top. dist. 2. rub. 3. & 4. sea dooth eb at Dublin, it ebbeth also at Bristow, and floweth at Milford and Weisford. At Wickloa the sea ebbeth when in all other parts it commonlie floweth. Furthermore this he noted, that the riuer which runneth by Wickloa vpon a low eb is salt, but in Arckloa the next hauen towne, the riuer is fresh when the sea is at full. He writeth also, that not far from Arckloa standeth a rocke, and when the sea eb|beth in one side thereof, it floweth in the other side as fast. Cambrensis insearcheth diuerse philosophicall reasons in finding out the cause, by obseruing the course of the moone, who is the empresse of moisture. But those subtilties I leaue for the schoolestréets.