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Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Lorde Chamberlaine ſtood ſtill.The other part of the Scottiſh hoſt, whereof Alexander Hume Lorde Chamberlaine had the gouernaunce, although he ſawe where the other Scottiſhmen were in daunger and cloſed in on e|uery ſide, yet would he not once remoue one foote forwarde out of the place (where he ſtood) to ayde them. Moreouer the lack of diſcretion in the king which would needes runne vpon his owne death, amazed the mindes of all men, and brought them into ſuch a perplexitie, that they knewe not what to do, but looked one vpon another without ſtyr|ring to or fro, as thoſe that were in dyſpayre now after the death of their king to recouer the victorie, which by ſo ſtrange a chaunce, ſeemed as it were ſlipped out of their handes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The Lorde Chamberlaine beareth the blame.Howbeit the Lorde Chamberlaine bare the moſt blame, for that he did not cauſe a new onſet to be giuen. But it happened well for the Eng|liſh men: for if king Iames had ordered himſelfe wiſely in this battaile, or that after he was ſlain, a newe furie had moued the Scottes to haue re|nued the fight in reuenge of the kings death, as had beene expedient, the victorie vndoubtedly had beene theirs (as was thought by men of great vn|derſtanding.The Engliſh men thanked God for this noble victorie.) Wherevpon the Engliſh men re|membring howe manifeſtly Gods goodneſſe ap|peared towards thẽ in this battail, cõfeſſed them|ſelues long after bounde to God for their ſafetie and deliuerance out of that preſent danger. The fight began about foure of the clocke in the after noone, and cõtinued three houres, in the which .xv.15000. men ſlaine. M. men were ſlaine on both partes: and of that nũber a third part at the leaſt was of Engliſhmẽ, (as was credibly reported) but (as our Engliſhe writers affyrme) there died of Engliſh men not paſt .xv. hundred, but yet the Scottiſh men holde, that there died more of the Engliſh men than of their nation at this field, and that many thought it was not the bodye of King Iames whiche the Engliſhmen found in the field and toke it for his, but rather an other Scottiſh mans corps, called the Laird of Bonehard, who was alſo ſlain there. And it was affyrmed by ſundry, that the K. was ſeene the ſame night aliue at Kelſo: and ſo it was commonly thought that he was liuing lõg after, and that he paſſed the ſeas into other Countreys, namely to Ieruſalem to viſite the holy ſepulchre, and ſo to driue forth the reſidue of his days, in do|ing penance for his former paſſed offences: but he appeared not in Scotland after as king, no more than Charles Duke of Burgoine did appeare in his coũtreys after the battail of Nancie, although his people had the like vaine opinion that he eſca|ped from that diſcomfiture aliue.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But now to returne to the truth of the matter where we left. In the night following after this terrible battaile,The Scottiſh men returne home againe. the reſidue of the Scottiſh armie returned homewardes the ſame way they came, waſting & ſpoyling the Engliſh borders as they paſſed. At their comming home,They were re|uiled of theyr owne people. euery man ſpake euil of thẽ, for that as cowards & naughtie perſõs, they neyther ſought to reuenge the death of their noble king, nor yet to ſuccor their felowes yt were beaten downe and ſlaine before their faces. But namely Alexander Hume Lorde Chamberlaine was reproued, as cauſe of all that miſchiefe, which behaued himſelfe not as a captaine, but as a tray|tor or enimie to his countrey.

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1.7. King Iames his quarell vnto the earle of Surrie.

King Iames his quarell vnto the earle of Surrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _WHere it is alledged that we are come into England against our bond and promise, thereto we an|swer: that our brother was bound as farre to vs as we were to him, and when we sware last before his ambas|sadors in presence of our councell, we ex|pressed speciallie in our oth, that we would keepe to our brother, if our brother kept to vs, and not else. We sweare that our bro|ther brake first to vs, and of his breach we required him diuers times of amends: and latelie we warned him, as he did not vs yet we brake. And this we take for our quarell, and by Gods grace shall defend the same at your affixed time, which with Gods helpe we shall abide. ¶ Thus was the king verie desirous to trie the matter by battell, al|though the wisest sort of his nobles wished not that he should doo anie thing ouer rashlie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There chanced also manie things taken (as yée would say) for warnings of some great mischance Prodigious chances. to follow, which though some reputed but as vaine and casuall haps; yet the impression of them bred a certeine religious feare and new terror in his heart. For as he was in councell with his lords, to vnder|stand their opinions touching the order of his bat|tels, there was an hare start amongst them, which hauing a thousand arrowes, daggers, and other kind An hare. of things bestowed at hir, with great noise and show|ting, yet she escaped from them all safe and without hurt. The same night also, mise had gnawne in sunder the buckle and leather of his helmet where|with The buckle leather of his helmet gnawn with mise. The cloth of his tent of bloodie colour. he should fasten the same to his hed. And more|ouer, the cloth or veile of his inner tent (as is said) about the breake of the day, appeared as though the deawie moisture thereof had béene of a bloudie colour.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Herevpon the king keeping himselfe within his tent, the earle of Surrie constreined by necessitie to séeke all waies whereby to traine the king downe from the hill where he was lodged, remooued his campe towards the hils of Floddon, where the king The English campe remoo|ued by the earle. of Scots laie incamped [...] and on the ninth day of September passed the water of Till at Twisell bridge; the rereward going ouer at Milford, put|ting themselues as néere as they could betwixt the Scotish campe and Scotland. King Iames percei|uing the Englishmen to passe the water, iudged that they had ment to win an hill that laie betwixt them and his campe, and therefore to preuent them, he caused his field to be raised, and fier to be set on The Scots campe remoo|ued also. the litter & cabins which they had made of boughs, and so with all spéed remooued to the other hill, be|ing gotten thither yer the English men could per|ceiue him to be remooued out of his former lod|gings, bicause the smoke of the fiers which the Scots had made, couered all the countrie betwixt the two armies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane while were the Englishmen ad|uanced to the foot of Floddon hill, hauing thereby Aduantage gotten by the ground. gotten double aduantage: for the Scotish ordinance could not much annoie them in marching vpwards vnder the leuill thereof, and they againe might gall the Scots in shooting off at them, as they came downewards vpon them. For king Iames hauing King Iames his prectise. disappointed the Englishmen of the hill, thought ve|relie it should be an easie matter for him to ouer|throw them, which being put beside the place where they intended (as he thought) to haue camped, would neuer abide the countenance of his puissant armie, if he might atteine to ioine with them. Therefore the Scotish armie [after they had appointed the same into thrée wards, whereof (as saith Lesleus) the earle Fr. Thin. of Huntleie and the lord Hume led the right wing, the left had the earle of Crawford and Montrosse; and the king himselfe kept the middle ward, with the earles of Argile and Lennox] making downwards, incountered with the English host néere to the foot of the mounteine called Branxton, and first sir Ed|mund Haward leading one of the out wings of the English armie, hauing with him thrée thousand Sir Edmund Haward was fiercelie as|sailed. men, being fiercelie assailed by the Scots on foot, hauing speares and long weapons, and also by cer|teine horssemen, was in the end discomfited, and his people beaten downe and put to flight, so that being of them for saken, he was constreined to follow. But yet he and diuerse other which escaped, ioined them|selues to the next battell as well as they might. This so prosperous a beginning, who would thinke A good begin|ning had an euill ending. should haue turned to the losse of the Scots part, and aduancement of the English side. But so it came to passe, for king Iames no sooner saw that wing of the English host ouerthrowne and discomfited, but that he déemed how all the whole power of the English|men King Iames deceiued him|selfe and aligh ted from his horsse. had béene fléeing away: and therfore alighting beside his horsse, and commanding those that were a|bout him to follow, prepared himselfe to pursue the chase.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 His capteins did what they could by words to re|mooue The capteins good counsell not regarded. him from his purpose, declaring to him the dutie of a prince: which is not rashlie to enter the fight, but to prouide and sée that euerie thing be doone in order: and whereas comming to trie the matter by hand blowes, he can doo no more than another man; yet keeping his place as apperteineth to his person, he may be woorth manie thousands of other. The king nothing mooued with these exhortations, breaking his arraie of battell, with a companie of noble men, rushed forward into the fore ward, where The kings hardinesse marred all. accomplishing the office of a footman, he found the Englishmen not fléeing, but manfullie standing at EEBO page image 301 resistance, so that there was a right hard incounter, and manie arrowes shot on euerie side, and great hurt doone therewith.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At length sir Edward Stanlie with the reregard of the Englishmen came fiercelie downe from the Sir Edward Stanlie inua [...]d the backe of the rere|gard. hill of Branxton, vpon the backe of the kings armie, wherein they fought cruellie on both parts for a long space; but at length the victorie inclined to the Eng|lishmen. For the king himselfe was there beaten downe and slaine, with all that whole battell which first entered the fight. The other part of the Scotish King Iames [...]aine. host, whereof Alexander Hume lord chamberlaine had the gouernance, although he saw where the other The lord chamberlaine [...]ood still. Scotishmen were in danger, and closed in on euerie side, yet would he not once remooue one foot forward out of the place (where he stood) to aid them. Moreo|uer, the lacke of discretion in the king, which would needs run vpon his owne death, amazed the minds of all men, and brought them into such perplexitie, that they knew not what to doo; but looked one vpon another without stirring to or fro, as those that were in despaire now after the death of their king to reco|uer the victorie, which by so strange a chance séemed as it were slipped out of their hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit, the lord chamberlaine bare the most blame, for that he did not cause a new onset to be gi|uen. The lord chamberlaine beareth the blame. But it happened well for the Englishmen: for if king Iames had ordered himselfe wiselie in this battell, or that after he was slaine, a new furie had mooued the Scots to haue renewed the fight in re|uenge of the kings death, as had beene expedient, the victorie vndoubtedlie had béene theirs (as was thought by men of great vnderstanding.) Where|vpon the Englishmen remembring how manifest|lie The English men thanked God for this noble victorie. Gods goodnesse appeared towards them in this battell, confessed themselues long after bound to God for their safetie and deliuerance out of that pre|sent danger. The fight began about foure of the clocke in the after noone, and continued thrée houres, 5000. Buchan. 15000 men slaine. in the which fiftéene thousand men were slaine on both parts: and of that number a third part at the least was of Englishmen (as was crediblie repor|ted) but (as our English writers affirme) there died of Englishmen not past fiftéene hundred.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But yet the Scotishmen hold, that there died more of the Englishmen than of their nation at this field, and that manie thought it was not the bodie of king Iames which the Englishmen found in the field, and tooke it for his; but rather an other Scotish mans corps, called the lard of Bonehard, who was also slaine there. And it was affirmed by sundrie, that the king was seene the same night aliue at Kel|so: and so it was commonlie thought that he was liuing long after, and that he passed the seas into o|ther countries, namelie to Ierusalem to visit the ho|lie sepulchre, and so to driue foorth the residue of his daies, in dooing penance for his former passed offen|ses: but he appeared not in Scotland after as king, no more than Charles duke of Burgognie did ap|peare in his countries after the battell of Nancie, although his people had the like vaine opinion that he escaped from that discomfiture aliue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now to returne to the truth of the matter where we left. In the night folowing after this terri|ble battell, the residue of the Scotish armie retur|ned The Scotish men returne [...]ome againe. homewards the same way they came, wasting and spoiling the English borders as they passed. At their comming home, euerie man spake euill of them, for that as towards and naughtie persons, They were re [...]led of their [...]ne people. they neither sought to reuenge the death of their no|ble king, nor yet to succour their fellowes that were beaten downe and slaine before their faces. But namelie Alexander Hume lord chamberlaine was repr [...]ued, as cause of all that mischiefe, which beha|ued himselfe not as a capte [...]ne, but as a traitor or enimie to his countrie. Fr. Thin. Buchan. li: 13 Upon the honor of this victorie, Thomas Haward earle of Surrie (as a note of the conquest) gaue to his seruants this cog|nisance (to weare on their left arme) which was a white lion (the beast which he before bare as the pro|per ensigne of that house) standing ouer a red lion (the peculiar note of the kingdome of Scotland) and tearing the same red lion with his pawes.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Thus haue you heard how through rashnesse and lacke of skilfull order, the Scotish armie was ouer|come, and that worthie prince king Iames the fourth brought to his fatall end, on the ninth day of September, in the twentie and fift yéere of his reigne, and thirtie and ninth of his age, which was in the yéere from the incarnation 1513. For his poli|tike gouernment and due administration of iustice, which he exercised during the time of his reigne, hée deserued to be numbred amongest the best princes that euer reigned ouer the Scotish nation. All theft, reiffe, murther, and robberie ceassed in his daies, by The sauage people refor|med them|selues. such rigorous execution of lawes penall as he cau|sed to be exercised through all the bounds of Scot|land: insomuch that the sauage people of the out Iles sorted themselues through terror and dread of due punishment to liue after the order of lawes and iustice, where otherwise of themselues they are na|turallie inclined to sedition, & disquieting of each o|ther. To conclude, men were in great hope, that if it had pleased the hie determinate power of almightie God to haue lent to him longer life, he should haue brought the realme of Scotland to such a flouri|shing estate, as the like in none of his predecessors times was yet euer heard of.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There died with him in that infortunate battell, of noble men (beside others of the meaner sort) the archbishop of saint Andrewes his bastard sonne, the bishop of the Iles: the abbats of Inchaffreie and Kilwennie: the earles of Montrosse, Crawford, Ar|gile, Lennox, Glencar, Cathnes, Castelles, Both|well; Arrell high constable of Scotland, Addell, A|tholl, and Morton: the lords Louet, Forbois, Elue|ston, Roos, Inderbie, Saintcleare, Maxwell, and his thrée brethren, Daunlie, Sempill, Borthicke, Bogo|nie, Arskill, Blackater, and Cowin: knights and gentlemen of name, sir Iohn Dowglas, Cuthbert Hume of Fast castell, sir Alexander Seton, sir Da|nie, maister Iohn Grant, sir Dunkin Cawfield, sir Sander Lowder, sir George Lowder, maister Mar|shall, maister Key, maister Ellot, maister Cawell clerke of the chancerie, the deane of Ellester, Macke Kene, Macke Clene, with manie others.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 13. This Iames the fourth was of a firme bodie, of iust stature, of most comelie countenance, and of sharpe wit, but altogither vnlearned, as the fault of that age was. But he did diligentlie applie himselfe to an old custome of the countrie, cunninglie to cure wounds, the knowledge whereof in times past was a thing common to all the nobilitie, being alwaies vsed to the warres. He was easilie to be spoken vn|to, gentle in his answers, iust in his iudgements, and so moderat in punishments, that all men might easi|lie sée he was vnwillinglie drawen vnto them. A|gainst the detraction of the euill, and admonishment of the good, there was such woorthinesse of mind in him (confirmed by the quiet of a good conscience, and the hope of his innocencie) that he would not onelie not be angrie, but not so much as vse a sharpe woord vnto them. Amongest which vertues, there were cer|teine vices crept in by the ouermuch desire to please the people, for whilest he labored to auoid the note of couetousnesse (obiected to his father) and sought to win the fauour of the common sort (with sumptuous feasts, gorgeous shewes, and large gifts) he fell into EEBO page image 302 that pouertie, that it seemed (if he had liued long) that he would haue lost the fauor of his peopie (woone in old times) by the imposition of new taxes. Where|fore his death was thought to haue timelie happened vnto him.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 AFter the death of that woorthie prince king Ia|mes the fourth, slaine at Branxton (as before ye Iames the fift. haue heard) his sonne Iames the fift succéeded him: for after the returne of those that escaped from the said field, the queene assembled the lords and estates of the realme togither at Striueling, where the 21 An assemblie at Striueling 1513. day of September 1513, hir sonne the foresaid Iames the fift, a child of one yéere, fiue moneths, & ten daies of age, by vniuersall aduise and consent was crow|ned king, and his mother the quéene appointed re|gent The king crowned, and the quéene ap|pointed re|gent. of the realme, vsing the counsell of the reue|rend father Iames Beton archbishop of Glascow, the earles of Huntleie, Angus, and Arrane.* This gouernement the queene obteined by reason of hir husbands testament, who making his last will (be|fore that he went to the warres) did appoint thereby that the whole administration of all things should remaine with hir, so long as she continued a widow: the which though it were against the custome of the countrie (being the first example of a womans go|uernement amongest the Scots) yet it séemed tole|rable to most men (giuen to peace) especiallie since there were not men sufficient at that time for honor and experience to take that charge in hand, by occasi|on of the great slaughter of the nobles at Floddon field, which gouernement she did not long inioy.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For shortlie after they fell at variance amongest themselues, about the bestowing of those benefices which were vacant by the deaths of those persons A debate. which had béene slaine at the field; by reason whereof, some of them writ letters secretlie into France to The duke of Albanie is sent for. Iohn duke of Albanie, willing him to come into Scotland to be tutor to the king, and gouernor of the realme, as he that was next of bloud to the king, and neerest to the crowne, in case the kings children de|ceassed without issue. He therefore sent monsieur de la Bautie into Scotland, who in companie of the earle of Arrane, the lord Fleming, and Lion the Monsieur de la Bautie is sent into Scotland. herald (which long had béene in France) landed on the west coast the third of Nouember. And shortlie after, the said monsieur de la Bautie deliuered his letters to the queene and lords, who therevpon met at saint Iohns towne, and there by vniuersall con|sent it was accorded, that the duke of Albanie should An assemblie had at Stri|ueling. be admitted tutor and gouernor to the king & realme, and that the same should be confirmed in parlement by the thrée estates which should be kept at Eden|burgh, the thirtéenth day of March next, for the same intent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To rehearse the troubles and great disquietnesse that chanced, during the minoritie of this king, tho|rough The great disquietnesse reigning in Scotland du|ring the mi|noritie of Iames the fift. lacke of due administration of iustice, and by discord & variance dailie rising amongest the lords & péeres of the realme, a man might haue iust cause greatlie to woonder thereat, and in weieng the same throughlie, no lesse lament the oppression doone to the poore commons in that wicked and most miserable time, when iustice séemed to sléepe, and rapine with all the other sorts and rabble of iniurious violence inuaded hir emptie seat, triumphing ouer all as a conqueror. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 12. During the times of which disorder, there was (amongest those which preied and spoiled others) a great capteine of the same faction, called Macrobert Struan, who (ouerrunning Atholl and the adioining places) was accompanied for the most part with eight hundred théeues, and sometime more. Which Struan was at length (whilest he spoiled e|uerie man at his owne pleasure, and at that time re|maining with his vncle Iohn Creichton) taken by wait laied for him, and inforced to depart with his life.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The quéene sent louing letters vnto the king of England hir brother, requiring him of peace. Where|vpon a truce was taken betwixt the two realmes of England and Scotland, for the space of one yéere and a day. In the beginning of Februarie, the king of England, hearing that a parlement should be hol|den in Scotland, for the bringing in of the duke of The king of England wri|teth to his si|ster. Albanie to be tutor, wrote to his sister that she should in anie wise impeach and staie his comming thither; declaring how dangerous it was, not onelie for hir, but also for hir sonne to haue him gouernor, which was to succéed, if hir son were once out of the way. But the chiefest cause that mooued the king of Eng|land to labour, that the duke should haue nothing to doo in Scotland, was (as manie thought) for that he knew how the duke, in fauour of the king of France, would shew himselfe an enimie against England, with all the force he might make or procure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now shortlie after that the peace was concluded betwixt him and the king of France, he sent a letter also, requiring him not to suffer the duke to passe in|to Scotland, for the reason first alleged. But not|withstanding the labor that king Henrie made to The duke of Albanie con|firmed tutor by parlement. the contrarie, it was concluded by the states in par|lement assembled in Edenburgh, at the time prefix|ed, that sir Patrike Hamilton, and Lion king of armes should be sent into France, to procure the duke to come into Scotland, being now confirmed tutor and gouernor, according to the lawes of the realme in such cases prouided. Wherevpon, in Aprill then next following they tooke the seas, and passed into France, accordinglie as by the states had béene deuised.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This yéere came a legat into Scotland from the 1514. A legat from Rome. The quéene deliuered of hir second son Alexander. pope, with certeine priuileges granted to the king and realme. The thirtith of Aprill was the queene deliuered of a prince in the castell of Striueling, which was baptised by the postulat of Dunfirmling, and the archdeane of saint Andrewes, and instantlie confirmed by the bishop of Cathnesse, by the name of Alexander. During the time that the quéene lay in childbed, great discord fell out betwixt the lords of the west parts, and the other lords of the realme: but shortlie after the queene called an assemblie at E|denburgh the twelfth of Iulie, where they were all well agréed. And heerewith two of the cleargie were sent into England for peace. And the 28 of the same moneth, maister Iames Ogiluie abbat of Dri|burgh, and sir Patrike Hamilton, and Lion the herald came foorth of France with articles in wri|ting from the king there, and the duke of Albanie; by the which the dukes comming was excused, because the king could not want him, till some end were had touching the warres betwixt him and the king of England, which was concluded in October next in|suing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 This yéere, the sixt of August, the quéene maried The mariage of the quéene mother. The great seale taken from the bi|shop of Glas|cow. Archembald Dowglasse earle of Angus, and imme|diatlie after in saint Iohns towne tooke the great seale from the bishop of Glascow, that was chancel|lor of the realme. Whervpon the said bishop got him to Edenburgh, where manie lords assisted him, and kept out the quéene and hir new husband, so that they might not enter there: whereof great discord rose within the realme amongest the nobles and péeres of the same. In the peace contracted betwixt Lewes the twelfth of that name, king of France, and Hen|rie A peace con|cluded be|twixt Eng|land & France the eight king of England, no mention was made of the realme of Scotland: for the which the Scotishmen thought great [...]lt in the French king, seeing that for his cause the warre had béene attemp|ted betwixt them and England. The same yéere, a|bout EEBO page image 303 the twentie fift of October, William Elphing|ston The deceasse of the bishop of Aberden. bishop of Aberden; and lord kéeper of the priuie scale departed this life at Edenburgh. He had béene a faithfull councellor to Iames the third & to Iames the fourth, by whose helpe he founded and indowed the college in the old towne of Aberden, for the in|crease of learning & vertue, which hath florished with good wits of students euer since, till these our daies. The 20 of Nouember, Le sire de la Bautie receiued the castell of Dunbar in the name of the duke of Al|banie, Monsieur de la Bautie. at the hands of the deane of Glascow bróther to the bishop of Murrey, called Forman. Shortlie after, Iohn Hepborne the prior of saint Andrews then elect archbishop of that sée, besieged the castell of saint Andrews, and wan it by force from the kée|pers of it, which were appointed to defend it in the name of Gawin Dowglasse, wherewith the quéene and the earle of Angus were highlie offended. The twelfth of Ianuarie, being a verie darke & windie night, the earle of Lennox, and the maister of Glen|carne 1514. vndermined the nether groundsoile of the ca|stell gate of Dunbreton, & entered thereby into the castell, & so tooke it, putting out thereof the lord Er|skin. The castell of Dunbreton taken. Shortlie after (that is to say) the fiftéenth of that moneth, a great assemblie was made betwixt the earles of Angus and Arrane, the one to haue fought with the other, which was the cause and be|ginning of great trouble that insued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The same day in Edenburgh were the buls pub|lished, The popes buls publi|shed. 1515. Lesle. which Forman the bishop of Murrey had pur|chased at Rome, for the obteining of the archbishop|rike of saint Andrews, the abbasies of Dunfirme|ling, and Arbroeth, through supplication of the quéene and duke of Albanie. From which buls the prior of saint Andrews appealed, pretending title to the arch|bishops Contention about the in|ioieng of the see of saint Andrews. sée by election and generall gift of the lords of the realme; and her vpon got togither his friends in Edenburgh, as the maister of Hales and others. And on the other part, the lord chamberleine, and di|uerse of the bishop of Murreis friends got the kings letters, by vertue whereof they proclamed the said maister of Hales, and the prior of saint Andrews rebels, with all their assistants, putting them to the horne: wherevpon they were constreined to depart out of Edenburgh. And in Maie following, the pri|or went vnto Rome, there to iustifie his appeale.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The foure and twentith of Februarie, a parle|ment was assembled at Striueling; but because the lords could not agrée amongst themselues, it was proroged till the comming of the duke of Albanie, which was looked for to be in Scotland, in Aprill; or at the furthest in Maie next insuing, as he had sent word by sir Iohn Striueling of the Keir, that was latelie come from him with letters vnto the lords and péeres of the realme. The fiftéenth of Maie, truce was proclamed betwixt England and Scotland, to indure for three yeares, or three moneths (as saith Lesleus) but the same day at six of the clocke in the 1515. Truce be|twixt Eng|land and Scotland. afternoone, the Englishmen entered the borders of Scotland vpon the water of Rule, and forraied the countrie, dooing great hurt therein, notwithstan|ding the truce. The seuentéenth day of Maie, Iohn duke of Albanie, tutor and gouernor of Scotland, arriued at the towne of Aire, with eight ships well The duke of Albanie his arriuall in Scotland. appointed, and furnished with men and all kind of necessarie prouision for his estate.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From thence taking the sea againe, he sailed a|longst the coast till he came to Dunbreton, and there came on land, & on the next day passed foorth to Glas|cow, where all the westland lords receiued him with great semblance of reioising for his arriuall. The six and twentith day of Maie, he was receiued into The duke of Albanie recei|ued into E|denburgh. Edenburgh, a great number of lords méeting him on the way. The quéene also came from hir owne lod|ging and met him, to doo him honor. Sundrie con|ceipts, pageants, & plaies were shewed by the burges|ses, to honor his entrie in the best maner they could deuise. Shortlie after his comming to Edenburgh, there came thither foorth of all parts of the realme, the lords and barons, where they being assembled in councell, he tooke vpon him the gouernement of the realme, which he promised to vse by their aduise, so that they would assist him in setting foorth of iu|stice and good orders, which they vndertooke to doo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herevpon was the parlement, which had béene A parlement summoned. proroged till his comming, summoned to be kept at Edenburgh the twelfth of Iulie, in the which diuerse acts were concluded and made; and the lord Drum|mond was adiudged in the dukes mercie, for stri|king Lion king of armes. The duke pardoned him of life and honor, but his lands and goods remained in the kings hands: notwithstanding, he was after|wards restored to the same againe. In this parle|ment also, the duke of Albanie was confirmed by the three estates of the realme tutor and gouernor to the king, the scepter and sword being deliuered to him: his oth also was taken by the lords, and theirs giuen to him, that each of them should be faithfull to others, and namelie to their king and souereigne lord, and also should mainteine iustice to the vtter|most of their powers, for the aduancement of his honor, and suertie of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, whilest this parlement was in hand, the gouernor was aduertised that the king should haue béene conueied foorth of the realme se|cretlie into England: wherevpon he suddenlie de|parted in the night time from Edenburgh, with his men of warre in good order, & came to Striueling, where the king, with his brother Alexander, laie with the quéene; which castell, togither with the kings per|son, and the other within it, were deliuered to him The king de|liuered to the kéeping of cer|teine lords. the third day of August: wherevpon he committed them and the castell to the keeping of foure lords of the realme, whereof the earles of Eglenton and Montrosse were two. The lord Hume, because he had assisted the earle of Angus and the quéene a|gainst The lord Hume de|nounced a re|bell. the gouernor, was denounced a rebell; and the earles of Lennox & Arrane, with manie others, were sent to his houses to seize the same into the kings hands. In the castell of Hume was laid gun|powder by a traine, wherby diuerse of them that en|tered first into the castell were burned.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lord Hume himselfe got him into England, and sore disquieted the marches, so that no day of truce was holden, neither on the east nor middle marches. The twelfth of August, the quéene, the earle of Angus, and his brother George Dowglas, went from Temptallon vnto Berwike, and from thence passed to the nunrie of Caudstreame; where|vpon aduertisement being giuen to the K. of Eng|land, and his pleasure therein knowne, the six and twentith of that moneth she was receiued by the lord Dacres, & conueied to Harbottell castell, where she remained till she was deliuered of a daughter, called Margaret Dowglasse, afterwards maried to The birth of the countesse of Lennox. the earle of Lennox, as in place conuenient it shall further appeare. There was no Scotishman at this time receiued into England with hir. The gouernor perceiuing the rebellion of the lord Hume, passed to the borders with his Frenchmen, where the sixt of October, the said lord Hume came & submitted him|selfe to the gouernors pleasure, and his brother Alex|ander The lord Hume sub|mitted him|selfe. shortlie after did the same, and they were both deliuered to the earle of Arrane, who was appointed to keepe them in safetie within the towne of Eden|burgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the twelfth of October next insuing, the said earle of Arrane departed from thence in the night EEBO page image 304 season, with those his prisoners, stealing their waies The earle of Arrane stea|leth away. on foot. Herevpon, the gouernor causing the parle|ment to be holden that was summoned to begin the foure and twentith of October, the said lord Hume, maister William Hume, and Dauid Hume, were conuict of treason by all the states, to lose their liues, lands, and goods. This parlement was proroged till The lord Hume and o|ther conuic|cted of trea|son. fifteene daies after, within which time the earle of Arrane was appointed to make appearance, or else it was agreed that they should procéed against him in like maner. And in that meane space, the gouernor went to besiege the castell of Hamilton, where that noble aged ladie, the old countesse of Arrane, daugh|ter The old coun|tesse of Arrane purchaseth hir sons pardon. to king Iames the second, & mother to the earle of Arrane, and aunt to the duke by his fathers side, caused not onelie the castell to be surrendered at the dukes pleasure, but procured also the earle of Arrans peace, which earle, the twelfth of Nouember next in|suing, came with the bishop of Glascow vnto Eden|burgh, and there submitted himselfe to the dukes will.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the same time, certeine lords tooke part with the earle of Murreie the kings bastard brother, A commotion betwixt the earles of Murreie and Huntleie. and the earle of Erroll, against the erle of Huntleie, and raised a commotion; so that being got into E|denburgh, there was much adoo, & the towne great|lie disquieted. The gouernor lieng in the abbeie, came into the towne, and tooke the earles of Hunt|leie, Erroll, Murreie, and others; and committed them to ward within the castell, while he tried the cause: and finding that maister William Haie be|ing with the earle of Murreie had raised that sturre, he sent the same Haie into France, there to remaine during his pleasure, and foorthwith the said earles were set at libertie. Lion king of armes appoin|ted to go into England with letters to king Hen|rie, was stopped at Caldstreame by the lord Hume, who tooke his letters from him, and kept him priso|ner, till Alexander Humes moother, that remained prisoner in Dunbar, was exchanged for him. The Lion king of armes staied by the lord Humes. eightéenth day of December, Alexander duke of Rosseie the kings brother departed this life at Stri|ueling.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The seuentéenth day of Ianuarie, a truce was taken betwixt England and Scotland, till the feast A truce con|cluded be|twixt Eng|land & Scot|land. of Pentecost next. This truce was agréed vpon at Coldingham, by certeine commissioners, appoin|ted on either part there, to treat for peace. For the realme of Scotland were these: Monsieur de Pla|nes the French ambassador, archdeacon of saint An|drews, maister Gawin de Dunbar, and sir Wil|liam Scot of Baluerie knights. The Englishmen comprised for their part, the earle of Angus and the lord Hume within the compasse of this truce. In the meane time, the earle of Arrane departed from The earle of Arrane eft|soones reuol|teth from the gouernor. the gouernor againe, and repaired to the west parts, where he confederated himselfe with certeine lords, notwithstanding that sir Iames Hamilton, and the lord of Cauder remained pledges for his good de|meanor within the castell of Edenburgh. The earles of Lennox, Glencarne, and other caused the castell of The earle of Lenox furni|sheth Dunbre|ton. Dunbreton and diuerse other to be furnished, and tooke the castell of Glascow with the kings great ar|tillerie that laie within it, and spoiled the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The gouernor aduertised thereof, raised an armie & went to Glascow, where, by the labor of the bishop of that place, an appointment was taken, so that the castell was deliuered into the bishops hands. The earle of Lennox came in to the gouernor, and tooke a new respit, and about the beginning of March next following, the earle of Arrane and the lord Hume The earles of Lennox and Arrane take a respit. Forman re|signeth his ti|tle to the arch|bishops see. did the like. Forman the archbishop of saint An|drews, against whome the prior of saint Andrews did stand (as ye haue heard) for that same benefice, to the great disquieting of the realme, by such parta|kings as chanced thereabout among the lords, came now to the towne of Edenburgh, and resigned all the thrée benefices, whereof he had purchased buls of the pope, that is to say, the archbishoprike of saint Andrews, the abbasies of Arbroth and Dunfirme|ling in the gouernors hands, to bestow the same at his pleasure: who by the counsell of certeine lords, so satisfie such as claimed interest to the same, and pa|cifieng of all debates, bestowed them as followeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 First, the said archbishoprike he gaue to the said Forman with the abbasies of Dunfirmeling, and to maister Iames Hepborne he gaue the bishop|rike of Murrey, and benefices woorth a thousand Bestowing of benefices. marks by the yeare vnto the prior of saint Andrews for a recompense; the abbasie of Driburgh he gaue vnto maister Iames Ogiluie, and the bishoprike of Aberden (then vacant) vnto Alexander Gurdon, and to the archbishop of Glascow called Beton he gaue the abbasie of Arbroth, assigning to the earle of Murrey a large pension out thereof. One of the Fr. Thin. Hamiltons was made abbat of Kilwinning [and George Dundasse was made prior of the knights of the roads.] And thus he bestowed the benefices which had béene vacant euer since Floddon field, vnto diuerse lords, or to their kinsmen, that by such liberalitie vsed towards them, all debates and dis|cords might ceasse, which had happened amongest them, speciallie about the bestowing of the same benefices. This was doone in the moneth of Febru|arie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, the gouernor, by counsell of the 1515. lords, to the end the realme might come to a perfect quietnesse, and the noble men vnited togither, re|ceiued The earle of Angus and o|thers receiued into fauor. into fauor the earle of Angus, & maister Pa|trike Pantoun secretarie, who for his cause had béene kept as prisoner in Insche gaile. He likewise receiued the lord Hume, and his brother, pardoning them all their offenses past. And in parlement hol|den the fift of Maie, they were restored to all their lands, heritages, fées, and honors. About that time, the lord of Strawen in Atholl committed diuerse great offenses and crimes, for the which he was ta|ken by the earle of Atholl, and beheaded at Logi|raith by the gouernors commission.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All this while, the parlement was not dissolued The parle|ment began a|gaine. but vpon prorogation, and so the same began againe the first day of Iulie, at what time the king of Eng|land, at request of his sister the queene of Scotland, wrote letters to the lords now assembled in parle|ment, The king of Englands letters to the lords. requesting them to expell the gouernor foorth of the realme. But all the lords and states with vni|uersall consent sent Albanie the herald with letters to the said king, excusing them, that they might not in anie wise satisfie his desire therein, the same be|ing against reason and the lawes of their countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the moneth of September, the gouernor com|manded The lord Hume and o|ther arrested and commit|ted toward. the lord Hume, with his brother maister William Hume, and Dauid Kar of Fernihurst, to be arrested and bestowed in seuerall places, that bet|ter rule might be kept vpon the borders: but they lieng now in ward, sundrie informations were gi|uen vp against them: and therevpon, the eight of October, the said lord Hume and his brother were conuict of treason, for assisting and mainteining of the théeues vpon the borders, and other crimes; for the which he was beheaded: and on the morrow af|ter, his brother the foresaid William Hume was The lord Hume behea|ded. likewise beheaded, and their heads were set vpon the Tolbuith in Edenburgh: Dauid Kar was spared.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 14. Alexander lord Hume left yet three brethren in life, who were all by the iniuries of those times grée|uouslie afflicted with diuerse misfortunes. For George, being banished for the slaughter of a man, EEBO page image 305 remained in England amongest his friends. Iohn abbat of Iedwoorth was banished beyond Taie. Dauid the yoonger brother, which was prior of Col|dingham two yeares after the death of his brethren, was (by Iames Hepborne, the husband of his sister) slaine by a traine, vnder color of a meeting and par|lée, wherevnto he was called; whome all men did pittie, because he was a harmelesse yoong gentle|man, of a singular wit, and fowlie betraied by those of whom he ought not so to haue bin intrapped.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, the duke rode to Iedwoorth with a great companie of men, & staied the great robbing & The duke of Albanie visi|teth the bor|ders. Another par|lement. The duke of Albanie se|cond person of the realme. reauing which had béene vsed on the borders, & left there good wardens to kéepe good rule in those parts, and so returned to Edenburgh. The third of Nouem|ber, another parlement was holden, in which it was decréed, that the gouernor should be déemed and re|puted for second person of the realme, notwithstan|ding the claime made by his elder brother Alexan|der Steward, that was begotten on the daughter of the earle of Orkeneie, which was alleged to haue béene first maried to their father the duke of Alba|nie, before he was maried to the earle of Bullognes daughter, on whome he begot the gouernor. Where|vpon this Alexander made protestation to be heire to his father; but they were afterward agréed, and Alexander renounced his title in his brothers fauor, and was made bishop of Murreie, and abbat of Scone. At this parlement, the gouernor required licence to go into France, and to be absent there six The gouer|nor asketh li|cence to go in|to France. moneths: but this sute was not granted till Aprill following.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At the same time was the earle of Lennor put in ward within the castell of Edenburgh, till he had The earle of Lennox in ward. caused the castell of Dunbreton to be deliuered vnto one Alane Steward in the constables name, & then he was set at libertie. In the moneth of December, Monsieur de la Bautie was made warden of the Monsieur de la Bautie made warden of the mar|ches. east marches in stead of the lord Hume, and kept daies of truce: which procured such hatred, that it cost him afterwards his life. In the moneth of Ia|nuarie, the gouernor went to saint Iohns towne, and there held his seat of iustice, where the lord Fle|ming for the time was made great chamberlaine of Scotland, with all the fées thereof. In the yeare 1517, there came ambassadors from Francis the 1517. Ambassadors from France. new French king, to desire, that the ancient league might be renewed betwixt him and the king of Scot|land, their realmes, dominions, and subiects.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For this cause, all the lords of the realme were as|sembled at Edenburgh, where, by them it was con|cluded, that the gouernor himselfe should passe the seas into France; and also that the bishop of Dun|keild, An ambassage into France. the secretarie, and the maister of Glencarne as ambassadors should go thither: the which the thir|téenth of Maie, went a shipboord, and by the east seas sailed thither, and the gouernor tooke ship at New|marke beside Dunbreton the seuenth of Iune, ta|king his course by the west seas, and so passed into The gouer|nor goeth into France. France, where it was agréed, that he should haue remained but onelie foure moneths, he hauing ap|pointed the bishops of saint Andrews and Glascow, the earles of Huntleie, Argile, Angus, and Arrane, to gouerne in his place, whilest he was absent. Al|so he ordeined Anthonie Darcie, or Monsieur de la Bautie lieutenant of the borders.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He also had caused the king to be brought into E|denburgh Gouernors appointed to the kings per|son castell, within the which he should remaine in the kéeping of the earle Marshall, the lords Er|skin, Borthwike, Ri [...]en; of the which, two at least should be alwaies present. The quéene that re|mained as then in England, after she vnderstood that the gouernor was departed towards France, returned to Edenburgh the seuentéenth of Iune, but she was not suffered to sée the king till August fol|lowing: at what time, for feare of the pestilence to be crept into the castell, he was remooued to Crag|miller, The king re|moued. where the queene oftentimes came vnto him; but at length, through some suspicion conceiued, least The doubt which the Scots had in the queene. the quéene might conueie him away from thence in|to England, he was estsoones brought vnto the ra|stell of Edenburgh, in which he was kept after, ac|cording to the order taken in that behalfe.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 9. pag. 386. Much about this time in the which these things were doone, Iohn Gordon (the eldest sonne of that Alexander earle of Huntleie, which for the praise of his singular goodnesse obteined the surname of good) returning out of France (whither a little before he had sailed with the gouernor) was singularlie welco|med and interteined of all men, who going vnto his owne people (in the north parts) was vrged with such grieuous sickenesse that he died therwith, and by his father (to whom he should by course of nature execute the same office) shortlie after buried in the abbeie of Kilrosse, with a goodlie toome erected on him by his said father. The death of which Iohn gaue (for manie causes) manie griefes vnto manie persons: but a|mongst other the chiefest to his father, who liued not long after his sonne. Which Alexander when he died, left the said earledome to his nephue, sonne of his sonne Iohn; who bicause he was but ten yéeres old, was committed to the earle of Angus, to be instruc|ted in all goodnesse of maners answering to the ex|cellencie of that wit wherewith he was indued.

This earle Huntleie adorned with excellent swéet|nesse of maners and pleasantnesse of wit, the earle of Angus would neuer or verie hardlie suffer to de|part out of his companie. For which cause when the erle of Angus, for certeine suspicions of treson was banished Scotland into England, he attempted by all deuises and persuasions to intise the child to haue gone with him: but the yoong boie could not be allu|red with anie flatteries or persuasions to submit himselfe to the least note of reproch, in forsaking his king and countrie. Wherefore when the earle of Angus was departed into England, the child lifting vp his crauing hands to the king, did grant himselfe and all he had to the king and his countrie, whome the king receiued with all kind of humanitie; and prouided that he should be instructed in euerie sort of vertue and learning, that was to be desired in such a prince; bicause the said child was borne of his sisters mariage.

The lords and other nobles highlie offended (as Buchan. lib. 14 well for the death of the lord Hume, as for that they saw Anthonie Darcie lord Bautie the French ad|uanced to greater credit than themselues, and not onelie to be made warden of the marches, but also capteine of Dunbreton, the strongest fort of Scot|land) began to raise tumults in the land. For Wil|liam Cockborne (vncle of Comarch Lancton) who (expelling the gardians of the pupill) did keepe the ca|stell of Lancton, assisted with the helpe of Dauid Hume lord of Woodburne (whose sister the said Cokcborne had maried) first began a commotion in those parts. For when they saw that all means were taken from them openlie to reuenge the sàme, and to set vpon Bautie, they determined to performe the same (with some secret deuise) by lieng in wait for him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For the castell of Langton or Lancton, being Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 387. kept in the possession of Woodburne (and such as tooke his part against the king) he the said Wood|burne appointed subtill fellows secretlie to enter the castell, and to reteine it in the kings name. After which, this Woodburne feining a counterfeit anger (for he was a man full of all subtiltie) that this castell was so iniuriouslie taken from him, and kept to the EEBO page image 306 kings behoofe, he laid siege to the castell (as though he went about to recouer the same with all the power he could) to the intent that Bautie might be intised to come thither to raise the siege. For which cause Bautie (supposing in truth that the castell had bene kept to the vse of the king) hastening the rescue 1517. thereof, came foorth of the castell of Dunbar to as|semble the men of the countrie to raise the siege, as lieutenant of the borders, he was chased by the said lord of Woodburne and other so fiercelie, that in the Monsieur de la Bautie slaine by the lord of Wood|burne. Fr. Thin. end he was slaine, and foure Frenchmen with him: his head was cut from the shoulders, and set vp in the towne of Duns [vpon the castell of Hume] the nintéenth of Ianuarie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The lords regents were herewith meruelouslie offended, & chose the earle of Arrane to be warden of the borders in de la Bauties place, who was also chosen to be prouost of Edenburgh: wherewith the earle of Angus was highlie displeased. But the erle of Arrane, not séeming to passe much thereof, tooke George Dowglas the said earle of Angus his bro|ther, and Marke Kar, committing them to ward within the castell of Edenburgh, bicause of the fauor he bare vnto the said lord of Woodburne & his com|plices. Moreouer, for due punishment of the mur|ther of the foresaid de la Bautie, there was a parle|ment A parlement called. called the ninteenth of Februarie next, in the which, Dauid Hume lord of Woodburne, and his thrée brethren, William Cockborne & Iohn Hume, with diuerse other their partakers, were indicted for the besieging of the castell of Langton, the slaughter The lord of Woodburne indicted. of monsieur de la Bautie, and for the setting vp of his head, intercommuning with the Englishmen, and diuers other misdooings.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Immediatlie after the end of this parlement, the earle of Arrane came into the Mers, with a great The earle of Arrane com|meth into the Mers. armie, and hauing with him the kings great artille|rie, ment to haue besieged such places as would haue resisted him. But at his being in Lowder, the keies of the castell of Hume were brought vnto him, which on the next morrow he receiued, and put men within it to keepe it, as he did in Langton and Woodburne, which he receiued at the same time. The master of Hales was also sought for at that time, that hée The maister of Hales. might haue bene apprehended to answer the slaugh|ter of Dauid Hume, prior of Coldingham, whom he had slaine traitorouslie. A litle before this parlement, the bishop of Dunkeld was returned from the The bond of league be|twixt Scot|land & France Capteins Moores. French king with a bond of the league renewed be|twixt Scotland and France. And at that same time was one capteine Moores a Frenchman sent foorth of France, with a certeine number of men, to re|ceiue the castell of Dunbar into his kéeping, which accordinglie he did, the same béeing deliuered vnto him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The earle of Lennor, who had béene with the go|uernor in France, returned home into Scotland, & 1518. with him came a French herald from the king with letters, and maister Walter Steward abbat of Glenluce came likewise from the gouernor. And a|bout that time, bicause the queene and lords were ad|uertised The abbat of Glenluce. that the French king had contracted new bonds of peace and amitie with the king of Eng|land, without making mention of Scotland, they thought themselues euill vsed, being his confederat friends, and thervpon sent sharpe letters to the king The Scots euill vsed at the French kings hands. of France, and to the gouernor, by Albanie the he|rald: In the moneth of Iune, maister Gawen Dun|bar, archdeane of saint Andrews, and clearke of the register, was preferred to the bishops sée of Abber|den that was vacant by the death of Alexander Gourdon.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 This Gawen founded an hospitall in Abberden, and indowed the same with lands for sustenance of The bishop of Aberden a builder. twelue poore men, with a prouost to haue care ouer them. He also builded a faire bridge; with seuen ar|ches ouer the water of Dee beside Abberden, and purchased lands for the perpetuall vpholding there|of. He also builded two stéeples in the cathedrall church, with halfe of the crosse church, and a faire pa|lace for the small prebendaries, called the chapleins. Moreouer, he bestowed manie rich & pretious orna|ments vpon the same church of Abberden, as copes, chalices, and other such like things, which remained there long after. Manie right commendable works were accomplished by this diligent prelat, greatlie to his praise and high renowme; for he spent not the fruits of his benefice in vaine, but on such maner of buildings.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The seuentéenth of Iune, there rose great stur in Edenburgh, by the falling out of the earle of Contention betwixt the erle of Rothes and the lord Lindsey. Rothes, and the lord Lindsey, about the inioieng of the shiriffewike of Fife, by reason whereof, they were put in ward, the one in Dunbar, and the other in Dunbreton. About the beginning of August, the quéene remaining in Edenburgh, vnderstood that The cause of the hatred be|twixt the quéene and hir husband. the earle of Angus hir husband, as then soiourning in Dowglas dale, had taken a faire gentlewoman in those parts, and kept hir as his concubine; for the which act she conceiued such hatred against him, that there was neuer no perfect loue betwixt them after|wards. In the beginning of Februarie, there came a clearke as ambassador from the French king with 1519. Lesle. letters, concerning the concluding of the truce be|twixt Scotland and England, which message the lords made small account of, bicause the king had o|mitted to comprehend Scotland in the league which he lastlie made with England. The seuenth of Iune, 1519. A mad man. a mad man in Dundee slue in his mad fit a ladie of inheritance, a nun, with two other women, the one of them being great with child, and also two men.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The king of England wrote letters vnto the The king of England sée|keth to kéepe the duke of Albanie foorth of Scotland. French king, desiring him to staie the duke of Al|banie, that he might not come into Scotland; and furthermore, he laid ships of warre in the pase vpon the seas to watch for his comming, and to take him by the waie as he should passe. In September the king was remooued foorth of the castell of Eden|burgh vnto Dalkith, for doubt of the pestilence, which was suspected to be in the castell of Edenburgh. And The earle of Arrane. from Dalkith the erle of Arrane rode to Edenburgh to haue bin estsoones elected regent & prouost of that towne: but he missed his purpose, for the townesmen would not suffer him to enter, but repelled him backe, so that diuerse were hurt on both sides.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Herevpon, great dissention rose betwixt the said Dissention betwixt the earles of Ar|rane and Angus. earle of Arrane, and the earle of Angus, bicause of his repulse in that sute: whereby the whole realme was diuided into partakings, so that sundrie slaugh|ters thereof insued, as of the prior of Coldingham, and six of his men murthered, by the lord of Wood|burne at Lamerton, the sixt of October. About the same time, the king returned to the castell of Eden|burgh, and in the towne there were remaining at the same time the earles of Angus, Erroll, and Craw|ford; the lord Glames, and other; the bishops of saint Andrews, Abberden, Orkeneie, and Dublane, with diuerse abbats and other prelats. And in the towne of Glascow was the bishop of Glascows chancellor, with the earles of Arrane, Lennor, Eglenton, and Cassels; the lords Rosse, Sempill, the abbat of Pas|ley, the bishop of Galloway, and other noble men of the west. Thus the lords were diuided, and would not [...]ake anie order for the good gouernment of the com|mon-wealth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In December; monsieur de la Faiot, and a French Monsieur de la Faiot. clearke called Cordell, with an English herald cal|led Clarenetour, came from the kings of France EEBO page image 307 and England, with an ambassador also from the go|uernor, with a conclusion of peace taken for one yéere, betwixt Scotland and England: who com|ming to Edenburgh, were receiued by the earle of Angus, and the other lords there with him, the which sent for the chancellor & the earle of Arrane to come thither; but they would not come anie néerer than to Linlithgo. The ambassador therefore tooke in hand to persuade, that an assemblie might be had in Striue|ling: but the earle of Angus would not come there. Neuerthelesse, the said ambassadors went thither, where the earle of Arrane and his partakers, as the chancellor and others, receiued them thankfullie, and proclamed the peace, according to the treatie which The peace proclamed. they had brought, and so with courteous answer and great rewards licenced them to depart. But in their returne toward England, the earle of Angus with a great number of men met them at Carlauerok, re|proouing them sharpelie for their demeanor, and for taking their answer of the chancellor, so that they were not a litle afraid, least the earle in his displea|sure would haue vsed some outrage towards them, which otherwise than in woords it should appéere he did not.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Ianuarie, about the kéeping of a court at Ied|worth, there was raising of people betwixt the earle 1520. Uariance be|twixt the earle of Angus and the lord of Fernihurst. of Angus on the one part, and Andrew Kar the lord of Fernihurst; in whose aid, Iames Hamilton came with foure hundred Mers men: but the lord of Sesseford then warden, assisting the earle of Angus his part, met Hamilton at Kelso with a great com|panie, and when they were lighted on foot, and should haue foughten, the Mers men left sir Iames Ha|milton, the bastard of the earle of Arrane, in all the danger, with a few of his owne men about him, so that with much paine he was horssed, and escaped in great danger vnto Hume, with losse of foure of his seruants which were slaine: and on the other part, there was an Englishman slaine called Rafe Kar, that came in aid of the warden. On the morrow af|ter, the lord of Fernihurst, as baliffe to the earle of Arrane, of that regalitie, held his court at the princi|pall place of the forrest of Iedburgh, and the earle himselfe held his court likewise in an other part of the same land, thrée miles distant from the other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The thirtieth day of Aprill, the lord of Wood|burne, and maister William Dowglasse, newlie made prior of Coldingham, with their partakers in great numbers, came to Edenburgh to aid the earle of Angus, who was within the towne, against the earle of Arrane, and Iames Beton the chancellor, who were also there. But now by the comming of these succors, which entered by force at the neather bowe, and slue the maister of Mountgomerie, sonne of the earle Eglenton, and sir Patrike Hamilton knight; the earle of Arrane, and the chancellor, were constreined to forsake the towne, & to passe through the north loch. [To reuenge this contumelie, the Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 14. Hamiltons besieged the cell of Marnocke (which is the castell of Cuningham) but they shortlie returned backe without dooing anie thing against them.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The one and twentith of Iulie, the earle of An|gus being in the towne of Edenburgh, George Hume, brother to the late lord Hume beheaded, came thither with the abbat of Coldingham, brother to the earle of Angus, and Dauid Hume of Wood|burne, and a great companie of gentlemen, and others, and passed to the Tolbuith, where they remai|ned, till the heads of the lord Hume, and of his bro|ther William were taken downe beside the place The lord Humes head taken downe. where they were fastened on a [...]auill, and this was doone in presence of the prouost for the [...]me being. The next day they went to Linlithgo, and from thence to Striueling, in hope to haue found the chan|cellor, and some other of that faction there. But mis|sing of their purpose, they returned to Edenburgh a|gaine, and causing solemne funerall obsequies to be kept in the blacke friers, for them that owght those heads, with offerings and bankets, they afterwards returned home to their owne dwellings, without at|tempting anie other thing for that present.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Nouember, the duke of Albanie arriued in The duke of Albame re|turneth into Scotland. 1521. Buch. Scotland on the west parts, at an hauen called Gra|wrach, the nineteenth of the same moneth; and on the thrée and twentith he came to Edenburgh, accom|panied with the queene, the archbishop of Glascows chancellor, the earle of Huntleie, and manie other lords, knights, barons, and gentlemen; and within six daies after their comming thither, the prouost and The prouost & bailiffes of E|denburgh de|posed. A parlement summoned. bailiffes were deposed, because they had beene chosen in fauour of the earle of Angus, and other appointed in their roomes. Then was there a parlement sum|moned to be kept at Edenburgh, the six and twen|tith of Ianuarie next following; and on the ninth of Ianuarie, a generall summons of forfalture was proclamed at the market crosse in Edenburgh, wher|in were summoned the earle of Angus and his bro|ther, the prior of Coldingham, the lord of Wood|burne, 1521. the lord of Dalehousie, Iohn Summerwell of Cawdstreme, and William Cockborne of Langton, with their complices, to make their appeerance in the said parlement, to be tried for sundrie great offenses by them committed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Maister Gawin Dowglasse bishop of Dunkeld, Gawin Dow|glasse bishop of Dunkeld fléeth into England. hearing of this proclamation, fled into England, and remained in London at the Sauoie, where he depar|ted this life, and is buried in the church there. He was a cunning clearke, and a verie good poet: he transla|ted the twelue bookes of the Aeneidos of Virgill in Scotish méeter, and compiled also The palace of ho|nor, with diuerse other treatises in the Scotish lan|guage, which are yet extant. The earle of Angus fea|ring The earle of Angus fea|reth the sen|tence of for|falture. the sentence of forfalture to be laied against him at the parlement, procured his wife (although there was small liking betwixt them) to labor for his pardon to the gouernor. Wherevpon it was agre|ed, that the earle, and his brother George Dowglasse should passe out of the realme into France, and there He and his brother bani|shed. to remaine during the gouernors pleasure: and so they departed into France, and remained there all the next yéere following.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king of England, hearing that the duke of Albanie was arriued in Scotland, and had taken the rule vpon him, doubting least he should persuade the Scotishmen to assist the French king, against whome, by persuasion of the emperor he ment short|lie to make warre, sent his herald Clarencieux into Clarencieux an English herald sent in|to Scotland. Scotland, to require the duke to depart from thence, alledging, that it was promises by the king of France at the last enteruiew betwixt them, which chanced the summer before, that he should not come into Scotland. And moreouer, whereas the king of England was vncle vnto the king of Scots, he con|sidered with himselfe that by nature he was bound to defend his nephue, as he ment to doo; and therefore he thought it not reason, that the duke being next to The king of England dou|teth to haue the duke of Albanie go|uernor to the king his ne|phue. the crowne to succéed, if ought came to the yoong king, should haue the gouernement of him, least he might be made awaie, as other yoong kings had beene. He further complained, that the earle of An|gus should be sent out of the realme, so that he could not inioy the companie of his wife, sister vnto the same king of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Clarencieux had therefore commandement, that Warre de|nounced by Clarencieux against the duke of Alba|nie. if the duke refused to depart out of the realme of Scotland, he should intimate a defiance with open warre against him: which the said Clarencieux did, declaring his message vnto the duke from point to EEBO page image 308 point at Holte rood house, as he had in commande|ment. To whome the duke answered, that neither the The dukes answer. king of France, nor the king of England should staie him from comming into his countrie. And as touching the king, who was as yet yoong in yéeres, he loued him as his souereigne lord, and would keepe him, and defend both him and his realm [...] against all other that would attempt to inuade the same, accor|ding to his conscience, honor, and dutie. And as tou|ching the earle of Angus, he had vsed towards him all clemencie and mercie, notwithstanding his euill demerits, and that principallie for the quéenes cause, whome he would honor as mother to his souereigne lord. This answer being reported vnto the king of England, contented him nothing at all, and there|fore prepared to make warre.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The tenth of Aprill, there came seuen great ships into the Forth, vnto Inchkeith, to haue spoiled the 1522. ships, and inuade the coast there: but they were so stoutlie resisted and kept off, that they were not suf|fered to doo anie great exploit, and so they returned without preie or prise. In this season, Andrew For|man bishop of saint Andrewes deceassed, and bishop The death of the archbishop of saint An|drewes. Iames Be|ton succéeded him. Iames Beton archbishop of Glascow, chancellor of Scotland, was remooued to saint Andrewes, & made abbat also of Dunfirmling, and the archbishoprike of Glascow was giuen a yoong man one Gawin Dun|bar, that was the kings schoole maister. In the mo|neth of Maie, there was great adoo in Edenburgh, A stur in E|denburgh. by the falling out of the seruants of the earles of Murrey and Erroll, with the seruants of the earle of Huntleie, by reason whereof, the whole towne fell to partakings; but the duke comming suddenlie from the abbeie of Holie rood house, staied the matter, and committed she said earles vnto ward within the ca|stell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The emperor came into England, and persuaded the king there to mooue warres against the French The emperor commeth into England. Scots and Frenchmen banished foorth of England. The earle of Shrewesbu|rie inuadeth Scotland. king, and so not onelie the Frenchmen but also the Scots were commanded to auoid out of England, their goods confiscated, and they conueied foorth of the land, with a white crosse sowed vpon their vpper|most garment. In Iulie, the earle of Shrewesburie was sent by the king of England vnto the borders, with commission, to raise the power of the north parts to inuade Scotland, who vpon the sudden en|tered and came to Kelfo, where he burnt one part of the towne; but the borderers of the Mers and Teui|dale, not being halfe so manie in number as the o|ther, set vpon them, slue, and tooke manie prisoners, and so constreined them to returne into England with small honor.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 4 [...]. The gouernor after this (when he saw the Eng|lish ouerrun all the borders of Scotland) called a parlement at Edenburgh, the 9 kalends of August, to cure the same wound. Beside this, the French fea|ring them selues (because of a prepared and well fur|nished nanie of the English which did euerie waie couer and kéepe the sea) sent manie (and those wise and of excellent knowledge) vnto the gouernor, to re|quest him that he would either by counsell persuade, or by authoritie inforce his Scots to take armor a|gainst the English. After which (the matter being with great consultation and manie reasons tossed in argument to and fro) it was decréed by common consent of the parlement, that a chosen number of souldiers should be prepared, to defend the borders from the inuasion of the enimie, & (the more strong|lie to repell the English force) it was concluded, that the children of such as were slaine in that expedi|tion, should be freed from all charges or troubles that might light on them during their minoritie: and further, that the wiues of all such which had anie lands (during their liues & fell in that conflict) should after the death of their husbands kéepe the same for the terme of fiue yeeres.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke of Albanie, hearing of the great prepa|ration that the earle of Shrewesburie made, to raise an armie of foure score thousand men to inuade Scotland, he likewise (as it was before decréed) sent The duke of Albanie rai|seth an armie to inuade England. vnto all the earles, lords, and nobles of the realme, willing them to raise all such power as they could make in defense of their countrie; which they did. And so being assembled, the duke with a mightie armie of Scotishmen and certeine Frenchmen, with great artillerie, marched forward, till he came to the water of Eske ouer against Carleill: and perceiuing that the English armie came not then forward, he did what he could to persuade the noble men to enter in|to England: but as they were in councell togither about that earnest motion made to them by the duke, a certeine graue personage said to them in this ma|ner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

My lards, hither we be come by the commaunde|ment The woords of a councellor of my lard gouernor duke of Albanie, and albe|it we be readie to defend our awne natiue realme, contrarie the inuasioun of our auld enimies of Eng|laund, yet neuerthelesse it séemeth not guid, nor for the wéele of our realme of Scotlaund, to passe with|in Englaund with our armie to inuade the same at this time. And the earnest persuasiouns quhilk the go|uernor makes to vs to doo the same, procéedes ala|nerlie for the pleasure of France. It appéereth to be sufficient inough for vs so lang as the king our soue|reigne lard is within age to defend our awn realme, and not to inuade: otherwise, we may put the haile countrie and nobilitie thereof in hazard of tintsall: for king Iames the fourth brought the realme of Scotlaund to the best that it euer was, and by the war it was brought to the woorst almost that might be: for by that warre, was he and his nobilitie tinte, quhilk Scotlaund sare laments. Wherefore by mine aduise, let vs go to the gouernor, and know of him the cause why he wauld persuade vs to inuade Eng|laund.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

Then they all came to the gouernors tent, and the The earle of Arrane decla|reth to the go|uernor the mind of the lords. earle of Arrane, an auncient wise man spake for them all, and said: My lard gouernor, by your will and commaundement, héere is assembled the maist of the nobilitie of Scotlaund with their power, vp|on a pretense to enter within Englaund. My lards héere wauld know the cause and quarrell why this warre is begun, gif it might please your goodnesse, it should well satisfie their minds. The duke studied a little space, and said: This questioun wauld haif bin The dukes answer to the earle of Ar|rane. demaunded yer now; for well you know, that I for verie lufe I beare to the realme of Scotlaund (of the quhilk I haue my name, honor, and lignage) haife passed the seas from the noble realme of France, in|to this realme of Scotlaund. And great cause there was for me so to doo, to bring you to a vnitie, when ye ware in diuisioun, by reasoun whereof, your realme was like to haue bin conquered and destroi|ed. And also the king of Fraunce, by my suites and intercessioun, will ioine with you in aid against the English natioun: and when this warre was deter|minate in the parlement, you made me capteine, au|thorizing me to inuade Englaund with banner dis|plaied. Then was no demaund made of the cause or quarrell, and that I haif doone, is by your assent and agreement, and that I will iustifie. But to answer your demaund, me thinke you haif iust cause to in|uade Englaund with fire, swoord, and bloud, gif ye be not forgetfull, and without you will beare dishonor and reproch for euer. For ye know that this realme of Scotlaund is our inheritaunce, as a portioun of the world allotted to our natioun and auncessors whome we succéed. Then where may there be better warre, EEBO page image 309 than to mainteine this our naturall inheritance? Is it not dailie séene, the great inuasiouns that the Englishmen on vs make, the great manslaughters and murders, with thefts and spoiles that they doo dailie? Is not this one cause of warre? To defend the countrie is the office of a king, the honor of noble men, and the verie seruice of chiualrie, and the dutie naturall of the communaltie: for I thinke it a iust quarrell, gif we might conquer the realme of Eng|laund, and annex it to our owne realme, for the great iniuries and wrongs doone by that natioun to vs and our predecessors. For séene the begining of our habi|tatioun in this Ile of Britaine, the Englishmen and we haue euer bin enimies, and vs haif they euer ha|ted, and yet haue we euer withstand them. Suppose, we at the last battell of Floddoun field by chaunce lost our souereigne lard, & diuerse noble men, quhilk was rather by treasoun of the lard chamberlaine, than otherwise, who would not relieue the kings ar|mie when he might. And yet I thinke we wan the field, quhilk murder all we noble men ought to re|uenge. Therefore I wauld that you suld couragi|ouslie aduance your selues in this quarrell to get ho|nor, and to be reuenged.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then one wise man that was president of the councell, answered the gouernor, saieng:

My lard, 1522. The replie of a wise coun|cellor. fortune of weir is led by him that all leides, and he striks the strake, we can warke na meracles, & heare are the lards of Englaund readie to incounter vs. And gif we inuade their realme, suerlie they will fight, for their power sall increase dailie, and ours will diminish. And gif God graunt vs the victorie (as I trust he sall) yet haue we not woon the field, for readie comming is the earle of Shrewesburie sa mikell dread in Fraunce (as ye knaw well) with an great puissant armie, and there is na doubt, but the king of Englaund will send or bring another armie gif we suld chance to get the first battell. And gif we get the secound field, that will not be without great losse of manie nobles, by reasoun whereof, the realme shall be weaker. And gif we be ouercommen how manie suld be slaine, God knawes. They that flée are woorthie to be reputed as traitors to the king, and so by wilfulnesse and fule hardinesse, the realme may be in ieopardie to be vndoone. I say, while the king is within age, we aught to mooue na weir, least by weir we may bring him to destructioun.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then said the valiant gouernor:

Héere is an pu|issaunt The gouer|nors woords to the presi|dents replie. armie of Scotlaund, gif we returne, we sall incourage our enimies. Therefore séene you thinke it not gude to inuade, my councell is that we campe still on the bordures, while we sée what the English|men pretends to doo against our relme.
To the which the nobles consented, and laie still there in campe certeine daies after. After this conference had be|twixt the nobles and the gouernor, the quéene as then being not with them, but aduertised of all the procée|dings and determinations, sent woord to the gouer|nor, and desired him that there might be a treatie of peace had, and she promised to get the warden of the Means made for peace. English marches to come to the gouernors campe, vpon pledges, whervnto the gouernor condescended. Héerevpon, the lord Dacres, warden of the west The lord Da|cres. marches of England [with Thomas Musgraue] came vnto the gouernors campe, and thither also at that time was the quéene hir selfe come, and so vp|on the eleuenth of September, an abstinence of war was taken and couenanted, that in the meane time the duke and quéene should send ambassadors into England, to treat and conclude a resolute peace.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the moneth of October next insuing, there were thrée ambassadors sent into England, accor|ding to the agreement in the last treatie, but there were so hard and extreame conditions proponed on the king of Englands behalfe, that the same could not be accepted, as being contrarie to the honor and weale of the realme of Scotl [...]nd, as the Scotishmen tooke the matter. And so those ambassadors returned without agréement or conclusion of peace: wherevp|on followed great trouble betwixt them of the bor|ders of both realmes. The earle of Northumberland The earle of Northumber|land made lord Warden. was made warden of the whole marches, but shortlie after, he began to make sute to be discharged of that office, & ceassed not till he obteined it: and then was The earle of Surreie. The lord marques Dorset. The lord Da|cres. the earle of Surreie made generall warden, and the lord marquesse Dorset warden of the east & middle marches; the lord Dacres continuing still in his of|fice of wardenship ouer the west marches.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the sixt day of March, the said lords came to the borders, about which time, the duke of Albanie considering that the warres betwixt Scotland and England were irksome to the nobles of the realme, because the same wars were taken in hand chief [...]ie to serue the French kings turne, therefore he passed The duke of Albanie goeth ouer into France. His request. by the west seas into France. And in the beginning of March, where he was verie hartilie and gladlie re|ceiued of the king, his request was onelie to haue fiue thousand horssemen, and ten thousand footmen of Almains, to be transported into Scotland: and doubted not, if he might haue this granted, but that His vaine brag. with that power, and the assistance of the Scots, he should be able to ouerthrow the king of England in battell, or else to driue him out of his realme. But the French king neither beleeued this vaine brag, nor yet might spare anie such power, hauing warre at that time both against England, and the emperor: neuerthelesse, he promised him some aid, wherevpon the duke abode and waited for the same a long sea|son. In the meane while, the lords of Scotland cau|sed 1523. certeine noble men to lie vpon the borders mo|nethlie, in defense of the same against the English|men, dailie looking for support from France. Euerie The borders watched. companie remained their moneths, and then depar|ted home as the custome is, and thus they continued still till September following. Much hurt was doone on either part, and diuerse houses were ouerthrowne and destroied both in England and Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 During which time, the king of France prepared certeine ships, with men, and munition, to passe with the duke of Albanie into Scotland. But the king of England, to catch him by the way, had laid a great nauie of ships in the pase on the seas, as he should make his course. But the duke embarquing himselfe with his people at Brest in Britaine, sai|led The duke of Albanie re|turneth into Scotland. by the west parts of Scotland: and the one and twentith day of September landed at Kirkowbre in the west part of Scotland; he brought with him (beside a good number of Frenchmen) Richard de la Poole, a man of great parentage, borne in Eng|land, and banished his countrie. Whilest the duke was on the sea making saile toward Scotland, the earle of Surreie, with an armie of twentie thou|sand men, entered into Scotland, and comming to Edenburgh, burned the towne and the abbeie. [But Fr. Thin. Lesleus, lib. 9. pag. 407. saith it was Iedwoorth The earle of Surreie in uadeth Scot|land. which the earle burnt.] It was thought they ment to haue passed further, but the Scotishmen assembling themselues against their inuasions, they were con|streined to returne with losse (as some Scotishmen haue written.)

Fr. Thin. In this place, Buchanan (before he commeth to the parlement assembled by the duke of Albanie af|ter his returne out of France) writeth in this sort. Buchanan. lib. 14. We haue shewed (saieth he) how miserable the state of Scotland was the last summer (through the dis|sention which was amongest the nobilitie) by the English (with all kind of slaughter) spoiling the places bordering néere vnto them, and besetting EEBO page image 310 the sea on euerie side, whereby we might be out of hope of all forren aid. For the deuise of the enimie tended to compell the fierce minds of the Scots (a|bated with such euils) to conclude a league with him; wherewith the Scots were not behind (by reason of the French faction) that by the means of the quéene there might be a perpetuall truce taken betwéene them. For when the lord Hume was (by death) taken away, the Dowglasse banished, and all the rest of the nobilitie rather méet for compani|ons than leaders in battels; such as had withdrawen their mind from the French, applied themselues to the quéenes faction.

Wherevpon she (to gratifie hir brother, and to wrest all the gouernement into hir owne hands) did (dissembling hir gréedie desire to rule) persuade them, to deliuer their sonne (almost now past childish yeares) out of the hands of strangers, and them selues from the yoke of other mens bondage. For the queene did well foresée, that preparation and suc|cor was made, and did come against hir husband, whome before she had begun to hate extreamelie. The king of England also did commend and prefer to the Scots the counsell of his sister, by manie let|ters sent, and with faire promises offered; because he had none other mind, but that a perpetuall friend|ship might alwaies remaine betwéene the adioined kingdoms; the which, as he had at other times de|sired; so now he mostlie wished it, not for anie com|moditie to himselfe, but to the end that all men might well perceiue that he would imbrace, defend, and asmuch as rested within his abilitie, séeke the commoditie of his sisters sonne by all the means he might. And if the Scots would persuade themselues to breake the league with the French, and ioine in amitie with the English; they should shortlie well vnderstand, that the king of England did not seeke after souereingtie, glorie, power, or honor; but onelie studied for a concord amongst themselues, & a league betwéene their nations. For which cause, he would bestow his onelie daughter Marie vpon Iames the king of Scotland; by which mariage, the Scots should not be subiect to the gouernement of Eng|land; but contrarie, the English vnder the rule of the Scots. For by that means, besides the quenching of great hatred betweene the nations (and intercourse of merchandize, exchange of mutuall courtesies and ioinings in affinitie) there should be an indissoluble knot made for the honor of the whole Iland.

And with this, they (for England) remembred the profit and disaduantage that might rise to the one from other, by the friendship or hatred of either kingdome, and the benefit that they might looke for from their English neighbours, more than by anie possibilitie they might obteine from their French confederats. For on the one side, the Eng|lish and they were borne in one continent, brought vp vnder the same influence of the heauen, and so like in all things, in toong, in maners, in lawes, in decrées, in countenance, in color, and in lineaments of bodie, as that they rather séeme one than two na|tions. On the other side, the French are not onelie different from them, by naturall soile and clemen|cie of the heauens; but more seuered from them in order and forme of liuing, being further such a peo|ple, as if they were enimies vnto them, they could not greatlie hurt them; and if they be their friends they can not greatlie helpe them. But the English are at hand with men, munition, and monie; when the French, being so far off, are onelie with allure|ments, inforcements, and for their owne commo|ditie drawen to take their part. Besides which, there can be no succor from France but by sea, which the enimie may easilie stop; and so the Scots not able to be succored by them. But from the English they may haue aid by land with speed, and no man can hinder them thereof. Wherefore they should consider how discommodious (for the dispatch of their affairs) and how vnapt (for the defense of themselues) it should be, to hang all the hope of their succor vpon the fauor of the wind, and to place the most suertie of their estate in the vnconstant friendship of the vn|certeine elements. For (if neuer before) yet at this time the Scots might not onlie perceiue in thought but feele in déed what helpe is to be hoped (in present dangers) from absent friends, when that the Eng|lish can not onelie helpe you now, but at this instant doo also kéepe away your promised and long expected aid, which they haue so besieged vpon the sea, that you can receiue no benefit or helpe from them.

After that these things were thus laid abroad for the knitting of the English league, as there were not a few which gaue consent to that motion, so were there manie that stiflie argued to the contrarie. For in that assemblie, there were manie pensioners of the French faction, who (increasing their priuat com|moditie by the publike detriment) did vtterlie ab|hor from all peace; besides whome, there were also some, which suspected the facilitie of promise in the English: especiallie, since the whole estate of Eng|land did then chiefelie hang vpon the backe of Tho|mas Woolseie the cardinall, an euill and ambitious person, and who referred all counsels and consulta|tions to the amplifieng of his owne priuat authori|tie and dignitie; and for that cause, applied that and all other things to euerie blast of fortune. All our men although they were mooued by diuerse reasons (as the varietie of diuerse wits bred diuerse minds) did yet with like endeuor tend vnto one end, which was alwaies to defend the French league; for they denied, that the same sudden liberalitie of the eni|mie, could anie way sort to their benefit; since this was not the first time that the English had vsed that policie to intrap vnwarie men: as did Edward the first, who (swearing and binding himselfe with all bonds of law, when he was chosen an arbitrator to cease the strife of the kingdome of Scotland) did with great iniurie make a king of Scots at his pleasure: and of late also, Edward the fourth king of England (when he had promised his daughter Ce|cilie to the sonne of Iames the third) did (the maid being readie for the mariage) dissolue the same, by taking occasion of warre through our ciuill dissen|tions. According to which, the English doo now al|so seeke none other matter, than (casting a vaine hope before vs to gouerne them, to bring vs into right seruitude; and (when we are destitute of all forren helpe) to oppresse vs with all the power of their king|dome.

Neither is that true also (wherein the chiefest strength of their spéech consisteth) that the aid of our neighbors néere at hand, is better or surer to vs than further friendship. For how may we looke for anie good from those our neighbors, since commonlie a|mongest neighbors there neuer want occasions of dissention; which oftentimes chance bringeth foorth, and the stronger (hauing small or no occasion) will manie times seeke to offer: at what time, he which is greatest in armes, must & will appoint lawes of agréement as seemes best to his liking. Beside, there was neuer yet so sacred or firme a bond of amitie betwéene adioining kingdoms, which was not often|times Where the English haue killed one, the Scots haue murthered ten as the course of their histo|ries will well prooue. broken, either by offered or sought occasions of displeasure & breach: neither is it to be hoped, that the English will absteine from offering violence vnto vs; that haue not spared the bloud of so manie of their owne kings. For the sanctitie of leagues, & the religion of an oth, and the faith of compacts EEBO page image 311 and couenants, are in truth firme bonds of amitie amongest the good: but amongest the wicked, they are nets to intrap others, if occasion of commoditie be offered for breach of them. All which benefits and iniuries, doo dwell in people, whome neerenesse of bounds, conuersation of language, and not vnlike maner of life hath ioined togither.

And if all these things should be far otherwise, yet there be two things which we ought speciallie to foresée and prouide for; whereof, the one is, that we spend not our time in vaine by chiding and disagrée|ment, as persons drawen into diuerse factions; the other, that we reiect not our old friends (for this new aliance) before we haue heard what they can say; especiallie in such a cause (as this) which may not be determined, but by the consent of the parle|ment. Upon which, the French followers did ear|nestlie stand, that there should not anie thing be doone therein; and therefore sent certeine of the French aid as ambassadors about the cause. This thus ended, and the comming of the gouernour spread abroad, the same made manie glad, confir|med the doubtfull thereof, and withdrew others (that were inclined to the English part) from the same opinion they were of.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke immediatlie after his arriuall came to Edenburgh, where he caused all the lords of the realme to assemble in that towne, where he declared the great loue and affection that the king of France bare to the realme of Scotland, insomuch as hea|ring of the slaughters, murthers and burnings, prac|tised by the Englishmen, he thought that he felt the same doone vnto him, reputing himselfe one of their members. And for reuenging thereof, he would bée partner with them as their member: for more cre|dit whereof, he shewed the kings letter, confirming his declaration. He therefore exhorted them to as|semble an armie, in reuenge of iniuries & wrongs doone to them and their countrie; for he had brought with him monie, men, and artillerie to the furthe|rance thereof. Herevpon it was concluded, that the armie should assemble at Dowglas dale the eigh|téenth of October: the which conclusion they kept, and from thence they marched to Caldstreame vpon Tweed, and sent ouer the water certeine of their great artillerie, with a companie of Frenchmen and Scots, by the guiding of Dauid Car; and being Dauid Car. Warke castell besieged. got ouer, they lay siege to the castell of Warke, which was kept by sir William Li [...]e capteine thereof, ha|uing with him a strong garrison of English souldi|ors, and great prouision of artillerie, and all things necessarie: yet at the first assault, the vtter barne|kin was woone, and the said companie of Scotish|men and Frenchmen lay within the same, indama|ging the castell in all they might.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The earle of Surrie and diuerse others of the English nobilitie, with an armie of fortie thousand The earle of Surrie with an armie of fortie thou|sand men. The marques Dorset appoin ted to kéepe Berwike. men, were at Anwike, not far distant from Warke, and the marquesse Dorset was sent with a great companie to keepe the towne of Berwike, for doubt least the same should haue béene besieged. Also in the meane time, a new assault was made to the inner barnekin of Warke, and the same woone likewise as the other had béene before. After this was the ca|stell assailed, and part of it beaten downe with the artillerie lieng on the Scotish side of the water of Twéed. At which breach the assault was giuen, and Warke as|saulted. the same continued, till that through darknesse and lacke of light, the assailants were driuen to retire. Great slaughter was made at that assault on both The Scots and French retire backe ouer the water. sides, but especiallie of them within the house. The assailants ment to haue giuen a fresh assault the next day, being the fourth of Nouember: but a sore and [...]hement storme and tempest of [...] chanced that night, so that they were constreined to leaue off that enterprise, and to get themselues ouer the ri|uer againe vnto the armie, least by the rising of the water of Twéed, they might haue béene cut off by their enimies, before they could haue beene suc|coured.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the meane time, whilest this siege continued, a number of Scotishmen made a road into the Glendale burned by the Scots. countrie of Glendale within the English marches, and burnt and spoiled diuerse townes, cast downe sundrie piles, and returned without anie resistance: for the earle of Surrie would suffer none of his people so depart from the armie, nor breake order, for feare of more inconuenience. The duke of Al|banie An herald sent. lieng on the Scotish side of Twéed, sent an herald vnto the earle of Surrie, willing him to call to remembrance, how in his absence he had inuaded Scotland with fire and sword: for the which cruell dealing, he required him vpon his honor to come forward, and he would méet him in the confines of both the realmes, and giue him battell. To the which message the earle answered, that he had no commis|sion to inuade Scotland at that time, but it onlie to defend. And (as some haue reported) he caused a secret messenger to passe to the quéene, as then lieng a good way distant from the armie, to mooue for some abstinence and truce, and further to persuade the duke to retire home; which he did, so that by hir labor, a truce was taken for that instant, and afterward A truce. confirmed for a longer time: and thus the duke re|turned with honor (as the Scotishmen report.) This Sée more of this matter in England. 1524. truce was well kept all the next winter following, and no inuasion made, till the moneth of Maie: and then was the erle of Surrie sent againe to the Eng|lish borders, and the lords of Scotland on the other part monethlie laie on their borders by quarters, for defense of their countrie, as the vse is.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 On Trinitie sundaie, being the one and twen|tith Scots enter into England of Maie, fiue hundred Scots entered England, to surprise the English merchants, and others, go|ing that day vnto Berwike, where yéerelie on that day the faire is kept; and so by reason therof they met with diuerse of them that went to this faire, and tooke to the number of two hundred prisoners, whom they led with them into Scotland. But Hall saith, that by the comming of the yoong lord of Fulberie to the succors of the Englishmen, the Scots were chased, and lost two hundred of their numbers. On the fift of Iulie, sir William Fenwike, Leonard Musgraue, & Bastard Heron, with diuers other, to the number of nine hundred Englishmen, entred into the Mers, Englishmen inuade Scot|land. and began to spoile and rob the countrie: but they were shortlie compassed about with Scotishmen, & so hardlie assailed, that although they fought vali|antlie a good while, yet by fine force they were com|pelled to giue ground, and séeke to saue themselues by flight, in which two hundred of them were taken Englishmen discomfited. Bastard He|ron sla [...]e. prisoners, and Bastard Heron with diuerse other slaine. Amongest the prisoners, were sir [...] Fen|wike, Leonard Musgraue, and diuers other gentle|men of good calling.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 On the seuententh of Iulie, the lord Marwell, 1524. Foure [...]ou|sand saith Hal. and sir Alexander Iordein, with diuerse other Sco|tishmen in great numbers, e [...]red England at the west marches by Caerleill, with displaied banners, The lord Maxwell in|uadeth Eng|land. and began to harrie the countrie, and burne diuers places. The Englishmen assembled on euerie side, so that they were farre more in number than the Sco|tishmen, and there vpon set fiercelie vpon their eni|mies, insomuch that for the space of an houre, there was a sore fight continued betwixt them But the lord Maxwell like a right politike capteine (as of all that knew him he was no lesse reputed) ceassed not to incourage his people: & after that, by the taking EEBO page image 312 of Alexander Iordein & diuers others, they had bin put backe, he brought them in araie againe, and be|ginning a new skirmish, recouered in maner all the prisoners, tooke and slue diuerse Englishmen, so that he returned with victorie, and led aboue thrée hun|dred prisoners with him home into Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After this iourneie, there was an assemblie of An assemblie of the lords. the lords in Edenburgh, with the duke of Albanie, where some of the lords were of mind that the warre should continue: other thought it not reason, that for the pleasure onelie of France, the realme should su|steine such damage, as it had doone by those three last yéeres wars now passed, and therefore they persua|ded peace. Moreouer, there was also much debating of the matter, touching the age and gouernement of the king; some of the lords holding that he was now of age to take the rule vpon himselfe, and that the gardianship or tutorie of a king expired sooner than of another priuate person. The duke of Albanie per|ceiuing how the lords were diuided amongest them|selues, and neither content with his gouernement, nor willing to mainteine the warres which he had so earnestlie persuaded for the pleasure of France, hée declared to them that he wold returne into France, and so taking his leaue of the nobilitie, went to Striueling where the king was, of whome he tooke leaue, also giuing vnto him such louing and faithfull counsell, as to his knowledge séemed expedient, and so went into the west countrie, where he tooke the The duke of Albanie re|turneth into France. Fr. Thin. seas in September, and sailed foorth into France, [neuer to returne into Scotland.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The king of England [before the rumor of the departure of the duke of Albanie] hauing in the mo|neth of Iune sent ouer into France, vnto Archem|bald earle of Angus, that remained there vpon the commandement of the duke of Albanie, persuaded him to come from thence secretlie into England, which accordinglie he did; and being safelie arriued in England, king Henrie procured him to passe in|to Scotland, that with the assistance of such lords as The earle of Angus com|meth into England. would be readie to take his part, he might raise war against the duke of Albanie, which sought by all meanes (as the king of England was informed) to destroie him & his: but yer the earle could come into Scotland, the duke was departed toward France. On the six and twentith of Iulie, the king by the ad|uise of his mother, and certeine yoong lords, came from Striueling vnto Edenburgh; and thrée daies after, the quéene tooke the whole gouernment of the king vpon hir, and entered into the castell of Eden|burgh The quéene taketh the go|uernment in|to hir hands. with the king, where they soiourned the most part of the next winter. The prouost of Edenburgh was discharged, whom the towne had chosen, and the lord Marwell was appointed by the queene, prouost in his place. For the performance wherof, there was a parlement also summoned to be holden at Eden|burgh the third day of Februarie next insuing [and A parlement summoned. Fr. Thin. the bishop of saint Andrews and Aberden (as saith Buchanan li. 14.) were cast into prison, who after ga|thering armes (and curssing all others) within the space of a moneth following were reconciled to the king.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The king of England glad to heare that the duke of Albanie was departed into France, sent into Scotland in ambassage one maister Iohn Magnus, and Roger Ratcliffe esquier, to declare vnto the quéene and lords, that he would be content that a truce might be accorded betwixt the two realmes of England and Scotland, now that the duke of Alba|nie was returned into France, who had beene the onlie procurer of the warres. Herevpon they agréed to take truce to indure for one yéere, and in the meane time they appointed to send ambassadors in|to A truce taken for one yeare. England to treat vpon a continuall peace, ali|ance, and amitie to be had betwixt both the realmes. In this meane while, the earle of Angus came into Scotland: and bicause of the displeasure which the quéene bare him, there insued occasions of great di|uisions within the realme. Notwithstanding the quéene by aduise of certeine lords, sent the lord Gil|bert earle of Cassels, Robert Cockeborne bishop of Ambassadors into England Dunkeld, and doctor Mille abbat of Cambusken|neth, ambassadors into England, in the moneth of December; the which were receiued at Gréenewich by the king of England the foure and twentith of the same moneth: where the bishop of Dunkeld made an eloquent oration in Latine, declaring the cause of their comming, the which in effect was for intreatment of peace, loue, and amitie betwixt the two realmes: and for the more sure establishment thereof, they required that a mariage might be con|cluded betwixt their king & the ladie Marie, daugh|ter to the king of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This request was well heard by the king, who therevpon appointed commissioners to common thereof with the said ambassadors. Diuerse articles were proponed by the said commissioners on the king of England his behalfe, and in especiall one; which was, that the king of Scotland should re|nounce the league with the king of France; and that further he should come into England, and re|maine there till he came to perfect age to be maried. Bicause the ambassadors had not commission to conclude so farre, the earle of Cassels returned into Scotland, to vnderstand the minds of the lords and councell in these points, the other remaining at Lon|don till his returne to them againe. Fr. Thin. 1525. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 414. Upon All saints day there was a great motion of wind, with such stormes and tempests of thunder and lightning which suddenlie arose, that the same (ouerthrowing manie priuat houses in Edenburgh, and the pinacle of the tower of Dauid in the same castell) entered into the quéenes lodging with a great flame, which burnt so vehementlie, and went so farre, that it had almost consumed the same; which storme (ouerthrow|ing the buildings about the chamber of the bishop of Whitchurch) the bishops lodging did yet remaine Candida Casa. safe not touched with the violence of the flame.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 When the day of the parlement appointed to be holden in the Tolbuith of Edenburgh was come, the king, queene, and lords, fearing some tumult in the towne to be raised by the earle of Angus, would not passe foorth of the castell, but kept the parlement within the same. Archembald Dowglasse earle of Angus, and Iohn Steward earle of Lennox, with diuerse others, to the number of two thousand men, came in the night season vnto Edenburgh, bicause they durst not enter the towne in the day time, for feare of the gunnes that laie in the castell. The next day, being the fourtéenth day of Februarie, the said earles with the archbishop of saint Andrews, the bi|shop of Aberden, that by the quéenes appointment had béene kept before in ward, the bishop of Dub|lane, Calene Campbell, the earle of Argile, and di|uerse other lords and barons being in the towne, sent to the castell, alledging that the king was kept as prisoner by the queene, and iustice suppressed, with great damage of the common wealth; and therefore The earle of Angus his request. he desired, that the king might be deliuered vnto them, to be gouerned by the aduise of the thrée states, and if they refused to deliuer him, they would be|siege the castell, and if they wan it, all their liues within should rest at their pleasures, the kings one|lie excepted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The quéene, by the counsell of the earles of Ar|rane and Murrey, refused not onelie to deliuer the king, but sent them word, that except they did de|part the towne, they would suerlie discharge all the EEBO page image 313 artillerie of the castell against them. Héerevpon, great feare rose in the towne, speciallie among the burgesses, but by the diligence of certeine persons that trauelled betwéene the parties, an assurance was taken on either side for certeine daies. In the meane time, the earle of Angus caused the castell to be forset, that neither meat nor other thing might He fore [...]etteth the castell of Edenburgh. be suffered to be conueied into it, except so much as might serue for the sustentation of the kings owne person. At length, all the parties were agréed, so that the foure and twentith day of Februarie, the king The parties are agréed. came vnto the parlement holden in the Tolbuith in most honorable wise, with the assistance of all the e|states, hauing the crowne, scepter, and swoord borne before him, and from thence he was brought to the abbeie, where he remained.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this parlement, there were eight lords chosen to be of the kings priuie councell, the which tooke the Councellors appointed. gouernement of the king and realme vpon them, as these: the archbishops of saint Andrews and Glas|cow, the bishops of of Aberden and Dublane: the earles of Angus, Argile, Arrane, and Lennox: the quéene was adioined to them as principall, without whose aduise nothing should be doone. From this par|lement also was the earle of Cassels sent, with an|swer to the king of England; who came to London the nintéenth of March. But bicause the king had knowledge that the French king was taken at the battell of Pauie, he would not procéed in the trea|tie of mariage betwixt the king of Scotland and his daughter, till he had the emperors aduise, whome he affirmed to be his confederat friend: and so renew|ing Truce re|newed. the truce for three yéers and six moneths, the am|bassadors returned into Scotland about the begin|ning of Aprill next insuing, without anie contract of mariage at that time. The agréement betwixt the queene and lords continued not long, for anon after died the bishop of Dublane or Dunkeld (as saith Lesleus) whose benefice the earle of Angus obteined Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 417. of the king for his brother William Dowglas, with|out the aduise of the queene and other lords. Where|vpon the quéene departed and went vnto Striue|ling, leauing the king with the eale of Angus, who tooke the whole rule and gouernment of the realme and king vpon him, and made his vncle Archembald Dowglas treasuror of the realme, and bestowed be|nefices, offices, and all other things, by the aduise of his brother George Dowglas, and the earle of Len|nox, who assisted him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane time, the archbishop of saint An|drewes, and the earles of Arrane, Argile, and Mur|rey, remaining with the quéene at Striueling, alled|ged that the king was withholden from them by the earle of Angus sore against his will: and therefore they sent vnto the earle, requiring him to deliuer him. But the earle caused the king to giue the an|swer himselfe, that he would not come from the erle The king not in his owne power. of Angus, albeit he would gladlie haue beene out of his hands if he might; as by secret messages sent to sundrie of the lords, and likewise at that time it appee|red, for he willed them by priuie meanes to assemble an armie, and to come & fetch him out of their hands that thus deteined him. Herevpon shortlie after, they raised a power, and comming therewith to Lin|lithgew, The quéene mother in armes. purposing to passe into Edenburgh, that they might get the king out of the earle of Angus his hands: the said earle, with the earle of Lennox and other his assistants being thereof aduertised, came to the field with the kings banner displaied, and brought the king with him, although partlie a|gainst his will.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The queene and such lords as were with hir there in the armie, for the reuerence they bare vnto the kings person, and also fearing the danger that might chance to them if they buckled togither in a fough|ten field, they withdrew themselues to Striueling, and from thence the quéene went into Murrey land with the earle of Murrey, and there remained a long time after. The earles of Arrane and Argile went into the west countrie, and the bishop of saint An|drews to Dunfermling: and then the earle of An|gus tooke vpon him more boldlie the gouernment of the king and realme, and sent to the bishop of saint The great seale deliuered Andrews (who was chancellor) for the great seale, which was deliuered to them that were so sent for it. The nobles of the realme remaining thus at vari|ance, and diuided among themselues, there was small obedience of lawes & iustice. Diuerse slaugh|ters in sundrie parts were committed, great thefts & robberies made by the borderers vpon the inland A diuorse be|twéene the quéene and the earle of Angus. countries. Moreouer, a diuorse this yéere (as some haue said) was sued before the archbishop of S. An|drews, betwixt the quéene, and the earle of Angus hir husband, and then afterwards she tooke to hus|band one Henrie Steward, sonne to the lord of A|uendale, the which Henrie was after created by the king lord of Methwen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 On the foure and twentith of Iulie, the king be|ing 1526. accompanied with the earle of Angus, the lord Hume, the Karres & others, rode vnto Iedburgh, in purpose to haue reformed the misgouernance of the borderers; but after that they had remained there three daies with little obedience shewed towards them, they all returned. And vpon the 29 day of Iulie, at the bridge of Melrosse, the lard of Bo|clouth, The lard of Boclough his enterprise, to take the king from the earle of Angus. accompanied with a thousand horssemen, be|gan to shew himselfe in sight, whose principall pur|pose was to haue taken the king from the earle of Angus and his assistants, being requested and com|manded by the king himselfe so to doo. The earle of Angus incontinentlie sent an herald vnto the lard of Boclough, to know what his intention was to doo; who answered, that he came to doo the king honor and seruice, and to shew his friends and power as the vse is of the borderers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Angus, with the lord Hume, and the rest, not being content with this answer, because of the great feud betwixt him and the Humes, and the Kars, sent vnto him a commandement in the kings name to depart, and not to approch néere to the kings presence, vnder paine of high treason. Whervnto he answered, that he knew the kings mind well inough & would not spare for this commandement to come to his graces presence. Which answer receiued from him, incontinentlie the earle of Angus, the lords Fleming and Hume, the Kars, the lard of Sesse|ford, with their friends, alighted on foot; the king re|maining on horsbacke, accompanied with the earle of Lennox, the lord Maxwell, George Dowglasse, and Ninian Creichton, tutor of Sainquhar.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The lard of Boclough lighted also on foot, but be|cause the most part of his men were of the theeues and outlawes of the borders, commonlie called bro|ken men, vpon their first comming to ioining with their speares, they fled, leauing the lard of Boclough with a small number of his owne seruants about him in all the danger: yet they defended themselues verie manfullie, and [...]ue the lard of Sesseford and di|uerse The lard of Sesseford slaine. The lard of Boclough put to flight. other, on the earle of Angus his side: but final|lie, oppressed with multitude, they were put to flight, and foure score of Bocloughes men slaine in the chase. After this, the king returned to Iedburgh, and remained there the space of foure daies, and then re|turned to Edenburgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 All this while, the king was gouerned and holden against his will, by the earle of Angus and his assis|ters, although he did not outwardlie shew so in coun|tenance, but dissembled the matter as well as he EEBO page image 314 might, yet perceiuing two enterprises to haue quai|led that had béene attempted for his deliuerance, he thought to assaie the third; and héerevpon, procured the earle of Lennox to assemble an armie, with as|sistance of the quéene and hir friends, to helpe to de|liuer The earle of Lennox ga|thereth a pow|er. him from the hands of his enimies. The earle of Lennox did so, and came with such power as he could raise from the westparts vnto Linlithgo. The earle of Angus being aduertised, that the earle of Lennox was gathering men, sent to the earle of Ar|rane for aid, requiring him to come with such power as he could make, and to méet him at Linlithgo. The earle of Arrane immediatlie héerewith gathered a The earle of Arrane ga|thereth a power. power, and with the same came to Linlithgo before the earle of Lennox came thither, who shortlie after comming with his people, approched that towne, vn|to whome the earle of Arrane sent a messenger, re|quiring him to turne and saue his enterprise, assu|ring him, that albeit he was his sisters sonne, he would not spare him, if he held forward vpon his iournie. The earle of Lennox héerewith answered in a great rage, that he would not staie, till he came to Edenburgh, or else die for it by the waie. The earle of Arrane therefore not staieng for the earle of An|gus his comming from Edenburgh, issued foorth of Linlithgo at the west end of the towne, and incoun|tered the earle of Lennox and his companie, where there was a cruell onset giuen on both sides, but sud|denlie the earle of Lennox his companie fled, and he himselfe with the lord of Hunston and diuerse other The earle of Lennox slaine gentlemen were slaine.

*The death of which Dowglas the king did great|lie lament, and hearing the clamor and noise that was made in that conflict, did send foorth (but all too late) Andrew Wood (his familiar) to haue succored the Lennox, if by anie meanes he could. After this victorie, the faction of the Dowglasses (to the end that striking a feare in those that were enuious a|gainst them, they might make them alwaies to be in danger to them) began to mooue questions and sutes in law, against such as had borne armor a|gainst the king: for feare whereof some bought their peace with monie, some tooke part with the Dow|glasses, some followed the Hamiltons, and some stiflie standing in the matter, were followed and cal|led into the law. Of which number Gilbert earle of Cassiles (when he was earnestlie pressed by Iames Hamilton the bastard, to yéeld himselfe to the part of the Hamiltons) being a man of great stomach, gaue this answer, that the old league of friendship, which was betwéene their grandfathers (in which his grandfather was alwaies the more honorable and first named) should not make him now so forgetfull of the honor of his familie, that he would séeme to degenerat from his ancestors, and willinglie grant to be vnder defense (which is the next degrée of seruitude) of them, whose head in making an equall league and couenant was contented with the second place of honor.

Wherefore, when the said Gilbert appéered in the law at the day appointed, for the deciding of his cause: Hugh Kennedie his kinsman answered for him, that he was present in that battell, as sent thi|ther by the king, and not as enimie to the king, and he would (if need required) bring foorth the kings let|ters therfore, notwithstanding the Hamiltons frow|ning and fretting against his boldnesse: for the king had written as well to Gilbert (going home) as to manie others, to ioine with Iohn Steward earle of Lennox, who séeing the battell at hand, and that he had not time left to call togither his friends and fol|lowers, did with his present companie (taking his iournie out of the waie) turne to Striueling. Wher|fore (the power of the Hamiltons in that cause some|what suppressed) Iames Hamilton the bastard stirred with great hatred against Kennedie, did procure Hugh Campbell shiriffe of Aire to dispatch him out The death of the earle of Cassiles. of the waie, which he shortlie after did in his returne home. Afterward this Hugh, to the end he might dis|semble his conscience or knowledge of this euill (the execution wherof he had committed to his fellowes) was remaining at the day and time of the same murther, with Iohn Areskine, whose sister was the wife of Gilbert Kennedie.

But she (as soone as she heard of that déed) did with manie bitter woords lay the fault vnto him, because by that fact the noble house of the Kennedies had al|most béene brought to vtter subuersion, had he not left a yoong sonne behind him. This yoong earle, after the death of his father, fled to his kinsman Ar|chembald Dowglasse then the kings treasuror, to whome he committed the defense of himselfe and his familie. This doone, Hugh Campbell was called in|to law for the said déed, who being manifestlie conui|cted thereof, was banished into an other place. Nei|ther did the Dowglasses with lesse bitternesse exer|cise their anger against Iames Beton, for bringing their power to saint Andrewes, which they spoiled, as after appéereth.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, the earle of Angus bringing the king with him, arriued, and had come to the bat|tell, but that the king was not willing to come foorth of Edenburgh in that quarrell (as some haue writ|ten) and therefore made excuses, as he did also by the waie, faining himselfe sicke: but George Dowglas droue and called vpon his horsse verie sharpelie, and constreined him to ride foorth with faster pase than he would haue doone, giuing him manie iniurious woords, which he remembred afterwards, and would not forget them. They went that night to Striue|ling, and shortlie after passed through Fife, searching for the quéene, and the bishop of saint Andrewes; and The quéene sought for because they were kept secretlie in their friends hou|ses, so that they could not be heard of, they spoiled the abbeie of Dunfirmeling, and the castell of saint An|drewes, taking awaie all the moueables which the archbishop had within the same.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 423. In the north parts also, the two families of the Leslées and the Forboises, intangled with mutuall hatred, raised great flames of tumults and parts ta|king: which enimities did after grow to be the grea|ter, because there were dailie manie slaughters of the nobles & other people committed in Mar, Gar|reoth, and Aberden, whilest ech faction labored to de|fend 1526. it selfe against the others. For which cause (when the common-wealth was much deformed thereby, and all iustice seemed almost vtterlie ouerthrowne in those parts) the earle of Angus and other of the no|bilitie (which were of the kings priuie councell) did not ceasse, vntill they had made vnitie betwéene those two families. But in the end (the heire of the For|boises, & the lord Lenturke, hauing by wait killed the noble baron Meldrume, which fauored the Leslées) those buried contentions began againe to be raised from the dead; whose enimities being once againe knowne to the nobilitie (and what hurt might insue thereof to the common state) they attempted all pos|sible means once more to quench that deadlie flame, and afresh to ioine their minds togither in amitie, with this prouiso, that the murtherers of Meldrume should (for punishment of their offense) be banished into France, where the greatest part of them died, after manie miseries and reproches susteined in their pitifull life. Which last league so sincerelie vnited be|twéene the Forboises and the Leslées, was imbraced with such faith ech to other, by renewing thereof with continuall mariages & other courtesies, that it conti|nueth most firme euen vnto this day.

EEBO page image 315 In which north parts also, the inhabitants ( [...]act|lie following their naturall disposition, and partlie 1520. Le [...]eus lib. 9. pag. 423, [...]4, &c. excited by the example of the former times long suf|fered so to be vsed) did in like sort ouerr [...] and spoi [...] all things, by reason of ouer much libertie. But of all other [...]rs ra [...] in those parts, that was the g [...]|test and most troublesome, which was raised by the Makintosches. Of which vnrulie people, the one familie was called the Glenchattens, and the other was surnamed Makintosches after the head of that kindred; in which, the chiefe was called Lachla [...] Makintosche a man of great possessions, and of such excellencie in singularitie of wisedome, that with great commendation he did conteine all his follow|ers within the limits of their dueties, more than o|thers did. Which constreints (when they could hard|lie beare (as loth to liue in order) hauing so long pas|sed their time licentiouslie) did withdraw the hearts of manie men from him. Amongest whome was Iames Malcolmeson his kinsman (who thirsting after the desire to rule) tooke occasion (by the iniurie of the time) traitorouslie with deceipt to kill this Makintosché; after which (fearing further trouble to insue towards him) he flieth to the Ile (at the lake Kothmurcosie) as a sanctuarie or defense for him. But the rest of the familie of the Makintosches did Kothmurcosie pursue him with such eager minds, that by force ta|king him in the Ile, they woorthilie killed him, and manie of his confederats, guiltie of that wicked|nesse. After which (because the sonne of Makintos|che, for his tender yeares, was not sufficient with feare & punishment to bridle the minds of his fierce subiects) by common consent they chose the bastard brother of the slaine man (called Hector Makintos|che) to be head and leader of that familie, vntill this New tumults [...] that fami|lie. yoong nephue might grow to yéeres, and might wéeld the gouernement of his owne tribe.

Now when when the earle of Murreie perceiued that if the sonne of Makintosche were committed to the rashnesse of a people somewhat fierce and cruell, that he should (on euerie side) be oppressed with ma|nie troubles, he did most godlie (for the care he had of him his nephue being his sisters sonne) prouide, that he should be caried to an other place, to the O|giluies, the childs kin on the mothers side, where he should be well instructed and imbued with the pre|cepts of all learning and vertue. Whereat Hector was greatlie offended, to sée that the child should so subtilie be taken from him. Wherefore (affirming that much of his authoritie was thereby diminished) he attempted (euerie way he might) to get the child againe into his possession, that thereby he might salue and recouer his credit and authoritie. But some there were, which supposed that the great care and labor which he so much emploied (for getting the child into his hands) was to none other intent, but that he might make him awaie, and prepare a path whereby to lead his owne sonne to the gouerne|ment of that familie. Which conceipt being déeplie grauen in the mind of the earle of Murreie, caused him to séeke the preseruation of the child, that by no means he might fall into the hands of Hector.

Wherewith Hector being highlie incensed (and determining to spue out his choler, séeking reuenge by anie kind of means) he did cause his brother Wil|liam The familie of Makintos the raise sedi|tions. & other of his kindred, that ioining their force, they might stronglie vex the earle of Murreie, and spoile his possessions: which they did with so great fu|rie, that ouerthrowing the fort of Dikes, and besie|ging the castell of Tox [...]ewaie, they executed manie cruelties, slaughters, spoiles, burnings, and other mischiefes vpon all sorts of people, men, women, and children, and all such as fauored them. For their hatred not limited against the earle of Murreie, ex|tended further against the familie of the Ogiluies, amongest whome the child was left in custodie fox educations cause. With which mind this Hector and his complices placing their campe at the castell of Pettens, which belonged to the lord of Durneus (one of the familie of the Ogiluies) they did so furr| [...]ie besiege the same, as the people of the same were in the end forced to yéeld the fort: which when they had entred, they killed foure and twentie of the Ogil [...]es, whom they found therein. Whervpon (their minds being now aduanced with spoiles and happie succ [...]s) they became so proud, as (trusting ouermuch to prosperous euent in all their actions) they neuer set end to their wicked crueltie, vntill the erle of Murreie did with force execute iust iudge|ment vpon them. For when the earle beheld them immoderatlie reioising, in spoiling his lands, and committing other excessiue euils; he obteined of the king and his councell, that he might be [...] the kings deputie and gouernor in that battell, to bri|dle the rage and boldnesse of those in that order spoi|ling the common-wealth.

Wherefore the earle assembling an armie, did with such speedie valu [...]e come vpon them and their countrie, that at the first he tooke almost two hun|dred of their capteins, and committed them to the gallowes. All whose faith was so true to their cap|teine, Woonderfull faith of euill men to their capteine. as (when life was seuerallie promised to eue|rie one man as he was alone lead to the gallowes) there would not anie one of them confesse where their capteine Hector had hidden himselfe. For eue|rie one answered (with bold spirit) that they knew not where he was become; and if so be they did, that yet they would not (by anie paine or terror of death) be induced to breake their faith and to betraie their maister. But hanging not being thought a sufficient reuenge (for such capteins as the earle had taken) there were more gréeuous punishments laid vpon William Makintosche (brother to Hector) because in the beginning he nourished those coles of cho|ler for his brothers cause. For after that this Wil|liam was hanged, his head was chopped off and fast|ned vpon a pole at Dikes, and the other foure parts of his bodie were sent to the townes of Elgin, Fo|resse, Inuernesse, and Alderne, there to be set vp publikelie to the reproch of them, and the example of others.

Now, after all these sturs, Hector (séeing his men were thus dispersed and executed, and that himselfe was excluded from anie other succor) fled to the faithfull helpe of Alexander Dunbar deane of Mur|reie, by whose aduise he goeth humblie and secretlie to the king, beseeching his mercie and fauor to be extended vnto him: for he supposed it better, rather to craue the doubtfull mercie of his lord, than to make triall of the earle of Murreis certeine re|uenge. Wherevpon the king (seeing his humble submission) receiued him into his fauor; and did with all his heart louinglie after embrace him, be|cause he was valiant and wise in warre, and in counsell. But God, whose iustice is alwaies shewed in punishing of wickednesse, would not suffer this filthinesse of crueltie, theft, murther, & spoile (where|with Hector did wickedlie defile his life) to go vn|reuenged with most gréeuous paine vpon the said Hector. For in the citie of saint Andrews, sudden death (than which there can be no greater punish|ment) was laid vpon him by one Iames Spense a priest, who was himselfe afterwards beheaded.

When the earle of Murreie had shewed such re|uenge vpon the fréends of Hector and their compa|nions; the people of the prouince of Glencatten did from thencefoorth kéepe themselues within the li|mits of their duetie: vntill that the sonne of Lach|lane EEBO page image 316 Makintosche came to mans estate and full age. Which yoong man was in his first yeares imbued with such learnings and policie of life conformed therevnto, that when he was imploied about the common-wealth; all the capteins of them (who natu|rallie speake Irish in the furthest part of Scotland) did embrace him as a perfect paterne of all vertue, and an excellent woorkemaister to frame a well orde|red state. Wherefore certeine (not able to susteine the brightnesse of his vertue) did ioine in counsell with such as were néerest of bloud vnto him, and had before laid violent hands on his father, to take his life away by forceable means. Whereof we shall more liberallie intreat in an other place.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This yeare the king by counsell of the earle of An|gus, Arrane, and others, went with eight thousand men vnto Iedburgh, to set some order amongest the borderers, for the kéeping of better rule: and so on the eight of Iune, the principals of all the surnames of the clans on the borders, came to the king, bin|ding themselues, and deliuering pledges for their good demenors. The seuenteenth of Iulie, there was a great assemblie of the lords at Holie rood house, at 1527. Lesle. what time, there came a simple fellow (to looke vpon) seruant and horskeeper sometime to the earle of Len|nox, who in the midst of a great companie of people Sir Iames Hamilton hint by a des|perat person. in the abbeie close, strake sir Iames Hamilton knight verie desperatlie with a short prage or dag|ger in the bellie shrée seuerall stripes vp to the haft, and yet the said sir Iames died not of those hurts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The man being taken, by & by confessed the déed without repentance, saieng;

Phy on the feoble hand quilke wald not doo that thing the heart thought, and was determinat to doo.
And being inquired what he was, and who caused him to doo the same; he answe|red that he was a seruant of God, sent by him to doo that déed. And albeit he was put to great torture and paines dailie by the space of a moneth, yet would he neuer giue other answer, and so he was hanged, and his head set ouer one of the gates of Edenburgh towne. About the same time, there came out of Germanie maister Patrike Hamilton, abbat of Ferne, brothers sonne to the earle of Arrane, who had béene scholer to Martin Luther, & others there. This man being conuented and examined vpon cer|teine articles, as of iustification, predestination, of frée will, and such like, contrarie to the doctrine taught by the church in that time, because he did af|firme, and constantlie defend them, he was decla|red an heretike and burned. The abbat of Ferne burnt.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The eightéenth of March, the king besieged the castell of Edenburgh, the queene and hir husband Edenburgh casteil besie|ged. 1528 Lesle. Henrie Steward, with Iames his brother being within it. But as soone as the quéene vnderstood, that hir sonne the king was there in person, she cau|sed the gates to be set open, and vpon hir knées be|sought him of grace for hir husband and his brother, and would not rest, till she had obteined the same; but yet they were kept in ward within the castell, till the king afterwards released them. In the yeare following, the king being now come to the age of The king be|ing seuentéene yeares of age, refuseth to be longer vnder gouernement. seuentéene yeares, and of good discretion and wit for his time, would not longer remaine vnder the go|uernement of the earle of Angus and his companie. Therevpon he assembled diuerse noble men of Striueling, & by their counsell sent an herald vnto the earle of Angus & his assistans resiant as then in Edenburgh, commanding them on paine of high treason, that they should depart foorth of that towne, & that none of them should come within foure miles of the court, wheresoeuer the same chanced to lie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Shortlie after, the king himselfe with two thou|sand men, followed the herald: wherevpon the earle of Angus, both being charged by the herald, and ad|uertised of the kings comming toward the towne, departed thence immediatlie. And shortlie after, the same herald was sent vnto him againe with com|mandement from the king, that he should remaine prisoner within ward in the countrie of Murrey, till the kings pleasure were further knowen: which he would not obeie; wherefore both he and his adhe|rents were summoned to appeare in parlement to be holden at Edenburgh, in September next fol|lowing. In this parlement begun at Edenburgh the sixt of September in this yeare 1528, the earle 1528. The earle of Angus for|faited. The earle of Angus at|teinted by parlement. Henrie Ste|ward created erle of Meth|wen. of Angus, with his brother George Dowglas, his vncle by his father Archembald Dowglas, Alex|ander Drommond of Carnocke, and diuerse other, were by decrée of parlement atteinted, and forfalted for diuerse offenses, and speciallie, for assembling the kings people to haue assailed the kings person: and because he had deteined the king against his will with him the space of two yeares and more, all which time he stood in feare of his life.

In this parlement Henrie Steward the quéenes husband was created lord of Methwen, and made maister of the ordinance. Fr. Thin. Buchanan, lib. 14. Besides which, in place of earle Dowglas was Gawin Dunbar, the kings schoolemaister made chancellor, a good and a learned man, and one in whome manie did desire more ciuill policie; and in the place of Archembald Dowglas the treasuror was admitted Robert Carnicruce, more famous for his monie than his vertue. In this parlement there was onelie one found, called Iohn Bannatine, who fauoring the Dowglas, did boldlie there protest, that whatsoeuer was therin doon, ought by no meanes to be hurtfull to the earle Dowglas; since iust feare of his appearance there, was a iust cause to force him to be absent from thence. With|in a few daies after, a brother of the earles called William, abbat of the monasterie of Holirood died, partlie by sickenesse, and partlie by griefe of mind, being wearied with the present state of things; whose place Robert Carnicruce, a man of base birth, but well monied, did obteine of the king: who had gran|ted vnto him the auoidance of the next spirituall li|uing. At length, the Dowglas out of hope of all good successe, burnt the townes of Constandie and Cranstoune, and so fled to the castell of Tantallon.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In October following, the king assembled a great companie of men, with artillerie, and diuerse kinds The castell of Tantallon besieged. of munition, to besiege the castell of Tantallon, which the earle of Angus did hold, who aduertised of the preparation made for the same siege, furnished the castell with men and all kind of necessaries, and went himselfe into England. When the siege then was laid about the castell, it was so strong and so well prouided, that it might not be woone for all that could be doone at that season: in somuch that after Dauid Fauconer, principall gunner of the kings Dauid Fau|coner slaine. side was slaine, the king caused the siege to be raised; yet at length (though not till a long time after this) it was deliuered to the king by appointment. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 14. Be|fore the deliuerie whereof, the king déepelie sware that he would not leaue one aliue to succeed in the inheritance and name of the Dowglasses, so long as he liued and was king.

Wherevpon he came to Edenburgh, where (to the end he might distresse them the more) he determined by the aduise of his councell to send a dailie compa|nie (though no great number) to Coldingham, which should defend the husbandmen from the spoile. Which office appointed to Bothwell chiefe of Louthaine, he did vtterlie refuse; either fearing the power of the Dowglas (wherevnto all the other strength of Scot|land did of late not seeme to be equall) or that he would not (being then yoong) imbrue his hands with the destruction of so famous a familie. Wherevpon, EEBO page image 317 since the king durst not trust the Hamiltons (as friends to his enimies, & being offended with them for the death of Iohn Steward earle of Lennox, nor durst commit the matter to anie of the adioining nobilitie) at length the same came so about, that Calene Campbell (dwelling on the furthest borders of the kingdome, being a man of good estimation for his wisedome, and approoued experience in feats of warre, and for his iustice déerelie loued of the peo|ple) was sent by the king (with great authoritie) to the rebels. Whereby the Dowglasses (being forsa|ken, of the Hamiltons and their other friends) were brought to those extremities, that they were infor|ced to depart into England to K. Henrie the eight, who honorablie and liberallie receiued and inter|teined them. After this, the king (as is said) getting the castell of Tantillone by composition, did scarse kéepe all the couenants of his grant thereof in wri|ting; although he performed this, that Alexander Drumman at the request of Robert Bretton, had licence to returne home into his countrie, a little before which (as it séemeth) when Iames Coluille and Robert Carnicruse were remooued from the court (as persons suspected to fauor the Dowglasses) their offices were bestowed vpon Robert Bretton, then in great fauor with the king and courtiers, and aduanced to the gouernement of manie places.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The eightéenth of Maie, in the yéere 1529, the earle of Cathnesse and the lord of Sincler, with a great 1529. armie by sea passed into Orkenie, to haue taken that Ile into possession; but the people of the countrie as|sembled The earle of Cathnes pas|seth ouer into Orkenie. at the commandement of Iames Sincler of Kirkewall their capteine, who gaue battell to the earle and his armie with such courage, that he dis|comfited the enimies: the earle with fiue hundred of his men was slaine, and drowned in the sea, vnto the The earle of Cathnesse slaine. The blindnes of the Orknie men. which they were driuen. The lord Sincler and all the residue were taken. The Orkenie men held opinion, that their patrone saint Magnus was séene that day to fight in the field on their side against their eni|mies. In the same moneth on the fiftéenth day, there An assemblie of the lords. was a great assemblie of the lords in Edenburgh, where the king himselfe sate in iudgement. The lard of Hinderland called Cockburne, and one Adam Scot of Tushlaw, who was named king of theeues, were accused of theft, and of receiuing and maintei|ning Kng of th [...]ues. of théeues, slaughters, and other crimes; of the which being conuict, they lost their heads, which were set ouer the Tolbuith of Edenburgh. Execution.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 On the same day, the earle of Bothwell was also conuict, for mainteining them and their crimes, and The earle of Bothwell conuict. his life, lands, and goods, were in the kings hands. He was therefore kept in ward within Edenburgh ca|stell, and after sent into Murrey land, & lastlie bani|shed the realme during the kings daies [and remai|ned Fr. Thin. Banished the realme. at Uenice.] Also, the lord Maxwell, the lord Hume, the lards of Balglueth, Fernihurst, Pollort, Iohnson, Marke Kar [with the earle Bothwell] and F [...]. Thin. Other lords conuict, and put in ward. other principall men of the borders, were conuict by assise, and put in ward: by reason whereof, the borde|rers kept better rule euer after, during the kings reigne. [Few moneths after, the king commanded the noble men (before imprisoned, and then to be ba|nished) F [...]. Thin. Buchan. lib. 14. to be restored to libertie, taking pledges for their allegiance. Of which companie, one Walter Scot (killing Robert Iohnstone a théefe of noted crueltie, therwith to gratifie the king) began deadlie enimitie with that familie, to the great hurt of both those kinreds.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About this season, a landed man named Iohn Iohn Scot fasted fortie daies without receiuing any [...]od. 1 [...]1. Buch. Scot, that had trauelled abroad in the world [ouer England, France, Italie and the holie land, as saith Lesleus] who now being returned into Scotland, (bicause it was bruted in other countries that hée had fasted 40 daies without either meat or drinke) was for triall therof put in Dauids tower in Eden|burgh castell, and diligent watch set vpon him to sée that he had no sustenance to relieue him withall, and so kept for fortie daies, he fasted all that time with|out anie kind of nourishment, to the great woonder of the people. In the summer of this yeere 1529, Ar|chembald 1529. Dowglas, that had béene forfalted (as ye haue heard) came alone to the king while he was on hunting in Striueling parke, & besought his grace of pardon, which he had obteined fullie at his hands, bicause he fauoured him more than anie of that sur|name, if he had not béene (as he was indéed) altogi|ther determined that none of them should remaine within the land at that time, and so he banished Archembald Dowglas banished. him into France, where shortlie after through griefe of mind he departed this life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 In the moneth of Iune, the king with an armie The king com meth to the borders. went to the borders to set order there for better rule to be kept, and to punish such as were knowen to be most culpable. And herevpon he caused fortie and right of the most notable theeues, with their capteine Iohn Armstrong to be apprehended; the which being conuict of murther, theft, & treason, were all hanged Théeues hanged. on growing trees, to the example of other. There was one cruell théefe amongst the rest, which had burned a house with a woman and hir children within it: he A théefe burnt to death. was, burned to death. George Armstrong, brother to Iohn, was pardoned, to the end he should appeath the residue, which he old; so that they were apprehen|ded by the kings commandement, and punished for their misdooings, according as they had deserued. In August following, manie meruellous sights were woonders seene in the firmament. seene about Striueling, as candels burning on the tops of hils in the nights, and in the morning afore sunne rising. Diuerse armed men appeared fighting vpon the ground, which was taken to be a foretoken of some trouble to insue in those parties. The fif|téenth day of August, a great number of people be|ing assembled at the market in Campscenneth, fif|tie & two persons were drowned in the ferrie bote; A ferrie bote drowned. amongst the which were diuerse honest men and wo|men of the countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The first of March, in the yéere 1530, the abbat 1530. An abbat murthered. of Culrose called Iames Inglis, was cruellie mur|thered by the lord of T [...]lliallan and his seruants, a|mongst whom there was a priest called sir William Louthien, for the which they were apprehended, and the said sir William the twentie and seuenth of the same moneth, vpon a publike scaffold in Eden|burgh was degraded (the king, quéene, and a great companie of people being present) and after his de|gradation, he was deliuered to the earle of Argile high iustice, and the next day the said Tulliallan and the same priest were beheaded. This yéere the col|lege The sessions instituted. court of iustice called the sessions was institu|ted in Edenburgh by the king, with consent of the three estates in parlement assembled, and after con|firmed in Rome; in the which are fiftéene councellors ordinarie, eight of them being spirituall persons, of the which the most ancient is president, and seuen temporall men, but so as by this number the chancel|lor of the realme is aboue the president, when he is present. There are also foure councellors extraordi|narie, remooueable at the princes pleasure. In the yéere 1531, I find little doone to make account of, 15 [...]1. for the erle of Angus remaining in England, could not persuade the king of England in his fauor to breake the peace with Scotland, though the same earle earnestlie laboured to bring that to passe.

Fr. Thin. Buch. lib. 14. 1532. The earle of Bothwell, for that he went priui|lie into England (being supposed to haue had secret conference with the earle of Northumberland) he was the 16 kalends of Februarie committed to the EEBO page image 318 castell of Edenburgh, & sir Iohn Sandland knight was sent with authoritie to the hermitage (a castell in Liddesdale) to represse the spoiles and robberies committed there. When of ancient time there had béene no certeine daies and place appointed for the deciding of monie, contentions, or debts amongest the citizens and people of Scotland, Iohn duke of Albanie obteined from the bishop of Rome, that a yeerelie summe of monie (as much as should be suf|ficient to paie the stipend of a few iudges that shuld be appointed therefore) should be leuied of the clear|gie, of euerie one according to his estate and sub|stance. Whervpon Gawin Dunbar bishop of Aber|den for himselfe in the name of the cleargie, appea|led to the said bishop of Rome. Which controuersie continued from the fift Ides of March, vntill the tenth kalends of Maie, at which day the college of the iudges of Edenburgh was established, of whom in the beginning there were many profitable things doone, and law was equallie ministred; but yet the same end did not follow which was then hoped a|mongst them. For since in Scotland there be almost no lawes but such as are decréed by parlement, which are not commonlie perpetuall, but made for a time; and that the iudges as much as in them lieth doo hin|der the making of such lawes: the goods of all men were committed to the arbitrement of fifteene men, which haue perpetuall power therfore, being in truth but tyrannicall gouernment, since their one|lie arbitrements must stand for law. Thus much Buchanan.

But bicause Lesleus treateth in more ample and other sort of that matter; and for that I will not de|priue the reader of the seuerall writings of them both touching one thing: I will also set downe Lesleus words, writing in this order. In this parlement (saith 1533. Lesleus. lib. 9. pag. 437, 438. he) by the consent of the states, it séemed good that the forme of iudgement vsed by our ancestors should be taken away. For where certeine of the cleargie, of the barons, and of the citizens, were chosen euerie yeere to trauell ouer the foure parts of the realme, to giue iudgement of ciuill causes (as they terme it) and of other things intangled with the controuersie of law: and that then it oftentimes happened, either by the ignorance of the iudge that did not atteine to the perfection of the law, or by the malice of them which were corrupted with bribes, that the woorser part had vniustlie the vpper hand against the righ|ter; to which discommoditie this was also ioined, that no cause could be well examined to the vttermost by one man at one time, bicause the iudges were so of|ten changed; whereby it must néeds folow, that seue|rall iudges (hauing seuerall minds and wits) must for one matter giue inconstant & contrarie iudge|ments. Wherefore to take awaie this varietie of iudgements and other discommodities, wherewith the common-wealth was afflicted; it pleased the par|lement by the persuasion of the king, that a certeine defined number of senators (being persons of the greatest knowledge in law) should haue a perma|nent place at Edenburgh, to decide all matters of controuersie, the maner & order whereof we haue set downe in our former booke, saith Lesleus. And I for my part thinke not vnméet for the more explaning thereof, to set it downe in this place out of the same Lesleus.

The companie (saith he) of these men (whom wee Lesleus. lib. 1. pag. 79. call the senat of the publike wealth) receiue none but such, whose praise of vertue and sharpenesse of wit (especiallie in matters of law) dooth aduance them to that place. This court is so apted of the cler|gie and secular nobilitie (as a man may fearme them) that the one part of the laitie dooth answer the other number of the cleargie. Which we thinke to bée doone by the great benefit of God, that the religion and simplicitie of the cleargie may temper the sin|gular wisedome of the temporaltie, obteined by the experience of worldlie causes; and againe, the iudge|ment of the laitie may further and moderate the pure religion and ancient simplicitie of the cleargie. Ouer all these is one chiefe and head (which is a spi|rituall man) who hath the highest place in sentence and pronouncing of iudgement; except the iudge|ment of the chancellor of the kingdome happen to come in place; for then therevnto the Scots giue the chiefest preheminence in all the affaires of the com|mon-wealth. Thus much he.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the yéere 1532, sir Arthur Darcie was sent to 1532. Sir Arthur Darcie sent to the bor [...]rs. the borders, who being at Berwike, by the counsell of the earle of Angus then being there, they made a rode into Scotland, and burned certeine places: wherevpon the Scots assembling themselues to de|fend their countrie, made towards the Englishmen, He maketh a rode into Scotland. who retired themselues to Berwike againe. After this were diuerse inuasions made on euerie side vp|on the borders, and ships likewise taken by sea, and yet no warre was proclamed. In September, in the yeere 1533, certeine commissioners of either 1533. realme were at Newcastell, to intreat for a redresse and recompense to be made for burning of townes and villages, taking of goods, casting downe of piles, taking of ships, slaughters of men, and di|uerse other spoiles and iniuries doone, as well by the sea as by the land, from the 23 day of Aprill in the yéere 1532, vnto the day of the méeting of the same commissioners; which dooings were little lesse in ef|fect than had béene vsed in time of open warre, al|though the same was not proclamed. Bicause there|fore that the scathes & iniuries fell out to be so great on both sides, that particular redresse could not bée had, the order thereof was referred to the pleasure of both the princes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Further it was agréed, that for a perpetuall peace to be concluded, certeine commissioners should be 1534. Lesle. appointed to treat therof at London, as afterwards they did. For the king of Scotland there were sent as commissioners about this treatie, William Ste|ward bishop of Aberden, Robert Reid the abbat of Kinlos, and sir Adam Sterburie knight [or (as saith Fr. Thin. Lesleus li. 9. pa, 439.) Adam Otterburne] the which ac|companied with diuerse other knights, barons, and gentlemen, came to London, and were there right honorablie receiued the 25 of March. After they had béene before the kings presence, there were certeine commissioners appointed by him to treat with them of peace, the which agréed vpon certeine conditions and articles for a peace to continue betwixt both A peace con|cluded. kings during their naturall liues, and one yere after the decease of that prince which first chanced to de|part this world: and so the commissioners returned into Scotland in the moneth of Maie next in|suing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About the same time were sent into France Da|uid Ambassadors into France. Beton abbat of Arbroth, and Iames Erskin se|cretarie, as ambassadors to require the duke of Uan|dosmes sister in mariage for the king: with which motion the ladie and hir friends were verie well con|tented. Neuerthelesse (as afterwards shall appéere) the king himselfe passing secretlie into France in The king him selfe passeth se|cretlie into France. proper person, when he had once séene the ladie, he li|ked hir not; & so became a sutor to the French king his eldest daughter Magdalen, whome he obteined: wherefore the duke of Uandosmes sister would ne|uer after match hir selfe with anie other in mariage, but professed hir selfe in a house of religion, where she remained the residue of hir life time. The king of England sent ambassadors into Scotland, the bishop of Duresme, sir Thomas Clifford, the prior of Du|resine, EEBO page image 319 and one doctor Magnus, who were honorablie receiued in the moneth of Iulie: and then was the peace before concluded by the ambassadors at Lon|don, The peace concluded with Eng|land. confirmed by the king himselfe, and the charter thereof interchangablie sealed, with the great seales of both the realmes, during the liues of both the prin|ces (as before ye haue heard.)

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag 439. 1534. The king in those daies did shew such hope of ho|norable vertue in him, that the wisest and the most valiant princes of the world did honor him with the ornaments of their orders: for first Henrie king of England adopted him into the order of the garter, the emperor made him a fellow of the golden fléece, and shortlie after the French king clothed him with the order of saint Michaell. In remembrance of all which (for a note to be left to posteritie) he caused the armes of Scotland, honored with these thrée orders, to be set vp ouer the gate of his palace of Lithquoe, with the ornaments of the honor of saint Andrew, which are proper to the kingdome of Scotland.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The same yeere, the king passed through the north parts of his realme, and caused iustice dulie to be mi|nistred Iustice mini|stred. in places where he came, against offendors. Moreouer, in Edenburgh was great inquisition made, and punishment exercised against such as were detected to hold opinions against the religion then vsed, the king himselfe assistant thereto. Mai|ster Norman Gorleie that was abiured before, and Andrew Stratton that would not renounce his opi|nion, were burned. The shiriffe of Linlitgew, and di|uerse other, that were fled for feare of punishment, were conuict of heresie. Diuerse Englishmen that English fugi|tiues receiued into Scot|land. held against the diuorce betwixt king Henrie, and the ladie Katharine Dowager, fled this yeere into Scotland, and were receiued.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 14. About this time (to conclude a league with Char|les the fift, emperor) this Charles sent Godescall E|rike (to the end the matter might be handled more secretlie) from Toledo (by Ireland) into Scotland, 1534. who when he had declared his message to him from the emperor [conteining the iniuries doone to his aunt Katharine quéene of England, & to hir daugh|ter by Henrie the eight, king of England: the cal|ling of a generall councell: the ouerthrow of the Lu|theran heresie (to vse Buchanans woord) and for con|tracting of mariage] the said ambassador did deli|uer to the king the emperors letter, wherein was set downe the offer and choise of which of those thrée Maries the king would take to wife: which were Marie (the sister of Charles) a widow by Lodowike of Hungarie, hir husband slaine by the Turke: Ma|rie of Portingale his néece by his sister Leonara: or Marie of England his coosine germane by his aunt Katharine. Wherevnto the king answered, that the mariage with England should be most profitable, but the same was a thing of vncerteine hope, of greater danger & labour, & of longer delaie than his carefulnesse (being the onelie man left of that line) might well indure. Wherefore of all the emperors kinred, that mariage by manie reasons should be most beneficiall for him, to take to wife the daughter of Christern, king of Denmark, begotten vpon Isa|bell sister to the emperor. Wherevnto for deniall ther|of, Charles did shortlie make answer (at Madrike) that he was affianced to another.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the yéere 1535, the pope sent a messenger into Scotland, requiring king Iames to assist him a|gainst 1535. The pope sen|deth into Scotland. the king of England, whome he had decréed an heretike, a schismatike, a wedlocke breaker, a pub|like murtherer, and a sacrileger; and therefore he had declared him to be depriued of the said kingdome, the which he would bestow vpon him, and other ca|tholike princes. In the yéere 1536, the king tooke the sea with fiue ships, without knowledge of the most 1536. part of the lords of his realme, and sailed about the The kings voiage about the Iles. Iles of Skie and Lewes, and the other Iles, and by storme was driuen to take land at saint Ninians in Galloway, & so returned to Striueling, from whence he passed on foot in pilgrimage vnto our ladie chappell of Lauret beside Muskelburgh, and afterward sent for diuerse of his lords, and by their counsell tooke his voiage againe by sea with fiue ships, to passe into France, as he was minded to haue doone the first time: but what caused him to alter his purpose then, we find not. This second time he imbarked at Kirc|kaldie the last of August, and with good and prospe|rous wind he shortlie after arriued in France, there He saileth in|to France. being with him in companie the earles of Argile, and Arrane, the lords Boid and Fleming, with di|uerse other barons, knights, and gentlemen; and be|fore him there were in France the earles of Mur|rey, Lennox, and Cassiles, the lord Erskin, the abbat of Arbroth, and others.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Immediatlie after his arriuall, he rode in secret He rideth to Uandosme. manner disguised vnto Uandosmes in Picardie, ta|king with him but one seruant named Iohn Ten|nent, whome he caused to take vpon him as he had béene maister; and so comming to the duke of Uan|dosme his place, got sight of the ladie who shuld haue béene his wife; but not liking hir, he returned againe without talking either with hir or hir friends: and comming to Rouen where his companie were abi|ding for him, he passed from thence towards Paris, where the Dolphin of France was appointed by the king his father to méet him seuen leagues from the citie, who brought him to the king, who receiued him in such hartie manner, as if he had beene his owne He is receiued into Paris. sonne, and with as much honor as might haue béene shewed to the greatest prince in earth. There were iustes, tourneis, and other princelie pastimes practi|sed and set foorth; in which iustes and other exercises of warlike feates, he shewed himselfe as hardie, cun|ning and valiant, as anie other person within all the realme of France, for the which he wan passing great praise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, he caused his ambassadors and He is a sutor for mariage. the noble men that were with him, to declare vnto the king of France, that the cause of his comming was for mariage to he had betwéene him and the la|die Magdalen, eldest daughter to the king, whome he loued & fauoured aboue all other within his realme. The French king was glad héereof, that the ancient band betwixt Scotland and France might thus with new aliance be confirmed, and therefore declared that he would willinglie giue him his daughter in mariage. But héerewith he let him vnderstand, that his daughter was much subiect to sicknesse, and ther|fore he referred that vnto the king of Scotland his owne pleasure, whether he would haue hir, or his yoongest daughter the ladie Margaret, who was af|ter maried to the duke of Sauoy. This offer of choise being reported to the king of Scotland, he continu|ed in his former purpose, which was, to match with the ladie Magdalen, who was in déed a plesant yoong ladie, beautifull, of good fauour, louelie countenance, and comelie manners, aboue all others within that realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Heerevpon the mariage was contracted betwixt The mariage contracted be|twixt the king of Scots and the ladie Magdalen. them, and an hundred thousand crownes of the sun promised with hir in dowrie, with thirtie thousand franks of pension, during the life of king Iames: which monie was deliuered vnto him at his returne homewards, besides manie rich hangings, cupboords of plate, sumptuous apparell, and rich iewels giuen to him and his wife, farre aboue the summe of an o|ther hundred thousand crownes, with two great ships (the one called the salamander) and great plen|tie of artillerie, powder, and other munition. Moreo|uer, EEBO page image 320 all his charges and expenses were borne by the French king, during his being within the realme of France. At the same time also, was the ancient league and bond of amitie betwixt the two realmes of Scotland and France renewed, and the day of the solemnization of the mariage appointed to be hol|den the first of Ianuarie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time, great preparation for the same was made, and all the nobles of France sent for to be there at that day. On the which within the church of Nostre dame in the citie of Paris, the king of 1539. The mariage contracted. Scotland openlie maried the said ladie Magdalen, in presence of the king hir father, the king of Nauar|re, seuen cardinals, and diuerse great dukes, mar|quesses, earles, lords, barons, bishops, & others. After the solemnization of the mariage, king Iames re|mained in France, till the moneth of Maie, passing the time with all kind of pleasure and disport that might be deuised for his honorable interteinement. Finallie, the king and his wife quéene Magdalen tooke their leaue of the king of France their father at Paris, about the latter end of Aprill, and so rode to Rouen, where they were receiued with great tri|umph, 1537. Lesle. and from thence they passed downe the riuer to Newhauen where they imbarked, being accom|panied by the admerall of France, and manie other noble men of the realme, appointed by the French king to attend vpon them into Scotland, & so they sailed foorth with pleasant wind and prosperous wea|ther, through the seas, till they came into the Forth, The king with his quéene retur|neth into Scotland. and there landed at the peare of Lieth hauen, the 29 of Maie, in the yeere 1537, where a great number of earles, bishops, barons, & other noble men & gentle|men of Scotland were readie to receiue them with passing ioy and gladnesse, & from thence with great triumph they were conueied to the abbeie of Holie rood house.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This noble ladie with hir louelie countenance and séemelie demeanor, at hir first arriuall woone the loues and hartie good wils of all the nobles & people of the realme, and withall contented so highlie the mind and fantasie of the king hir husband, that there was neuer more hope of wealth and prosperitie to succéed within the realme, than at that present. But fortune enuieng so great felicitie, would not suffer them to continue anie longer time togither: for a|bout the end of Iune she fell sicke of a vehement fe|uer, whereof she departed this life the tenth of Iulie Quéene Mag dalen depar|teth this life. next insuing, and was buried in the church of Holie rood house, for whose death the king was verie sorow|full, & stirred not abroad of a long time after: [whose death (saith Buchanan) was so lamented of all men, Fr. Thin. that then (as he supposeth) began the first vse of moor|ning garments amongest the Scots, which yet at this day, not being past fortie yéeres, is not verie common, though publike orders and manners doo e|uerie day grow woorsse and woorsse.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the summer of this yéere, Ione Dowglasse the ladie of Glames, sister to the earle of Angus, was The ladie Glames and hir husband conuict of treason. 1537. Less. apprehended, and likewise hir husband Dauid Lion, and both of them brought to Edenburgh, where they were accused and conuict by an assise, for conspiracie of the kings death: the said ladie was burned, and hir husband hanged. Hir son the lord Glames was also conuict for misprision and concealement of that crime, and therfore forfaiting all his lands, was con|demned to die: but because he was yoong and of ten|der yeeres, the king pardoned him of life, and com|manded him to perpetuall prison, in the which he re|mained so long as the king liued. [This yéere was Bothwell, for that he was ouer familiar with the Fr. Thin. English, banished into France (as saith Buchanan.] Shortlie after, Iohn maister of the Forbois, and el|dest The maister of Forbois he headed. sonne to the lord Forbois, who had maried a si|ster of the said ladie Glames, was at Edenburgh likewise indicted and conuict by an assise, by procure|ment of the earle Huntleie, for the like conspiracie of the kings death, for the which he was beheaded and quartered, and his head and quarters set alost vp|on the gates of Edenburgh. His father the lord For|bois, vpon suspicion of the same conspiracie, was long after kept in prison within the castell of Eden|burgh; but at length when nothing might be prooued against him, he was released and set at libertie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This yeere, the king in September caused iustices Iustices ap|pointed to sit in diuerse parts of the realme. to sit in the north parts of the realme, and likewise in October; and in the winter following he caused the like to be doone in the south and west parts. The king himselfe was often times present, assisting the lords whome he had appointed his commissioners for the furtherance of iustice, and maintenance thereof tho|rough all parts of his realme. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 14. pag. 447. The king appoin|ted in assemblie of the nobles, by whose consent an edict was made to confirme the former law, in which all his grants made at Roane in his minoritie were voided and of no authoritie. At what time also by the said persons it was brought to passe by great labor, that the kings patrimonie should be augmented with manie possessions. Wherefore when they percei|ued that the kings charge and dignitie could not be mainteined with so small reuenues, they aduanced his foure sonnes (borne of diuerse women) to the rich abbeies & priories of Melrosse, kelso, Coldingham, Holie rood, and of saint Andrewes, whose reuenues they transferred to the kings coffers so long as he li|ued: by which (perhaps) there came no lesse monie (saith Lesleus) vnto his coffers, than did arise of his kinglie inheritance.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king by the aduise of these noble men of his 1538. Lesle. realme, thinking it necessarie for him to match a|gaine in mariage with some noble princesse, sent in|to The king is a sutor for ma|riage to the dutchesse of Longuile. Fr. Thin. France vnto the earle of Murrey, and Dauid Be|ton abbat of Arbroth [whome (as saith Lesleus lib. 9. pa. 447) Paule the third had made a cardinall, & they of France had made bishop of Miropreuse] his am|bassadors there resident, willing them by the aduise of the French king to treat for a mariage to be had betwixt him and the ladie Marie de Lorraine, dut|chesse of Longuile, widow, daughter to the duke of Guise. And being aduertised from his said ambassa|dors, that the king of France, the ladie hir selfe, and hir friends, were well contented therewith, he sent in the beginning of Maie the lord Robert Maxwell, and the maister of Glencarne, well accompanied in|to France, to ioine with his other ambassadors for the contracting of that mariage, the which according to their commission treated thereof, and concluded vpon resolute articles, and so espoused hir by procu|rators, as the vse is amongst such estates, with great triumph in the citie of Paris, whereat the king and manie noble men were present.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After this she was conueied to Newhauen, and there taking the seas, passed through the same till she came to Carell in Fife, where she landed the tenth of Iune; and from thence she was conueied to the new palace in the abbeie of saint Andrewes, being hono|rabli prepared for the receiuing of hir. And there the The mariage solemnized. king accompanied with manie noble men, openlie solemnized and confirmed the foresaid mariage with the said ladie in the abbeie church, with great ioy and triumph. The king with his queene remained there the most part of that summer. And within a few mo|neths after the mariage, she conceiued with child, to the great comfort of the king and the whole realme, for the hope of succession thereby; and therefore gene|rall processions and publike praiers were made tho|rough all parts of the realme, for the prosperous suc|cesse of the same. After that the king had pacified the EEBO page image 321 borders and all other parts of his realme, by exerci|sing of iustice, and trauelling about the same in his owne person through all places (where néed requi|red) so that there was as great quietnesse, rest, and policie vsed in Scotland, as euer was in anie kings Great quiet|nesse in Scot|land. daies before him: yet neuerthelesse there were cer|teine disobedient persons in the Iles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king therefore, to bring them to order, caused to prepare a good nauie of ships, and in the moneth of Maie went aboord the same in the rode of Lieth, ha|uing with him the earles of Arrane, Huntleie, Ar|gile, 1539. and diuerse other earles, lords, and barons, with whome he sailed foorth by the coasts of Fife, Angus, The king sai|leth north|wards to the Iles of Orke|nie and others Aberden, Murrey firth, Southerland, and Cath|nesse, till he came to Orkenie, where he landing and all his companie with him, were receiued verie ho|norablie by the bishop Robert Maxwell. Heere they furnished themselues with fresh vittels, and other such things as were necessarie; and taking the seas againe, sailed to the Iles of Skie and Lewes, where Mac Clewd of the Lewes, a principall clan of his kin, was brought vnto the king, who sent foorth also a companie to Mac Clewd Haugh, who came like|wise out of his Ile, and presented himselfe to the king.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 From thence the king sailed by the coast of Rosse & Kintaile, to the Ile of Tranternes, where diuerse of the Maconiles, such as the lord Olagarrie, Iohn Moidart, and others (who alledged themselues to be of the principall bloud, and lords of the Iles) were brought also to the kings presence. From thence tra|uelling through the residue of the Iles, Maclane and Iames Maconile of Kinter, being the two principall capteins of the small Iles, came likewise to the king who at length landed at Dunbreton, and sent the The out Iles brought to good order. capteins and ships with prisoners to passe the same waie he came round about the coast, so to come to Edenburgh, where the same prisoners being arri|ued, the chiefe heads of them were kept in ward as pledges for good rule in their countries, and were not suffered to depart so long as the king liued, whereby there followed great quietnesse, and as good obedi|ence to the lawes throughout all the Iles, as there was in anie part of the realme; and as good account and paiment made to the kings controller in his ex|cheker for the lands of the same Iles perteining to the crowne, as for anie part of the reuenues belon|ging therevnto within the maine land. [In this yéere Fr. Thin. (saith Buchanan lib. 4.) were manie taken for Lu|therantsme, wherof some were burnt; nine recanted, and manie were banished: amongest whom, George Buchanan was one, who escaped by a rope out of a window of a chamber.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilest the king was in this voiage, the queene was deliuered of a sonne at saint Andrewes, where|of The quéene deliuered of a sonne. the king being aduertised at his landing, hasted with all possible diligence to the quéene, and shortlie after was the child baptised, and called Iames. The archbishop of saint Andrewes, and the earle of Ar|rane were godfathers, and the quéene the kings mo|ther was godmother. For the birth of this prince, there were bounfiers made through all parts of the realme, with great triumph and giuing of thanks to God for the same. After this the quéene, mother to the king, returned vnto Methwen, where after she had remained a certeine time, a sicknesse tooke hir, of the which shortlie after she departed this life, and was The quéene mother depar|ted this life. buried in the Charterhouse church of saint Iohns towne, by the toomé of king Iames the first. The king himselfe and manie nobles of the realme were present at the funerals, which were kept in most so|lemne and pompous manner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The same yeare were burnt at Edenburgh for Certeine per|sons burnt for religion. heresie (as it was then taken) a regular canon, two blacke friers, and a secular man. Also two priests were degraded, and condemned to perpetuall prison. The same time there was a graie frier in the citie of Glascow burnt for the like cause, and manie other summoned; and because they would not appeare, they were denounced heretikes. About the same 1539. Lesle. The death of Iames Be|ton archbishop of saint An|drews. time, Iames Beton archbishop of saint Andrews, a man of great age departed this life, and was bu|ried in saint Andrews. Before his departure, he had prouided successors to all his benefices, first to his archbishops sée; and to the abbeie of Arbroth, maister Dauid Beton, afterwards cardinall; and to the abbeie of Dunfermeling maister George Du|rie that was archdeacon of saint Andrews. These men, without anie gainesaieng of the king, entered with his good will into the same benefices, immedi|atlie after his deceasse. This Iames Beton builded a great part of the new college of saint Andrewes, and left great summes of monie and treasure to go through to make an end of the same woorke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yeare in the moneth of August sir Iames 1540. Sir Iames Hamilton ar|rested. Hamilton of Finhart knight, remaining as then in the towne of Edenburgh, was arrested by Da|uid Wood controller to the king, who charged him in the kings name to go to ward within the ca|stell of Edenburgh. Which commandement he wil|linglie obeied, thinking himselfe sure inough, as well by reason of the good seruice he had doone to the king, speciallie in reparing the palaces of Striue|ling and Linletgew; as also for that the king had him in so high fauor, that he stood in no feare of him|selfe at all. Neuerthelesse, shortlie after he was brought foorth to iudgement, and conuict in the Tol|buith Sir Iames Hamilton be|headed. of Edenburgh, of certeine points of treason laid against him, which he would neuer confesse; but that notwithstanding, he was beheaded in the mo|neth of September next insuing [after that he had Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 451. liberallie confessed at the place of execution, that he had neuer in anie iot offended the kings maiestie, and that this death was yet woorthilie inflicted vp|on him by the diuine iustice; because he had often of|fended the law of God to please the prince, thereby to obteine greater countenance with him. Where|fore he admonished all persons, that (mooued by his example) they should rather follow the diuine plea|sure, than vniustlie séeke the kings fauor, since it is better to please God than man.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This summer the quéene remaining at Striue|ling, The quéene deliuered of another son. was deliuered of an other prince, which was baptised in the chappell of Striueling, and called Ar|thur: but within eight daies after, the said prince de|ceassed The two yoong princes departed this life. at Striueling aforesaid. On the verie same daie, prince Iames the kings eldest sonne being at saint Andrews departed this life also, in such wise, that there was but onlie six houres betwixt the time of their departures out of this world; which caused no lesse lamentation through the whole realme, than there was ioy at their births. After this, the queene went vnto saint Iohns towne, where she was hono|rablie receiued with great triumph made by the towne. She was accompanied with the principall The king and queene at A|berden. men of the countrie, and from thence she roade to Aberden, the king then being come vnto hir, where, by the towne and vniuersitie they were receiued with great ioy, triumph, pageants, verses, & plaies, set foorth in the best maner for their pastime. They remained there the space of fiftéene daies, and were highlie interteined by the bishop of that place.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 There were exercises and disputations held in all kind of sciences in the colleges and schooles, with diuerse orations made in Greeke, Latine, and other languages, to the high praise and commendation of the maisters & students in that vniuersitie. From thence the king with the quéene returned to Dun|dee, EEBO page image 322 where a costlie entrie was prepared for them al|so, and after they had béene right princelie intertei|ned there, they came to Falkeland. In the moneth of Maie, sir Iohn Borthwike, commonlie called capteine Borthwike, suspected, defamed, and accu|sed of heresie, was summoned to appeare in saint Capteine Borthwike accused of he|resie. Andrews before the cardinall, and diuerse other bi|shops and prelats there present, where (notwithstan|ding his absence) the same being prooued by suffici|ent witnesse against him (as was thought) he was conuicted and declared an heretike. An image was made to resemble him, and at the market crosse of the said citie, as a signe and memoriall of his con|demnation, it was burned, to the feare of others, but he himselfe escaped their hands and got into England, where he was receiued.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 453. The king of Scots (hearing of the maner of the king of England, and how he honored himselfe) tooke in euill part, that the king of England in all generall assemblies of the states of Ireland did call himselfe king of Ireland, when all his predecessors before were onelie intituled by the names of lords of Ireland. For by that new title, king Iames his authoritie did seeme to be diminished, when the king of England did write himselfe king of all Ireland: A small por|tion in déed. whereof a portion by manie ages was vnder the rule of the king of Scots. Yet at length K. Iames did yéeld therevnto; and that the rather, because the king of England vnder this title and authoritie, did not dispossesse the heires of the Scot Makeconell; and other his Scots of those lands which they there inioied in that countrie.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yeare the king of England aduertised of the 1541. The king of England sen|deth to the king of Scots. meeting of the emperor, the French king, and pope, at the citie of Nice, doubting some practise to be de|uised there against him, sent to the king of Scot|land the bishop of saint Dauids, & the lord William Howard, desiring him as his most tender kinsman and nephue, to méete him at the citie of Yorke in England, where he would communicat such things with him, as should be for the weale of both the realmes. And therewith the king of England, tru|sting that the king of Scotland would haue fulfilled his desire, caused great preparation to be made at Yorke for the receiuing of him. But albeit the king of Scotland was willing of himselfe to haue passed into England, to haue met and séene his vncle; yet after long reasoning and deliberation of his coun|cell and prelats [especiallie Iames Beton bishop of saint Andrews, and George Crichtoune bishop of Fr. Thin. Aberden (as saith Buchanan. lib. 14.] assembled for that purpose, casting in their minds (as they tooke it) what danger might fall to him and his realme, if he should passe into England, in case he should be stai|ed and holden there, contrarie to his will, as king Iames his predecessor was, hauing no succession of his bodie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And againe, for that it was certeinelie knowen, that the principall cause, why the king of England required this meeting or interuiew, was to persuade the king of Scotland to vse the like order in Scot|land, as he had doone within his realme of England, in abolishing the popes authoritie, making himselfe supreame head of the church, expelling religious per|sons out of their houses, and seizing the iewels of their houses, their lands and rents, and such like in|formation. And if it chanced the king should attempt the like, they should lose the friendship which was betwixt him, the pope, the emperor, and French king, that were his great friends and confederats. Here|vpon they persuaded him to staie, and by their aduise sent pleasant letters & messages vnto the said king of England, desiring him to haue him excused, for that he could not come into England at that time, hauing such lets and causes of abiding at home, as shortlie he should vnderstand by his ambassadors, whom he ment to send to him, as well for this mai|ter as other causes. And shortlie after sir Iames Leirmouth was appointed to go as ambassador in|to Sir Iames Leirmouth ambassador into England England, as well to make the kings excuse for his not comming to méet the king of England at Yorke; as also to make complaint vpon certeine inuasions made by the borderers of England into Scotland, and also for the vsing of the debatable ground betwixt the two realmes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But the king of England sore offended that the king of Scots would not satisfie his request, to 1542. The king of England meaneth to make warre into Scot|land. meet him at Yorke (as before is recited, would ad|mit no excuse, but determined to make warre into Scotland, albeit as the Scotishmen allege, he would not suffer the same to be vnderstood, till he had pre|pared all things in a redinesse. In the meane time he sent commissioners to méet with the Scots commis|sioners vpon the debatable ground, to talke for re|dresse to be made of harmes doone vpon the borders, but no good conclusion could be agréed vpon by these commissioners, neither touching the debatable land, nor yet for reparing of wrongs doone by the inuasi|ons. ¶ But that the truth concerning the causes of this war, moued at this present by that noble prince king Henrie the eight, may the better appeare; I haue thought good here to set downe the same, as they were drawen foorth and published in print to the whole world by the said king in a little pamphlet, vn|der this title.

1.8. A declaration conteining the iust causes and considerations of this present warre with the Scots, wherein also appeareth the true and right title that the kings most roiall maiestie hath to his souereigntie of Scotland, and thus it beginneth.

A declaration conteining the iust causes and considerations of this present warre with the Scots, wherein also appeareth the true and right title that the kings most roiall maiestie hath to his souereigntie of Scotland, and thus it beginneth.

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_BEing now inforced to the war which we A declaration of the iust cau|ses of the war against the king of Scots. haue alwaies hitherto so much abhorred & fled, by our neighbour & nephew the K. of Scots, one who aboue all other for our manifold benefits toward him, hath most iust cause to loue vs, and to reioise in our quietnesse; we haue thought good to notifie vnto the world his doings and behauiour in the prouocation of this war, & likewise the meanes & waies by vs to eschew & auoid it, & the iust & true occasions wherby we be now prouoked to prosecute the same, and by vtterance and divul|ging of that matter, to disburden some part of our inward displeasure and griefe: and the circumstan|ces knowen, to lament openlie with the world the infidelitie of this time, in which things of such enor|mitie doo burst out and appeare.

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the king of Scots our nephue & neighbor, whome we in his youth and tender age preserued and main|teined from the great danger of others, and by our authoritie and power conducted him safelie to the roiall possession of his estate, he now compelleth & inforceth vs (for preseruation of our honor & right) to vse our puissance & power against him. The like vnkindnesse hath beene heretofore shewed by other in semblable cases against Gods law, mans law, & all humanitie; but the oftener it chanceth, the more it is to be abhorred, and yet in the persons of prin|ces, for the raritie of them, can so happen but seldome as it hath now come to passe. It hath béene verie rarelie & seldome séene tofore, that a king of Scots hath had in mariage a daughter of England. We cannot nor will not reprehend the king our fathers act therein, but lament and be sorie that it tooke no better effect.

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The king our father in that matter minded loue, EEBO page image 323 amitie, and perpetull friendship betwéene the poste|ritie of both: which how soone it failed, the death of the king of Scots, as a due punishment of God, for his vnjust inuasion into this our realme, is and shall be a perpetuall testimonie of their reproch for euer. And yet in that present time could not the vn|kindnesse of the father extinguish in vs the naturall loue of our nephue his sonne, being then in the mi|serable age of tender youth. But we then forgetting the displeasure that should haue woorthilie prouoked vs to inuade that realme, nourished and brought vp our nephue, to atchiue his fathers possession and gouernement, wherein he now so vnkindlie vseth and behaueth himselfe towards vs, as he compel|leth vs to take armor and warre against him.

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It is speciallie to be noted, vpon what grounds, and by what means we be compelled to this warre, wherin among other is our chiefe greefe and displea|sure, that vnder a colour of faire speach and flatte|ring words, we be indéed so iniuried, contemned and despised, as we ought not with sufferance to permit and passe ouer. Words, writings, letters, messages, ambassages, excuses, allegations, could not more pleasantlie, more gentlie, nor more reuerentlie be deuised and sent, than hath béene made on the king of Scots behalfe vnto vs: and euer we trusted the trée would bring foorth good fruit, that was of the one part of so good a stocke, and continuallie in appea|rance put foorth so faire buds: and therefore would hardlie beléeue or giue eare to other, that euer al|ledged the deeds of the contrarie, being neuerthe|lesse the same déeds so manifest, as we must néeds haue regarded them, had not we bin so loth to thinke euill of our nephue, whome we had so manie waies bound to be of the best sort toward vs.

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And therefore hauing a message sent vnto vs the yéere past, from our said nephue, and a promise made for the repairing of the said king of Scots vnto vs to Yorke, and after great preparation on our part made therefore, the same méeting was not onelie disappointed, but also at our being at Yorke in the lieu thereof, an inuasion made by our said nephue his subiects into our land, declaring an euident con|tempt and despite of vs. We were yet glad to im|pute the default of the méeting to the aduise of his councell, and the inuasion to the lewdnesse of his subiects, and according therevnto gaue as benigne and gentle audience to such ambassadors as repaired hither at Christmas afterward, as if no such cause of displeasure had occurred, speciallie considering the good words, sweet words, pleasant words, eftsoones proponed by the said ambassadors, not onelie to ex|cuse that was past, but also to persuade kindnesse and perfect amitie to insue.

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And albeit the king of Scots hauing (contrarie to the article of the league of amitie) receiued and in|terteined such rebels as were of the chéefe and prin|cipall, in stirring the insurrection in the north a|gainst vs, with refusall before time, vpon request made to restore the same; yet neuerthelesse, vpon of|fer made, the said ambassadors to send commission to the borderers, to determine debates of the con|fines in the same, with so great a pretense of amitie, and so faire words as could be in spéech desired, we were content for the time to forbeare to presse them ouer extreamlie in the matter of rebels. Alleit we neuer remitted the same, but desiring to make triall of our said nephue in some correspondence of déeds, condescended to the sending of commissioners to the borders, which to our great charge we did, and the king of Scots our said nephue the semblable.

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Where after great trauell made by our commis|sioners, this fruit insued, that being for our part cha|lenged, a péece of our ground plainlie vsurped by the Scots, and of no great value, being also for the samé shewed such euidence, as more substantiall, more au|tentike, plaine and euident, cannot be brought forth for anie part of ground within our realme: the same was neuerthelesse by them denied, refused, and the euidence onelie for this cause reiected, that it was made (as they alledged) by Englishmen: and yet it was so ancient, as it could not be counterfeit now, and the value of the ground so little, and of so small weight, as no man would haue attempted to falsifie for such a matter. And yet this deniall being in this wise made vnto our commissioners, they neuerthe|lesse by our commandement departed as friends from the commissioners of Scotland, taking order as hath béene accustomed, for good rule vpon the bor|ders in the meane time.

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After which their recesse, the lord Maxwell war|den of the west marches of Scotland, made procla|mation for good rule; but yet added therwith, that the borderers of Scotland should withdraw their goods from the borderers of England; and incontinent the Scotishmen borderers, the fourth of Iulie entered into our realme suddenlie, and spoiled our subiects contrarie to our leagues, euen after such extremitie as it had béene in the time of open warre, whereat we much maruelled, and were compelled therefore to furnish our borders with a garrison for defense of the same. Wherevpon the king of Scots sent vn|to vs Iames Leirmouth maister of his houshold, with letters deuised in the most pleasant maner, of fering redresse & reformation of all attempts. And yet neuerthelesse, at the entrie of the said Leirmouth into England, a great number of the Scots then not looked for, made a forraie into our borders, to the great annoiance of our subiects, & to their extreame detriment. Wherewith, and with that vnseemelie dis|simulation, we were not a little mooued, as reason would we should; and yet did we not finallie so ex|treamelie prosecute and continue our said displea|sure, but that we gaue benigne audience to the said Leirmouth, and suffered our selfe to be somewhat al|tered by his words and faire promises, tending to the persuasion that we euer desired, to find the king of Scots such a nephue vnto vs, as our proximitie of bloud (with our gratuitie vnto him) did require.

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In the meane time of these faire words, the déeds of the borderers were as extreame as might be, and our subiects spoiled: and in a rode made by sir Ro|bert Bowes for a reuenge thereof, the same sir Ro|bert Bowes, with manie other were taken priso|ners, and yet deteined in Scotland without putting them to fine or ransome, as hath béene euer accusto|med. And being at the same time a sursesance made on both sides, at the sute of the said Leirmouth for a season; the Scots ceassed not to make sundre inua|sions into our realme, in such wise as we were com|pelled to forget faire words, and onelie to consider the king of Scots déeds, which appeared vnto vs of that sort, as they ought not for our dutie in defense of our subiects, ne could not in respect of our honor, be passed ouer vnreformed: and therefore put in a readi|nesse our armie, as a due meane whereby we might atteine such a peace, as for the safegard of our sub|iects we be bound to procure.

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After which preparation made, and knowledge had thereof, the king of Scots ceassed not to vse his accustomed meane of faire words, which in our na|turall inclination wrought eftsoones their accusto|med effect, euermore desirous to find in the king of Scots such regard & respect to be declared in déeds, as the correspondence of naturall loue in the nephue to such an vncle, as we haue shewed our selfe toward him, dooth require. Wherefore vpon new request and sute made vnto vs, we determined to staie our ar|mie EEBO page image 324 at Yorke, appointing the duke of Norffolke our lieutenant, the Lord priuie seale, the bishop of Dur|ham, and the maister of our horsses, there to com|men, treat, and conclude with the ambassadors of Scotland, for an amitie and peace, vpon such condi|tions, as by reason and equitie were indifferent, whereby the warre might be eschewed, being by sun|drie inuasions of the Scots then opened & manifest.

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In this communication betwéene our and their commissioners, after diuerse degrées of commission shewed by the Scots, and finallie one that was by our commissioners allowed, matters were propo|ned for conclusion of amitie, nothing difficill or hard of our part, but so agréeable to reason, as the com|missioners of Scotland said they doubted not, but if it might be brought to passe that the king of Scots our nephue might haue a méeting with vs, all mat|ters should easilie be compounded and determined: wherevpon they left speaking of anie articles of a|mitie, and the ambassadors of Scotland made much outward ioy in communication of meeting. They shewed themselues in words, fashion, and behauior much to delight in it, to reioise in it, and therewith thought it easie and facile to be concluded and ac|complished, and for their part they tooke it then for a thing passed, a thing concluded, and most certeine to take effect, and onelie desired six daies to obteine an|swer from their maister, and our armie, from that time to staie and go no further: wherevnto our com|missioners then agréed.

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After these six daies was sent a commission out of Scotland, with power to conclude a méeting pre|ciselie at such a place, as they knew well we should not, nor could not in winter obserue & kéepe. Where|with when our commissioners were miscontent, the ambassadors of Scotland to relieue that displea|sure, and to temper the matter whereby to win more time, shewed foorth their instructions, wherein liber|tie was giuen to the ambassadours to exceed their commission in the appointment of the place, and to consent to anie other that by our commissioners should be thought conuenient. Which maner of pro|céeding when our commissioners refused, alledging that they would not conclude a méeting with men hauing no commission therevnto: the ambassadors of Scotland vpon pretense to send for a more am|ple and large commission, agréeable to their instruc|tions for appointment of the place, obteined a de|laie of other six daies, to send for the ample commis|sion without restraint of place.

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Now after these six daies they brought foorth a new commission, made in a good forme, and without exception: but therewith also they shewed new in|structions, conteining such a restraint as the former commission did conteine, so as the libertie giuen to the commissioners in the commission was now at the last remooued and taken awaie by the instructi|ons, with addition of a speciall charge to the ambas|sadors, not to excéed the same. And thus, first the am|bassadors of Scotland seemed to haue a will and de|sire to conclude on a place seemelie and conuenient, which for want of commission they might not doo, and at the last might haue concluded a méeting by vertue of their commission; and then for feare of the commandement in their second instructions they durst not. And so they shewed their first instructions partlie to excuse their king, who should séeme secret|lie to will more than in the commission he did open|lie professe.

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Then with an ample commission from the king, they shewed their secret instructions for defense of themselues, why they procéeded not according to their commission, not caring how much they char|ged therein the king, whose fault they disclosed to dis|charge themselues, trusting that by the benefit of the winter approching, and the time lost in their com|munication, their maister should be defended a|gainst our power for this yéere, without dooing for their part that by honor, right, law, and leagues they be obliged and bound to doo. And in this meane time our subiects being taken prisoners in Scotland, could not be deliuered vpon any ransome, contrarie to all custome and vsage of the borderers in the time of peace and warre: and in this meane time staied a great part of our armie alreadie prested, and in our wages to go forward.

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In this time ambassadors (as ye haue heard) as|sembled to talke of an amitie, but concluded none. The treating of amitie was put ouer by communi|cation of a méeting. The communication of méeting was so handled by alteration of commission and in|structions on their behalfe, as it appeareth a plaine deuise onelie inuented for a delaie, which hath giuen vs light, whervpon more certeinly to iudge the king of Scots inward affection toward vs: whose deeds and words well weied and considered, doo vs plain|lie to vnderstand, how he hath continuallie labored to abuse vs with sweet and pleasant words, and to sa|tisfie the appetites of other at home and abroad with his vnkind and displeasant déeds. In his words he professeth an indissoluble amitie, he allegeth kinred, he acknowledgeth benefits, onlie the fault is, that he speaketh another language to all the world in deeds, and thereby so toucheth vs in honor and denegation of iustice, as we be inforced and compelled to vse the sword, which God hath put in our hands as an ex|treme remedie, whereby to obteine both quietnesse for our subiects, and also that is due to vs by right, pacts, and leagues.

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We haue patientlie suffered manie delusions, and notablie the last yéere, when we made prepara|tion at Yorke for his repaire to vs. But should we suffer our people and subiects to be so oft spoiled without remedie? This is doone by the Scots, what|soeuer their words be. Should we suffer our rebels to be deteined contrarie to the leagues without re|medie? This is also doone by them, whatsoeuer their words be. Should we suffer our land to be vsurped contrarie to our most plaine euidence, onelie vpon a will, pride and arrogancie of the other partie? This is doone by them whatsoeuer their words be. All these be ouer presumptuouslie doone against vs, and giue such signification of their arrogancie, as it is neces|sarie for vs to oppresse it in the beginning, least they should gather further courage, to the greater displea|sure of vs and our posteritie hereafter. And yet in the intreating of this matter, if we had not euidentlie perceiued the lacke of such affection as proximitie of bloud should require; we would rather haue remit|ted these iniuries in respect of proximitie of bloud, to our nephue, than we did tofore his fathers inuasion.

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But weieng that we be so suerlie ascerteined of the lacke thereof, and that our bloud is there frozen with the cold aire of Scotland, there was neuer prince more violentlie compelled to war, than we be by the vnkind dealing, vniust behauior, & vnprince|lie demeanor of him, that yet in nature is our ne|phue, & in his acts and déeds declareth himselfe not to be mooued therwith, nor to haue such earnest regard to the obseruation of his pacts & leagues, nor such re|spect to the interteinment of the administration of iustice, as naturall equitie bindeth, & conseruation of equitie requireth. Which we much lament & be sorie for, & vse now our force and puissance against him, not for reuengement of our priuate displeasure (be|ing so often deliuered as we haue béene) but for re|couerie of our right, the preseruation of our subiects from iniuries, and the obseruation of such leagues EEBO page image 325 as haue passed betweene vs, firmelie trusting, that almightie God, vnder whome we reigne, will assist & aid our iust proceedings herein, to the furtherance and aduancement of the right, which we doubt not shall euer preuaile against wrong, falshood, deceipt, and dissimulation.

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Hitherto appeareth how this present warre hath not proceeded of anie demand of our right of our su|perioritie, which the kings of Scots haue alwaies knowledged by homage and fealtie to our progeni|tors euen from the beginning: but this warre hath béene prouoked and occasioned vpon present mat|ter of displeasure, present iniurie, present wrong mi|nistred by the nephue to the vncle most vnnatural|lie, and supported contrarie to the deserts of our be|nefits most vnkindlie, if we had minded the possessi|on of Scotland, and by the motion of warre to at|teine the same, there was neuer king of this realme had more opportunitie in the minoritie of our ne|phue, nor in anie other realme a prince that hath more iust title, more euident title, more certeine title, to any realme that he can claime, than we haue to Scotland.

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This title is not deuised by pretense of mariage, nor imagined by couenant, nor contriued by inuen|tion of argument, but lineallie descended from the beginning of that estate established by our progeni|tors, and recognised successiuelie of the kings of Scotland, by deeds, words, acts, and writings conti|nuallie almost without interruption, or at the least intermission, till the reigne of our progenitor king Henrie the sixt, in whose time the Scots abused the ciuill warre of this realme, to their licence and bold|nesse, in omitting of their dutie: which for the proxi|mitie of bloud betwene vs, we haue béene slacke to require of them, being also of our selfe inclined to peace, as we haue euer beene alwaies glad, rather without preiudice to omit to demand our right if it might conserue peace, than by demanding thereof to be séene to mooue warre, speciallie against our neighbour, against our nephue, against him whome we haue preserued from danger, and in such a time as it were expedient for all christendome to be in v|nitie and peace, whereby to be more able to resist the common enimie the Turke.

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But for what considerations we haue omitted to speake hitherto of the matter, it is neuerthelesse true, that the kings of Scots haue alwaies acknow|ledged the kings of England superior lords of the realme of Scotland, & haue doone homage and feal|tie for the same. This appereth first in histories writ|ten by such, as for confirmation of the truth in me|morie haue trulie noted and signified the same. Se|condlie, it appeareth by instruments of homage made by the kings of Scots, and diuerse notable personages of Scotland, at diuerse & sundrie times sealed with their seales, and remaining in our trea|surie. Thirdlie, it appeareth by registers and re|cords iudiciallie and autenticallie made, yet preser|ued for confirmation of the same. So as the mat|ter of title béeing most plaine, is furnished also with all maner of euidences for declaration there|of.

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First, as concerning histories, which be called witnesses of times, the light of truth, and the life of memorie, and finallie the conuenient way & meane whereby the things of antiquitie may be brought to mens knowledge, they shew as plainlie this matter as could be wished or required, with such a consent of writers as could not so agree vpon an vntruth, conteining a declaration of such matter as hath most euident probabilitie and apparance. For as it is probable and likelie, that for the better administra|tion of iustice amongest rude people, two or more of one estate might be rulers in one countrie, vnited as this Ile is: so it is probable and likelie, that in the beginning it was so ordered for auoiding dissen|tion, that there should be one superiour, in right of whom the said estates should depend.

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According wherevnto we read, how Brute, of whome the realme then called Britaine tooke first that name (being before that time inhabited with gi|ants, a people without order or ciuilitie) had thrée sonnes, Locrine, Albanact, and Camber, who deter|mining to haue the whole Ile within the ocean sea to be after gouerned by them thrée, appointed Alba|nact to rule that now is called Scotland, Camber the parties of Wales, and Locrine that now is cal|led England: vnto whom (as being the eldest sonne) the other two brethren should doo homage, recogni|sing and knowledging him as their superior. Now consider, if Brute conquered all this Iland, as the historie saith he did, and then in his owne time made this order of superioritie as afore; how can there be a title deuised of a more plaine beginning, a more iust beginning, a more conuenient beginning, for the or|der of this Iland, at that time speciallie, when the people were rude? Which cannot without continuall strife and variance conteine twoo or thrée rulers in all points equall without any maner of superioritie, the inward conscience and remorse of which superio|ritie should in some part dull and diminish the per|uerse couragè of resistance and rebellion.

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The first diuision of this Ile, we find written after this sort, without cause of suspicion why they should write amisse. And according heerevnto we find also in historie set foorth by diuerse, how for transgression against this superioritie, our predecessors haue cha|stised the kings of Scots, and some deposed, and put other in their places. We will heere omit to speake of the rudenesse of the antiquitie in particularitie, which they cared not distinctlie to commit to writing. But some authors, as Antonius Sabellicus, amongst other, diligentlie searching what he might trulie write of all Europe and the Ilands adioining, ouer and besides that which he writeth of the natures, ma|ners, and conditions of the Scots, which who so list to read, shall find to haue béene the verie same in times past, that we find them now at this present: he cal|leth Scotland, part of England, which is agréeable to the diuision aforesaid, being in déed as in the land continuall without separation of the sea, so also by homage and fealtie vnited vnto the same; as by par|ticular declarations shall most manifestlie appéere, by the testimonie of such as haue left writing for proofe and confirmation thereof.

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In which matter, passing the death of king Hum|ber, the acts of Dunwald king of this realme of England, the diuision of Beline and Bren two bre|thren, the victories of king Arthur; we shall begin at the yéere of our Lord, nine hundred, which is six hun|dred fortie two yeeres past, a time of sufficient anci|encie, from which we shall make speciall declaration and euident proofe of the execution of our right and title of superioritie euermore continued and preser|ued hitherto. Edward the first, before the conquest, sonne to Alured king of England, had vnder his do|minion and obedience the king of Scots. And héere is to be noted, that this matter was so notorious and manifest, as Marian a Scot, writing that storie in those daies, granteth, confesseth, & testifieth the same: and this dominion continued in that state thrée and twentie yéeres.

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At which time Athelstane succéeded in the crowne of England, and hauing by battell conquered Scot|land, he made one Constantine king of that partie, to rule and gouerne the countrie of Scotland vnder him, adding this princelie woord, that it was more EEBO page image 326 honorable to him to make a king, than to be a king. Twentie foure yéeres after that, which was the yéere of our Lord 947, king Eldred our progenitor Athel|stanes brother, tooke homage of Irise then king of Scots. Thirtie yéeres after that, which was in the yeere of our Lord 977, king Edgar our predecessor tooke homage of Kinald king of Scots. Heere was a litle trouble in England by the death of saint Ed|ward king and martyr, destroied by the deceit of his mother in law. But yet within memorie, fortie yeers after the homage doone by Kinald to king Edgar, that is to say, in the yeere of our Lord 1018, Mal|colme king of Scots did homage to Knute our pre|decessor.

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After this homage doone, the Scots vttered some péece of their naturall disposition: wherevpon, by warre made by our progenitor saint Edward the confessor, twentie nine yéeres after homage dooue, that is to say, the yéere of our Lord 1056, Malcolme king of Scots was vanquished, and the realme gi|uen to Malcolme his sonne, by our said progenitor saint Edward: to whome the said Malcolme made homage and fealtie, within eleuen yeeres after that William Conqueror entered this realme, whereof he accounted no perfect conquest, vntill he had like|wise subdued the Scots. And therefore in the said yéere, which was in the yéere of our Lord 1068, the said Malcolme king of Scots did homage to the said William Conqueror, as his superior by conquest king of England. Twentie fiue yéeres after that, which was in the yéere of our Lord 1092, the said Malcolme did homage and fealtie to William Ru|fus, sonne to the said William Conqueror: and yet after that was for his offenses and demerits depo|sed, and his sonne substitute in his place, who like|wise failed of his dutie: and therefore was ordeined in that estate (by the said William Rufus) Edgar, brother to the last Malcolme, and sonne to the first, who did homage and fealtie accordinglie.

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Seuen yéeres after, that was in the yéere of our Lord 1100, the said Edgar K. of Scots did homage vnto Henrie the first our progenitor. Thirtie seauen yéeres after that, Dauid king of Scots did homage to Mathild the empresse, as daughter and heire to Henrie the first. Wherefore, being after required by Stephan, then obteining possession of the realme, to make his homage; he refused so to doo, because be had before made it to the said Mathild, and therevpon for|bare. After which Dauids death, which insued shortlie after, the sonne of the said Dauid made homage to the said king Stephan. Fouretéene yéeres after that, which was in the yéere of our Lord, a thousand one hundred and fiftie, William king of Scots, and Da|uid his brother, with all the nobles of Scotland, made homage to Henrie the seconds sonne, with a reseruation of their dutie to Henrie the second his father. Twentie fiue yéeres after, which was in the yeere of our Lord 1175, William king of Scotland, after much rebellion & resistance, according to their naturall inclination, king Henrie the second then being in Normandie, William then king of Scots knowledged finallie his error, and made his peace and composition, confirmed with his great seale, and the seales of the nobilitie of Scotland, making therewith his homage and fealtie.

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Within fifteene yeeres after that, which was the yeere of our Lord 1190, the said William king of Scots came to our citie of Canturburie, and there did homage to our noble progenitor king Richard the first. Fouretéene yeeres after that, the said Wil|liam did homage to our progenitor king Iohn, vpon a hill besides Lincolne, making his oth vpon the crosse of Hubert then archbishop of Canturburie, be|ing there present, a maruellous multitude assembled for that purpose. Twentie six yéeres after that, which was in the yéere of our Lord 1216, Alexander king of Scots maried Margaret, the daughter of our pro|genitor Henrie the third, at our citie of Yorke, in the feast of Christmasse, at which time the said Alexander did his homage to our said progenitor, who reigned in this realme fiftie six yeers. And therfore betwéene the homage made by the said Alexander king of Scots, and the homage doone by Alexander, sonne to the said king of Scots, to Edward the first at his co|ronation at Westminster, there was about fiftie yéeres: at which time the said Alexander king of Scots repaired to the said feast of coronation, and there did his dutie, as is aforesaid. Within twentie eight yéeres after that, which was in the yéere of our Lord 1282, Iohn Balioll king of Scots made his homage and fealtie to the said king Edward the first our progenitor.

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After this began Robert Bruse to vsurpe the crowne of Scotland, and to mooue sedition therefore against them of the house of Balioll, which made for a season some interruption in the said homage; but yet no intermission without the termes of memorie: for within fortie foure yéeres after, which was the yéere of our Lord 1326, Edward Balioll after a great victorie had in Scotland against the other fac|tion, and inioieng the crowne of Scotland, made ho|mage to our progenitor Edward the third. And twentie yéeres after that, which was in the yeere of our Lord 1346, Dauid Bruse, who was euer in the contrarie faction, did neuerthelesse in the title of the crowne of Scotland, wherof he was then in possessi|on, make homage to our said progenitor Edward the third.

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Within nine yeeres after this, Edward the third, to chastise the infidelitie of the Scots, made warre against them: when after great victories, Edward Balioll, hauing the iust and right title to the realme of Scotland, surrendred clearlie the same to our said progenitor, at the towne of Roxburgh in Scotland, where our said progenitor accepted the same, and then caused himselfe to be crowned king of Scot|land, and for a time interteined it, and inioied it, as verie proprietarie and owner of the realme: as on the one part by confiscation acquited, and on the o|ther part by frée will surrendred vnto him. And then after the death of our said progenitor Edward the third, began seditions and insurrections in this our realme, in the time of our progenitor Richard the se|cond, which was augmented by the alteration of the state of the said Richard, and the deuolution of the same to Henrie the fourth: so as the Scots had some leasure to plaie their vagues, and follow their accu|stomed manner. And yet Henrie the fift, for recoue|rie of his right in France, commanded the king of Scots to attend vpon him in that iorneie.

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In this time, the realme of Scotland being des|cended to the house of the Stewards, of which our ne|phue directlie commeth: Iames Steward king of Scots, in the yéere of our Lord 1423, made homage to Henrie the sixt at Windsore, which homage was distant from the time of the other homage made by Dauid Bruse, three score yéeres and more, but farre within the fresh memorie of man. All which homages and fealties as they appéere by storie to haue béene made and doone at times and seasons as afore, so doo there remaine instruments made therevpon, and sealed with the seales of the kings of Scotland, testi|fieng the same. And yet dooth it appéere by storie, how the Scots practised to steale out of our treasurie di|uerse of these instruments, which neuerthelesse were afterward recouered againe.

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And to the intent ye may know of what forme and tenure the said instruments he, héere is inserted EEBO page image 327 the effect in woord and sentence as they be made, which we doo, to méet with the cauillation and contri|ued euasion of the Scots, alleging the homage to haue beene made for the earledome of Huntington, which is as true as the allegation of him that is burnt in the hand, to say he was cut with a sickle. And therefore the tenure of the homage is this.

1.9. The forme of the homage.

The forme of the homage.

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_I Iohn N. king of Scots shall be true and faithfull vnto you lord Edward by the grace of God K. of England, the noble & superiour lord of the kingdome of Scotland, as vn|to you I make my fidelitie of the same kingdome of Scotland, the which I hold & claime to hold of you. And I shall beare to you my faith and fidelitie of life and lim, and worldlie honor, against all men; and faithfullie I shall knowledge, and shall doo to you seruice due to you of the kingdome of Scotland aforesaid: as God so helpe and these holie euangelists.

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Now for the third part, touching records and regi|sters, we haue them so formall, so autenticall, so se|riouslie handled, and with such circumstances decla|ring the matters, as they be and ought to be a great corroboration of that hath beene in stories written & reported in this matter. For among other things we haue the solemne act and iudiciall processe of our progenitor Edward the first, in discussion of the title of Scotland, when the same was challenged by 12 competitors (that is to saie) Florentius comes Holandie, Patricius de Dunbar comes de Mer|chia, Willielmus de Uesci, Willielmus de Rosse, Robertus de Pinkeni, Nicholaus de Soules, Pa|tricius Galightlie, Rogerus de Mundeuile, Ioan|nes de Comin, D. Ioannes de Hastings, Ioannes de Balliolo, Robertus de Bruse, Ericius rex Norwe|gie.

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Finallie, after a great consultation and ma|ture deliberation, with discussion of the allegations proponed on all parts, sentence was giuen for the ti|tle of Balioll, according wherevnto he inioied the realme. But for confirmation of the dutie of the ho|mage before that time obserued by the K. of Scots, it appeareth in those records, how when those compe|titors of the realme of Scotland repaired to our progenitor, as to the chiefe lord for discussion of the same, insomuch as the authoritie of the iudgement to be giuen depended therevpon; it was then orde|red that the whole parlement of Scotland, spirituall & temporall, & of all degrees assembled for that pur|pose, and considering vpon what ground & founda|tion the kings of Scotland had in times past made the said homages and recognition of superioritie, the said parlement finding the same good & true, should (if they so déemed it) yéeld and giue place, and by ex|presse consent recognise the same.

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At which parlement was alleged vnto them, as appeareth in the same records, not onelie these acts of the princes before those daies, and before rehear|sed: but also besides the testimonie of stories, the writings and letters of forren princes at that time reciting and rehearsing the same. Wherevpon the said parlement did there agree to this our superiori|tie, and insuing their determination did particular|lie and seuerallie make homage & fealtie with pro|clamation, that whosoeuer withdrew himselfe from dooing his duetie therein, should be reputed as a re|bell. And so all made homage and fealtie to our pro|genitor Edward the first. And the realme of Scot|land was in the time of the discussion of the title ru|led by gardians deputed by him. All castels and holds were surrendred to him, as to the superiour lord in the time of vacation. Benefices, offices, fées, promotions passed in that time from the méere gift of our said progenitor, as in the right of this crowne of England. Shiriffes named and appointed, writs, and precepts made, obeied, and executed.

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Finallie, all that we doo now in the duchie of Lan|caster, the same did our progenitor for the time of the contention for that title in the realme of Scot|land, by the consent of an agréement of all estates of the realme assembled and consulted with for that purpose. At which time the bishops of saint Andrews and Glascow were not (as they now be) archbishops; but recognised the archbishop of Yorke, which exten|ded ouer all that countrie. Now if the Scots will take exception to the homage of their princes as made in warre, and by force, which is not true; what will they say, or can they for shame allege against their owne parlement, not of some but of all confir|med, & testified by their writings and seales; where|vnto nothing inforced them but right and reason, be|ing passed in peace and quiet without armor & com|pulsion? If they say they did it not, they speake like themselues; if they say they did it, then doo they now like themselues, to withdraw their dutie, not so much to be blamed, as to be amended.

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Thus appeareth vnto you the beginning of the right of superioritie, with a perpetuall continuance, without intermission within memorie. Certeine o|missions and forbearings vpon the grounds and oc|casions before specified we denie not, whereby they haue manie times sought and taken their opportuni|ties to withdraw the dooing of their duetie in know|ledge of our superioritie ouer them; which to auoid, they haue not cared what they said or alleged, though it were neuer so vntrue, lieng alwaies in wait when they might annoie this realme, not without their owne great danger & perill, & also extreame detri|ment. But as they detracted the dooing of their du|tie, so God granted vnto this realme force to com|pell them therevnto within memorie, and notwith|standing anie their interruption by resistance, which vnto the time of our progenitor Henrie the sixt ne|uer endured so long as it made intermission within time of mind, whereby the possession might séeme to be empaired. From the time of Henrie the sixt, vnto the seuenth yeare of our reigne, our realme hath béene for a season lacerat and torne by diuersitie of titles, till our time; and since also by warre outward|lie vexed and troubled. The storie is so lamentable for some part therof, as were too tedious to rehearse.

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Since the death of our progenitor Henrie the sixt, our grandfather Edward the fourth reigned, who af|ter great trauels to atteine quietnes in his realme, finallie in the time of preparation of warre against Scotland died. Richard the third, then vsurped for a small time in yeares, whome the king our father by the strength of Gods hand ouerthrew in battell, and most iustlie atteined the possession of this relme, who neuerthelesse, after the great tempestuous stormes, finding all matters not yet brought to perfect quiet and rest, ceassed and forbare to require of the Scots to doo their dutie; thinking it policie rather for that time to assaie to tame their nature by pleasant con|iunction & conuersation of affinitie, than to charge them with their fault, & require dutie of them, when oportunitie serued not by force & feare to constreine and compell them. And thus passed ouer the reigne of our father without demand of this homage. And being our reigne now foure and thirtie yeares, we were one and twentie yeares letted by our nephue his minoritie, being then more carefull how to bring EEBO page image 328 him out of danger, to the place of a king, than to re|ceiue of him homage, when he had full possession of the same.

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Wherefore being now passed, since the last ho|mage made by the king of Scots, to our progenitor Henrie the sixt, 122 yeares, at which time the ho|mage was doone at Windsor by Iames Steward, then king of Scots, as before 56 of these yeares the crowne of this realme was in contention, the trou|ble wherof ingendred also some businesse in the time of the king our father; which was thrée and thirtie yeares: and in our time one and twentie yeares hath passed in the minoritie of our nephue. So as final|lie, the Scots resorting to their onelie defense of dis|continuance of possession, can onelie allege iustlie but 13 yeares of silence in the time of our reigne, be|ing all the other times since the homage doone by Iames Steward, such as the silence in them (had they béene neuer so long) could not haue ingendred preiudice to the losse of anie right that may yet be de|clared and prooued due. For what can be imputed to king Edward for not demanding homage being in strife for that estate, wherevnto the homage was due? What should Richard the third search for ho|mage in Scotland, that had neither right ne leasure to haue homage doone vnto him in England? Who can blame our father, knowing the Scots nature neuer to doo their dutie but for feare; if he deman|ded not that of them, which they would eschew if they might, séeing his realme not clearelie then purged from ill séed of sedition, sparkled and scattered in the cruell ciuill warres before.

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Law and reason serueth, that the passing ouer of time not commodious, that the purpose is not allege|able in prescription for the losse of anie right. And the minoritie of the king of Scots hath indured twentie one yéeres of our reigne, which being an impedi|ment on their part, the whole prescription of the Scots, if the matter were prescriptible, is thus dedu|ced euidentlie to thirteene yéere, which thirtéene yéere without excuse we haue ceassed and forborne to de|mand our dutie, like as the Scots haue likewise ceas|sed to offer and render the same: for which cause ne|uerthelesse we doo not enter this warre, ne minded to demand anie such matter now, being rather desi|rous to reioise and take comfort in the friendship of our nephue as our neighbour, than to mooue matter vnto him of displeasure, whereby to alienate such na|turall inclination of loue as he should haue towards vs: but such be the woorks of God superior ouer all, to suffer occasions to be ministred, whereby due superi|oritie may be knowne, demanded, and required, to the intent that according therevnto all things gouer|ned in due order héere, we may to his pleasure passe ouer this life to his honor and glorie, which he grant vs to doo in such rest, peace, and tranquillitie, as shall be meet and conuenient for vs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 When therefore the king of England had set foorth this declaration of the causes that mooued him to make warre against Scotland, he prepared to prose|cute the same both by sea and land, and hauing rig|ged and furnished diuerse ships of warre, he sent the same foorth to the sea, that they might take such Sco|tish Scotish ships taken. ships as were to returne from their voiages made into France, Flanders, Denmarke, and other countries, whether they were gone for trade of mer|chandize, with which the English ships incountred, tooke 28 of the principall ships of all Scotland, fraught with all kind of merchandize and rich wares, which they brought with them into the English ports.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king of Scotland aduertised therof, sent with all spéed an herald, desiring restitution of his ships, as he thought stood with reason, séeing no war was proclamed: but the king of England thought it no reason to depart with them so soone, till other articles of agréement might be concluded, and therefore re|fused not onelie to deliuer their ships, but also sent sir Robert Bowes with men to the borders, giuing him Sir Robert Bowes inua|deth the bor|ders. in charge to inuade Scotland, who according to his commission, with thrée thousand men rode into Scotland, and began to burne and to spoile certeine small townes: wherevpon the fraie being raised in the countrie, George Gordon the earle of Huntleie, who was appointed to remaine as lieutenant vpon The earle of Huntleie gi|ueth an ouer|throw to the Englishmen. 1542. Lesle. the borders, for doubt of such sudden inuasions, im|mediatlie gathered a number of borderers, and set vpon the Englishmen, and put them all to flight; sir Robert Bowes, and his brother Richard Bowes, with diuers other, to the number of six hundred, were taken prisoners; and the said sir Robert Bowes and other the principall landed men were kept still in Scotland till after the kings death. This victorie chanced to the Scots, at a place called Halden Rig in the Mers, vpon saint Bartholomewes day, which is the twentie fourth of August.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, the king of England sent the duke of Norffolke with the earles of Shrewesburie, Darbie, Cumberland, Surreie, Hertford, Angus, Rutland, and the lords of the north parts of England, with an armie of fortie thousand men, as the Scots estéemed them, though they were not manie aboue twentie thousand, who entered into Scotland the one and twentith of October, and burnt certeine townes vp|on the side of the water of Twéed: but the earle of Huntleie, hauing with him ten thousand of the bor|derers and other, so waited vpon them, giuing them now and then skirmishes and alarms, that they came not past two miles from the water of Twéed within the Scotish bounds at that season.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, the king of Scotland being aduertised héereof, gathered a great armie through all the parts of his realme, and came to Sowtraie hedge, where they mustered, and were numbred to be thirtie six thousand men, with the which he came to Falla Mure, and there incamped, determining to giue battell to the Englishmen, as he pretended: howbeit, if the duke had taried longer, as it was thought he would haue doone, if the time of the yéere and prouision of vittels had serued, the Scots would yet haue béene better aduised, before they had ioined with him in a pight field. But true it is, that after the duke had remained there so long as vittels might be had and recouered from anie part, he retired with his armie backe into England, not without some losse of men, horsses, and spoiles, which the Scots vn|der the earle of Huntleie and others tooke from the Englishmen in that their retire, speciallie as they passed ouer the riuer of Tweed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After the Englishmen were thus departed and withdrawne home foorth of Scotland, king Iames being of an high and manlie courage, in reuenge of harmes doone by the Englishmen within his coun|trie, thought good that his whole armie should passe forward and inuade England, himselfe to go there|with in proper person. And héerein he requested the consent of his nobilitie, who after long reasoning, and good aduisement taken in the matter, gaue answer [by the earle of Murrey] to the king in this sort, that they could not thinke it good that they should passe within England, and to seeke battell, the king him|selfe being with them, considering that his two sons were latelie deceassed, so that he had no succession of his bodie: for in case that they lost the field, as in chance of battell is most vncerteine, then the king of England hauing great substance, might therwith follow the victorie, and put the realme of Scotland in great hazard.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 329 Therefore they thought it sufficient to defend their owne bounds, and to constreine the enimie for feare to leaue the inuasion thereof, as presentlie they had doone; and declared that they were determined to haue giuen battell to their enimies, if they had conti|nued within the realme, and doubted not by the helpe of God, they hauing so iust a cause, and being inua|ded in their countrie, but that they should haue obtei|ned the victorie. The king hearing their determinati|on, albeit his high courage pressed him to inuade; yet the approoued wit of his nobles and councellors cau|sed him to follow their aduise, and so returned with The king br [...]aketh vp his armie. his armie backe againe, the first of Nouember, the armie of England being first discharged, and the duke of Norffolke in his returne towards London.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, the king of Scotland went himselfe in person to the west marches of his realme, where The king go|eth to the west borders. 1541. Lesl. the lord Maxwell was warden, whome togither with the earles of Cassiles, and Glencarne [the lord Fle|ming] and certeine other lords there with him, the king appointed to inuade the English marches on that side, taking with them the power of the borders, and sent also with them Oliuer Sincler [the brother of Rosseline Comarch] and the residue of the gentle|men Oliuer Sin|cler. of his houshold. These earles and lords entering into England on saint Katharines euen, being the foure and twentith of Nouember, began to burne certeine townes vpon the water of Eske. But as soone as the scrie was raised in the countrie, the lord Wharton warden of the west marches of England, The lord wharton. suddenlie raised the power of the countrie, and came to a little hill, where they shewed themselues in sight vnto the Scotish armie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scotish lords perceiuing the Englishmen ga|thered, assembled themselues togither, and inquired who was lieutenant generall there by the kings ap|pointment; and incontinentlie Oliuer Sincler was holden vp on two mens shoulders, where he sheweth The enuie of the lords a|gainst Oliuer Sincler. foorth the kings commission, instituting him lieute|nant to the king of that armie. But howsoeuer that was read, the earles and lords there present, thought themselues imbased too much, to haue such a meane gentleman aduanced in authoritie aboue them all, and therefore determined not to fight vnder such a capteine, but willinglie suffered themselues to be o|uercome, and so were taken by the Englishmen, not The Scots discomfited by the English|men. shewing anie countenance of defense to the contra|rie, and without slaughter of anie one person on ei|ther side.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 This rode was called Solowaie Mosse, at the which were taken prisoners men of name, these per|sons following: the earle of Cassiles and Glencarne, the lord Maxwell, the lord Fleming, the lord Somer|uile, the lord Oliphant, Oliuer Sincler, the lord of Craggie, and sundrie other gentlemen, the which were led prisoners to London, where they remained till after the king was dead. The king being in Car|lauerecke vpon the borders not farre from Solo|waie Mosse, when this misfortune fell vpon his men: after he heard thereof, he was merueloustie amazed, the more, in calling to remembrance the refusall made by his nobles, assembled with him in campe at Falla vpon his request to in [...]de England. Héere|with such an impression entered his mind, that he thought with himselfe that all his whole nobilitie had The griefe of the king for the ouerthrow of his men. conspired against him, and therevpon tooke such a ve|hement and high displeasure, increased with a me|lancholious thought that he departed suddenlie from thence to Edenburgh, and after remooued to Falke|land, where he remained as a man desolate of com|fort, being sore vexed in spirit and bodie, and would not permit anie manner of person to haue accesse to him, his secret & familiar seruants onelie excepted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now, as he was thus disquieted, newes were brought him that the queene his wife was brought to bed of a faire yoong princesse the seuenth day of The birth of the Scotish queene. December, the which newes he liked verie euill; and added the griefe thereof to his former displeasant|nesse, insomuch that he perceiued the end of his life to approch, and withall said, that he foresaw great trouble to come vpon the realme of Scotland, for the pursuit which the king of England was like to make therevpon against the same, to the end he might bring it vnder his subiection, either by mariage, or [...] some other meane. It was reported that he was disquieted with some vnkindlie medicine: but how|soeuer the matter was, he yéelded vp his spirit to almightie God, and departed this world the foure|téenth of December, in the yéere of our redemption, 1542, the thirtie thrée yeere of his age, and thirtie two of his reigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after his departure, his bodie was con|ueied into Falkeland vnto Edenburgh in most ho|norable wise; the cardinall, the earles of Arrane, Ar|gile, Rothes, Marshall, and diuerse other noblemen being present, and with all funerall pompe (as was requisite) it was buried in the abbeie church of Ho|lie rood house, beside the bodie of quéene Magdalen, daughter to the king of France, his first wife. There was great lamentation and mone made for his death throughout all parts of his realme, for he was verie well beloued among his subiects. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 460. He was of swéet countenance and courteous speech, graiesh eied, hauing a diuine mind in all whatsoeuer, nei|ther certeine in doubtfull things, nor doubtfull in things of certeintie, auoiding dangers with graue counsels, performing hard matters with great no|bilitie of mind, and foreséeing what might follow with an incredible iudgement: in such fort that hée was neuer vnprouided against the danger of anie thing, or was drawne from it by the difficultie there|of, or was hindered by the obscuritie therein: where|by he might incurre the note either of a rash, feare|full, or slow person.

All which singular commendations seemed to flow out of this spring, that he did not by heat of youth (rashlie) but with great deliberation (soundlie) man|nage the whole affaires of the common-wealth. For as he did chieflie labor that his table might not ex|céed for gluttonie, nor be ouersparing for miserie: so if his apparell were decent, he esteemed not the shew of womanish attire after the courtlie fashion. He was so farre from pride, that he alwaies shewed himselfe offended with the vses thereof. He was an obseruer of iustice, a defender of the law, and a sharpe shield for the innocent and poore: for which cause he was of the nobilitie called the king of the commoners. For he set at libertie the poore oppressed with the tyrannie of the rich, and repressed the rich from spoiling of the poore: all which he did with a certeine seueritie, but yet such, as in the same there appeared a woonderfull gentlenes of his naturall disposition, bicause he sel|dome put anie of them to death, but did either by pri|son or mulct punish the offense. For he was woont to say, that he would neuer take life from anie, but onelie to kéepe the law sound, and for the example of others: and to kéepe downe the boldnesse of such as dwelt about the borders. With these conditions he left the realme plentifullie furnished with riches, and his owne treasurie not emptie, but abundantly stored with gold, siluer and other furniture: for which cause it should not séeme strange, that his death was greatlie lamented of his subiects, to whom he was a perfect patrone, and a louing father.

Of whome also Buchanan lib. 14 writeth, that his vices did almost equall all his great vertues; but that they were rather to be imputed to the ini|quitie of the time than the inclination of his nat [...]re, EEBO page image 330 for the libertie of althings had then dissolued the pub|like discipline, which could not be staied but by great seueritie of correction. And this made him more co|uetous of monie, bicause that he was kept extreame hard when he was vnder the gouernment of others. Whereby, when he came to bée at libertie, he was a|new to furnish all his courts with houshold stuffe, finding his houses emptie, and all things conueied awaie: for his tutors had consumed the kinglie pa|trimonie vpon those whome he willinglie would not to haue receiued it. Besides, for his excesse of women the fault grew by such as were his tutors, who gaue him libertie therto, supposing therby to keepe him the longer in their danger. The nobilitie did not great|lie take his death grieuouslie, bicause he had fined manie, imprisoned more, and caused no small few (for auoiding his displeasure) to flie into England, and rather to commit themselues to the enimie than to his anger.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 THe eternall God calling to his mercie Iames king of Scotland, the fift of that name, Marie Queene Marie. his onelie daughter and heire began hir reigne ouer the realme of Scotland, the eighteenth day of De|cember, in the yéere of our Lord 1542, Francis the first of that name then reigning in France, & Hen|rie 1542. the eight ouer the Englishmen. She was not pas|sing seuen daies old when hir father departing this life, left vnto hir his kingdome, hir mother lieng in childbed in the castell of Lithquo, of which place the lord Leuingston being capteine, had the charge com|mitted The lord Le|uingston. to him, both of the daughter & mother, with the mothers good agreement and frée consent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, immediatlie after the kings death (bi|cause he deceassed without making anie will, or ta|king anie direction for the gouernement either of the realme, or custodie of the yoong queene his daugh|ter) Dauid Beton, cardinall and archbishop of S. Dauid Beton cardinall. Andrews, the speciall minister & factor of the French causes, to the aduancement and continuance there|of, inuented and forged [by Henrie Balfure] a will and testament of the late king now departed, in His forging of a will. which (amongst other things) he established himselfe chiefe regent, adioining with him the earles of Mur|rey, base brother to the king deceassed, Huntleie and Argile, not once mentioning the earle of Lennox then absent in France, nor yet Iames Hamilton earle of Arrane his cousine, being there present in Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Those that professed the reformed religion, beeing then called protestants, to whome the said cardinall The prote|stants espied the cardinals craftie iug|ling. was euer a cruell enimie and sharpe scourge, espied foorth his vniust dealing in this behalfe, and trusting by the gentle nature and good inclination of the said earle of Arrane, to haue some libertie to imbrace the gospell, set him against the cardinall: so that by the helpe of his owne and their friends, he remooued the cardinall and his adherents from the vsurped roome and authoritie, and therewith was the said earle of Arrane proclamed gouernor and protector of the 1543 Lesle. Fr. Thin. realme. [And therevpon shewing his authoritie, he entereth the kings palaces, as saith Lesleus lib. 10. pa. 464. and vseth the kings treasure, and calleth the officers of the treasurie to account, whereof he retei|neth some, and changeth others at his pleasure.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This earle of Arrane made a title to haue and inioie that office and roome, as next in bloud to the yong queene, as descended from a sister of K. Iames the third, maried to his grandfather lord Hamilton, in the yere 1475, by reason of which mariage he was created earle of Arrane, as by act of parlement hol|den the same yeere at Edenburgh, it was agréed and ordeined. The king of England that noble prince Henrie the eight, aduertised of the death of the king of Scots, considered with good aduise, that now there was offered a most readie meane and iust occasion, whereby the two realmes of England and Scotland might be brought into one entier monar|chie, without warre or bloudshed, by the mariage of his sonne prince Edward, being then little past six yéeres of age, with the yoong quéene of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He therefore being resolued fullie to bring the The king of England tal keth with the lords of Scot|land prisoners for a mariage betwixt his son and their quéene. same to passe, either by quiet meanes or by force, and sending for the erles of Cassiles, and Glencarne, the lords Maxwell, and Fleming, and other prisoners that had bene taken at Soloway mosse, caused them to be conueied vnto Hampton court, where the se|uen and twentith of December they being right curteouslie interteined, he made vnto them an ouer|ture of his purpose and whole intent, proponing the whole matter vnto them, requesting them for their parts, to helpe (with their consents) that a con|tract of mariage might be made betwéene his sonne the prince, and their yoong queene; promising to them libertie without ransome, besides other pleasures and benefits, if they would doo their indeuor to per|suade the gouernor, and other the nobilitie of Scot|land to be agréeable herevnto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Scotish earles and lords accepted the kings 1543. Buch. offer, and withall promised to doo their diligence to persuade the rest of the nobilitie in Scotland at their comming home: wherevpon they were licenced to depart, and so comming to Newcastell, remained Duke of Norffolke Buchanan. there with the duke of Suffolke, then the kings lieu|tenant of the north parts, till he had receiued foorth of Scotland certeine pledges of the chiefest of these lords, for performance of their promises. Likewise the king of England sent with them the earle of An|gus, The earle of Angus sent home into Scotland. and his brother sir George Dowglas with his letters to the gouernor, requesting effectuouslie, that they might be restored to their roomes, lands and pos|sessions in that realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 These lords arriuing at Edenburgh, about the 1543. Lesle. 1542. midst of Ianuarie, declared to the gouernor their message and proposition made by the king of Eng|land, with such efficacie, that the gouernor being per|suaded thereto by their words, sent for the lords and A conuention of the Scotish nobilitie. nobilitie of the realme to come to Edenburgh, to a conuention there, to be holden the seuen and twen|tith of that present moneth: where they concluded that a parlement should be kept in March next insu|ing. And doubting lest the cardinall (being there pre|sent) should go about to persuade the nobilitie not to consent to their desires, they caused him to be put The cardinall committed to ward. in ward within the castell of Dalketh: the lord Seton béeing appointed to haue the custodie of him. About the same time, sir Robert Bowes, and all other the Englishmen that were prisoners, and had béene taken at Halding rig on saint Bartholo|mews Halding rig. day (as before ye haue heard) were sent home by the gouernor into England, and sir Rafe Sadler Sir Rafe Sadler. was sent ambassadour from king Henrie vnto the said gouernor, and other the lords of Scotland, and came thither before the said parlement, to persuade the lords to agree vnto the king his masters moni|tions, trauelling so diligentlie in the matters wher|about he was thus sent, that it was concluded by Ambassadors sent into England. act of parlement, to send ambassadors into Eng|land, for the better satisfaction of king Henries desires.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And so the earle of Glencarne, sir George Dow|glas, sir William Hamilton, sir Iames Leirmouth, and the secretarie being named and appointed there|to, departed in the moneth of March, and comming into England vnto the king, remained there till the latter end of Iulie. In which meane time, such coue|nants, contracts, and promises were had and conclu|ded, passed and sealed interchangeablie, as stood with the pleasure and good liking of king Henrie, so as the EEBO page image 331 mariage was fullie contracted, and a peace conclu|ded The mariage confirmed. for ten yeeres, by authoritie of the aforesaid par|lement. Héerewith also the lord gouernor shewed himselfe to imbrace the reformed religion, causing one frier Guilliam to preach against images, and fruitlesse ceremonies, and gaue libertie that the bible called The new and old testament, should be had in English, & vniuersallie publisht through the realme of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Also he commanded not onelie the cardinall (as before ye haue heard) but also ordeined that the quéene mother should remaine in Lithgow with the yoong quéene hir daughter, vnder some manner of safe custodie, and the cardinall to be remooued vnto his owne castell of saint Andrewes, with warders a|bout him to see him safelie kept. Fr. Thin. Iesleus. lib. 10. pag. 465. Not long after, the cardinall was restored to vnhoped libertie, and the earle of Angus, George Dowglasse, and the lord Glames, the heire of Iames Hamilton, with manie others, by the consent of the thrée estates, were who|lie restored to all their goods, and deliuered from the sentence of banishment.

Iohn Hamilton abbat of Passelew, brother of the gouernor, returning out of France (where he had im|ploied himselfe to studie) did (with certeine learned men, as Dauid Paniter, and others, whom he had in his companie) visit the king of England, of whome they were most courteouslie interteined. After which this Hamilton returning into Scotland, was made treasuror of the kingdome, which office he discharged with great commendation, so long as his brother kept the gouernement, whom he did not onelie helpe in counsell for ordering of the kingdome, but also shewed him selfe a valiant and industrious man in the warres against the English, for defense of the kingdome of Scotland. About this time, the earle Bothwell, which was banished, and had remained long at Uenice, did returne into Scotland, whither he was honorablie welcommed, as a person much desired of his friends and kinred.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The realme being thus brought in quief, and vnder good gouernement, the French king sore misliking The French king misliketh of the match with Eng|land. Matthew earle of Len|nox. this new coniunction of the Scots with England, and doubting least the old former bond of aliance be|twixt France and Scotland might thereby be vtter|lie dissolued and shaken off, he sent for Matthew Steward earle of Lennox, then abroad in his seruice in the wars of Italie, and vpon his comming backe from thence to the court, he declared to him the de|ceasse of the late king of Scots, the intrusion of Ar|rane, and the attempts in that realme begun, with all the circumstances from point to point as he knew; and further discoursed with him what wrong he had to be set aside, and displaced from his right of gouernement; and therefore exhorted him to repaire home to recouer the same, offering not onelie to as|sist him with men, monie, and munition, but also to ioine his friends in Scotland with him in aid to at|taine the place of regiment, and to remooue Arrane and others from it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Lennox héerevpon with commission and instructions deliuered to him by the French king, had also letters from him directed to the lords that were of the French faction, wherin the said king requested them to remaine and continue in their for|mer good meanings towards him, and to assist the earle of Lennox in all things, as should be thought expedient. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 15. Now, before the earle of Lennox retur|ned out of France, the cardinall had vsed manie persuasions against the English, as well that the Scots set at libertie by the king, should breake their faith with him, as also to draw them to the French faction, and rather to suffer their pledges to receiue what king Henrie would vse vnto them, than by kée|ping promise to the English, to conueie the yoong quéene vnto them.

Wherevpon, when the greater part of those no|bles (whome the matter touched, could easilie find a|nie color for the excuse of their fault) had consen|ted to the cardinals persuasion, onelie one amongest the rest would not yéeld thereto, which was Gilbert Kennedie earle of Cassiles, who could not be draw|en from that constancie (in obseruing his faith) ei|ther by bribes, flatteries, or threats. For he (hauing two brothers pledges for him in England) did open|lie protest, that he would returne to prison, and by no feare laid before him commit such a fault, as that he would redéeme his life with the bloud of his two bro|thers: for which cause he went foorthwith to London, although euerie man spake against it. Wherevpon, the king of England did singularlie commend the constancie of the yoong man, and further (to the end that his vertue might be knowne to all men) did set him at libertie with his two brethren, and sent him home honorablie rewarded.

Now the realme of Scotland being thus in great vprores by means of the quéenes and cardinals fac|tions, whereof the laft drew all (such as he could) to support the French league, they sent ambassadors in|to France, to request the French king to send home Matthew Steward earle of Lennox, as one that was not onelie emulous against Hamilton, but also his deadlie enimie for the slaughter of his father at Limnucho: which yoong Steward (beside his beau|tie and comelinesse of bodie, in the verie flower of his youth; the memorie, carefulnesse, and dangers of his father, a verie popular man, and beloued of the people; the woorthinesse of that familie brought al|most to an end, and that the same was of great pow|er, and linked in mariage with manie nobles) did win and draw the minds of manie men, desirous to helpe him, for the great fauor they bare vnto him.

To the which further procurement of the peoples loue also, there might be ioined, that he was next heire to the crowne by the kings appointment, if he died without issue male; the which king Iames, if he had liued, would haue established by parlement: be|sides which likewise, there wanted not flatterers, which did not onelie [...]re vp his noble mind (now gaping after great things, and vndefended against deceits) to the hope of gouerning of the kingdome for these one and twentie yéeres and more, during the quéenes minoritie, and to the rule and power o|uer his enimies, whereby he might vse reuenge vpon them: but also they promised him to marrie the quéene Dowager: and in the meane time (if anie thing happened otherwise than well to the yoong quéene) that he should obteine the crowne, whereby he should both be king, and the next lawfull heire of Iames Hamilton latelie deceassed, since the gouer|nor was a bastard, and could not onelie by law not looke or hope for the kingdome, but also not so much as hope to be heire to his owne familie. To all which were added the persuasions of the French before mentioned. Wherevpon, the yoong man (whose mind was credulous, being tickled and intised with these hopes) determined to go into Scotland.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle therefore fullie instructed by the French The earle of Lennox pas|seth into Scotland. king, how to deale and procéed, tooke his leaue, and with all spéed taking the sea, directed his course into Scotland, where (after his arriuall) he came to Eden|burgh, in which towne all the lords being assembled togither with the gouernor, he declared to them the effect of his commission from the French king, his request to them, & good affection to mainteine them against England, if in case they would continue the old league with him, and not séeke to make anie new aliance with the king of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 332 But perceiuing that the gouernor and his friends were minded to satisfie the king of Englands de|sires, he would not tarrie for a resolute answer, but by the counsell of the earle of Argile, William earle of Glencarne, and others of the French faction, he suddenlie departed foorth of Edenburgh toward the west countrie, highlie displeased (as should séeme) with the gouernor, and taking Lithgow in his way, he conferred with the quéene Dowager (as they ter|med The earle of Lennox con|ferreth with the quéene Dowager. hir) deuising how to assemble the noble men of the French side, to bring hir and hir daughter to li|bertie, out of the danger of the lord gouernor: be|cause it was supposed that he ment to conueie hir in|to England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the same time, through practise of the abbat of Pas [...]eie, brother to the gouernor, and others, the 1543. Lesle. The castell of Edenburgh recouered to the gouernors vse. castell of Edenburgh was got out of the hands of sir Peter Creichton, and the keeping thereof commit|ted by the gouernors appointment vnto Iames Ha|milton lard of Stanehouse. But the erle of Lennox, with the assistance of the earles of Huntleie, Mont|rosse, Mentife, Argile, and others of the French fac|tion in August following, conueied the yoong quéene The yoong quéene conuei|ed to Striue|ling. with hir mother from Lithgew vnto Striueling. The cardinall also was there with them latelie be|fore, hauing corrupted his kéepers, & gotten abroad at libertie. Héerewith was a day appointed and pro|clamed for the coronation of the yoong quéene. The earle of Arrane then gouernor, with the earles of Angus, Cassiles, the lords Maxwell, Someruile, and diuerse others, called the English lords, remaining still at Edenburgh, aduertised the king of England of all the drifts of Lennox, and other of that faction, requiring his aduise and counsell how to deale for disappointing of their purposes, that sought to conti|nue the amitie still with France, to the preiudice of peace with England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king of England aduertised héereof, as well thus from the gouernor, and other the Scotish lords, as also from sir Rafe Sadler, his maiesties ambas|sador there, doubted greatlie least these lords, in The king of Englands doubt. whose hands the quéene then was, in respect of the fa|uour which they bare to the French king, should con|ueie hir ouer into France: wherevpon he requested the gouernor, and the other lords that fauoured his side, so to deale, that she might be sent into England, there to remaine, till the mariage might be consum|mate betwixt hir and his sonne prince Edward: ha|uing in the meane time such lords of hir countrie a|bout hir to attend vpon hir, and to see to hir bringing vp, as should be thought expedient. To conclude, his maiestie not onelie sent his princelie comfort by waie of counsell and good aduise, but also according to their desire, and as by the duke of Suffolke (his highnes lieutenant thén in the north) it was thought expedient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thomas lord Wharton, with two thousand men from the west marches, and the lord Euers with o|ther The lord Wharton. The lord E|uers. two thousand from the east borders, were ap|pointed to enter Scotland, and to ioine themselues with the gouernor, and his friends, to assist them a|gainst their aduersaries. But as they were in a rea|dinesse to march, through the secret labor of the car|dinall, wishing the aduancement of the earle of Ar|rane his kinsman (whome he thought he should well inough frame to be at his appointment) rather than Lennox that was knowne to be of a greater sto|mach, the matter was so handled, what by the cardi|nall and the earle of Huntleie of the one part, and the queene Dowager on the other, that the earle of Ar|rane reuolting from the king of England, came in to the Dowager, and ioined himselfe with the cardi|nall, and other the lords of the French faction: by The earle of Arrane a faith breaker. reason whereof, they all concluded to mainteine him in the estate of lord gouernor, and not to place Len|nox, as their purpose was to haue doone, if Arrane had continued faithfull to the king of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, the yoong queene was crowned at The corona|tion of quéene Marie. Striueling, the cardinall taking vpon him to order things as he thought good, appointing the gouernor to beare the crowne as chiefe person, & next in bloud to the quéene, and the earle of Lennox to beare the scepter. After the coronation, a parlement was cal|led A parlement. and holden at Edenburgh, at the which, in pre|sence of the patriarch of Apuleia the popes agent, The patri|arch of Apu|leia. and of the French kings ambassadors, monsieur la Brosse, and monsieur Menage, latelie before come into the realme, the earle of Arrane was newlie confirmed gouernor. And for the sure preseruation (as they pretended) of the yoong queene, it was a|greed by the gouernor and the estates, that the shuld Order for the custodie of the quéene. remaine with the old quéene hir mother in Sterling castell, during hir minoritie, and certeine rents of that seigniorie were assigned for maintenance of such traine as was thought expedient to be atten|dant about hir: and further, the lords Leuingston, Erskin, and Fleming [or (as saith Buchanan) the Fr. Thin. lord Grams, Iohn Areskin, Iohn Lindseie, & Wil|liam Leuiston] were appointed to abide continual|lie with hir, for the better safegard of hir person.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus was euerie thing ordered as séemed to stand with the pleasure of the cardinall. Wherevpon the earle of Lennox, perceiuing how vncourteouslie he The earle of Lennox his displeasure. was vsed, to haue his aduersarie thus confirmed in authoritie by the French side, and himselfe reiected, he first sent to the French king, informing him tho|roughlie of the iniuries to him doone, putting him in remembrance of the promises made to him when he departed from him; also the constantnesse of his ser|uice, the hazard he had put himselfe in for his sake: and notwithstanding how he was yet vnkindlie dealt with, that through trust of his promised aid and assistance, he was brought out of credit in his coun|trie, and subiected vnder the commandement and authoritie of his enimie, and wrongfullie disappoin|ted of his right, which he looked to haue recouered, and to haue béene mainteined therein by his support.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In consideration whereof, he renounced his ser|uice, willing him from thencefoorth not to looke for the He renoun|ceth his ser|uice to the French king. same anie more at his hands. Héerewith Lennox ioining himselfe with the earles of Angus, Cassiles, and Glencarne, the lords Maxwell, and Someruile, the shiriffe of Aire, the lard of Drumlanrig, and o|ther of that side, called the English lords, set himselfe against the gouernor, the cardinall, and others of that faction, so that the residue of this yeere was spent in ciuill dissention betwéene them. And héere is to be Ciuill dissen|tion in Scot|land. noted, that a little before that the earle of Arrane re|uolted to the French part, there was arriued in the mouth of the riuer of Cloide on the west coast, fiue French ships arriuing in the riuer of Cloide. ships, which the French king had sent to the aid of his friends in Scotland, vnder the conduction of Iames Steward of Cardonold, and of the forenamed mon|sieur de la Brosse, & monsieur Menage, the French kings ambassadors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There came with them also the patriarch of Apu|leia, of whome ye haue likewise heard before. They had brought aboord in these ships fiftie thousand crownes, and munition to the value of ten thousand crownes. The earle of Lennox therfore, when he first resolued to turne to the English part, with the aduise of his confederats, seized vpon those ships, got the fif|tie The earle of Lennox seized vpon the French ships. thousand crownes, and the most part of the mu|nition into his hands, and brought it to the castell of Dunbreton, reteining it to his owne vse, where it was sent to haue beene imploid to the maintenance of the French faction, against the king of England, and the lords that leaned to his side.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 EEBO page image 333 The earle of Lennox therefore, raising a power of The earle of Lennox rai|seth an armie. men of warre with the assistance of the lords of his faction, came with them vnto Leith against the go|uernor that was then in Edenburgh: but through the diligent trauell of the cardinall, the earles of Huntleie, Murrey, and Argile, the matter was ta|ken vp, and an appointment accorded: so that sir In appoint|ment taken. Pledges deli|uered. George Dowglasse was deliuered as a pledge for his brother the earle of Angus, the maister of Glen|carne for his father the earle of Glencarne, the ab|bat Cassaghole for his brother the earle of Cassiles, to remaine in safe kéeping where it pleased the go|uernor to appoint. The earle of Lennox came vnto Edenburgh to the gouernor, but within six daies af|ter, The earle of Lennox com|meth to the gouernor. He departed from him a|gaine. He fortifieth Glascow. they went both to Lithquho, from whence the earle of Lennox secretlie departed from the gouer|nor without bidding him farewell, and comming to Glascow, fortified the castell.

* When the gouernor had receiued true intelli|gence that the earle had taken Glascow, he (assem|bling such power as he could make, as well of his friends and followers, as of others, especiallie of the lord Boid) went vnto Glascow, in which place the earle of Glencarne had before placed his armie, to the end there to trie the matter with his enimies. But before the battell, the earle of Lennox had with|drawen himselfe vnto Dunbreton, to gather a grea|ter assemblie, shortlie after to returne to Glascow. The earle of Glencarne, with Tilbarne, Houstone, Buchanan, Macfarlane, Drumquhassile, and other barons and nobles of the Lennox, Ramfrie, and o|ther places adioining, with the citizens, ecclesiasticall persons of all orders, and the other sort of common people, departed out of the towne to the plaine there|of (being a mile from the towne) there to trie the e|uent of battell (before the comming of the earle of Lennox) more in haste than good spéed. Wherevpon the gouernor (perceiuing himselfe to be drawne for|ward to battell) commanded the trumpets to sound to the alarmes. Wherevpon the battels ioined, the hosts began to fight violentlie, and the conflict grew to be extreme on both parts: in which (with great slaughter) they long time fought with vncerteine vi|ctorie.

But in the end (what with the force of his armie, and the incouragement of the capteine) the full con|quest fell to the gouernor, who put his enimies to flight. At what time, of the fauourers of the Lennox there were manie slaine, partlie of the nobles (as the sonne of the earle of Glencarne, and Monniepennie capteine of the footmen) and partlie of the common sort (as the citizens of Glascow, and manie ecclesi|asticall persons.) Besides all which, there had manie more perished, if the gouernor (through his naturall clemencie) had not (when the victorie began to leane towards him) giuen a signe of retreit, & with much spéed saued manie of them. On the gouernors part were few missing, except Cambusketh (the head of that familie) and the baron of Argentine. The go|uernor pursuing this victorie, entered the towne of Glascow, where he vsed (by the persuasion of the lord Boid) woonderfull fauour towards the citizens, (farre beyond their deserts) although that he depri|ued some (of the chiefest condition amongest them) from all the vse and benefit of their goods.

The earle of Lennox remaining at Dunbar, re|ceiued into the castell the earle of Glencarne, and o|thers, which had escaped the battell, who sometime af|ter did rest (being feared with the ouerthrow) from a|nie further turmoiles or troubles. But in the end, they which fauoured the Lennox, doo afresh stirre him to take weapon against the gouernor: wherevpon he dooth restrengthen the towne and stéeple of Glas|cow, determining to gather a new supplie, and once more to cast the dice of war. But the gouernor (min|ding to preuent all his indeuors by wise counsell) did (being accompanied with the cardinall) call to him about Glascow, all the nobilitie of the south parts, and (bringing foorth the hired souldiors) commanded the great péeces to be planted against the enimie. Wherevpon (entering the towne) he besieged the castell and steeple of the church (in which place were both Scots and Frenchmen) and in the end (after a slaughter of some of them) inforced the other to yéeld their forts. After that the castell was thus come into the gouernors hands, he hanged eighteene of the chiefest and best loued vnto Lennox, and permitted the rest to depart at libertie. The earle of Lennox (vnderstanding that his affaires began to wauer, and to obteine such euill successe) dooth send the earle of Angus and the lord Maxwell to the gouernor, to in|treat of peace betwéene him and the earle of Len|nox, the which they laboured with great diligence, ac|cording to the trust reposed in them.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But the gouernor caused them both to be secretlie The earle of Angus and the lord Max|well commit|ted to ward. conueied from the councell by the backeside of the blacke friers of Glascow, vnto the castell of Hamil|ton, and from thence the earle was sent to Blacke|nesse. The lord Maxwell was kept still in hold at Hamilton, and George Dowglas, and the maister of Glencarne in Edenburgh castell. These persons thus imprisoned stood in great doubt of their liues (as some supposed:) but as diuerse other did suspect, Mens opini|ons for the imprisoning of the earle of Angus. 1544. The earle of Lennox sen|deth to the king of Eng|land. they were rather committed for a colour, than for a|nie euill that was meant towards them. Howsoe|uer it was with them, the earle of Lennox by the aduise of his friends sent the earle of Glencarne, and a gentleman called Thomas Bishop, vnto the king of England with offer of his seruice, and re|quest to haue in mariage the ladie Margaret Dow|glasse daughter to the Earle of Angus, and néece to the said king.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 470. Herevnto the king granted. For the perfor|mance whereof (and the dispatch of other things) he sent the lord Wharton and diuerse others. And on the earles part, the bishop of Cathnes his brother and the earle of Glencarne were appointed, who met at Carleill to performe the agreement. The quéene, the cardinall, and the other of the French faction, did helpe the gouernor all they might, with counsell, power, and monie; because they perceiued that he repented such friendship with England as he had taken in hand by the counsell of Angus and of others. In the meane time there was a parlement assembled at Striueling, in which by common con|sent, the earle of Lennox was condemned of trea|son; wherefore the sentence of banishment was exe|cuted against him, and all his goods with his patri|monie were confiscat to the quéene. Whilest the French king was ascerteined that Lennox had for|saken his faction, & committed himselfe to the king of England, he suddenlie committed to prison Iohn Steward lord of Aubigne baron in France, brother to the earle of Lennox, and depriued the said Iohn Steward of all such honors and offices as he posses|sed in France. For he was generall capteine of all the Scotish lands in France, being either such as had gard of the kings bodie, or bowmen, or men at armes: for the king of France hath Scots in wa|ges of all the orders.

But let vs now returne to the Patriarch, who was honorablie receiued by the cardinall and the bishop of Scotland into the citie of Glascow: during whose abode there, great contention arose betwéene the cardinall and the archbishop of Glascow, who should in that citie be of greatest authoritie and honor. Which in th' end came to this issue, that both families fell togither by the eares, which of them should go be|fore EEBO page image 334 with his crosse borne vpright. For the cardinall archbishop of saint Andrews and primat of the king|dome, did affirme that the archbishop of Glascow should not haue his crosse borne in his owne church, so long as the cardinall was present. Which the ser|uants of the archbishop of Glascow tooke in such dis|daine, that they plucked downe the cardinals crosse and threw it to the ground. Wherevpon, the gouer|nor (vnderstanding the whole matter, and that it was now come from words to swords) made hast to appease this factious commotion, & caused the Patri|arch therwith to be brought to Edenburgh accompa|nied with the clergie, where he remained all the win|ter following. In which towne he was honorablie enterteined and feasted of the quéene, the gouernor, and other of the nobles, whome he requited with the like courtesie.

Amongest these of the nobilitie, the earle of Mur|rey had the Patriarch on a day to a banket, in which this Murrey did shew an honorable thing not accu|stomed amongest others. For where he abounded in store of siluer vessels, yet he commanded his ser|uants to furnish a great cupboord with christall glas|ses brought from Uenice, & that in the midst of din|ner he should ouerturne the cupboord as it were vn|willinglie. Which the seruant at the time appointed did performe. The noise of breaking of which glasses did suddenlie fill the eares of all the companie: and the Patriarch seeing the hurt, was somewhat moo|ued. But the earle making no account of this thing, commanded his man afresh to furnish the same cupboord with as manie and fairer vessels of glasse than the former were, to the Patriarchs great ad|miration. For the Patriarch affirmed that the glas|ses of Muranoe and Uenice did not anie way excell these. Truelie this earle of Murrey was honora|ble, wise, iust, and famous amongest manie prin|ces for his manifold vertues, & manie ambassages most happilie performed amongest them. Who shortlie after this, departing the court, died of the stone at his castle in Turnwaie.

This Patriarch shewed to the gouernor (besides other priuileges that he had from the sée of Rome) his great authoritie, in that he was legat from the popes side, amongest the Scots, as long as he re|mained there. Which office, when he departed to Rome, he procured to be transferred to the cardinall; at what time the Patriarch also in the name of the pope, did promise much helpe, and monie to be sent to Scotland against England. For he studied by all means he could, to hinder the mariage of those two kingdoms: because he suspected thereby, that some alteration might be made in Scotland touching the religion; with the ouerthrow of churches and mona|steries. Now, after that the Patriarch had remai|ned all the winter in Scotland, he departed from thence in March, who as he was honorablie enter|teined in all places, so he spared not to recount to the French king and other princes (whome he visited in his iourneie) the humanitie he found in Scotland, which he also imparted to the bishop of Rome, to the other cardinals, & to the senat of Uenice; not with|out singular praise and honor to the Scotish nation.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They that were sent, so solicited the earles cause, that in the end the king was persuaded that Len|nor ought of right to haue the gouernement of the realme of Scotland, and to be second person in the fame. And herewith, in consideration how vniustlie not onelie his maiestie had béene dealt with, but also how vnthankefullie and discourteouslie Lennox had béene vsed, both at the hands of the French king, and also of his adherents in Scotland, by the cardi|nall & others: he both thankefullie receiued his gen|tle offer of seruice, & also promised to aid him in his title and all other lawfull causes: and herewith pre|pared The king of England meaneth to aid the earle of Lennox. an armie to passe into Scotland by sea, ap|pointing the earle of Hertford, and the lord Lisle to haue the conduction of the same, who shipping at Tinmouth with their people, arriued in the Forth vnder Werdie castell, a mile & a halfe aboue Leith the third of Maie, the whole nauie conteining aboue The English armie landeth by Leith. the number of two hundred ships. Here at New|hauen, a quarter of a mile from the said castell, they landed their armie of ten thousand men of warre, with great artillerie, and all kind of munition.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lord gouernor being at that present within the towne of Edenburgh, hearing of their arriuall, went foorth of the towne accompanied with the car|dinall, the earles of Huntleie, Argile, Bothwell, and others, purposing to stop their landing: but per|ceiuing the puissance of the aduersaries to be such, as they could not resist the same, they returned to Edenburgh againe, and sent maister Adam Otten|borne The prou [...] of Edenburgh sent to the earle of Hert|ford. prouost of Edenburgh, and two of the bailiffs to the earle of Hertford, to vnderstand the cause of his comming; and withall offered, that if there were anie iniuries or wrongs doone by anie of the Scots nation, he would appoint commissioners to talke with such as by him should be authorised thereto, for the full answering thereof, & to that effect he would gladlie receiue them into the towne of Edenburgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Hertford answered that he had no The earles answer. commission to talke of anie such matter; but rather to take reuenge of the vniust dealing and breach of promise on those that had falsified their faith. And therefore minding to burne the towne of Eden|burgh, as well as other within that realme, he wil|led the inhabitants and all all those that were with|in the same to come foorth, and submit themselues before him the kings lieutenant, to stand vnto the kings will and pleasure, or else he would not faile to procéed in execution thereof. The prouost answe|red that he would rather abide all extremities, than accomplish his request and desire in that behalfe; and therevpon returned to the towne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After the gouernor had heard what answer was made to the prouost, he caused the castell to be furni|shed with all things necessarie for defense, and de|parted straightwaies to Striueling. The English armie lodging that night in Leith, marched the next day toward Edenburgh, passing vp the Cannogat stréet to enter at the nether bow, where they found some resistance made by the Scots, so that diuerse were slaine on both parts. Towards night, the Eng|lishmen, after they had continued long in skirmi|shing that day with the Scotishmen, retired to Leith. The next day the whole armie with the great artillerie came forward towards the towne, and breaking open the Cannogat, they entred the towne Edenburgh entred by force. by the same, bringing their ordinance within sight of the castell, purposing to plant the same in batte|rie against it; but the capteine of the castell caused the artillerie within to shoot off at them in so great abundance, & so good measure, that they slue diuerse Englishmen, and dismounted one of their péeces, so Sée more hereof in Eng land. that in the end they were constreined to draw backe their ordinance & retired; but yet in the meane time they set fire on the towne, and burnt the most part of all the houses in the same. They burnt also the Can|nogat Edenburgh burnt. street, and the abbeie of Holie rood house. The gouernor at that present released out of prison the earle of Angus, the lord Maxwell, the maister of Glencarne, sir George Dowglas, and others. Prisoners set at libertie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane time also there came from the borders by land foure thousand of English horsse|men, vnder the conduction of the lord William E|uers, and his sonne sir Rafe Euers; who ioining with the armie at Leith, scowred the countrie on euerie EEBO page image 335 side of Edenburgh. Finallie, after the English armie had lien in Leith a certeine space, they burnt that towne also, and sent their ships awaie fraught with pillage and spoiles (got as well in that towne, as in Edenburgh, and abroad in the countrie) backe towards England. And therwith the earle of Hertford, the lord admerall, and others, returned by land through the countrie vnto Berwike, as in the English historie more at large appeareth. Whilest the English armie was thus occupied in that part of Scotland, the erle of Lennox with an armie of men which he had raised, was readie to come on the backs of the gouernor and his adherents, if they had assembled their forces and come forward to haue giuen the Englishmen battell. For all this season the ciuill contentions still continued, and sundrie conflicts and skirmishes chanced betwixt the parties.

The Scots which inhabit the mountains, and the Iles, did now in these turmoiles begin to shew some tokens of their inconstancie. For they (which paied yeerelie tribute in the time of Iames the fift, kept the peace, liued within the bounds of law, and well obeied the gouernor) did now (after they saw all things on a flame) begin againe to spoile and destroie their neighbors, in the same vttering the humor of their naturall disposition. Wherevpon the gouernor (to restreine their boldness) called vnto him George Gordon earle of Huntleie, and the earle of Argile, whereof he made the one gouernor of the north parts of Scotland, of the Orchades, and Shitland; and to the other, he committed the rule of Argile, and the Iles Hebrides. Wherevpon Huntleie with all speed gathered an armie from the north parts, and determined to bridle the Glancamerons, the Gencronelles, the Mudiardes, & the Kindiardes, with force and authoritie. The capteins or heads of which families, were Ewin Allanson, Ronald Mackoneilglas, and Iohn Mudiard, who did possesse the lands of the lords Grant, and Louet, hauing expelled them by force from the same.

But when they first vnderstood that Huntleie had incamped neere vnto them, they fled euerie one home to their owne possessions: which being defended partly by the west sea, and partly included about with the mounteins, stopped Huntleie, so that hee might not haue anie passage vnto them: by meanes whereof (these dissessors being banished) the lords Grant and Louet were restored to their right inheritance. But it fell out contrarilie for Louet, who going to take his owne into his hands, fell into danger of his enimies. For at that time both the companies were disposed into such order, that neither partie could absteine from fight. Wherevpon they first discharge their bodies one against another, and their arrowes spent, they after flie to their swords, with which they fought so egerlie, that the night cutting off the battell, it could not be well knowne to which part of the victorie gaue place. In which there was so great slaughter on both parts, that till the next morning in viewing the dead bodies, the victors were not knowne. Amongest whome of the part of the Glencamerons and Mudiardes there were many slaine.

But by reason of the death of the lord Louet, and of his sonne and heire (a youth of singular hope, and brought vp on France) with three hundred of the bloud and surname of the Fraisers, for Louet was the head and leader of that familie) the hurt seemed to be the greater on their part. For there was a rumor spred, that there was not one of the familie of the Fraisers left aliue that was of mans state. But it happened by the singular benefit of God, that they left their wiues with child when they went to the fight, by which meanes the familie was after raised and restored. Huntleie (greatlie grieuing that the Fraisers had receiued this grieuous wound) gathered a power togither, and with armes so pursued those factious people, that he tooke and beheaded Ewin Allanson, and Ronald, with diuerse others, and put the rest in prison. The earle of Argile discharged the office committed to him as well as Huntleie did and with more happie successe, for all the Iland men humblie submitted themselues vnto him, and deliuered pledges to liue quietlie hereafter.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About this time the earle of Lennox, accompanied with Alexander the maister of Glencarne, otherwise called lord of Kilmawse, Walter Graham brother to the earle of Montrosse, sir Iohn Borthwike knight, and sundrie other gentlemen, tooke the sea to passe into England, and arriued at Westchester about Midsummer: & passing from thence to the court, he was ioifullie receiued. And immediatlie therevpon was the mariage celebrated betwixt him and the ladie Margaret Dowglas, daughter & heire to the earle of Angus, and to Margaret his wife queene of Scots, sister to king Henrie the eight, at what time there was assured to him by way of inheritance, lands to the value of seuen hundred marks of yeerlie rent of assise, in consideration of this mariage with the kings neece, and in recompense of lands lost by him in France, to the which he was inheritor after the deceasse of Robert Steward lord Obenie, one of the foure marshals of France.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, king Henrie being now vpon his iournie towards Bullongne, aswell for the anoiance of his highnesse enimies in Scotland, as for recouerie of all the said earles right in that realme, appointed the said earle to enter Scotland in the moneth of August, accompanied with sir Rise Mansfield, sir Peter Newtas knights, maister Thomas Audleie, master Thomas Brookes, old maister Winter comptrollor of the kings ships, and his sonne sir William Winter that now is, and sundrie other capteins, hauing vnder their charge two hundred hackbutters, two hundred archers with long bowes, and two hundred armed pikes, beside the mariners belonging to those ships that were appointed to go foorth on this iournie, being in number about twelue or fourteene saile, belonging to Bristow, and other of the west parts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Vpon their arriuall on the coast of Scotland, they burnt the Ile of Arrane, and raced the gouernors castell to the ground. And afterwards arriuing at the Ile of Bute, they entered the same, and tooke the castell of Roseie standing therein (from whence the Stewards kings of Scotland had their originall) the capteine they had awaie prisoner with them into England. Here also they tooke two French ships laden with wines, and this doone they entered the Firth of Clide, thinking to find none but their friends in the castell of Dunbreton. But true it is, that in this meane time the earle of Glencarne with sundrie gentlemen being left in that castell, with the capteine thereof called Houson, to keepe it in the name and to the behoofe of the erle of Lennox, were in his absence persuaded thorough practise of the queene Dowager, not only to renounce their promised faith to him, in defrauding him of that castell; but also to intrap and wind him within their danger to take him prisoner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For this purpose they so dissembled the matter that they had got him on land onelie with three hundred men: and so farre foorth they were growne in talke, that the erle of Lennox being entered into the castell with a few other with him, the monie was laid downe on the boord, to be paid to the capteine for his satisfaction. But in the meane time, the earle of Lennox, & such as were with him, perceiuing some treasonable EEBO page image 336 treasonable practise in hand got foorth of the house a|gaine vnto their companie below, leauing the mo|nie behind them, and after made shift to get to their ships, and not before it was high time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For if they had staied that night, they had béene intrapped by George Dowglas, who with foure thousand men was secretlie drawne thitherwards, and entered the towne of Dunbreton, shortlie after that the earle of Lennox was thus departed, and got to his ships lieng there at hand in the riuer of Clide, downe the which he retired to the sea, not without danger to haue lost the same ships, by reason of the narrownesse of the water: for the erle of Argile be|ing gotten betwixt him and the sea with a great power of men, with banners displaied, hailsed the ships with shot of ordinance from the castell of Din|nune, annoieng the earle of Lennox his passage as much as he could. But he escaping with the Eng|lish gentlemen, and the ships out of danger, tooke ad|uise togither at the Ile of Bute what they were best to doo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle sore mooued to haue béene thus repel|led from Dunbreton, and stomaching the matter sore, to be so discountenanced by his enimie the earle of Argile, with the aduise of the English gentlemen, he returned with them, and with great shew of man|hood tooke land beside the castell and towne of Din|nune, The earle of Lennox lan|deth at Din|nune. where the earle of Argile with seuen hundred men was readie to incounter him, & to kéepe him off from landing: but by the helpe of the shot out of the ships, and great store of botes, the Englishmen lan|ded, slue foure score of the enimies, most part gen|tlemen, and put the residue to flight, with the losse of thrée men onelie on the English side.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This doone, the towne of Dinnune was burnt, and the church spoiled, that was full of goods and orna|ments. When the night approched, by reason the Eng|lishmen The towne of Dinnune burnt. had no powder, nor other prouision on land, the earle with his people returned to shipboord in safetie, howbeit not without offer of skirmish made by the enimies though to their losse, namelie of those that aduanced themselues most forward. About foure or fiue daies after, the earle of Lennox with The earle of Lennox lan|deth againe in Argile. fiue hundred men landed in another part of Argile, and remaining on land a whole day togither, burnt, spoiled, and wasted the countrie: the earle of Argile with two thousand men giuing the looking on, and not once offering the skirmish, so that the earle of Lennox with his souldiers retired to his ships with|out incounter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After this they inuaded the Ile of Kinter, where Kinter inua|ded. Iames Mackonell dwelled, burnt manie places in that countrie, tooke and caried awaie great booties of cattell and other goods. All the coasts of Kile, Car|rike, & Coningham, and likewise of Galloway re|mained in continuall feare, so that oftentimes their beacons were fired, and manie of the noble men constrained to come to the earle of Lennox, suing to him for assurance. In these exploites the earle had with him Walter Macferlane of Tirbat, and Walter Mac|ferlane. seuen score men of the head of Lennox, that spake both Irish, English, & the Scotish toongs, light foot|men, well armed in shirts of male, with bowes, and two handed swords, and being ioined with the Eng|lish archers and shot, did much auailable seruice in the streicts, the marishes, and mountaine coun|tries.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 15. During these things, they which had gouern|ment of Scotish affairs (as the quéene Dowager, the cardinall, and the gouernor) called a councell, in which they decréed that all such of the nobilitie as had force and armor, should be readie to follow the gouernor whither soeuer he went, and there to re|maine with him for the space of eight daies. Short|lie after there assembled eight thousand men, and in the sharpe winter battered the church of Colding|ham, standing in armor a whole day and night to the great toile and wearinesse of the men and horsses. The next day the gouernor, either to accuse his ten|dernesse susteined in the last daies labor of warre, or else fearing the inuasion of the enimie (for he was certified of an armie of men that should come from Berwike) suddenlie (vnknowne to the other nobili|tie) did flie to Dunbar with a few of his owne traine. They which went about to excuse the defame of this flight, reported how he feared that he should haue béene betraied to the English by his host, for hatred which they had conceiued against him for manie of his offenses.

This departure of the gouernor brought great trouble to the armie, & so much the more, bicause the secreter it was (and the reason vnknowne) the more cause it gaue to the rest to feare some further euill. Wherefore the greater part remained in this obsti|nate mind, that euerie one should returne the next way home, and leaue the artillerie at randon. But others (who were more carefull, and would séeme lesse fearefull) doo agrée to stuffe the péeces full of powder, and to breake them, rather than they should fall in the hands & helpe of the enimie. To the which deuise onelie Archembald Dowglas did resist, least he should ad a wicked déed to a wicked flight. Who when he could not staie any man, either by threat, in|treatie, or authoritie, he exclamed with a lowd voice (for euerie one to heare him) that for his owne part he had rather die an honest death, than to haue a se|cure and rich life with such dishonor.

Wherefore you my friends consider what you will doo, for either I will bring awaie this artillerie, or I will not returne home with life; wherefore I meane to make this the last end both of my life and glorie.
When he had spo|ken this, a few (whose honor was deare vnto them) were mooued therewith, but the rest (despairing by reason of the shamefull flight of the gouernor) did scatteringlie depart, wandring whither they thought good, without anie order. The Dowglasse with such companie as he had (placed in good order) followed the artillerie, and brought the same to Dunbar, the horssemen of his enimies in vaine hastening after them behind at their backes. This expedition by the gouernor rashlie begun, and shamefullie performed, brake the hearts of the Scots, and aduanced the minds of the English, who gloriouslie applied the da|stardnesse of the gouernor to their owne glorie.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To conclude, after the earle of Lennox and his companie had atchiued these enterprises afore men|tioned, he returned towards England, and sent sir Peter Mewtas knight, & Thomas Bishop a Sco|tish Sir Peter Mewtas. gentleman, to aduertise the king of England of his procéedings, who found him at the siege of Bul|longne, where they declared to him the whole circum|stance of euerie thing, as the same had passed in the earles iornie, which the king tooke in verie good part. And vpon his returne into England, after the con|quest of Bullongne, the earle of Lennox was also called home to the court by letters to him directed, he being then at Bristow.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the middest of Februarie, sir Rafe Eure 1545. Sir Rafe E|uers inuadeth Scotland. commonlie called Euers, lord warden of the Eng|lish middle marches, entred Scotland with a power of foure thousand Englishmen, Irishmen, and assu|red Scots; and comming first vnto Iedwoorth, lod|ged there that night. And therwithall vnderstanding that the gouernor and the earle of Angus were at the abbeie of Melros, about eight miles distant from thence, the next morning he was got foorth so earlie, that he was almost vpon the enimies in such wise on the sudden, that they fled out of their lodgings, EEBO page image 337 and left their beds and all their houshold furniture which they had in store there with them, not hauing time to conueie it awaie at their departure, their warning was so short. Sir Rafe Euers at his com|ming thither, finding them fled and gone, spoiled the towne and abbeie, vtterlie defacing the toomes and He defaceth the monu|ments of the Dowglasses. monuments of the earles of Dowglas, greatlie to the displeasure of the earle of Angus, and those of his linage.

Fr. Thin. B [...]ch. lib. 15 After this (the comming of the English being looked for the next yéere) the minds of the borderers were greatlie troubled, bicause they were hopelesse to atteine anie succor from the gouernor, which vsed the aduise of the clergie, but chieflie of the cardinall. Wherevpon Archembald Dowglas earle of Angus (greatlie mooued partlie with his priuat losses, for he had great possessions in the marches, and in Tiuiot, and partlie to sée his ancestors monuments defaced) came to the gouernor, and fullie laid before him the greatnesse of the danger wherein the realme did stand, persuading him to incounter and resist the same. At what time also (after the gouernour had opened vnto him, that he was forsaken of the nobilitie, and now left alone) the Dowglas shewed that the same happened vnto him by his owne fault, and not by the nobilitie, which would imploie their liues, liuings, and goods, for the defense of the com|mon-wealth. For he contemning their counsell, on|lie leaned to the spiritualtie, who were cowards in warre, and seditious in peace.

Out of this founteine (saith he) a suspicion (that you dare not trust one another) is growne betwéene you and them, which is the onelie cause why things are no better performed. But if you determine (in great affaires) to take the aduise of them (who will not refuse to spend their bloud therein) I doubt not but that we shall be able to execute as great mat|ters as euer our ancestors did: but if we shall (by our flouth) permit the enimie to take all things from vs, then of necessitie will folow, that either they shall shortlie banish vs, or bring vs into perpetuall ser|uitude: the inconueniences of anie of which cannot well be spoken. As touching our selues I know that thou art suspected to be a coward, and I a traitor, which reproch if thou thinke to purge (for thou canst not auoid it) prepare to cleare the same, not with painted speaches, but with bloudie weapons.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon the gouernor and the said earle (sore aggreeued to be thus foiled at the Englishmens hands) assembled togither [vnder the leading of Fr. Thin. Norman Leste son of the earle of Rothseie] all such forces as they might recouer, so that they had quicklie got them about fifteene hundred men, wher|of eight hundred at the least were gentlemen. Who hearing that the Englishmen were retiring to|wards Iedworth, they met them at a place called Pannier hugh, or Broomehouse, where both the par|ties alighting on foot, ment to trie the quarell by plaine force of hand. But as they were redy to ioine, the assured Scots, to the number of seuen or eight hundred reuolted vnto the part of their countrimen, by reason whereof, after a right sharpe and fierce con|flict, the Englishmen in the end were constreined to flie, whome the Scots right egerlie pursued, slue sir 1544. Lesle. Buchanan. Rafe Euers, the lord Ogle, sir Brian Leiton, and other gentlemen & souldiors to the number of eight Sir Rafe E|uers & others slaine. hundred. They tooke also about two thousand priso|ners, with certeine péeces of artillerie and other munition.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This victorie fell to the Scots the seuentéenth day of Februarie, the report whereof was right displeasant to the English nation, but speciallie the losse of that worthie gentleman sir Rafe Euers was greatlie bemoned, and that euen of the king himselfe, for the noble prowesse and great loialtie which at all times had béene found in him. His ser|uice His seruice against the Scots. had beene such in these wars against Scotland, that he had brought the more part of the Scots with|in twentie miles space of the English borders, vnto the obeisance of the king of England, although at length they holpe to worke his confusion, as before ye haue heard. ¶ Of this gentleman & his singular Abr. Fl. seruice in the field, I omit here to speake, bicause he was imploied otherwise, besides Scotland: where|fore I remit the readers to the twentith yere of king Henrie the eight, where to his high commendation this gentleman is recorded.]

Fr. Thi [...]: Buchan. lib. 10. pag. 478. The occasion of the English ouerthrow (as saith Lesleus) and the Scots victorie, were chieflie by these meanes. First they fought vpon equail ground, and with vnequall helpes. For the Scots with the sunne on their backs (being declined toward setting) came foorth of a narrow & marish place, and set vpon the English (at the side of an hill which was betweene them) hauing the sun in their faces, by which meanes they could neither well perceiue what number the Scots had, nor with their gunnes hurt anie of the Scots. But those that fought in the first battell, wherevnto was ioined (a feare not in vaine) which they had conceiued of the Scotish march-men, who in great number hauing red crosses (the note of the English) ran vp and downe hither and thither to sée the euent thereof.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About the same time that the victorie before men|tioned chanced to the Scots, Robert Corncorse bi|shop of Rosse departed this life, to whome succéeded Death of bi|shops. Dauid Pantane, secretarie to the gouernor and pri|or of saint Marie Ile. In Aprill, William Steward bishop of Aberden likewise deceassed, and maister William Gordon chancellor of Murreie, vncle to George erle of Huntleie, was by the cardinals sute promoted to that sée, greatlie to the displeasure of the earle of Angus, that labored to haue preferred an o|ther thereto. For this and other causes, the cardinall was greatlie in hatred of the Dowglasses.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 479. About that time, the king of England by prise & preies persuaded the Flemings to take sixteene of our ships harbored in the hauen, and to conuert the commodities (wherewith they were fraught, being verie costlie) to their owne commoditie. By means whereof at one time we had warres with two nati|ons, England and Flanders. But sith the Flemings did not the same maliciously for hatred to the Scots, but carefullie for the loue vnto the English, as the Scots did certeinlie know, they shewed none other token of enimitie to the Flemings, but that they forbad them to fish on their coasts, and did sometime intercept their ships, without further iniurie doone vnto them.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yéere also, Montgomerie, otherwise called 1545. Buch. Monsieur de Lorges sent into Scot|land. monsieur de Lorges, knight of the order of saint Mi|chaell, was sent by the French king with foure thou|sand Frenchmen into Scotland to assist the Scots a|gainst England. He landed at Dunbreton, & came in good order to Edenburgh the thirtéenth of Maie: he brought with him from the French king the order of saint Michaell, to inuest therewith the lord gouer|nor, Knights of saint Micha|els order. the earles of Angus, Huntleie, and Argile. Her|with also was an armie of Scots raised, and ioining with the Frenchmen, they approched the borders, where they laie for a season: but the earle of Hert|ford An armie of Scotslieth on the borders lieutenant generall of the north parts comming downe, tooke such direction for the safe kéeping of the English borders, that after the Scots had laine there in campe a certeine space without atchiuing a|nie great enterprise, though some notable exploit was looked for to haue beene attempted by them at that present, they brake vp their armie & went home.

EEBO page image 338 Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 480. This castell of Dunbreton was at that time so carefullie kept by the captein therof, that he determi|ned neither to deliuer it to the gouernor, nor to anie Englishman, nor to anie Scot. Wherevpon, the go|uernor fearing least it should fall into the hands of the English, prepare to besiege the same; the newes wherof comming to Glencarne, he signified the same vnto Lennox, affirming, that if he would come thi|ther, he should shortlie obteine the castell. The king of England reioising of that newes, prepareth two ships, and in the meane time sent the bishop of Cath|nesse into Scotland, which should foorthwith be recei|ued into the castell. Wherefore the gouernor making the more hast, commeth to Dunbreton togither with the cardinall, and the earles Huntleie, and Argile, laieng present siege to the same, which was strong|lie doone, and the castilains pressed to great extremi|tie by the slaughter of manie people. But at length by the policie of the earle Huntleie, it was so agréed, that the castell (which was by nature inexpugnable) should be deliuered. Which the gouernor receiued (with certeine conditions) and honorablie intreated the capteine for the singular discharge of the trust committed to him: and therewithall he restored the bishop of Cathnesse, brother to the earle of Lennox to his bishoprike, which before he had lost by his go|ing into England.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The sixteenth of September, thrée or foure hun|dred Scots, with Maxwell, Lochinuart, and Iohn|stone, aided with the Frenchmen, attempted to en|ter into England on the east borders: but the Eng|lishmen Frenchmen and Scots o|uerthrowne. perceiuing where they were about to passe by a certeine streit, they set vpon them with their ar|chers, discomfited them, sleaing, & taking to the num|ber of seuen score of them. Among other that were taken, one of the sonnes to the lord Hume, with a French capteine, and George Elphinston archer of the corps to the French king, were accounted chiefe. Also on the west borders, Robert Maxwell eldest son to the lord Maxwell, was taken in a rode made by The lord Maxwels son taken prisoner him and others, into the English confines on that side; although at an other time certeine Englishmen making a rode into Scotland were distressed, the more part of them being taken or flaine. At a parle|ment holden at Linlithquho, begun there the twen|tie eight of September, and continued till the first of October, Matthew earle of Lennox, and Thomas bi|shop of Utheltres, were for falted, and all their lands and goods giuen awaie and annexed to the crowne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane time, the king of England desirous to haue the seruice of the Iles of Scotland for sun|drie great causes and respects, mooued the earle Len|nox to deale with them to that end: which he did. And his trauell tooke such effect, that the Iland men were contented to rest at the king of England his deuoti|on, The earle of Lennox pro|cureth them of the Iles to [...]erue the king of England. partlie for that they were in a manner sworne e|nimies to the earle of Argile, and his familie; and partlie for that they doubted the king of Englands puissance, if he should attempt to inuade those par|ties: and againe, bearing an old speciall fauour to the earle of Lennox and his house, hauing an anci|ent bond of aliance and amitie with the same, they were the more readie to satisfie his motion. Héere vp|on, they elected amongest them a lord of the Iles, the next of bloud: a title long since verie odious to The lord of the Iles elec|ted, being one of the Maco|neis. the state of Scotland, and by the inducement of the earle of Lennox, he was contented as the king of Englands pensioner, to receiue two thousand crownes of him yéerelie, with certeine rich apparell of cloth of gold and siluer from the said earle.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The first proofe he attempted to shew of his ser|uice in the king of Englands behalfe, was this. Ha|uing instructions thereto from the earle of Lennox, vnder colour of conference for matters touching the estate of the countrie, he had suborned one of his aliance and seruants, called the clane Reginald, to Clane Reg [...]|nald sleteth the lord Lo|uet. intrappe the earles of Argile and Huntleie. And al|though they escaped verie narrowlie, the lord Louet an ancient baron, & great friend to those two earles, was slaine by the said clane, togither with seuen hundred of his kinsmen and friends: insomuch that there remained not but one yoong boy of that linage to succéed in that lords lands [which is before more Fr. Thin. fullie handeled out of Lesleus.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, the lord of the Iles, with six thousand men imbarked in certeine vessels, passed ouer into The lord of the Iles in|uadeth Ca|r [...]ke. Carrike, harried and burnt the lands of the earle of Cassiles, then a great enimie to the king of Eng|land. In this voiage he got great spoiles, and slue manie of the enimies. After which enterprise so at|chiued, he came with his power by sea, and landed in Ireland, where the earles of Lennox and Ormond He commeth into Ireland. were, with twelue hundred Irishmen, appointed to ioine with him, that with their whole power they might inuade the earle of Argiles countries, & conse|quentlie the maine land of Scotland at the broad side. But before the preparation could be made rea|die for that iorneie, the new lord of the Iles deceas|sed, whose buriall in Ireland to honor the earle of He departeth this life. Lennox, stood the king of England in foure hundred pounds sterling.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now to returne vnto the dooings on the bor|ders betwixt England and Scotland in this season. Ye shall vnderstand, that after the armie of Scot|land was broken vp, the earle of Hertford by vertue of his commission, raised an armie in the countries of the further side of Trent northwards; so that when the same was assembled togither, with such stran|gers as were then in the kings wages, they were in all of horssemen and footmen twelue thousand figh|ting But eight thousand, as some say. men. With this armie garded with great store of artillerie, munition, and all manner of furniture necessarie, the earle of Hertford entered Scotland, The earle of Hertford in|uadeth Scot|land. and marching to Coldingham, past vp by the water of Twéed, and burnt a great part of the Mers, and Tiuidale, the abbeies of kelso, Melrosse, Driborne, and Iedworth, with townes & villages, to the num|ber of fiue score.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit, he entered not farre within the said countrie beyond the said water, but kept alongest néere to the same, and returned backe without anie incounter: for after the Scotish armie was broken vp, it was not like they would assemble againe, and so the earle of Hertford taking the time that serued his purpose, sore indamaged the Scotish borders at that present. Manie other small inuasions were made, as well by the one part as the other, and some skirmishes fell out betwixt them, sometime to the losse of the Scotish, and sometime of the English, ac|cording to the course of warre.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 15. Much about this time, or rather before, Robert Maxwell the sonne of Robert (a yoong man of singu|lar vertue) was taken by the English. Besides which there was nothing doone woorthie the memorie, but that in the beginning of the next winter Montgome|rie returned into France. After this, the cardinall leadeth the gouernor about the néere countries, vn|der colour to reconcile such parts as were at dissen|tion: then they came first to Perth, where foure men were punished for eating flesh on forbidden daies: from thence they went to Dundée called Toadune (to vse the name of the place, as Buchanan hath) to punish (as they said) such as vsed the late new testa|ment of Luthers translation. Thither came also Pa|trike Greie (the head of a noble familie in those parts) accompanied with a good traine, togither with the erle of Rothseie, being before that commanded to be there by the gouernor, after the pacifieng of the o|ther EEBO page image 339 tumults. But the cardinall (supposing it small safetie to receiue at one time two such noble and fac|tious persons addicted to the restored religion, into the towne) wrought with the gou [...]rnor that he and they might go backe to Perth.

The next morning, when those two noblemen (redie for the iourneie) vnderstood that the gouernor was on his waie towards Perth, they presentlie fol|lowed him. Who being come in sight, did strike such feare into the cardinall, that the gouernor com|manded them to sunder themselues, and seuerallie to enter the citie: which they did. Wherevpon the next day they were both committed to prison. But Rothseie being shortlie deliuered, Greie (whome they hated more, and feared most) was kept longer in that restraint. But before they parted thence, it séemed good to the cardinall to abate the strength of Ruthwen capteine of the towne. For which cause, the gouernor taketh his office from him, and be|stoweth the same vpon Kinfane Comarch, neighbor and kinsman to Greie. For this Ruthwen was a great enimie to the cardinall, and much fauored the restored religion: as likewise was Greie, who af|ter the same sort did not beare a friendlie mind to the cardinall, nor to his religion.

By reason whereof, the cardinall supposed, that if he might set them (by this meanes) together by the eares (sith manie of both parts would ioine for de|fense of the chiefe of their families) and that if anie side had the woorse (as both must be diminished) that then he had by so much abated the power of one of his enimies. Upon which occasion the gouerne|ment of Perth (which had by manie descents remai|ned in the familie of the Ruthwens) might be thus translated to Kinfane. Thus the new capteine was sent with a power to subdue the citizens by force, if they would not willinglie obeie: as it séemed that they would not; because they tooke it with some griefe, to haue (in this new capteine) the old liber|tie of voices (in choosing of their gouernor) taken from them. The besieging of the towne being there|fore diuided into parts, Greie (which had wholie ta|ken the matter on him) attempted the ouerthrow thereof, from the bridge of Taie. The other band (hauing laid their artillerie along by the riuer ouer against the towne) did inuade the open side of the said Perth.

But because the swelling of the sea did not an|swer their deuise, they came not in time to doo anie thing therein. Greie assalting it by the bridge (which Ruthwen hauing receiued, and conueied the aid in|to the next houses, would séeme to leaue vngarded) when he saw no armed men stirring, did (without all feare) enter further into the towne, where he was so sharplie set vpon by Ruthwen, and his com|panie (suddenlie and vnlooked for breaking out of the houses vpon them) that euerie one hastened to spie some place by which he might flie awaie. But the multitude confused and driuen into a streict, did let one an other thereof. For they behind, thinking to breake in amongest the other, did hinder the first that they could not flie: in which vnorderlie multi|tude, manie were troden vnder foot, and thrée score were killed with the sword.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The cardinall (although against his mind) hauing heard of the victorie of Ruthwen; yet he did not greatlie lament the slaughter made of his aduersa|ries. After this, the cardinall hauing thus suffici|entlie progressed to Angus: he led the gouernor after the fouretéenth of December to saint An|drews, to the end (if it were possible) to bind the gouernor more firmelie vnto him. For although before he had the gouernors sonne as pledge with him; yet (as often as he remembred the eagernesse of the Scotish nobilitie, the strength of his enimies, and the inconstancie of the gouernor) he greatlie feared, least the said gouernor should with like light|nesse be drawen to assist his enimies, as he had béene led to take his part.] During the time whilest they were at S. Andrews, the cardinall caused in the Lent season all the bishops & prelats of the realme to assemble at the towne of saint Andrews, where a learned man, named maister George Wischart, that had béene in the schooles of Germanie, was ac|cused of heresie, which he had (as was alleged against him) publikelie preached, and priuatlie taught in Dundée, Brechin, and diuerse other parts of Scot|land, since his returne home. This matter was so George Wis|chart a learned man burnt. vrged against him, that he was conuict, and burnt there in the towne of saint Andrews during the time of that conuention or assemblie.

Fr. Thin. When these things were thus doone, the cardi|nall, although he greatlie trusted to his riches; yet because he was not ignorant what were the minds Buchanan. lib. 15. of men, & what spéeches the common people had of him) determined to increase his power with new deuises. Wherefore he goeth into Angus, and ma|rieth his eldest daughter (as saith Buchanan) to the earle of Crawfords sonne. Which mariage was so|lemnized with great preparation, almost answera|ble to kinglie magnificence. During which time, the cardinall vnderstanding by his spies, that the English did prepare to inuade the Scotish borders on the sea (and speciallie did threaten those of Fife therewith) returned to saint Andrews, and appoin|ted a day to the nobilitie, and such as dwelled about the sea coasts, to assemble togither to prouide in common for the defense thereof, and to prepare re|medie for that hastened euill. For the easier and bet|ter performance whereof, he had determined, togi|ther with the lords of that countrie, to haue sailed himselfe about the coasts, and to haue defended such places as were most conuenient.

Amongest others that came vnto him, there was a noble yoong gentleman called Norman Lesle, sonne to the earle of Rothseie, whereof we haue spo|ken before manie times. This man (after that he had manie times emploied his valiant and faith|full diligence in the behalfe of the cardinall) grew to some contention with the said cardinall for a priuat cause, which for a time did estrange both their minds the one from the other. This same contention did Norman (being thereto induced with manie faire promises) afterwards let fall. But certeine moneths following (when he returned to demand the performance of such liberall promises) they began to grow from common spéech to brallings, and from thence to bitter tawnts & reproches, not fit to be vsed by anie of them both. Wherevpon they departed with the gréeued minds of euerie of them. For the cardinall being intreated more vnreuerentlie than he would or looked for; and the other threatning that being ouertaken by deceipt, he would reuenge it: they both returned discontented to their owne peo|ple. Wherevpon Norman, declaring to his parta|kers the intollerable arrogancie of the cardinall, they easilie agréed all to conspire his death. Where|fore, to the end that the same might be lesse suspec|ted, they departed in sunder afterward. This Nor|man accompanied onelie with fiue of his owne traine, entred the towne of saint Andrews, and went into his accustomed Inne and lodging; tru|sting that by such small traine he might cunninglie dissemble the determination of the cardinals death. But there were in that towne, ten of those which had consented to this conspiracie; which closed in secret corners, some in one place, and some in an other, did onelie expect the signe which was to be giuen vn|to EEBO page image 340 them to execute this deuise. With which small companie this Norman feared not to aduenture the déath of the cardinall in the same towne, furni|shed in euerie place with the seruants and friends of the cardinall.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon the thirtéenth of Maie, the cardinall being within his castell of saint Andrews, certeine of his owne friends (as he tooke them) that is to say, the said Norman, lord Lesleie, William Kirkan|die, the yoong lord of Grange, and Kirkmichell with sixteene chosen men, entered the castell verie secret|lie in the morning, tooke the porter, and all the cardi|nals seruants, thrusting them out of the place by a posterne gate. And that doone, passing to his cham|ber where he laie in bed, as he got vp, and was ope|ning his chamber doore, they slue him, and seized vp|on the artillerie and munition, wherewith that for|tresse The cardi|nall of saint Andrews murthered. was plentifullie furnished, and likewise with rich hangings, houshold stuffe of all sorts, apparell, copes, iewels, ornaments of churches, great store of gold and siluer plate, beside no small quantitie of treasure in readie coine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Sir Iames Leirmouth, prouost of saint Andrews, assembled all the people of that towne for the rescue of the cardinall, after he heard that the conspirators were entred the castell; but they shewed the dead bo|die of the cardinall ouer the wals, as a spectacle to the people, and so they made no further attempt, sith they saw no meane how to remedie or reuenge the matter at that present. The cause that mooued the conspirators thus to kill the cardinall, was thought to be partlie in reuenge of the burning of maister George Wischart, fearing to be serued with the same sawce, and in the end to be made to drinke of the same cup. Partlie it was thought they attemp|ted it through counsell of some great men of the realme, that had conceiued some deadlie hatred a|gainst him.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10 pag. 481. But Lesleus also, writing of the causes of his death saith, that they were diuerse: as the seuerall tormentors seuerallie framed euerie one a part for his owne excuse. For Norman & Iohn did com|plaine, that they were wronged by him with no small iniurie, because that the cardinall had not recom|pensed him for the losse he susteined; when the car|dinall had restored to Colwine lord thereof (before through the cardinals counsell banished by the king) the castell and possessions of Easter wemes; which the king had after giuen to the said Norman. The lord Grange affirmed that he reuenged himselfe, be|cause he was remooued by the cardinals aduise from the office of the treasurorship; which (being granted by the king to him) he had discharged with great profit to the realme, & honor to himselfe. And Kirkmichell did also say that he was dispossessed by the cardinall of some other (I cannot tell what) possessions. All which causes were but veiles which they spread a|gainst the wind and report of so wicked and shame|full a deed. For vpon the fact, Norman being vexed with remorse of conscience, did not onelie labor to pacifie the anger of such, that (either by bloud or be|nefit) were tied to the cardinall with all kind of du|ties: but did also, to shun the danger thereof, passe into France, and there by valour (in the seruice of Henrie the second king of France) endeuored to wipe away that note of infamie, which he had cast vpon his familie. All which notwithstanding, both he and others (some after one sort, and some after an other) were worthilie punished for their wickednes.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The same euening that the cardinall was slaine, the old lord of Grange, maister Henrie Balnauis, one of the councell of the realme, and sundrie gentle|men of the surname of the Meluins, Iohn Knocts and others, to the number of seuen score persons, entred the castell to their support, taking vpon them to keepe it against the gouernor and his partakers. Not long after, the gouernor, considering that his deere cousine the cardinall was thus made awaie, as|sembled the great lords of the realme, as the earle of Angus, Huntleie, Argile, and others, by whose ad|uise he called a parlement, and forfalted them that 1546. The slaters of the cardinall forfalted. had slaine the cardinall, and kept the castell of saint Andrews.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herewith also he raised a power, and besieged the same castell, planting diuerse péeces of great artil|lerie against it. But it was so stronglie furnished with all maner of artillerie & munition by the cardi|nall The castell of saint An|drews besie|ged. in his life time, that they within cared little for all the inforcements that their aduersaries without could aduance against them. Wherevpon, after that the siege had continued the space of three moneths, the gouernor was glad to take an appointment with them within, to the end he might get out of their The siege rai|sed. hands his eldest sonne, who was remaining with the cardinall at the time when he was murthered, and so kept by them that did the murther, till now they agréed to deliuer him to his father, with condition that he should raise his siege.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 They deliuered also the dead bodie of the cardi|nall, after it had laine buried in a dunghill within the castell, euer since the day in which they slue him. [The gouernor did name the abbat of Paslew his Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 1 [...]. pag. 483. brother to the bishoprike of saint Andrews, and gaue the abbeie of Arbroth (being before granted to Iames Beton kinsman to the slaine cardinall) to George Dowglasse bastard sonne to the earle of An|gus: which things were afterwards occasions of great troubles in the realme.] In the yeare next insuing, king Henrie the eight departed this life, af|ter 1547. The king of England de|ceassed. whome succéeded his sonne Edward, the sixt of that name, king of England, France, and Ireland: Shortlie after, that is to say, the last of March, Fran|cis the French king deceassed, and his sonne Hen|rie, The death of the French king. the second of that name succeeded him; who at the desire of the gouernor of Scotland, appointed Leone Strossie prior of Capoa, a knight of the or|der of Malta, with a nauie of 16 gallies, fraught with men of warre, and munition, to passe into Scotland, to helpe to win the castell of saint An|drews.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The gouernor in the meane time with an armie passed to the west borders to besiege the castell of Langham, the which was kept at that present by Michaell Wharton, hauing then with him but six|teene Englishmen, who neuerthelesse abid thrée or foure daies siege, and seuen canon shots, and so yéel|ded the house to the gouernor: and hereby was the peace broken, first by the Scots, euen as the Eng|glishmen could haue wished. Moreouer, at the same time, the erle of Rothous then returned out of Den|marke was acquit by an assise (as they call it) of earles and lords, of an accusation wherewith he was charged, as confederat and partie with them that had murthered the cardinall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Whilest the gouernor was thus passed with his armie to the west borders, he was aduertised that the prior of Capoa was arriued, and [against the Fr. Thin. wils of such as were against it] entred into the The castell of saint An|drews besie|ged by the French. towne of saint Andrews: wherevpon the gouernor, with all the nobilitie that were then about him, ha|sted thither to assist the prior, and so the siege was stronglie laid about the castell there. The prior cau|sed certeine péeces of artillerie to be drawen vp, and mounted on the top of a church, which was higher than the castell; so that those peeces shot plump into the castell, that none durst shew themselues on the wals, or abroad in the yard within the castell. He caused also certeine canons to be drawen with en|gins, EEBO page image 341 néere to the verie wals of the castell, which bat|tered the same in such sort, as the ditches were néere hand filled with the rubbish and stones of the wals that fell downe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Moreouer, the gallies at an high water appro|ched on the riuer side so neere to the castell, that with shot of canons and other artillerie, they sore annoied them within, and slue diuerse. The defendants per|ceiuing themselues thus besieged on all sides, & not able long to hold out, put foorth a token vpon a speares point, to signifie that they desired parlee, which was granted, and certeine of them comming foorth, were admitted to talke with the gouernor, the queene, and the prior of Capoa. They offered to ren|der the castell, so they might depart, and haue their liues saued with bag and baggage.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But this would not be granted, the gouernor vtterlie refusing it; at length he was content to par|don The castell of S. Andrews [...]lded. them of their liues, if the French king should thinke it good, else to stand to his pleasure. The spoile of the castell was giuen to the Frenchmen, who vp|on the surrender entring the same, left nothing be|hind him that might serue them to anie vse in ta|king it away. All the principall men within it were led to the gallies, and conueied awaie into France prisoners at the French kings discretion. Diuerse of them were committed to sundrie prisons on the coast of Britaine, and others were appointed to row in the gallies till the yeare 1550, in which the pri|soners we set at libertie, and the others that were in the gallies were redeemed by their friends for cer|teine summes of monie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Thus was the castell of saint Andrews rendred the nine and twentith of Iulie, fourtéene daies after the arriuall there of the prior of Capoa, whereby his The prior of Capoa. great valiancie, well knowen afore that time, was so renewed, as his praise for his spéedie dispatch and good successe therein was much aduanced. Shortlie after, the duke of Summerset, heretofore in this booke named earle of Hertford, vncle by the mother vnto the yoong king of England, and admitted go|uernor The duke of Summerset protector of England. of his person, and protector of all his realms, dominions, and subiects, minding the aduancement of the yoong king his nephue, thought good with all spéed to procure the consummation of the mariage, betwixt him, and the yoong quéene of Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But perceiuing that the same could not be brought to passe without force, he séemed loth to let passe the opportunitie of time then offered (as he tooke it) to serue his purpose; and therevpon by aduise of councell leuied an armie with all expedition, and came to Berwike, about the latter end of August, and in the beginning of September entred Scot|land with the same armie, conteining seauentéene He entreth Scotland with an armie or eighteene thousand men, which was diuided into three principall wards, the vant-gard led by the va|liant earle of Warwike, the battell by the duke of Summerset himselfe, and the rere-ward by the lord Dacres of the north.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There were certeine wings and troopes of men of The order of the English armie. armes, demilances, and light horssemen, and also of harquebusiers, that attended vpon these thrée wards, garded with diuerse péeces of great artille|rie. The lord Greie of Wilton high marshall of the armie had the generall conduction of the men of armes and demilances. Sir Francis Brian, lieu|tenant of the light horssemen, with eight hundred of them was appointed to the vant-gard. Sir Peter Mewtas capteine of fiue hundred hagbutters, and sir Francis Fleming maister of the ordinance, with a thousand light horssemen, were appointed to the battell. And sir Richard Manners, with six hundred light horssemen, attended vpon the rere-ward.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this order marching through the Mers, and Louthian, they came at length vnto a place called Buckling Braies, neere to the Forth side, in which The English fleet. riuer the English fleet was arriued, and laie before the towne of Leith, but now by order giuen came backe from thence, and lay néerer to the armie. The gouernor of Scotland aduertised of the comming of this armie of England thus to inuade Scotland, with all diligence sent abroad solemne summons The gouernor raiseth an ar|mie. for the leuieng of a new armie foorth of all parts of the realme; supposing thereby to be sufficientlie fur|nished and inabled for the incounter; happen when it should; the contrarie part (no doubt) being likewise opinioned, and both hoping, or greedilie gaping af|ter the glorie of victorie.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 485. For the gouernor did attempt at this time that which is accustomed to be vsed in the greatest dan|gers of the countrie: which was, that he sent out messengers through all the realme, who carieng a fierie crosse in their hands, should make signe (and declare) aswell to the laitie, as to the churchmen; that all they which were aboue sixtéene yeares old, and vnder sixtie, should presentlie (with their armor) re|paire to Mussilborow, and there be readie to defend the libertie of the countrie; who accordinglie came to Mussilborow (within lesse than two miles of the place where the English armie came to incampe, lieng at Preston) & placed themselues at Inuernesse ouer against their enimies.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here we haue to vnderstand, that the Scots light horssemen oftentimes would come pricking almost within their staues length of the Englishmen as they marched, whouping and shouting, to the end they might traine them foorth from their strength, and with railing words would still be in hand to pro|uoke The goodnes of the Sco|tish horsmen feared of the Englishmen. The lord Greie desireth to incounter the Scotish horssemen. them thereto. But the duke of Summerset, doubting the goodnesse of the Scotish prickers, gaue secret commandement, that no offer of skirmish by the Scotish horsmen should be taken. But at length the lord Greie of Wilton, not able to beare such bold presumption in the Scots, aduenturing (as he tooke it) ouer rashlie, and more than stood with their owne suertie, made sute to the duke of Summerset, that if they continued in such brauerie, it might be lawfull for him to set them further off.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke at the first by no meanes would assent thereto, telling the lord Greie, that his desire procee|ded more of a iolitie of courage, than of anie know|ledge of the enimie, and séemed to defend the good|nesse of the Scotish horssemen: but when the lord Greie persisted in his sute, and the earle of War|wike assisted his request, the duke in the end yéelded thereto. Herevpon when the lord Hume with the Scots the next time (which was on the Fridaie the uinth of September) came foorth to offer the skir|mish after their woonted maner, the lord Greie ta|king with him certeine bands of horssemen, both men of armes, demilances, and also light horsmen, diuided them in troopes, appointing the Spanish and Italian hagbutters on horssebacke to kéepe on a wing, and to gard the hindermost troope of the English horssemen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He also gaue order to the leaders of euerie troope, that to which soeuer the enimie should once offer, in Order giuen by the lord Gr [...]ie. anie wise, that no answer by skirmish were made them, but after they had drawne them to their accu|stomed plaie and proffer of charge, that troope that it was offered vnto, presentlie vpon the enimies wheeling about should throughlie giue it them; and that so giuen, the next troope presentlie to giue it in the face: and so (as occasion required) both those troopes wholie togither to helpe other without brea|king. The Scots comming forward, pricking and whouping after their old woont, the Englishmen for|bare a great while, till at the last, foure or fiue hun|dred EEBO page image 342 of them came scattered vpon the spurre, with a maruellous shout within a stones length of the for|most troope.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 These thinking then to haue whéeled about, mai|ster Nicholas Gainesford, the leader of that troope, and lieutenant of the lord Greies band of his men Nicholas Gainesford. of armes of Bullongne, cried; A charge, which as spée|dily on the English part as vnlooked for of the Scots being giuen, from charging at that time in sport, the Scots were driuen to gallop awaie so fast as their horsses might beare them, losing of their companies The Scots horssemen put to flight. that were taken and slaine, to the number of eight hundred and more (as some haue written) [at what time the lord Hume (as saith Lesleus lib. 10. pa. 486) Fr. Thin. falling from his horsse, was grieuouslie wounded, and caried to Edenburgh, and his eldest sonne was taken prisoner] but yet, as diuerse of the English|men aduentured too farre in following the chase, they were distressed, and sundrie of them taken prisoners, among the which were some of their capteins, as sir Rafe Bulmer, Thomas Gower, & Robert Crouch, English cap|teins taken. each of them hauing in charge the leading of seue|rall bands of light horssemen. ¶ Thus much for this Fridaies skirmish, wherein the chiefest force of the Scotish horssemen was defeated, to the great discou|ragement of the rest.

Fr. Thn. Buchan. lib. 15. The English armie remaining still at Pre|ston, did from a hill behold the number of the Scots, who (supposing that they saw a greater number than in truth there was) assembled in the meane time to consult of the estate of their affaires. And therevpon sent letters to the Scots, desiring that if they might obteine anie thing by iustice, that they should rather end the warre with couenants than with canons.

The effect of which letters tended to this end. That the English did greatlie intreat the Scots, first to remember that both armies were christian men, to and of whome (vnlesse they vtterlie forget their pro|fession) there should nothing be more welcome nor desired than peace & tranquillitie, and nothing more detestable than warre and vniust force. Besides this, that the cause of this present warre did not grow of couetousnesse, hatred or enuie, but from the desire of perpetuall peace, which could not be better or more firmelie established by any means, but by the league of matrimonie (being promised and confirmed by the publike consent and pledge of the nobilitie) with those conditions which were more beneficiall for the Scots than the English, being such as did not call them into seruitude, but into a felowship and liberall imparting of all their fortunes each to other. For so much more should that mariage be commodious to the Scots than to the English, by how much the hope of profit, and the feare of iniuries should bée greater from the stronger to the weaker.

Wherefore they should chieflie consider (and in this kind) this to be their greatest reason, that since that their quéene was of necessitie to be giuen in ma|riage by the Scots, and that the same necessitie was not to be auoided; and the moderation therein verie hard: that the onelie power to choose hir a husband was left vnto the publike councell or parlement. And if they would choose (to their quéene) a husband for the publike profit and dignitie: of whome could they better take choise, than of a king their neigh|bor, borne in the same Iland, néere of bloud, instruc|ted in the same lawes, brought vp in the same ma|ners and language; not their superior onelie in ri|ches, but almost also in all commodities and orna|ments of externall things, and such a person which did bring with him peace, concord, amitie, and the for|getting of all old iniuries? But if they call to them anie other (differing from them in language, ma|ners, and lawes) to take the kingdome: let them thinke with themselues, what and how manie dis|commodities will grow thereby, and to what euill counsels they shall indanger themselues: the which they may learne by the example of other nations, be|ing farre better to be taught it by the misfortunes of others, than to féele the smart thereof by their owne experience.

Wherefore (as touching themselues) if they shall not perceiue the Scotish nation to be estranged from this amitie and concord, they would mitigate somwhat of their former promises (which by law they might chalenge) and be contented that the maiden queene should be brought vp amongst them, and bée alwaies in their power, vntill the time that nature should inable hir fit for mariage, and vntill such time as she might choose hir a husband by the aduise of the nobilitie. And that in the meane time (vntill the same might be performed) that both the nations should ab|steine from warre: and that also the quéene (during that time) should neither be conueied into anie strange nation: nor that they should conclude anie pact or couenant with the French, or anie other for|reine prince touching hir mariage. The which if the Scots would most holilie and handfastlie promise, the English would foorthwith depart with a quiet armie. And further, that if the English had commit|ted anie hurt or spoile (since they came into the coun|trie) they would recompense the same by the iudge|ment of good men.

These letters thus sent, the gouernor did impart vnto a few, and of those especiallie to Iohn his bro|ther bishop of saint Andrews (taken vnto him in place & authoritie of the slaine cardinall.) These two aduanced with great hope of victorie, were the cause that these letters were suppressed, bicause they feared that if the equall conditions of peace were knowne abroad, the most part would willinglie incline to the same quiet aduise. Wherefore they procured a false rumor to be spread through the host, that the English men were come thither with determination to take awaie the quéene by force, and by strength of armes to bring the whole kingdome into their subiection. For the gouernor being faint spirited by nature, had chosen vnto him foure such other councellors (like vnto himselfe) in the affairs of warre, by whose com|mand & becke all things were performed. Of which number were his three kinsmen, Iohn archbishop of saint Andrews, the abbat of Dunfermling, George Durie, with Archembald Beton; and the fourth was Hugh Rigs, a lawier, rather famous for his grosse bodie and foolish conditions, than anie know|ledge in militarie affaires. These foure had so puffed vp the gouernor (inconstant by his owne nature, and changing his counsell by the wind of euerie rumor) that he would with stopped eares heare all other mens opinions. In the meane time, his friends ha|uing spread a feined tale (through the Scotish host) by him deuised, the Scots ran in all hast to their weapons, whose vnaduised spéed was in the end the cause of their vnfortunate procéedings, as after shall appeare.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 For being true (as the Scots haue reported) that The Scots meant not to haue giuen battell. the gouernor, and the nobilitie of Scotland meant not to hazard battell within their owne realme, but rather to lie still and defend their ground, if the Eng|lishmen should come forward to giue them battell there. The Englishmen aduertised thereof, the mor|row after this great skirmish, raised their field ve|rie earlie, purposing to take an hill called Pinkhill, where they might place their ordinance, and to shoot The purpose of the Eng|lishmen. into the Scotish campe, whereby they should force the Scots to dislodge from their ground of aduan|tage. The gouernor and the Scotish lords, beholding their enimies thus marching forward, thought best EEBO page image 343 to staie their enterprise, and therefore suddenlie, not|withstanding their former determination, rushing foorth of their campe, passed forward to incounter their enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They were diuided into thrée battels; Archembald The ordering of the Scotish battels. Dowglasse earle of Angus, with certeine lords with him, led the vant-gard; George Gordon earle of Huntleie, and his friends the rere-ward; and the go|uernor accompanied with the earle of Argile and the rest of the noble men, were in the maine battell. The Englishmen hauing got the hill, and perceiuing the Scots to come forwards with great hast, staied for their comming: but the Scots were so rash and ha|stie, passing first through the water in their armour, and so vp towards the hill, that continuing their march with such speed, as they seemed rather to trot, than to keepe anie ordinarie marching pase, before they could come to ioine with the Englishmen, they were almost out of breath.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit, the earle of Angus, and the other in the vant-gard, boldlie abid the charge of all the Eng|lish horssemen, and so rigorouslie reincountred them, The English horssemen beaten backe. that slaieng and beating downe no small number both of men and horsses, they put the rest to flight; so that no small part of them retired backe in such dis|order, that they ran thorough the rankes of the foot|men in the fore-ward, wherwith such feare entered a|mong the Englishmen, that (as hath béene reported) they had vndoubtedlie fled, if the manfull courage of the earle of Warwike had not béene shewed at that present, according to the woonted valure of his often The valiant|nesse of the earle of War|wike. approoued prowesse, whereby he caused them to staie, and relie themselues againe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the meane time, the battell and the rere-ward of the Scots aduanced forward with great courage. But there was a gallie & two pinesses of the Eng|lish fléet, which from the sea shot so terriblie at the The gallie and two pin|nesses. Scotish armie, that the same was not onelie sore galled and indamaged thereby, but also staied, that they could not come easilie forward. And héerewith the English vant-gard incouraged with the comfor|table woords and behauior of the earle of Warwike, and other the capteins, made towards the Scotish vant-gard againe: the which not able of it selfe to re|sist, retired in good order to the great battell of Scot|land. Wherevpon, the multitude fearing, by reason they saw them in the fore-ward thus retire (albeit in good order) that all had béene lost, gaue backe, and tooke them to flight; whome the Englishmen follow|ed amaine, slaieng the Scotishmen downe on heaps in passing great numbers. Manie were also drow|ned in the water of Undereske, through the which they tooke their flight.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Huntleie and the rere-gard stood still with their ensignes and banners, till the chase was past by them: but at length were driuen to make a|waie as well as the rest, and the earle himselfe in the The earle of Huntleie ta|ken prisoner. retire being taken on foot, well clad in gilt armour inameled, was led prisoner to the lord protector. Di|uerse other men of name, barons, and knights, were taken prisoners. There were slaine no small number of personages of good account. Among other, the lord Fleming, the maister of Erskin, the maister of Gra|ham, Men of name of Scots [...]aine. Fr. Thin. the maister of Meffine, the maister of Ogiluie, the maister of Leuingston, the maister of Rosse [the maister of Argendale and Meffane] the lard of Lo|chinwar, the lard of Glencarnocke, & others. [There were taken prisoners diuerse noble men, the lord Zestrie, the earle of Huntleie chancellor of the realme, and others, as saith Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 487.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next day, the English armie remooued to Leith, where the prisoners were put into a church, di|uerse of them being sore wounded. But the earle of Huntleie, entering bond for them that they should well and trulie paie their ransomes, agréed [...]pon be|twixt them and their takers, or else to come and pre|sent themselues prisoners in England by a certeine day, they were suffered to depart. The earle of Huntleie en|tereth bond for his coun|triemen. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 15. The calamitie of which bloudie day, there were not a few which did impute iustlie to happen to the Scots, because they did arrogantlie reiect such honorable and beneficiall peace, and did hope (if they obteined the victorie) to haue vsed more crueltie to their owne people than vnto the English, either because they would (as I my selfe coniecture) reuenge old quarels, or else haue vsed extremitie against such as secretlie misliked this conflict with the English.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The gouernor escaping from the battell, came to The quéene remooued from Striueling. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 487. Striueling, where the quéene regent was, togither with hir daughter the yoong queene. Héere, by the counsell and aduise of the earle of Angus [Argile, Rotesen, and Cassiles] and diuerse other lords that were also withdrawne thither after the battell, they were conueied to the countrie of Menteith, where they remained in the abbeie of Inch Mahome [deli|uering Fr. Thin. the yoong quéene to hir mother, Erskine and Leuingstone to be kept there] till the English armie was departed out of the realme, and then they re|mooued againe, and came to Striueling. [After that Fr. Thin. the gouernor had deliuered the earle out of prison at Edenburgh] the English nauie wan the Ile of saint The Ile of saint Colmes Inch woon by Englishmen. Colmes Inch [in the meane time] and did sundrie o|ther exploits by sea, as in the English historie it may appéere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Moreouer, the earle of Bothwell, whome the go|uernor The earle of Bothwell. had before kept in prison, and was the night after the battell set at libertie, repared to the duke of Summerset, with diuerse other lords and gentlemen of Louthian, whilest he laie at Leith, offering them|selues to be at the king of Englands commande|ment, and so were assured from receiuing hurt or da|mage by the English power. The duke of Summer|set 1547. hauing remained at Leith eight daies, burnt a peece of it, and demanding the castell of Edenburgh, The English armie retur|neth home|wards. but could not obteine it, departed thence the eight|téenth of December homewards the next waie, ouer the mounteins of Soutreie, comming the third day before the castell of Hume, where they did so much by Hume castell rendred to the Englishmen. countenancing to win that fortresse, that within thrée or foure daies after their comming thither, it was surrendred.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 This castell being woone, & a garrison left there|in to kéepe it, they remooued to Rockesburgh, where within the compasse of the ruinous wals of an old castell, they built a fort; & after returning into Eng|land, left a conuenient garrison to kéepe it. They got also about the same time a strong fortresse, called Fast castell, standing néere to the sea side, and placed Fast castell woone by them. Broughtie crag woone. a garrison within it. And moreouer, in this meane time, their fléet by sea wan the castell of Broughtie crag, and put in like manner a garrison within it to kéepe the same (as in the English historie it may fur|ther appeere) and in what sort also all the chiefest lords and gentlemen of the Mers and Tiuidale came in, and submitted themselues to the duke of Summer|set, vpon assurance had and giuen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore, whilest the duke of Summerset with his armie did thus inuade Scotland on the east part, it was ordeined by the said duke, and other of the councell to the king of England, that Matthew earle of Lennox, and Thomas lord Wharton, then warden of the west marches of England, should with a power inuade Scotland on the west side, to the end that there should not anie of the west borders nor countries come to assist the gouernor against the duke of Summersets armie, but be driuen to re|maine at home to defend their owne countrie. Here|vpon, there was an armie leuied, to the number of EEBO page image 344 fiue thousand footmen, and eight hundred light horsse|men, with which power the earle of Lennox and the lord Wharton entering Scotland the eight of Sep|tember, incamped the first night vpon the water of Eske, and marched the next day through the nether part of Annandale, till they came to the castell of Milke, a fortresse of good strength, the wals being fouretéene foot thicke. The castell of Milke yéelded

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Capteine of this castell was one Iohn Steward, brother to the lard thereof, who vpon the approch of the earle of Lennox, yéelded the house to him, with|out anie shew of resistance, Wherevpon, Ferguse Graham, brother to Richie Graham of Erske, was appointed with a garrison of souldiors to keepe that castell to the vse of the yoong king of England, and was afterwards confirmed capteine there with fif|tie light horssemen, by appointment of the duke of Summerset, & the councell; so that during the wars, he remained there to the great annoiance of the Scots, enimies to England, and preseruation of the countrie thereabouts to the king of Englands vse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 On the twentith of September, the earle of Len|nox, and the lord Wharton, incamped néere to the towne of Annand, and on the morrow after appro|ching néerer to the fame, gaue summons vnto the capteine therof, called Lion, of the house of Glams, who with an hundred Scots [whereof Maxwell and Fr. Thin. Iohnstone, and Cokpull (as saith Lesleus lib. 10. pa. 489. being parcell] kept the church and stéeple of An|nand, being péeces of themselues verie strong and mightilie reinforced with earth: they within there|fore refused to yéeld, and valiantlie defended them|selues. The greatest péeces of artisterie, which the Englishmen had there at that time, were certeine double and single falcons, wherewith they beat one|lie the battlements, till they might with certeine en|gines approch hard to the wals, and vndermine the The church of Annand vndermined. same, so as the roofe of the church was shaken downe, and a great number of them within the church slaine and crushed to death. Such as escaped fled into the stéeple.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Two of the Englishmen that wrought about the [...]ines, were slaine: but at length, the capteine moo|ued by persuasion of the earle of Lennox, to whome he claimed to be of kin, rendered the stéeple to him, with himselfe, and 96 Scots souldiors, with conditi|on The stéeple yéelded. to haue their liues onelie saued, and the capteine to remaine prisoner, and to go into England. Im|mediatlie vpon their comming foorth of the steeple, fire was giuen vnto the traines of powder in the mines, and so both the church & steeple were blowen vp into the aire, & raced downe to the ground. This The church and stéeple of Annand blowen vp with powder. doone, they burnt the towne (after they had sacked it) and left not one stone standing vpon an other, for that the same towne had euer beene a verie noisome neighbour to England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Englishmen had conceiued such spite to|wards this towne, that if they saw but a péece of timber remaining vnburnt, they would cut the same in péeces with their bils. The countrie herewith was striken in such feare, that the next day all the Kilpa|trikes and the Iordeins, the lards of Kirkmichell, A|pilgirtht, The Scots that came to assure them|selues. Clo [...]urne, Howmendes, Nubie, and the Irrewings, the Bels, the Rigs, the Murreies, and all the clanes and surnames of the neather part of Annerdale, came in, and receiued an oth of obei|sance, as subiects to the king of England, deliuering pledges for their assured loialtie. The residue that would not come in and submit themselues, had their houses burnt, their goods and cattell fetched awaie by the English light horssemen, that were sent a|broad into the countrie for that purpose.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 These things thus executed, the earle of Lennox, and the lord Wharton, returned backe into England with their prisoners, booties, and spoiles, receiuing great thanks and commendations by gentle letters on the fiue & twentith of September, from the duke of Summerset, then lieng at Rockesburgh, about fortifieng of that place. The gouernor perceiung thus that without the assistance of France he should not be able to resist the Englishmen, hauing now got such foot hold within the realme of Scotland, re|quired The gouer|nors su [...] to the queene Dowager, and to the French am|bassadors. the queene Dowager, and monsieur Doisell, liger ambassador for the French king, to persuade with him by letters, to send an armie into Scotland, to the aid of his friends there.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The quéene and monsieur Doisell, perceiuing a readie waie prepared to bring that to passe which they most desired (which was, to haue the quéene of Scot|land ordered in all things by the French kings ad|uise) they vndertooke to procure an armie out of France, according to the gouernors desire, if he with the states of the realme would agrée that the quéene The quéene Dowager promiseth aid out of France with conditi|on. might be sent into France, and a contract made for hir bestowing in mariage, as stood with the French kings pleasure. The gouernor condescending héere|vnto, assembled the states, and by their aduises, pas|sed certeine couenants to the effect aforesaid, & sent the same in writing by certeine messengers into France.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The French king gladlie accepting this message, The gouernor sendeth into France for aid. Broughtie crag besieged by the gouer|nor. prepared a nauie of ships and gallies to transport an armie into Scotland the next summer. In the meane time, the gouernor laied siege to Broughtie crag, and the duke of Summerset, as well for meane to cause the Scots to retire that siege, as also for the annoiance of Clidesdale, apperteining to the gouer|nor and the earle of Angus, and other Scots that would not come in to the obeisance of the king of England, appointed the earle of Lennox to make a new inuasion into Scotland, and to vse for triall of their fidelities the helpe of two thousand Scotish light horssemen, that were alreadie assured & sworne to serue the king of England in all such exploits in which they should be imploied.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Lennox desirous to aduance the king of Englands affaires, and hauing receiued letters from William earle of Glencarne, with promise of his assistance, and likewise of his father in law the earle of Angus, the lard of Drumlanrig, and those lards and gentlemen of the countries of kile, Con|ningham, Renfre [...], and Lennox, entered Scotland The earle of Lennox ente|reth into Scotland. about the twelfth of December, accompanied with Henrie Wharton, second son to the lord Wharton, with two hundred light horssemen, of the garrisons in Scotland, and comming first to Dunfreis, where the generall assemblie was appointed of the two thousand assured Scotish light horssemen, when the musters should be taken, he found scarse thrée hun|dred, and those for the more part of the broken coun|tries of Annandale, Ewisdale, Esdale, and Lides|dale.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Glencarne came thither in déed, but The earle of Glencarne his double dealing. vnder a counterfet shew of good meaning, where in truth he ment nothing but craft to discouer all the earle of Lennox his purposes: who perceiuing his double dealing, and finding no such forces readie to assist him, as he looked for, and moreouer, mistrusting the loialties of the maister of Maxwell, & the gentle|men Now lord Harries. of Nidesdale, meaning (as he tooke it) to intrap him, and deliuer him to the quéene Dowager, and the lord gouernor, stood in some perplexitie what way The earle of Lennox in doubt what to doo. should be the best for him to follow, thinking it not to stand with his honor to returne, without atchiuing some enterprise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The earle of Glencarne had shewed to him two letters written by the lard of Drumlaurig, signifi|eng, The lard of Drum [...]rig. that if the earle of Lennox came, accompanied EEBO page image 345 onelie with Scotishmen, he would both serue him and honor him in the best wise he might: but if he brought those Englishmen in his companie, he would not onelie refuse to aid him, but also raise all the power he might make, either by his friends or o|therwise, to resist him, and proffer him a repulse. The earle thus perceiuing that he was in danger to be betraied among them, and that there were all the deuises practised that might be to staie those that should come to the deuotion of the king of England, dissembled the matter with Glencarne, and other that were suborned to betraie him; pretending to The ea [...]le of Lennox dis|sembleth with dissemblers. them, that he would follow the course of their deui|ses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But in the meane time he got togither the Eng|lish 1547. Buch. capteins that were appointed to attend him, and also such Scotishmen as he knew he might trust. And meaning to scourge Drumlanrig, & to cut him short, for that he was the chiefe instrument to staie all the Scotishmen in those parties from entering friendship with the Englishmen: he gaue secret warning to all the capteins & leaders about nine of the clocke at night, that they should be readie with their men to mount on horsbacke at the sound of the trumpet, and kéepe with them the earle of Glen|carne, the maister of Maxwell, the lards of Clos|burne, Kirkmichell, and others the gentlemen of Ni|desdale and Annandale.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He sent foorth six hundred chosen horssemen vpon sound of the trumpet, at twelue of the clocke at Horssemen sent foorth to scourge Drumlanrig. night, vnder the leading of Henrie Wharton, and o|ther the capteins of the garrisons, who in the daw|ning of the next morrow, arriued neere the place of Drumlanrig, where they appointed foure hundred of They harrie the countrie a|bout Drum|lanrig. their horssemen to passe to the forraie, who raised fire, and burnt two miles in length, both townes and vil|lages on ech side, euen hard to the gates of Drum|lanrig, spoiling the houses of goods and riches, woorth to the value of two thousand marks, got thrée thou|sand shéepe, two thousand herd of great cattell, be|side nine score horsses and mares.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Annandalers laden with spoile and cattell, being in number foure hundred men, departed with their preie homewards. The lard of Drumlanrig, li|eng all this while in ambush with seuen hundred men, forbare to breake out to giue anie charge vpon his enimies, doubting least the earle of Lennox had kept a stale behind: but now after he perceiued that the most part of the enimies were departed, and that the residue of the gentlemen & capteins of the Eng|lish horssemen were withdrawing towards Dunfre|is, Drumlanrig pursueth the Englishmen. being not past six score men, he fiercelie followed after them with his power, in hope not onelie to o|uerthrow and distres them, but also to take the earle of Lennox at Dunfreis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Maister Henrie Wharton and those six score horsse|men, retiring beyond the water of Nith, and percei|uing that Drumlanrig and his men entered the wa|ter rashlie to pursue them, returned, and gaue such a desperate charge vpon them, that Drumlanrig and his companie were scattered and put to flight: yet He is put to flight. Drumlanrig himselfe, although there were some speares broken vpon him, through the goodnesse of his horsse escaped. Two gentlemen of his surname and traine, that were in no small estimation with him, were staine, and six score prisoners taken, and led to Dunfreis. The terror of this ouerthrow, and the brute of the earle of Lennox his entrie thus made into Scotland, caused the gouernor to leuie his siege from Broughtie crag, and with speed to The siege of Broughtie cr [...]g raised. come from thence, the better to defend his countries of Clidesdale, and Dowglasdale. Sir Andrew Dud|leie, capteine of Broughtie crag, bare himselfe verie valiantlie, in defending the castell during this siege, so that the Scots certes lost diuerse hardie persona|ges: and among other, Gawen Hamilton, the go|uernors kinsman, was slaine at the same siege.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, the prior of Whiterne by his letters and messengers, offered himselfe to obeie the king of The prior of Whiterne. England: and the inhabitants of the burrough and hauen townes of Wigton and Kirckowbre, the knights of Loghinwar and Garleis, the lard and tu|tor of Bombie, the lard of Cardines, & all the gentle|men of Annandale, Nidesdale, and Galloway, euen to Whiterne, being foure score miles in length from Caerleill, through the inducement of the foresaid pri|or, and of the knights of Loghinwar and Garleis, (for the sauour they bare to the earle of Lennox) with|in two daies after the discomfiture of Drumlanrig, came vnto Dunfreis, and there receiued an oth to be true to the king of England, and afterwards went with the earle to Caerleill, leauing the countrie in good quiet, and the king of England acknowledged for lord of Galloway, Nidesdale, and Annandale, by the inhabitants thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And after that the forenamed persons had remai|ned The Scots deliuer pled|ges. for a space at Caerleill, they deliuered pledges, but especiallie for Iohn Maxwell, & returned home to their countrie, as assured men & subiects to the K. of England. In this meane while, the gouernor ha|uing held siege before the castell of Broughtie crag, by the space of thirtie daies, and now retiring from thence (as before ye haue heard) by the aduise of the principall lords about him, he caused maister Iames Haliburton, tutor of those parties, to raise cer|teine companies of horssemen, and appointed him Iames Holi|burton. Capteine Leirmouth. with capteine Leirmouth (whome he left in Dun|dée with certeine footmen) to defend the countrie a|gainst the Englishmen, if they issued foorth of Broughtie crag, to atchiue anie enterprise anie where néere thereabouts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The duke of Summerset by aduise of the residue 1547. Lesle. of the councell in England, minding to bridle the Scots that refused to come in & submit themselues to the king of England, tooke order [with the lord of Fr. Thin. Forts built. Wilton, who (as saith Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 491.) re|mained in Scotland from the fourth Ides of Aprill, vntill the tenth kalends of Iune] for the building of one fort at Lauder, and an other at Hadington, as in the English historie it may appeare. And further 1548. it was appointed also, that about the end of Febru|arie, the earle of Lennox and the lord Wharton, with seuen hundred English horssemen, beside the assu|red Scots horssemen, and about foure or fiue thou|sand The earle of Lennox and the L. Whar|ton inuade Scotland. English footmen, should by the west borders in|uade Scotland: they according to their commission set forward, and the first night came to Louch [...]a|ben, and there lodged.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next day they marched to Dunfreis, and whilest they remained there, the earle of Angus be|ing come to Drumlanrig, by messengers entred some talke with his sonne in law the earle of Len|nox. The dissimu|lation of the earle of An|gus. But sith it was perceiued that this was doone, rather to intrap the earle of Lennox, or rather at the least wise to driue time, vpon consultation had with the maister of Maxwell, the lard of Cloesborne, and others the gentlemen assured of Nidesdale and An|nandale; it was concluded, that the townes of Mor|ton, Dusdere, and others, néere adioining togither in those parts, should be burnt; to the end that the earle of Angus might so be drawen to the field, and caught by some one meane or other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About midnight therefore, the forraie being set foorth, vnder the leading of maister Henrie Whar|ton, to the number of twelue hundred light horsse|men, Maister Hen|rie Wharton. the maister of Maxwell, now lord Herries, and the residue of the assured men being amongest them kept forward, and in the morning the earle of EEBO page image 346 Lennox, and the lord Wharton marched foorth with the footmen, till they came ten miles beyond Dun|freis. And where the earle of Angus was drawen to the castell of Drumlanrig, vnder pretense to com|mune with his sonne the earle of Lennox (but mea|ning to intrap him) if it were possible, he was so in|uironed by the English footmen yer he could haue The earle of Angus put to flight. sufficient warning, that he was forced to flée onelie with fiue persons in his companie. But now the English horssemen being come to Dusdere, eight & fortie miles within the realme of Scotland, hauing passed sundrie great riuers, they set that towne on Dusdere set on fire. fire.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the maister of Maxwell, with the other Sco|tish gentlemen and light horssemen borderers, to the number of foure hundred, being in companie of the English horssemen (as before ye haue heard) had contriued the destruction of the Englishmen afore hand. And the better to woorke their feat, they had procured (as ye haue heard) the earle of Angus to come vnto Drumlanrig with a chosen power of men for that purpose. There were also vpon euerie hill about, great numbers of Scotish footmen, with speares and lancestaues to assist the earle of Angus and his complices against the Englishmen. The lard of Drumlanrig with a number of chosen horsse|men was aduanced forward in sight of the Eng|lishmen, as they were busie in firing the towne of Dusdere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The assured Scots therefore, thinking the enter|prise to be suerlie inough conueid for their contriued purpose, openlie vpon the field neere to Dusdere, hoising vp a blacke pensill vpon a speares point for a The reuol|ting of the as|sured Scots. token, reuolted wholie, and ioined themselues to the lard of Drumlanrig and other their countrie men, & thrust in betwixt the English horssemen & footmen, to the great perill of distressing aswell the one as the other. For making toward the place where the earle of Lennox, and the lord Wharton were comming forward with their footmen, néere to the old castell of Dauswinton, sometime the house of the Cumins, they bruted it abroad, that the English horssemen A false ru|mor spred. were quite ouerthrowen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Lennox, beholding the maner of his aduersaries, lighted on foot from his horsse, willing the lord Wharton to doo the like; for this day (said he) I will die a true Englishman. At length the Eng|lish horssemen fetching a compasse in retiring backe from Dusdere, came néere to the place where the earle and the lord Wharton were ranged in order of battell: and thinking no lesse but that their horsse|men had beene ouerthrowen, were readie to march backe towards Dunfreis. But their horssemen thus comming in, and perceiuing how the matter stood, gaue a right valiant charge vpon the Scots, that stood countenancing the footmen, and readie to take the aduantage, if they might haue driuen them through shrinking backe into anie disorder.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But such was the violence of the shocke giuen at that instant, with great manhood (vndoubtedlie) by the English horssemen, that the Scots were there|with put out of arraie, scattered, & quite put to flight; the lord of Drumlanrig being taken prisoner, cor|rupted The Scots put to flight. his taker, and so got away. The maister of Maxwell escaped in great danger of life, for he had sundrie speares broken on him in the chase as he fled awaie. There were yet taken that day of the Scots to the number of foure hundred, beside sundrie that were drowned in the water of Nith. Amongest the prisoners were these men of name; the abbat of new abbeie, Christie Irrewing of Bonshaw, a brother of the lord of Hempsfield, & manie other gentlemen of name. Dunfreis was rifled and spoiled, as the earle of Lennox and the Englishmen returned thi|ther, Dunfreis spoiled. and a martiall court appointed there for execu|tion of pledges; but yet suspended and staied, till the councels pleasure might be knowen in that be|halfe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There were at the first euill news spread abroad, and certified to the court of England of this iornie, how the earle of Lennox and the English armie was ouerthrowen, so that it was by order appointed, that the earle of Derbie, the Lord Scroope, and Coniers, with their powers should repaire to the west borders to garnish the same for defense against the enimies: but vpon the true report how the matter had pas|sed, made by maister Henrie Wharton, and one Bi|shop a Scotishman, sent in post for that purpose, that appointment was staied; and maister Wharton was at that time made knight, and the said Bishop richlie rewarded for bringing so good news. Here|with were letters directed downe from the councell to the lord Wharton, for the execution of certeine pledges, that is to saie, the maister of Maxwels Pledges exe|cuted. pledge, being one of his néerest kinsmen of the house of the Herries, also the warden of the Greie friers in Dunfreis, the vicar of Carlauerocke, and diuerse other which were executed at Carlill. In this meane time were the forts at Lawder and Hadington built, the castels of Yester and Dawkith woone, all the mils burnt within foure miles of each hand of Edenburgh, and other exploits atchiued by the Eng|lishmen, as in the historie of England is more at large expressed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now the French king, hauing prepared an 1548. Buch. 1547. Lesle. A nauie pre|pared at Bre [...] in Britaine. armie readie to come into Scotland, caused the same to draw downe to Brest in Britaine, where the ships and gallies were rigged and made readie to passe therewith into Scotland. The chiefe leaders of which armie were these, which had charge chieflie to command in the same: monsieur de Desse lieute|nant generall, monsieur Dandelot coronell of the The chiefe capteins of the French armie that came into Scotland. French footmen, the countée Reingraue coronell of the Almains, monsieur de Malleraie, monfieur Doisell, Pietro Strozzie coronell of the Italians, monsieur Etauges capteine of the horssemen, sir Nicholas de Uillegaignon a knight of the Rhodes (or rather Malta) capteine of the gallies, and mon|sieur Duno commissarie of the artillerie: with di|uerse other woorthie personages, and men of appro|ued valiancie. These capteins with their powers being imbarked at Brest, sailed alongst by the east seas, and at length about the middest of Iune came into the rode before Leith, where they landed their people and ordinance. [A little before whose arriuall Fr. Thin. into France (as saith Lesleus, libro 10. pag. 491.) Chapelle Bironne landed in Scotland, accompa|nied with other nobilitie of France, to giue good counsell to the Scots answerable to the time, which was (to please their eares therwith) that there should a greater armie shortlie come out of France, to suc|cor their extremities.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Afterwards, with the aduise of the gouernor, and other of the Scotish lords, the French power went Hadington besieged. to besiege Hadington, and comming thither, incam|ped themselues in places of aduantage about the towne, cast trenches, planted their ordinance, bat|tered the rampires, and kept them within streictlie besieged on each hand, vsing all the waies they could deuise to constreine the Englishmen to yéeld. They forbare yet to giue a generall assault, bicause they would not hazard (as they haue reported) the losse of Why the Frenchmen forbare to giue an as|sault. so manie men as might haue béene slaine and mai|med thereby, to the great weakening of their power there, hauing not meanes to supplie it when they would.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And yet they had a great armie of Scots with them for a season, and had made the breaches so rea|sonable, EEBO page image 347 that with small paine they might haue en|tered by the same if the force of the defendants had not sufficed with handblowes to haue beaten them backe, as no doubt there was no want of good wils in them so to haue doone, if the Frenchmen h [...]d put the matter in triall: yet during this siege, they with|in st [...]d in great necessitie of things be hoouefull for the defense of the towne. Wherevpon sir Henrie Wharton with a band of light horssemen of the west borders, and others, came and put into the towne a certeine number of men with powder, and other ne|cessaries, greatlie to the reliefe of the besieged, & no lesse displeasure of the Frenchmen and Scots, that were not aware of this enterprise till it was doone in the night season, by the good and fortunate conducti|on of them that had the conueiance thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But after this, there came a power of English horsmen to the number of little lesse than two thou|sand denulances, light horsmen, & harque bussiers on The English horssemen o|uerthrowne. horsbacke, vnder the leading of sir Robert Bowes, sir Thomas Palmer, sir Henrie Wharton, capteine Gambo a Spaniard, and others; the which aduentu|ring ouer rashlie within danger of the whole French power, were ouerthrowne and chased: sir Robert Bowes, & sir Thomas Palmer, with a great num|ber of other capteins, gentlemen and souldiers be|ing taken prisoners, besides those that were slaine. Yet after this ouerthrow of those horssemen, the French remooued their siege from the places where they had first planted it, and lodged further off from the towne, continuing there; till at length by an ar|mie sent foorth of England vnder the conduct of the erle of Shrewsburie, the lord Greie, and others, they The earle of Shrewsburie [...]eth the siege from Hadington. were constreined to retire from thence, as in the English historie ye may find more largelie expres|sed, to the which for the further report of the euents chancing during that siege, I referre the reader.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But this is to be remembred, that whilest the siege remained at Hadington, by a conuention or assem|blie of the lords it was decréed, that the quéene shuld be sent into France. And therevpon monsieur de Uillegaignon, with foure gallies departing from Sir Nicho|las [...]e Uille|gaignon. Leith, made semblance as though he would haue sailed into France: but hauing passed the mouth of the Forth, he turned his course on the left hand to passe alongst the shore northward by the Germane seas, that compassing the land on the east side, hée might passe about by the Iles of Orkeneie, and so by the west Iles, till he came to Dunbreton where the yoong queene laie. This iournie he fortunatelie at|chiued, the same neuer before (to mans remem|brance) being made or attempted with gallies. The French gallies com|passe about the realme of Scotland by Dungesbie head. 1547. Lesle.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At his arriuall & conuenient landing at Dunbre|ton, he found all things readie prouided, necessarie for the imbarking of the quéene, that he might con|uey hir into France, for the accomplishment wherof he had taken that iournie in hand. Herevpon she be|ing brought aboord into the kings owne gallie, wher|in monsieur de Brezze was also appointed to be a|boord with hir, as he that had beene sent with expresse Monsieur de Brezze. commandement to sée hir conueied into France, [with the lords (as saith Lesleus lib. 10. 494) of Are|skine, and Leuingston, the ladie Fleming, with cer|teine Fr. Thin. noble maidens named after the yoong quéene, as Marie Leuingston, Marie Fleming, Marie Se|ton, and Marie Beton] who togither with Uillegaig|non shewed such diligence in atchiuing that enter|prise, The yoong quéene of Scots con|ueied into France. that finally they arriued with prosperous wind and weather in the hauen of Brest in Britaine with that yoong quéene, béeing as then betwixt fiue and sir yéeres of age.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 494. From thence being accompanied with the nobi|litie of that prouince, she kept hir right course to the kings palace of S. Germins in the towne of Lai|on, where she was receiued with great preparation, & there taried the comming thither of the king, at that time pacifieng the sed [...]ons and turmoiles in the inward parts of France. When the king was come, bée gladded all men with his presence, and prouided that there was a large houshold, as well of the noble men and women of Scotland, as of others appointed to the yoong queene, which he still increased (as the quéene grew more in yeeres) vntill such tune as she might be maried.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now to returne to the dooings in Scotland concerning the warres there. After that the siege of Hadington was raised by the English armie, as be|fore ye haue heard the Frenchmen therevpon reti|red themselues vnto Muskelburgh; and choosing forth The French|men incampe at Muskel|burgh. a plot of ground for their aduantage, kept them|selues within the same. And herewith there came to them fifteene thousand Scotishmen to assist them, so that when the Englishmen came forwards to assaile them, they found them so stronglie imbattelled, that (whether their commission did not so farre extend, or whether they had no liking of the match) they for|bare Sée more hereof in England. to set vpon them in that ground of so great dis|aduantage for the assailants, and so returned backe to Hadington, and after homewards, hauing furni|shed the towne with new supplies of men, munition, and vittels sufficient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here is to be noted, that the English fléet ente|ring into the Forth, was readie to haue aided the ar|mie by land, as occasions might haue beene offered. The lord ad|merall of England. But the lord admerall perceiuing no likelihood of battell by land, tooke vpon him to atchiue some other enterprises, and first comming to Brent Iland, set certeine ships on fire there, of the chiefest in the ri|uer; and saluting the towne of Leith as he passed by with canon shot, he determined to land some of his men on the north side of the Forth, to make some spoile within the countrie of Fife. But Iohn Ers|kin The lard of Dun. lard of Dun, as then somewhat diseased, and re|turned home from the campe, caused such dailie and nightlie watch and ward to be kept, that this enter|prise could not be so secretlie conueied by the Eng|lishmen, but that the same was perceiued, and so The English men repelled at saint Me|nets. preuented, that vpon their landing they were forced to retire with losse: and happie was he that might first get againe to shipboord.

Fr. Thn. Buchan. lib. 15. For Iames Steward, brother to the queene (hearing of this tumult) came thither in hast with the common people of saint Andrews, and some other few citizens which were remaining in the towne, to whome the neighbors about did also ioine them|selues, vnderstanding the cause of that assemblie. The English being now come on land, about twelue hundred, stood in warlike sort readie for the battell, and with the feare of the artillerie (which they dis|charged out of their ships) did easilie cause the rude multitude to flie awaie. But this Iames Steward (by litle and litle suppressing the feare of such as fled) did (with such violence) rush vpon his enimies, that foorthwith he ouerthrew them, put them to flight, compelled them to returne to the sea with great slaughter, when also manie of them (as they fled to their ships) were drowned, besides thrée hundred that were slaine, and one hundred taken.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Shrewsburie being come backe from Hadington vnto Dunglas, order was giuen for the building of a fort there, as in the English historie further may appeare. And in the meane time mon|steur de Desse, remaining in campe at Muskel|burgh, hearing that the English armie was remoo|ued homewards, & how diuerse new bands of hors|men and footmen being left in Hadington, were readie to come foorth to skirmish abroad vpon sight of the enimie; he tooke aduise, to trie if he might EEBO page image 348 draw them foorth to their losse, and therevpon was monsieur Dandelot, and the Reingraue appointed to choose foorth a thousand of their lustiest footmen, the which with thrée hundred horssemen were conueied and laid close in ambush, behind a little hill not farre from the towne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This doone, a few horssemen were drawne foorth to draw the Englishmen out of the towne to skir|mish with them. The Englishmen were no sooner aduised that the enimies were there at hand in the field, but that all their horssemen issued out of the towne backe with certeine footmen, and streight had the French in chase; who retiring, mainteined the skirmish, of purpose to make the Englishmen more earnest to come forward. But immediatlie as mon|sieur de Desse saw his time, he gaue signe by sound of trumpet to the footmen to breake foorth, who togi|ther with the horssemen gaue so fierce an onset vpon the enimies, that they were incontinentlie discom|fited: The English men put to the woorsse at a skirmish néere to Hadington. and fleeing toward the towne, were followed by the French euen hard to the walles; diuers were slaine, and aboue an hundred taken prisoners.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, monsieur de Desse raised from Mus|kelburgh, and comming to Leith set in hand to forti|fie that towne. The marshall Strozzi, and monsieur Leith for|tified. Dandelot, with diuerse other capteins imbarking themselues in the gallie that yet remained, tooke their course to returne to France. One of the same gallies (they being eight in number, beside a foist and a brigandine) was taken by an English ship A gallie taken called the falcon, as she passed through the narrow seas at a place named the Southfurlong, she being alone, and (as it chanced) hindermost of all the com|panie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After the departure of monsieur Dandelot, mon|sieur de la Chappelle de Biron remained coronell of the French footmen in Scotland. As for the furni|ture on the water, there remained now but foure gallies vnder the guiding of one capteine Bach an Capteine Bach. Italian, a man of great experience and approoued skill. For ye must vnderstand, that before the ariuall of the English nauie & armie to the succors of them in Hadington, monsieur de Mallerie viceadmerall Monsieur de Mallerie vice admerall of France. of France returned home with the fleet of ships that had brought the French armie into Scotland. In what sort the lord Greie of Wilton afflicted the coun|tries of Tiuidale and Liddesdale, after the returne of the earle of Shrewsburie, is partlie touched in the historie of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the same time, there chanced a mutinie to rise betwixt the Scots and the Frenchmen in Eden|burgh, by reason that a French souldier fell a qua|relling with two or thrée Scotishmen; and falling to|gither A fray betwixt the French souldiers, and the townes|men of Eden|burgh. by the eares, diuerse Scots that came to de|part the fraie, would haue had the Frenchman to prison; but other Frenchmen being there also pre|sent, would not suffer the Scots to take him awaie. Wherevpon arose a great tumult and stirre among them, insomuch that there were diuerse slaine on both parts, namely Iames Hamilton lard of Stan|house, knight, capteine of the castell, and prouost of the towne of Edenburgh, with his sonne; and mai|ster William Steward one of the quéens seruants, besides sundrie other. For the Frenchmen doubting some contriued commotion against them, assem|bled togither in order of battell in the streets; so that before the matter might be appeased by the capteins that shewed their diligent endeuors therin, they had inough to bring it to passe as they wished.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The beginner of this businesse was hanged the same day in the market place of Edenburgh, where he began first to pike the quarell. Monsieur de Desse, to shew that this variance had not procéeded so farre as the brute thereof gaue foorth (for it was rather in|creased ye may be sure than diminished) vndertooke an enterprise in hand to win the towne of Hading|ton by a camisado, but in what sort they missed their The French|men giue a ca|misado to Ha|dington, & are beaten backe. purpose, and how they were well beaten backe, and sent away by the valiant manhood of the English capteins and souldiers then within the towne, yée may read further thereof in the English historie. There were seuen score (some say three hundred) slaine in the base court.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now, forsomuch as I haue said nothing of Broughtie crag besieged by the earle of Argile. Vlpian Ful. Broughtie crag, sithence the lord gouernor raised his siege from thence, ye shall vnderstand, that (as some haue written) shortlie after the earle of Argile came thither with an armie of his Irish Scots, and besieged it. But when he saw he could not preuaile, he tooke truce with them within for a time, and be|fore the same was expired, there came new succors to the Englishmen: so that the earle of Argile (by reason his people had remained there the full terme of their bounden & ordinarie seruice) was constrei|ned He raiseth his siege. to leaue his fiege, and suffer the Englishmen to become maisters of a little hill, where afterwards they builded a fort. And now in the latter end of this The fort buil|ded by the Englishmen at Broughtie crag. yéere, they purposed also to haue fortified Dundée, and to haue kept the same with a garrison of souldi|ers; but hearing that monsieur de Desse with his Frenchmen was comming thitherwards, they a|uoided Dundée aban|doned of the Englishmen. the towne of their owne accord, hauing first spoiled the houses, and after set them on fire.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Reingraue with two bands of his Almains, and monsieur de Etauges with his companie of horssemen were sent before, who comming to Dun|dée, and finding the Englishmen gone, incamped there, staieng till monsieur de Desse was come, that followed at hand with the French footmen. Within two daies after, they going foorth to view the fort, were in danger to haue beene caught yer they could get backe againe. For the Englishmen and Lance|knights that were there with them (part of Conrad Phennings bands) issued foorth, and droue them to retire, not without danger to haue béene distressed, if the Reingraue had not vsed the greater policie in The Rein|graue. retiring the troope. To be short, monsieur de Desse, to stop the Englishmen from entering anie further into the countrie on that side, left seuen ensignes of Frenchmen, & two ensignes of Scots within Dun|dée, Dundée for|tified by the Frenchmen. with artillerie and pioners to fortifie the towne, & to keepe it in safetie from the Englishmen. This doone, he returned to Edenburgh, and sent the resi|due of his people abroad into the countrie, to lodge in townes and villages here & there, as was thought most expedient, for the better refreshing of them af|ter their long trauell.

Fr. Thin. 1548. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 498. While these things were in dooing, the gouernor of Scotland sent the lord Carneigeie knight (and se|nator) ambassador to the protector of England, which should for ransome (as the custome is) demand deli|uerie of the earle of Huntleie being prisoner: which if he could not obteine, that then he should request this libertie, that his wife and children might come vnto him into England. Wherevnto the protector answered, that he would not set the earle frée, vntill the warres were ended: but for the companie of his wife, he was content to grant it for certeine daies; with this prouiso, that he should not withdraw him|selfe by anie means from the custodie of Rafe Uane (corruptlie by Lesleus called Wane) who had taken him in the warres. Wherefore, when the ambassador was returned into Scotland, Huntleie was com|mitted to certeine kéepers, who should carie him from London to Morphet, distant twentie and foure miles from the borders of Scotland. Now whilest the earle dooth there looke for his wiues comming to him, he thinketh vpon escape, and to come to hir. For EEBO page image 349 he had agréed with George Kar, that he should one night priuilie bring to him thither, two of the swif|test horsses that he could get to flie awaie vpon them. According wherevnto Kar was readie out of the borders of Scotland with such horses as he knew would serue the turne, wherof one was for the earle, and the other was for his man.

The erle prepareth a supper for his kéepers, where|vnto they were solemnelie inuited, and to plaie at cards with him to passe awaie the tediousnes of the night. At length (as though he had plaied inough at cards) he left off, but earnestlie desired his kéepers that they should continue on their game. During which, the earle (going vnto the window, and looking out) did by a secret signe (for he could not well dis|cerne anie thing, it was so extreame darke ouer all the element) easilie vnderstand that all things were readie for his iournie. The earle then doubtfull (be|ing sometime in good hope, and sometime in feare) thought vpon manie things, which he mustered to himselfe: and at length vnaduisedlie (as doubtfull men are woont to doo) burst out in these speeches;

Oh sorrow, all these things be a hinderance vnto me, the sharpenesse of the winter night, the doubt of my weake force and helpe, the let of an vnknowne way, and the want of a faithfull guide: God prosper the iourneie.
His kéepers hearing him speake to him|selfe, asked him what those secret spéeches might sig|nifie: to whom the earle (knowing that he was guil|tie of his fault) answered, that those words were v|sed as a prouerbe amongst the Scots: and first had their beginning by the old earle Morton, vttering the same in the middle of the night when he lay in dieng. Whervpon (to the end that his kéepers should not haue anie suspicion of his determined flight) he sitteth downe againe to cards.

After which suddenlie he rose from them, as vr|ged by loosenesse of his bellie to vnburden nature, by which occasion he foorthwith (accompanied onelie with his seruant) leapeth foorth, found the horsses rea|die furnished for himselfe and his man, got on them, & with speedie iournie did flie to the borders of Scot|land. When he was passed ouer the riuer of Twéed, and had a little refreshed himselfe from the labor of his iournie in the house of Kar, he went the same night (being Christmas éeue) to Edenburgh, where he was ioifullie & honorablie receiued of the quéene, the gouernor, his wife, and his other friends, with an vniuersall gladnesse of the whole multitude of the towne. As soone as his kéepers perceiued that he was gone, they spéedilie run to horsse, and (doubtfull which way to follow) they séeke him here, and there, and euerie where, but all in vaine, for the diligence of the erle put them out of all doubt for obteining him. Whose flight was not onelie a fréedome to himselfe, but also to manie other noble prisoners, who (vpon the assurance of his faith and word) were permitted to depart into Scotland. The gouernor therefore, to congratulate with the earle for his returne, restored vnto him the chancellorship, and the rule of manie o|ther prouinces which he had before his captiuitie. For which cause when he had remained a while at Eden|burgh, he returned to the north parts of Scot [...]d, where spéed [...]e and easilie he appeased all the tumults of those people.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 On saint Stephans day at night, the castell of Hume was scaled, and [...] out of the English|mens Hume castell recouered by the Scots. hands. One of the surname of the Humes, a man of threescore yeers of age, was the first that en|tered on the wall, sleieng one of the watchmen that kept his wa [...]e on that side. [...]. Thin. Buchan. li. 15. 1549. Lesle. Notlong after, when the cap [...]ine of Falkecastell had [...] the h [...]|bandmen ad [...]ing, to bring thither, (at a [...] day) great store of vittels, the yoong men there a|bouts hauing that occasion, assembled thither at the day appointed, who taking their burdens from the horses, and laieng them on their shoulders, were re|ceiued (after they had passed the bridge, which was made ouer two high rocks) into the castle, where (laieng downe that which they brought) they sudden|lie (by a signe giuen) set vpon the keepers of the gates, slue them, and (before the other Englishmen could be assembled) possessed the other places, wea|pons, and artillerie of the castell, and then receiuing the rest of their companie into the same (through the great and open gate) they wholie kept and inioied the castell for their countrimen.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 About the same time, the Reinsgraue returned in|to 1546. The Reins|graue retur|neth into France. Mo [...]sieur de Etauges ta|ken prisoner by the Eng|lishmen. France, leauing his fiue ensignes of Almains behind him, vnder the charge of capteine Retonze, a good man of warre and of great experience. Also monsieur de Etauges was taken in a skirmish at Broughtie crag, as I haue noted in the English hi|storie: & about the same time, there landed at Dun|breton foure bands of souldiers, Prouancois and Gascoignes, bringing monie with them to paie the souldiers their wages, behind as then for the space of three moneths. Sir Iames Wilford also was taken Sir Iames wilford taken about the same time by the Frenchmen, in a skir|mish at Dunbar (as I haue also noted in the histo|rie of England.) Not long after, monsieur de Desse was appointed by the queene Dowager, to go vnto Iedworth, to preuent that the Englishmen should not fortifie there, whereof she stood in some doubt.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Immediatlie vpon his comming thither, the lard of Fern [...]hurst requested him to helpe to recouer his castell of Fernihurst out of the Englishmens hands, which they had taken from him and kept, greatlie to the annoiance of all the countrie there abouts. Mon|sieur de Desse taking with him monsieur de Disell, and monsieur de la Chapelle de Biton, hasted thither with the chiefest part of his armie, sending before certeine capteins with their [...] to surueie the house; who at their comming thither, vsed such dili|gence in following the offered occasion, that they both repelled their enimies that came foorth to giue them the skirmish; and pursuing them with great ri|gor, wan the li [...]s of the house vpon them, forcing the capteine and souldiers to retire within the dun|geon, and kept them so short therein, that they had opportunitie to mine an hole though the wall, of such largenes, as a man might easilie enter by the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Heerewith a great number of Scots hauing broken open the gate of the base court, where the The castell of Fernihurst woone by the Frenchmen. Frenchmen were busie to assault the dungeon, burst in on heapes, and namelie of their capteine, who (as they said) had doone them manie great displeasures. The capteine perceiuing this, and doubting if he fell into the Scotishmens hands he should die for it, he presented himselfe at the hole which the Frenchmen had made, and yeelded himselfe to monsieur de Dussac, and la Mouthe Rouge, who minding to vse him as became men of warre, would haue led him out of the prese: but suddenlie a Scot comming behind him, whose wife (as was reported) he had rauished, smote off his head so iust from the shoulders, that it The crueltis of the Scots. leapt foure or fiue yards quite from the bodie. Manie other cruell parts the Scots seemed to shew against other Englishmen towards them before that time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Monsieur de Desse returning to I [...]worth, aided by the furtherance and counsell of the Scots, ceassed not in occasions of aduantage to attempt new en|terprises against the Englishmen, as time and oppor|tunitie seru [...]: and [...]ong other exploits, the castell The castell of Cornewall [...]. of Cornewall (an old house [...] after the ancient EEBO page image 350 maner of fortifieng) was taken by the Frenchmen, and spoiled of all things woorth the bearing awaie. Also capteine Cobios a Frenchman, hauing a band Capteine Co|bios. of fiftie light horssemen Scots seruing vnder him, on a night had a faire hand against a number of English horssemen, whome he charged so on the sud|den, as he saw them out of order, that he easilie dis|comfited them, and tooke more prisoners (whome he brought to Iedworth) than he had persons in his companie to assaile them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Monsieur de la Chapelle de Biron, was sent foorth A road made by monsieur de la Chapelle de Biron. by monsieur de Desse, with the companie of horsse|men that belonged to monsieur de E [...]auges then prisoner, and fiue hundred footmen beside Scots, to make a road into England: which enterprise he at|chiued in burning townes and villages, and retur|ned without anie great losse susteined at that time. Within two daies after his returne to Iedworth, monsieur de Desse dislodged from thence, & taking Another made by monsieur de Desse. Fourd castell woone. with him foure field péeces, and all his men of war, entered into England, tooke the castell of Fourd and burnt it, with ten small villages in the countrie thereabouts, situat within halfe a mile ech of other. There was one tower yet parcell of that castell of Fourd, which was kept by Thomas Kar, so that the Thomas Kar Frenchmen could not win it, for they had no time to staie long about it, remoouing that night ouer the water, & incamped there within the Scotish ground.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 As the Scots and Frenchmen executed these en|terprises, they were coasted by certeine light horsse|men; but neuerthelesse the Frenchmen returned in safetie to Iedworth, hauing sore indamaged the English borderers by that road: insomuch as it was thought, the Scots (which were with them at that road) gained at that time, by pillage and booties to the value of nine thousand crownes. The English|men Scots gaine by spoile. sore gréeued, that the Frenchmen lieng thus in Iedworth, should in such wise addresse one enterprise after an other against them, so greatlie to their an|noiance, assembled a power togither at Roxburgh, purposing to haue assailed the Frenchmen in their campe at Iedworth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But monsieur de Desse hauing warning thereof, Monsieur de Desse fléeth out of Ied|worth for feare of the Englishmen. departed from thence first to Melrosse, and after fur|ther off within the countrie, fearing to be constrei|ned to giue battell. Which he could not haue doone without manifest losse of his féeble armie, hauing not past fiftéene hundred footmen, and fiue hundred horssemen able to haue doone seruice: for such was the miserie, which they had in manner continuallie su [...]ined through want of vittels, and other necessa|rie helps during the time of their incamping at Ied|worth, that what through sickenesse and hurts recei|ued in assaults and skirmishes, no small number of them were dead, and manie other so féeble, that they The misera|ble state of the Frenchmen in Scotland. were not able to aid themselues; insomuch that now being got out of danger, they thought themselues happilie escaped.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, in the beginning of the summer, the Englishmen arm fiue and twentie saile of men of warre, the which arriuing at the Basse, néere to the mouth of the F [...]th, assailed by faire and pleasant words to haue persuaded the kéepers of the castell, there standing on the height of a great recke, to haue yéelded the place into their hands. But perceiuing their persuasions would not be regarded, they tooke their course vp into the Forth, and finding in their waie foure ships of Frenchmen and Scots, seized vpon them as a wished preie: and the morrow next insuing, at the verie breake of day, they came before Leith, and saluting the towne with canon shot, [...]|mained there at anchor ten or twelue daies, in which meane while they landed their people at Inskith, and Inskith forti|fied by the Englishmen. began to fortifie with all diligence. But before the place could be put in anie strength, the ships depar|ted from thence backe towards the sea, and left in the Iland foure ensignes of Englishmen, and one ensigne of Italians, to defend the pioners and the Iland against the Scots and Frenchmen, if they should attempt to assaile them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After the English nauie was thus departed, mon|sieur de Desse, and the queene mother being at E|denburgh, determined with all diligence to imploie all such forces as they might make about the recoue|ring of the Ile, before the fortifications begun by the Englishmen should be brought to anie perfection. Heerevpon, monsieur de la Chapelle de Biron, im|barked La Chape [...] de Biron. in the gallie of monsieur de Uillegaignon, rowed foorth to view the maner of the Englishmens dealing within the Ile, which he did in such effectuall wise, that approching within harquebuse shot, he brought knowledge with him not onelie of the state and whole circumstances of their buildings, but also of the perfect number of their ensignes, and the qua|litie of the men of warre that serued vnder the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At that present also, monsieur de Thermes latelie before arriued at Dunbreton with an hundred men of armes, and two hundred light horssemen after the manner of France, and one thousand footmen, was come to the quéene, busie now to further this enter|prise. She had got togither within Leith hauen all the botes that belonged to all the créekes & hauens of the Forth: so that on thursdaie after Trinitie sun|daie, The diligence of the Scotish quéene. euerie thing being prepared readie for the pur|pose, in the morning by the breake of day the quéene was come to Leith, to sée the imbarking of the men of warre appointed that day to trie what successe for|tune would send them. There was no diligence wan|ting, neither among the Scots nor Frenchmen, to bestow themselues abroad, & the comfortable woords The forward nesse of the souldiers. of the quéene greatlie incouraged them thereto, be|holding them, and deuising with monsieur de Desse and the other capteins, till they were all set forward.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Uillegaignon with his gallies passed on before to kéepe the Englishmen occupied, so as they should not perceiue the Frenchmens meaning: but they Insaith as|saulted by the Frenchmen. discouering the vessels at their setting foorth, concei|ued streightwaies what was intended: and there vp|on prepared to keepe the enimies off from landing, so that vpon the Frenchmens approch, they saluted them with arrowes and harquebuse shot verie hot|lie: yet at length by fine force the Scots and French|men got on land, and droue the Englishmen and I|talians backe from the sea strond vp to the higher ground, where they stood at defense on a plumpe togi|ther, dooing their best to defend the place against the assailants.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But finallie, their generall named Cotton, being Capteine Cotton gene|rall of Ins|kith and o|thers slaine. slaine with George Applebie esquire, a capteine of an ensigne of footmen sent foorth of Derbishire, and one Gaspar Pizoni, that was capteine of the Italians, beside diuers other gentlemen, and the most princi|pall men of warre and souldiers among them: the residue were constreined to retire vnto a corner or point of the Iland, where they were taken without further resistance, although before they had made ve|rie stout defense, hurt and staine diuerse Scots and Frenchmen, both at their landing, and also after they were entered on land. Among other, monsieur de la Chapelle de Biron was striken through the hand Monsieur de la Chap [...] hurt. with an harquebuse shot, and his burguenet beaten so into his head, that his friends that were about him, were faine to conuei [...] him into one of the gal|lies to be dressed of his hurts by a surgian. Also a gentleman named Desbo [...]ies, which bare the said [...]sieur de la Chapelle his cor [...]nell ensigne, was slaine with a pike by the hands of the forenamed Cotton the English generall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 351 Thus was Inskith recouered out of the English|mens Inskith reco| [...]ed by the Frenchmen. hands, after it had beene in their possession by the space of sixtéene daies, the more to the high con|tentation of monsieur de Desse, for that at the same time he stood vpon his discharge and returne into France, being appointed to surrender vp his place to monsieur de Thermes, latelie before arriued (as ye haue heard) with commission to receiue the same. So that monsieur de Desse, to end his charge with Monsieur de Desse retur|neth into France. the glorie of this atchiued enterprise, estéemed it much to stand with his honor: and no doubt with the swelling humor of the glorie thence redounding he was blowen vp; as in cases of victorie it commeth to passe in them that make a good hand: whereas the vanquished (God wot) are contrarilie qualified.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, he returned into France with the gallies, and monsieur de Thermes succéeded in his Monsieur de Thermes succéedeth in his place. place for the generall conduct of the French armie in Scotland. Who by the aduise of the gouernor, and other of the Scotish lords, determined with a siege volant to kéepe the Englishmen in Hadington from vittels and all other reliefe. First therefore, after that Desse was departed towards France, mon|sieur de Thermes with his Frenchmen and some Scots incamped at Aberladie, where they began the foundation of a fort, so to impeach the Englishmen A for [...] buil|ded at Aberla|die. from setting on land anie vittels there, to be conneid from thence to Hadington, as before they had doone.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane time, the Englishmen had increa|sed their numbers of Almaines, and other stran|gers, and not onelie furnished their forts with new supplies of men; but also had an armie in the fields which lay most an end at Dunglas, and one while besieged Hume castell. But after they saw them|selues disappointed of the meane, whereby they sup|posed to haue recouered it, they raised from thence, and spoiled the most part of Tiuidale and other the marches there about; in reuenge (as they alleged) of the disloialtie and breach of promise proued in the as|sured Scots. Generall of this armie was the earle of Rutland, lieutenant at that present of the north parts, a noble man, right valiant, wise, well aduised, The earle of Rutland. and staied in his dealings, verie honorable and cour|teous in all his demeanor.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He was accompanied with capteins of good esti|mation and approoued prowesse, as sir Richard Ma|ners, sir Francis Leake, sir Iohn Sauage, sir Tho|mas Holcroft, sir Oswald Wulstrop, & others. He so behaued himselfe in that dangerous time of the vprores and rebellions of the commons, through the more part of the realme of England; that although the appointed forces against Scotland were staied, and turned to the suppression of the rebels, to the in|couragement (no doubt) both of Scots and French|men in Scotland, yet they were so fronted and kept in aw by that armie vnder the earle of Rutland, that they rather lost than gained in this season at the Englishmens hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At one time the same armie, vnder the conduct of the said earle, passing foorth with a conueie of vittels vnto Hadington, came so suddenlie vpon the Frenchmen where they laie in campe, that whether through default of their scouts, or other negligence vsed by them, or through the great diligence and pro|uident forwardnesse shewed by the Englishmen, the Frenchmen were in such hazard to haue béene vtter|lie The French|men in danger to haue béene distressed. distressed, that if the Englishmen had not doub|ted more, than by anie was thought néedfull, they might haue ouerthrowen, taken, & slaine the French|men handsmooth (as was supposed) at their pleasure. But the Englishmen euen at their first comming in sight of them (as it stood with the reason of warre, sith by the aduenturing rashlie oftentimes in such cases too late repentance easilie insueth) staied, the better to conceiue of that which they had to doo. Wher|by the Frenchmen had leasure to march their waies a maine pase, till they were got out of danger: for after they once beheld all the troops of the English horssemen almost at their elbowes, and herewith the battell of the Almaines suddenlie appearing on The French|men retire. the hill top readie to come downe vpon them, it was no need to bid them packe awaie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Scotish light horssemen comming on the backe of the English armie, perceiued where the Al|maines (to make them readie to giue battell) had throwen off their clokes, and left the same (with all their baggage and stuffe which they had about them) in kéeping of none but of their women and boies: where vpon those Scotish horssemen, not minding to suffer such a preie to escape their hands, came gallo|ping in, and tooke all the best stuffe they could lay hold vpon, and returned in safetie, before anie eni|mie The baggage of the English Lansquenets spoiled by the Scotish horsse men. could come backe to the rescue. The Almains were in no small chafe for the losse of their garments and other necessaries; but there was no helpe then to séeke remedie in that behalfe: for the Scots were withdrawen and got quite out of danger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The English armie, after that the Frenchmen were thus fled and gone, passed foorth to Hadington, with their cariages laden with vittels, to the great comfort of them within that fortresse, standing in Hadington vittelled. great necessitie before this conueie came. This summer also, and a little before the vittelling thus of Hadington, vpon knowledge had that Iulian Ro|mero Iulian Ro|mero distres|sed. with his band of Spaniards, whereof he was capteine, seruing the king of England, was lodged in Coldingham, six miles distant from Berwike: certeine bands of Almains and Frenchmen came thither vpon the sudden, and surprising the Spani|ards before they were aware of their approch, set vp|on them in their lodgings, tooke, and slue in maner the whole number of them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Things passing in this wise in Scotland in the summer of this yeare 1549, the Englishmen were 1549. not onelie in the meane time sore troubled with com|motions raised by the commons of that realme; but also with the warres which the French king made a|gainst them, within the countrie of Bullognois, so that they had not meanes to imploie their forces a|gainst Scotland as they had determined to haue doone; as partlie before, and more largelie in the hi|storie of England is mentioned. By reason whereof, anon after Michaelmas they gaue ouer the kéeping Hadington raced and left by the Eng|lishmen. of Hadington, and raising their fortifications there, they returned into England to the great reioising of Louthian, to whome that towne had giuen occa|sion of great troubles and calamities. Upon the gi|uing ouer thus of Hadington, the gouernor and the quéene Dowager were aduanced, in hope to reco|uer againe all that the Englishmen held within the bounds of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But first it was thought good to assaie the win|ning of Broughtie crag; for it sounded (as was thought) greatlie to the diminishing of the estima|tion, aswell of the Scots as Frenchmen, that the English should kéepe foot so far within the realme, in despight of their whole puissance. Herevpon mon|sieur 1550. de Thermes about Candlemasse, hauing all things in a readinesse for the siege, came thither, and did so much, what with shot of canon to make bat|terie, and other meanes of inforcements, that gi|uing Broughtie crag woon by the French|men. the assault both with Scots and Frenchmen, they entred the fort the twentith of Februarie by fine force, so that all those within were either taken or slaine. Whervpon those English also that kept the castell, rendred vp the same without further resi|stance, amongest other prisoners: sir Iohn Lutte|rell the capteine was one.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 352 In this meane time there were certeine commis|sioners appointed betwixt the two kings of Eng|land and France to commune of a peace: but be|cause A treatie for peace. they continued long in their treatie yer they could agrée, the Scots and Frenchmen surceassed not in occasions of aduantage to pursue the warre, so that comming before Lowder they besieged that fortresse, & skirmishing with the Englishmen that issued foorth, to incounter them, droue them in at the gates with some losse on either part. And this doone, the French held them within so strcictlie besieged, that if peace had not béene the sooner concluded, sir Hugh Willoughbie capteine of that fort must néeds Sir Hugh willoughbie. haue yeelded through lacke of shot, & other necessarie things seruing for defense; which were spent, so that they were constreined to vse their pewter vessell in stead of bullets. But as it fortuned, a peace was ac|corded, A peace con|cluded. passed, and confirmed, that verie selfe time betwixt the two kings of England and France, through the diligent and orderlie trauell of the com|missioners The names of the commis|sioners ap|pointed to treat of peace. appointed to deale therein, whose names insue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 First for the king of England, the right honora|ble Iohn earle of Bedford, knight of the garter, and lord priuie seale; William Paget lord of Beau|desert, knight also of the garter; sir William Peter knight, chiefe secretarie to the said king; & sir Iohn Mason knight, secretarie to him for the French toong. For the French king were appointed Fran|cis de Montmorance, lord of Rochpot, knight of the order of saint Michaell, and lieutenant for the same king of Picardie, in absence of monsieur, de Uan|dosme; Gasper de Colignie, lord of Chastillon, knight also of the order, and capteine generall of the footmen of France, and the said kings lieutenant generall in the countie of Bullogne; Andrew Guil|lard lord Mortier, knight also of the order, and one of the same kings priuie councell; and Guillaume Bouchettell lord of Sassie, knight likewise of the order, & secretarie of the estate of the finances. [And for the Scots (as saith Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 506.) Fr. Thin. D. Painter bishop or Rosse.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Among other articles comprised in this peace, it was couenanted, that all such forts, castels, and The articles of the peace. places as the Englishmen held in anie part within the Scotish dominions, should be deliuered and re|stored to the Scots; and that the forts of Dunglas, Roxburgh, and Aimouth, which the Englishmen had built and raised out of the ground, should be raced and throwen downe, to auoid all occasions of new controuersies that might grow by reason of kéeping or defending the same: so as the peace now conclu|ded, might in all points be firmelie and truelie kept and obserued, aswell betwixt England and Scot|land, as England and France, and betwixt all and euerie the subiects of the same realmes, both by sea and land. Monsieur de Mourret was sent into Scot|land with the copie of this peace, by whose means it Monsieur de Mourret. was proclamed anon after Easter about the begin|ning of Aprill, and euerie thing vsed and ordered ac|cording to the articles of the agréement concluded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Maie the Frenchmen and Almaines were im|barked at Leith in sixtéene French ships, and cer|teine Scotish ships, and departed from thence in|to The French|men returne home. France. A few there were, as Nigropellice and Saint Falcise, capteins of light horssemen, with o|thers that passed through England, and so home into their countrie. Moreouer the marquesse de Maine, The mar|quesse de Maine. after duke Daumals comming ouer into England about the same time for an hostage, passed after|wards through the realme into Scotland, to visit his sister queene Dowager, and shortlie after returned. They mourned both for the death of their father The death of the first duke of Guise. Claud de Loraine, the first duke of Guise, who de|ceassed the eightéenth of Aprill this present yeare 1550.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 507.Now when the French departed out of Scot|land; there were manie Scots appointed vnto them; partlie, to defend them from pirats, if they should of|fer them anie iniurie in the streict of the British sea, and partlie for honors cause to bring them on their iournie into France. By whose departure Scotland was fréelie deliuered from all forren soul|diers, except certeine Frenchmen, who remained still in the countrie; because they had the Ile of Ins|keth and the castell of Dunbar committed to their charge, which afterwards they did most faithfullie discharge. Monsieur de Thermes, Chappellie, and diuerse other capteins of France, remained also in Scotland (after that the others were imbarked to be gone into France) for pleasures cause, and to sée the countrie; who (trauelling ouer Scotland, and behol|ding the cities, searching the castels, and marking the bulworks of defense) did constantlie affirme, that in the whole world they neuer saw forts and townes more pleasantlie placed, or more naturallie defended. In séeing whereof they consumed the time with great pleasure, vntill the moneth of December, in which they all went into France with the quéene Dowager.

Thus, as there was peace (by the departing of the Buchanan lib. 15. French) with forren nations, which continued three yeares: so was there within the wals and king|dome warre and dissention amongest the Scots; which was most perillous and troublesome. For they which were the chiefe rulers (as the gouernor and his brother the archbishop of saint Andrews and others) did vse all things with extreame cruel|tie & couetousnesse. For the archbishop, being giuen to all libertie, followed by law his pleasures in all things, as though it had béene permitted vnto him. For first, as a presage of his following tyrannie, he permitted the slaughter of William Chreichton to go vnpunished, the same William being slaine in the gouernors house (if not within his owne sight) by Robert Semple: next followed the death of Iohn Maluill an old man of Fife; who next vnto the gouernor was most accounted of by him, as chie|fest of his familiars. This Iohn had his letters (which he wrote to an Englishman, to whome he did commend a capteine his friend) intercepted. In which, although there were not anie suspicion of anie fault, yet was the author of them punished with the losse of his head. Whose patrimonie made his death seeme the more vile; because the same was giuen to the yoonger sonne of the gouernor. The hurts of these wicked parts did perteine to few, the enimie there|of to manie, and the example vniuersallie to all. For by reason of this vnskilfull gouernement of the kingdome, and the slo [...]th of his life, which offended the common people; the gouernor began to be had in contempt almost of all men.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In September following, the quéene Dowager accompanied with the earls of Huntleie, Cassils, Marshall, Southerland, and diuerse other of the Scotish nobilitie tooke the sea, and sailing to France The quéene Dowager sai|leth into France. landed at Diepe: she was conueied thither by the prior of Capoa, & Leon Strozzie, sent and appoin|ted with six gallies to haue the conduction of hir. From Diepe she remoued to Rone, where the king then laie, of whome she was right courteouslie recei|ued, and had such attendance and seruice doone vnto hir, during the time of hir tariance there, as stood with the dignitie of hir person, and was answerable to the minds and expectations of hir traine; to the high praise likewise of the king and his court in that behalfe.

The causes of the quéene Dowagers going into EEBO page image 353 France were, that now hauing disposed all things at Buchanan. lib. 15. Lesleus lib. 10 pag. 508. home in Scotland, she might renew the old league in France, she might sée hir daughter and hir other friends; and procure the gouernement of the realme to hir selfe. For the ambitious and subtill woman did thinke in hir mind, that the gouernor by his euill demeanor would soone be put out of his office, and that she might easilie find means to be substituted in his place. But before hir shipping into France, and whilest they were preparing, the earle of Huntleie commanded William Makintosche (chiefe of the fa|milie of the Glenchattens, and his followers) to be apprehended (for a conspiracie secretlie begun a|gainst 1551. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 508 him, whilest he was the kings deputie in those north parts) and from thence (being first depriued of all his goods) caried him to Strachbolgie, where he was beheaded. Which fact (greatlie offending the minds of the earle of Cassils, and others that fauored the Makintosche) did so stir them against Huntleie, that a commotion and tumult had béene raised by them, vnlesse the wisedome of the quéene had appea|sed the furie of their minds.

For although the quéene certeine yeares after, had vndoone the sentence of proscription for the goods of Makintosche (restoring the same with the possessions and inheritances vnto the sonne of Makintosche) and thereby had seemed to cut awaie the cause of dissention betwéene Huntleie and them: yet the kindred and friends of the Glenchattens (not suffe|ring so great an iniurie to their familie to go vnre|uenged) did secretlie (but eagerlie) pursue the same with great contention of mind. Wherefore entring the castell of Pet by deceipt, they apprehended Lanchlane Makintosche, and (condemning all his followers to banishment) did cruellie kill him (as Lanchlane Makintosche apprehended. the betraior of the head of his owne familie) because they supposed, that he ministred and blew the cole that fired Huntleie, to make the said William Ma|kintosche out of the waie.

A little before which, the maister of Ereskine, and Henrie Senclere deane of Glascow were sent in|to Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 509. England; who at London did anew confirme the peace concluded before with the English; from whence they passed into Flanders, to make the like league with the low countries, which they did re|new, to the great reioising of both nations; although in the beginning of the treatie there grew great and contentious questions for the restitution of the ships of Flanders and Holland (whereof the Scots had taken manie in the warres) notwithstanding that the Scots had alleged, that they did not offer anie violence to those of the low countries, before that they (by the persuasion of the English) had offered wrong to the Scots, in deteining their ships and merchandize

Thus much digressed from [...]he quéene Dowagers going into France, wherevnto afresh to direct our pen, we say; that being at Rone, the king did there openlie make shew of hir welcome vnto him by di|uerse arguments. Amongst which, this was not the least: that (besides other shews, honorable triumphs, & manie courtesies shewed to the Scots) calling a chapter of the knights of the order of saint Michaell, he admitted the earle of Huntleie and other chiefe lords of Scotland deere to the queene, and fauored by him, into the said order. Which honors and pleasures séemed the more augmented, in that the yoong quéene of Scots was there present, adorned with such sin|gular beautie, as was not easilie to be spoken, by the iudgement of Lesleus. After that they had thus spent some time in delights of courtesie, to feed the mind and eie, the king of France, the two quéens of Scotland, and the other nobles, departed from thence to Paris; where they were with great triumph of the citizens most ioifullie receiued. At what time a|gaine, the French king shewed such humanitie to Huntleie, and the other Scots; that he séemed for euer most firmelie to bind them vnto him. After that they spent some daies there at Paris, the king with that companie remoued to Blesies; where he remained all the winter.

Now the quéene Dowager, thinking the time Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 510. and place fit for the executing of the cause of hir com|ming into France, and vsing therein the aduise of the duke of Guise, and the cardinall of Loreine (hir brethren) openeth the same vnto the French king, shewing that amongest others, the chiefest cause to take that iournie, was to require his opinion, tou|ching the gouernement of the kingdome of Scot|land: and to know, if it pleased him that the helme of the same kingdome should be committed to hir rule. Which if he misliked, or deemed the contrarie; that yet she would wholie rest on his determination. The which matter pleased well the king, but yet with this promise; if the gouernor without anie tumult or raising of quarrels would giue it ouer.

Wherevpon the quéene, to bring euerie thing a|bout as she desired, did persuade the king to con|firme the dukedome of Chatelerault in France, vn|to the gouernor, before granted to him and to his Buchanan. lib. 16. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 410. heires, & to make his eldest son erle of Arraine chiefe capteine of the bands of Scots in France. And further, to giue the earledome of Murreie to the earle of Huntleie (kinsman to the gouernor) and to his heires; the earledome of Rothseie to his sonne, which had maried the kinsman of the said gouernor; the whole earledome of Angus, to the earle thereof; and the erledome of Morton, to the sonne of George Dowglasse. All which he should procure likewise to be confirmed by such, as should be gouernors of the yoong quéene. These things now doone, the French king carefullie receiued the yoong quéene of Scots into his protection; vntill she should come vnto more sufficient yeers, able to confirme all these gifts; the which if she refused then to doo, the French king wold then bestow as large possessions on them in France.

In the meane time the gouernor had sent Car|negie knight and senator into France, who should in the name of the Scots giue great thanks to the king for the aid which they receiued out of France, against the Englishmen. After this the French king did liberallie open the determination of the queene mother of Scotland to the bishop of Rosse (then am|bassador for the Scots in France) to Robert Car|negie, and to Gawin Hamilton (to whom, as was said, the abbeie of Kiluinin was giuen in commen|dam) to the end that the same which was at the first secretlie consulted betwéene the king of France & the quéene Dowager, might now openlie be con|sidered among the Scots which were in France: declaring further, that he desired nothing more, than that the quéene mother should susteine the parts and place of the queene hir daughter, in the administra|tion and gouernement of Scotland, sith the same mostlie stood with reason and equitie; and that he (the better to win the gouernor to yéeld therevnto) had giuen the gouernor the dukedome of Chatelerault, to his sonne the capteinship of all the Scots in France, and manie other liberall benefits to manie other of his kinsmen.

And to the end that no deceipt might be supposed to be hidden vnder this liberalitie, the French king willed the ambassadour to take possession of all these things in the dukes name. Robert Carnegie hauing his errand, returned into Scotland; & short|lie after, the bishop of Rosse was appointed ambas|sador, who at length with much adoo did wring from the gouernor a consent to part from his authoritie, EEBO page image 354 and to applie himselfe to the will of the French king: which thus in the end obteined, the bishop of Rosse goeth againe into France, to aduertise the king what he had doone. Wherevpon the king considering his painfull & faithfull seruice, did reward him with the abbeie of Labseie in France.

Whilest these things were in dooing, Edward Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 511. the sixt, king of England, did send the marquesse of Northampton, & other of the nobler sort of ambassa|dors to Henrie the second, king of France, then so|tourning at Blesies, to moue him to giue his daugh|ter Blois. in mariage to the king of England. At what time there were [...]anie martiall games and pastimes shewed before the king, in which the English ioining the Scots with them as companions of their sports, did beare a part, and wan the garland (from the o|thers) to their singular commendation. The summer next following, the French king accompanied with the quéene mother of Scotland and other of the no|bilitie, did with great pompe enter Turon, Aniow, Nants, and other cities of Britaine, which he had not before seene since he atteined the crowne. After cer|teine moneths consumed in those iournies, he retur|ned to Founteinblew.

But the quéene Dowager of Scotland, taking hir courteous leaue and farwell of the French king, Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 512. hir daughter, & of other the nobilitie, departed from the court, and with easie iournies came to Iamiestie: where re [...]ng a certeine time, she had the plea|sant companie of hir mother the duches of Guise, and hir other friends to their great ioy: but that the shewed a certeine griefe (for hir father latelie decea|sed) which somewhat diminished the sweet pleasure of that méeting. Now when the quéene Dowager had remained almost 12 moneths or more in France, honorablie interteined, bountifullie feasted, louing|lie saluted by hir friends and kinred, and hauing ob|teined a willing grant of the effects of hir request, the Scots doo vrge hir to hasten hir returne into Scotland, preparing at Paris all things necessarie therevnto.

Wherefore departing thence, and comming a|gaine to Rone, the quene mother mooued and per|suaded Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 512. the nobilitie about the taking of hir iournie through [...] into Scotland. By occasion wher|of, loosing their ships from Newport, they passe the seas, and happilie landed at Portesmouth, a famous port of England. The knowledge of which arriuall comming to king Edward the sixt, he presentlie sent thither the earle of Southampton, and the lord Wil|liam Howard to interteine hir: who receiued hir with singular ioy and courtesie, and conueied hir through Hampshire, Sussex, and Surreie (three pro|uinces of England) to Hampton court, where the king as then remained; from whence (after that the had béene there most honorablie receiued) she came along the riuer of Thames to London, and landed at Poules wharfe in the after noone, and from thence rode to the bishop of Londons palace by Poules, and there lodged.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The fo [...] of Nouember, she rode in hir chariot to the kings palace of the Whitehall, accompanied with the ladie margaret Dowglas, the three dutches|ses, of Suffolke, Richmund, and Northumberland, and diuerse other great ladies and gentlewomen, both Scotish and English. At the court gate the Hir receiuing at the court. dukes of Northumberland, and Suffolke, and the lord treasuror were readie to receiue hir. And at hir entering into the hall, the king stood in the vpper end thereof, and the erle of Warwike holding the sword before him. She at hir approching to him, knéeled downe, and he courteouslie tooke hir vp, and kissed hir; and taking hir by the hand, led hir vp into his owne chamber of presence, & after into the quéenes chamber of presence, where he kissed all the ladies of Scotland, and so departed for a while.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 She dined on the quéenes side that day with the king, his seruice and hirs comming both togither; the kings being placed on the right hand of the table, and hirs on the left. What plentie of all maner of costlie meates and drinks there was, and [...]at rich furniture of plate and all other things was shewed to set foorth the feast, it were superfluous to write. All the ladies both of England and Scotland dined in the quéenes great chamber. After dinner the king shewed hir his gallerie and gardens, with all other commodities of the place. And about foure of the clocke, he brought hir downe againe by the hand in|to the hall, where he first receiued hir, and there kis|sing hir, she tooke hir leaue, & returned to the bishops palace from whence she came.

Fr. Thin. And here I must not forget what Lesleus hath set downe in this place for the defense of his people, in not deliuering the yoong quéene of Scots to the English, to haue entered the mariage bed of king Edward the sixt. Whose reasons although they may (the first ground of the warre considered, with the consent of the Scots parlement to that mariage, and the willingnesse of the English to haue caused them to performe their promise without battell) bée well answered, as matters that not verie greatlie defend the cause: yet I will not anie way say anie thing of him (being a man estranged from vs in re|ligion, but learned, wise, of great experience, a faith|full seruant to his mistresse, and a graue bishop of Rosse) but set them downe plainelie as he writeth them, leauing the same to the iudgement of others, sith I meane not in anie thing to derogate from them, or arrogate vnto our selues more than is due. Thus therefore he writeth.

When the quéene (saith he) of Scots was come Lesleus lib. 10, pag. 113. to London, the king of England sheweth vnto hir his treasurie, openeth the monuments, laieth abroad the antiquities of the kingdome, and laboured by manie other such kind of means, that he might pre|pare himselfe a passage (with the open notes of cour|tesie) to obteine the good will of the queene. For he af|ter persuaded hir with manie spéeches, that she shuld giue hir daughter vnto him, as it was before de|créed by the Scotish nobilitie: which he prooueth by manie arguments to be most beneficiall vnto both nations. When on the contrarie part (if she were gi|uen vnto the French kings sonne) it should not be profitable either to the Scots, which should giue; or the French, which should receiue hir to wife. There|withall adding this vnto it, that there should alwais be continuall hatred, and deadlie enimitie betwéene him and that person which should marrie hir.

Wherevnto the queene both presentlie and wise|lie answered, that the cause of hir daughters mari|age to be solemnized with the French, was onlie by reason of the protector of England, which so bitterlie pursued the Scots with such earnest warre as then was made against them. For it was vnaduisedlie doone of him, to séeke to compell by force of battell a woman, which is to be allured to the mariage bed with faire promises and flattering spéeches. Where|vnto she ioined, that the Scots were so vehementlie pressed by him, that they were inforced to craue aid from the French: for the more speedie & easie obtei|ning whereof, they were vrged to leaue the yoong quéene of Scots in France for a pledge. Wherefore she greatly grieued that the matter was so fast knit vp by the necessitie of time, otherwise than the Eng|lishmen would haue had it. But yet, she would la|bor the French king by hir letters and messengers, with all the diligence that she might, to sée if hir tra|uell and furtherance could doo anie thing with him EEBO page image 355 therein. Thus much Lesleus, and so againe to the matter.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The firt of Nouember, the queene Dowager de|parted from London toward Scotland, riding from Poules through the citie, passing foorth at Bishops gate. The duke of Northumberland, the erle of Pen|broke, and the lord treasuror brought hir to Shordich church, and there tooke their leaue of hir. The duke of Northumberland had an hundred men after him with iauelins, whereof fourtie were gentlemen clad in blacke veluet cotes garded with white, & hats of blacke veluet with white feathers, and chains of gold about their necks. The earle of Penbroke had six score men well appointed also, with blacke iauelins and hats with feathers, and the lord treasuror had an hundred gentlemen and yeomen with iauelins in like maner, well apparelled: which thrée companies of horsmen furnished the stréets on either side, from the crosse in Cheape, to Birchen lane end, as the pas|sed that waie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The shiriffes of London had the conduction of hir to Waltam towne end, where she lodged that night: and in euerie shire through which she passed, the shi|riffe, with the gentlemen of the same shire, receiued hir, and gaue their attendance on hir, till she came to enter into the next shire, where the shiriffe and gentle men there receiued hir: and that order was obserued till she came to the borders of Scotland, and all hir charges for meat and drinks, aswell for hir selfe, and whole traine, as also the prouision for their horsses, was borne and allowed by the king. [Besides which, (as saith the same Lesleus) Richard Shelleie, now Fr. Thin. maister of the knights of Malta in England, and Edward Dudleie baron, were appointed to attend on hir all the waie through England, from London to Edenburgh, where she was honorablie recei|ued by the earle Bothwell, and the lord Hume.] The earle of Huntleie, and diuerse other of the Scotish lords returned home by sea, the said earle landing at Montrosse, about the latter end of December.

Fr. Thin. Leslus lib. 10. pag. 513. After that the quéene was arriued in Scotland, the labored euerie waie to stop all occasion of dis|sention; and that these bralles which were risen a|mongest the nobilitie in the time of the warres, and were not yet fullie quenched, might grow no further, to bring the common wealth (alreadie much impai|red) into new troubles. Wherefore, by the aduise of the gouernor, of the earles of Huntleie, Angus, and Argile, and by the quéenes trauell, the controuersies mooued about the archbishoprikes of saint Andrews and Glascow, the bishoprikes of Dunkeld and Bre|chine, the abbeies of Aberbrothie, Inchechafrie, and other benefices, were ended: by bestowing some of them vpon noble mens children, and some vpon such persons as woorthilie deserued them.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Doctor Wanthop, whome Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 514. calleth Robert Warhope, a Scotishman borne, The archbi|shop of Arma|chane. archbishop of Armachane, so nominated by pope Paule the third, and after created Legatus à latere by Iulius the third, deceassed this yéere in Paris, the 1551. tenth of Nouember. This man was blind from his infancie, but yet gaue himselfe so to studie, that he was first made doctor of diuinitie in the vniuersitie of Paris, and after atteined to such estimation in the court of Rome, that he was by the foresaid popes aduanced (as before ye haue heard.) So that it is to be presumed, that the sufficiencie of his learning, (whereto he must néeds aspire altogither by the eare) (sith he was quite depriued of the benefit of fight) coo|pled with other good qualities of mind, were means to preferre him first into the popes fauour, and then to promotion of his bestowing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yeere in the moneth of Iune, the quéene Dow|ager, and the gouernor, went into the north parts of 1552. Scotland; and at Innernes, Elgin, Bamf, Aberden, and Perth, the gouernor sat in iustice for redresse of wrongs doone are by iustice redressed. wrongs, and administration of righteous lawes and orders. And afterwards they repaired to the west parts, and sat likewise in iustice at Dunfreis, Glas|cow, Lanricke, and in other places of that countrie, where diuerse were put to their fines for transgres|sing the lawes, but few or none touched by corporall punishment. Which was but a slender course taken in reforming enormities, and little better than im|punitie; though in leuieng of the fines (perhaps) a proportion were vsed: for by that meanes manie an offense was redéemed by monie, and iustice was lit|tle better than bought and sold, as at a publike mart.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 515. After this, they returned to Edenburgh, where all things requisite for the establishing of iustice were confirmed by the counsell of the nobilitie, and of the wise senators. Wherevpon, when nothing sée|med to want for the setling of a perfect peace through all the realme, but this, that certeine of the inhabi|tants of the east limits (accustomed to spoiles) did by driuing booties of cattell from the borders of Eng|land, séeme to offer new occasion of warre. At this time, the gouernor goeth to Iedworth, and remooued such magistrats as had negligentlie gouerned their owne prouince, or dispatched the generall affaires of the kingdome: where taking pledges of euerie familie, he made them after that time in better qui|et. Wherevpon a long time following, there was a mutuall peace betweene England and Scotland. A|bout which time also, the protestants religion making breach into the doctrine of the Romans, there was a prouinciall councell kept at Bithquoe, where the Caluinists with their doctrine were condemned and accurssed; and all things decréed in the councell of Trent vnder Paule the third, were established, with manie other néedfull lawes made to purge the cor|rupt manners of the clergie.

In which meane time, Dauid Panter or Painter 1552. (for I find both written) being a man of great lear|ning, and famous by great experience, hauing faith|fullie consumed seuen yeeres in France, in the ser|uice of an ambassador legier, came out of France to Iedworth: where, when he had declared to the go|uernor (in the assemblie of the nobilitie) the reason, order, and meane which he vsed in accomplishing of his office; he was greatlie commended of all men. And for that he had so diligentlie, wiselie, & trustilie performed that great charge, he was with great so|lemnitie consecrated bishop of Rosse, in the presence of that assemblie. At which time also, the gouernor Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 516. did dub into the order of knighthood certeine borde|rers, who had deserued well of the common-wealth, to the end that their vertue adorned with such hono|rable recompense, might be more inlarged toward the care of their countrie. Amongest which persons so aduanced, these were the chiefe: Ceffurd and Ferni|hurst, Andrew Kar of Littleden, Couldinknols, Greinherdie, Balclenche, with manie other valiant men.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In this iorneie (wherein the gouernor was thus The quéene mother séeketh to be gouernor the iustice) the quéene secretlie trauelled with the lords, both spirituall and temporall, to haue their con|sents to be regent of Scotland, immediatlie after hir daughter the quéene came to sufficient yéeres, and that the time of hir tutorship were accomplished, or sooner; if the lawes of the realme would so permit. And to assure hir selfe of their good wils in this be|halfe, the contracted sundrie priuie bands with them, making large promises of great rewards vnto eue|rie of them. To conclude, this matter was so hande|led 1552. Lesle. 1553. The gouerne|ment is resig|ned vnto the quéene. by hir and others, to whome the committed the dooings therein, that in the yéere following, the go|uernor agréed to surrender vp the gouernance into EEBO page image 356 hir hands, hir daughter the yoong queene being not yet full twelue yeeres of age.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The gouernor was promised not onelie a full dis|charge and a Quietus est of all his dooings, as well for receipt of monie, iewels, & other things, during the time of his gouernement, but also a confirmation of the heritable gift of the dukedome of Chatelerault: likewise an other confirmation of all gifts and resti|tutions by him made, during the time he had exerci|sed the office of gouernor. And foorthwith the queene Dowager sent into France, to get all these things dispatched, with such assurances of writings vnder hands and seales, as was expedient, and to be sent home into Scotland for his securitie in all things.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 517. 1552. But before the gouernor had consented to the queenes demand, there was great contention about the matter: for she well vnderstood that he would not depart with his office, before the time that the yoong quéene had atteined to the age prescribed for hir full yeeres. For it is ordeined by the law of the kingdome, that the king shall not remaine anie lon|ger vnder tutors, than to the age of fouretéene; & the quéene (as it is in other women) at the yéeres of 12, at which times they may appoint procurators, which shall haue the gouernement of the kingdome vntill their full age. For which cause, the yoong quéene chose amongst other (as after shall more appéere) the quéene Dowager to be one: wherevpon, the quéene Dowa|ger challenged the gouernement vnto hir selfe, for that hir daughter was certeine moneths aboue those yeeres of twelue. Against which the gouernor did [...]flie contend, constantlie affirming that the yoong quéene did not excéed the age of eleuen yéeres.

Whervpon the quéene, to take from the gouernor all starting-holes and other shifts, dooth vrge the cu|stome of that kingdome, and the obseruation of those lawes to be, that they must reckon the yeere in which the Scotish king or quéene is yet vnborne in their mothers bellie, to be part of that number of twelue or foureteene; in which they may appoint gouernors to rule vnder them. Which the gouernor perhaps did seeme to confesse for the king, but that the same was true for a quéene it did not appeere; sith it séemeth to be wrought by Gods high prouidence, that the king|dome of Scotland was alwaies héeretofore by ma|nie ages gouerned by kings, and that a woman did ueuer before this time (especiallie one within age) challenge that kingdome vnto them, although the male line (as appéered from the Bruses to the Stew|ards) descended from the women, haue sometime possessed the sterne of Scotland.

But in the end, saie or doo what he could, the go|uernor did surrender his place (as after shall more plainelie appéere) vntill which time we will pursue the orderlie course of things doone in this place: which is, that whilest the gouernor & the queene mother were in this discord for the regentship of the realme, manie Les [...]eus lib. 10. pag. 519. seditious persons (taking occasion thereby with hope to scape vnpunished) did renew the memorie of old iniuries. For heerevpon it happened, that manie of 1552. the familie of the Kars did (at Edenburgh) with great boldnesse vtterlie slaie Balcleuche the knight. Besides which, the yoonger sonne of the lord Ruth|wen or Rewen, did publikelie thrust through and slea Sundrie slaughters of the nobilitie. Iohn Chartrusse a noble and a valiant yoong man, for deadlie hatred (as was thought) betwéene those two families. Yet it was spred abroad, that the chie|fest cause why Ruthwen did kill Chartrusse, was for that Ruthwen (being called into sute of law by the other) distrusting his cause, and supposing that it would passe against him by iudgement, had none o|ther remedie to relieue the matter, than that verie day to kill Chartrusse. Which matter was the occasi|on of making this law, that whosoeuer with force or armes did either pursue or abate, recouer or lose in anie action, should not onelie be punished for the rashnesse of the fact, but also should haue the matter foorthwith (euen in that moment of time) iudged a|gainst him.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yeere, the sixt of Iulie, Edward the sixt of that 1553. name, king of England, departed this life, after whom succéeded his sister Marie, eldest daughter to K. Henrie the eight. [Touching whose regiments, Abr. Fl. sith this historie requireth matter appropriate vnto it selfe, we will saie little in this place, remitting the readers to the conuenient course of time wherein they flourished and vaded. Onelie this is woorthie the noting, that the realme of England was not so much in hir time afflicted with exquisite troubles of barbarous persecutors, to the diminishing of Gods seruants, and the increasing of satans synagog, as it was like to haue triumphed vnder the glorious title of the victorious gospell, if God had not (for the vnwoorthinesse of the English people) taken the yoong king awaie. For the prosperous beginning of his gouernement foretold an happie procéeding, and a blessed ending. But to returne to Scotland.]

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10 pag 520. About this time, Norman Lesle, who (as you heard before) had fled for the death of the cardinall Beton bishop of saint Andrews into France (where he then was imprisoned) being now set at libertie, did priuilie conueie himselfe into Scotland. Which vnderstood of the gouernor, he fined all those that 1554. had receiued him into their house, & compelled Nor|man to flée to Denmarke, for feare that (if he were taken) he should suffer extreme punishment. But when he knew that there was no place of safetie for him in that countrie, wandering ouer manie pro|uinces, he came at last into England, in the reigne of Edward the sixt; of whome, with the rest of his companions, he was most courteouslie receiued, with yéerelie pensions out of the excheker or com|mon tresurie assigned vnto them for their mainte|nance, according to their estates.

But after that king Edward was departed the world, they all were also commanded to depart the realme, to whome (earnestlie vrging that their pensi|ons might be paied to them in an other place where they should remaine) the duke of Norffolke did pub|likelie say in the councell, that it séemed not iustice, that a catholike prince should paie anie pensions to such as had murthered a catholike cardinall. With which answer the said Norman was almost stroken dead, and being then wearied with the griefe of his exile, went againe into France, and there by king Henrie (by the meanes of the baron Brunstone, whom this Lesle had sent before to request the same) he was made capteine of the Scotish light horsse|men in France. This man did so valiantlie, woorthi|lie, and honorablie behaue himselfe in warres, which the French king had (with Charles the fift then em|peror) on the borders of Flanders, that he was al|waies formost in the front of the battell, to assault the enimie; hoping by that meanes to wipe awaie the blot of the cardinals slaughter, and more firmelie to bind the French king vnto him.

But after certeine light skirmishes (which he hap|pilie performed against the enimie) following the battell at Renton (a towne in Picardie) most hotlie, and drawing néere within danger of the enimie, he was so wounded with a shot, that he could hardlie re|turne to his companie: but being relieued by his owne souldiers from the hands of the enimie, he was caried to Montrulle, where he shortlie after died, greatlie repenting him of his former wicked fact, and greatlie abhorring the other authors thereof, as furtherers of him therein. Towards whom (after his death) the French king was yet so louing (for the EEBO page image 357 singular fortitude of mind that was in him) that he procured all such of his Scots (as returned from the warres with Brunstone) to be receiued into their owne countrie, and restored to all their goods and possessions.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In lent all the lords of the realme of Scotland as|sembled at Striueling, where all the couenants and The coue|nants and ar|ticles are per|fected. 1555. Buch. 1554. A parlement. Edenburgh castell deliue|red to the lord Erskin to keepe. articles of agreement, betwixt the quéene and the go|uernor, were perfectlie and fullie concluded, and ther|vpon a parlement appointed to be holden in Eden|burgh, the tenth of Aprill next insuing: and in the meane time the gouernor deliuered the castell of E|denburgh vnto the lord Erskin to kéepe, as it were by waie of assurance for his part, that all things at that parlement should be accomplished, according to the points of the agréement made by full consent. The lords then assembling in parlement at Eden|burgh, on the said twelfth day of Aprill, all the coue|nants of agréement had & made betwixt the quéene The quéene made gouer|nor by parle|ment. Dowager and the gouernor were presented & read, touching the dimission and giuing ouer of the gouer|nors authoritie, confirmed by the quéene hir selfe in France, with consent of the king of France hir hus|band, the duke of Guise, and the cardinall of Lor|rain hir curators, with a gift of the dukedome of Cha|telerault vnto the gouernor, vnder the great seales The gouernor made duke. of France, and others, to whome it apperteined.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, there was read a confirmation of the thrée estates of Scotland, touching the premisses, in which they bound themselues to warrant the queenes discharge made to him, & to establish him as second person of the realme [& to haue the gouernement of the castell of Dunbreton (as saith Buchanan] with o|ther Fr. Thin. things conteined in the contract: to the which there in open parlement all the estates subscribed, and put therevnto their seales. Which doone, the go|uernor gaue vp his office of tutorship, in presence of the said estates, the queene mother, & monsieur Doi|sell The gouernor resigned his office vnto the quéene. being there present, who receiued the same in the quéenes name, at that time remaining in France. And herewith presentlie was a commission shewed, giuen by the quéene of Scotland in France, with consent of hir curators, making the quéene Dowa|ger hir mother, regent of hir realme: which office she The quéene giueth the go|uernance of the realme vn|to the quéene mother. tooke vpon hir, and was thereto admitted by the e|states of the realme. Then was the parlement new|lie authorised in the quéenes name, with consent of hir curators, and in name of the quéene regent.

Fr. Thin. Where is to be noted, that as at the first they which had the administration of the common-wealth vnder the king of Scotland in his minoritie, were first called gardians, and then gouernors: so now be|gan they to haue a new title for the same, to be called regents of Scotland, not before accustomed among the Scots, which name hath euer since remained to all such as execute that place (euen in our age) du|ring the minoritie of Charles Iames the sixt, now ruling the scepter of Scotland. In which declination of things (as before you heard) to the gouernement Buch. lib. 16. of the French, the Scots could neuer be persuaded that the castell of Edenburgh should be deliuered to the rule of strangers: fearing that if the quéene should die without issue, that then the French would there by tyrannie settle themselues. Wherefore the same was committed to the defense of Iohn Ares|kine, which he should not deliuer to anie, but to one of the order, and of the nobilitie and parlement.

About this time, the quéene regent sent George Gordon earle of Huntleie to apprehend Iohn Mudi|ard Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 522. Buchan. lib. 16. (or Muderac, as saith Buchanan) chiefe of the fa|milie of the Reginaldins, a notable théefe, & one that was fraught with most wicked déeds: which iournie it is supposed that Gordon did not verie faithfullie discharge. Wherefore, when he returned without the dispatch thereof, in not taking of that man, he was committed to prison vntill the day appointed, where|in he should answer the cause. Whose friends in the meane time (to mitigate the enuie against him for the same) did spred false rumors thereof, laieng all the fault in the familie of the Cathans: for they said that the same was hindered by them for the malice that they bare vnto the Gordons: which speeches did one|lie rise almost vpon this occasion.

Whilest the quéene prepared for hir iournie into Scotland, Gordon did cast into prison William (the head of the familie of the Cathans) a yoong man li|berallie brought vp with the earle of Murreie for kinreds sake, being sisters son to the said earle; for none other cause but for that he would not yéeld him selfe to the protection of him. Gordon therefore grie|ued at this man, did not thinke it safetie to leaue him frée and at libertie behind him, when he should go in|to France with the quéene, although he could find no fault to laie to his charge woorthie anie punishment. Wherefore (by his friends) he persuaded the yoong man (ignorant of all deceit) that he should yéeld him selfe into his protection and tutorship: for so by that one meanes, both the fame of the one and safetie of the other might be prouided for, which the yoong man did accordinglie.

Wherefore Gordon being now lord ouer the life and death of this William, did (dissembling his ha|tred to him) breake with his owne wife to execute the yoong and giltlesse man in his absence, supposing thereby to transferre all the malice which should rise thereof vnto the fact of his wife, as not doone by his consent. Which fell out quite contrarie: for when eue|rie one knew the subtill wit of Gordon the earle of Huntleie, and that his wife (a chosen and rare wo|man) had passed all the rest of hir life within the bounds of womanlie modestie; they were all easilie persuaded, that he alone was author vnto hir of that wicked counsell. Wherevpon, Gordon being now cast in prison for that fact, there was (in a councell holden by the regent) great contention and varietie of opinions, touching the punishment which he should haue. For some would haue him banished in|to France for certeine yeares, & some would onelie haue an excessiue mul [...] to be laied vpon him.

Both which opinions were reiected by the chiefe of his enimies, Gilbert earle of Cassiles. For he, per|ceiuing by the present state of things, that peace would not long continue betwéene Scotland and France; did vtterlie withstand his banishment into that countrie. For he would not haue that man (be|ing so subtilie and vnconstantlie witted, proud, and desirous of reuenge, of and vpon such as were e|mulous, or backbiters against him) to be a firebrand and capteine to those French, who (he was assured, for their insolent pride) would haue warre with the Scots. For although he thought, that of right he ought to be punished, yet he did not iudge, that anie domesticall euill was so much, or the punishment thereof should be thought so great, that they should accustome the French to shed the Scotish bloud. Wherefore at length his punishment was agreed vpon (as after shall appeare) in renouncing of all his right to the earldome of Murreie, & other things.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The quéene hauing the disposition of all things, did at hir pleasure change all the officers, and made the earle of Cassils treasuror, & Ueilmort a French Officers are changed. man controller; also an other Frenchman called monsieur Rubie, kéeper of the great seale, as vice|gerent in place of the earle of Huntleie, who was chancellor and then in ward; [and Iames Machill re|gister, Fr. Thin. and the abbat of Couper keeper of the priuie s [...]ale, as saith Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 521. Bonald gouernor of the Iles.] These mens counsell and mon|sieur EEBO page image 358 Doisels she vsed principallie in all things. The earle of Huntleie being to be deliuered out of ward, did for his punishment renounce his title to the earl|dome The earle of Huntleie re|nounced ma|nie things. of Murreie; whereof he had a gift in heritage. Also he renounced his interest vnto the farmes of Orkeneie and Sheatland, and to the earledome of Mar, and of the quéenes lands of Straits Die: and further was contented to go ouer into France, there to remaine for the space of fiue yeares. But yet af|terwards the quéene was contented, that he should still remaine within the realme, for the which he gaue to hir fiue thousand pounds in monie.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 522. About the same time Marie the quéene of Eng|land, and the regent of Scotland, thought good to haue a peace betweene both nations, and that their commissioners should méet to determine all contro|uersies. At whatime for the Scots, were Robert of Kinwardie, and Iohn Bellenden of Achnowle knights: and for the English, were Thomas Corn|wallesse, 1551. and Robert Bowes knights. At what time there were lawes made touching fishing, aswell in the sea, as in certeine other limited riuers; by which all occasions of contention was taken awaie from both nations. Richard Norton, a man of great counsell in prosperitie, and of great stomach in ad|uersitie, being capteine of Norham castell in Eng|land, was at that time cause of the making of this law for the commons; That if anie Englishman The law for fishing. from a Scot, or a Scot from an Englishman, did by force take away anie fish that was taken; that he should paie the mulct of twentie shillings for the same: beside other punishments of the common law.

Further it was agreed, that whosoeuer by force of Couenants for seamen. tempest, or for anie other cause, were driuen into Scotland or England, he should not by anie pre|tense be staied; but he might fréelie by land or sea, either on horssebacke or on foot returne home. Pro|uided, that he had the testimonie of the next maister of the port, or of the next towne, to witnes the cause of his arriuall; and that during the time of his abode in such a countrie, he attempted nothing against the lawes of the kingdome. Not manie daies after Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 523. this, Henrie Sinclere deane of Glascow, senator, and vicepresident of the high court, did returne in|to Scotland out of France; being a man greatlie 1555. familiar with Iames the fift, aswell for the singula|ritie of his wit, as the excellencie of his learning.

But in the time of the gouernor, the courtiers (not greatlie estéeming such wisedome & learning) made no account of him, although the quéene Dow|ager, and diuerse of the nobilitie held him in great honor; aswell for his deepe studie in the best arts, as for his rare knowledge of the publike lawes and an|tiquities of Scotland. This man, vpon his first re|turne, was foorthwith both author and persuader to and of the bishop of the Orchades chiefe president, and to the other senators; that there should be new lawes made for the short ending of sutes in law; for the obseruation of a right course of iudgments, and for the taking awaie of all euill customs. In the making & tempering whereof, he was of so great iustice; that such things as were set downe in the law, were more holilie and perfectlie brought to their ancient forme than they had béene before.

The reason is readie; to wit, aswell for that in equall deliuering law to all men: as in pleading, there was by his meanes more diligence vsed by the magistrats, aduocats, scribes, and officers; in cutting awaie vaine and superfluous formes and or|ders: which ministred occasion, that their sutes did long hang in court, before they could be determined. At this time also the marquesse of Maine (being after made duke of Almaine) who in the meane time with manie other nobles of France, had remained Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 524. pledges in England, did (hauing licence therevnto) come into Scotland to sée his sister, accompanied with sir Thomas Stewkleie of England now knight; who after he had remained some daies with his sister in pleasure & delight, discharged his faith, and returned againe into England.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Iulie was a parlement held at Edenburgh, 1555. A parlement. in the which manie acts and statutes were made, right profitable (as was then thought) for the com|mon-weale of the realme. Amongest which, to passe ouer the rest, these séeme woorthie to remaine chroni|cled Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 524. to posteritie. First, that none of the citizens (in the feasts of Whitsuntide, or anie such times, in whith their hirelings are accustomed to go foorth) should assemble armed, to cast foorth the husbandmen after the old maner. Secondlie, that the inhabitants mée|ting togither, should no more assemble vnder a certeine colour of gaine, which for exercise of the bo|die (as it was supposed) was holden after the exam|ple of one (I can not tell who) Robert Hood a wild or vplandish man. Thirdlie, that there should be no priuat leagues contracted betwéene subiects. Which lawes did after bring great peace, ease, and quiet to the publike state.

In the verie same yeare 1555, in the eight ka|lends Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 525. Buchanan. lib. 16. of August, fell the mariage of Marie queene of England with Philip king of Spaine in the citie of Winchester. Wherefore ambassadors were sent from the quéene regent to Philip and Marie, to con|gratulat their mariage. Besides which, these am|bassadors did require a renewing of the league, and that commissioners should be appointed to méet the next summer in the borders, to end all controuer|sies. In the meane time, whilest the quéene regent did administer the affaires of south Scotland, Iohn Steward earle of Atholl was sent into the north parts with a chosen companie, to breake the force of Iohn Mudiard or Muderace. At what time this earle vsed such courtesie and counsell in pacifieng, and such celeritie and wisedome in executing of things; that he brought the seditious Mudiard (impatient to haue anie gouernor) to the quéene, to whome the said Mudiard did willinglie yéeld himselfe, his children, and his kindred.

To which man, the queene (in respect of singular clemencie, and pietie to all men, according to the disposition of hir nature) did wholie remit all his of|fenses, with this condition; that he should faithful|lie remaine prisoner in the castell of Meffens, and in the towne of Perth. But as the fox (as the pro|uerbe is amongest vs) cannot liue without his star|ting holes; so this Mudiard and his companions, imbued with more than foxlike conditions, did (de|ceiuing their keepers) returne to their owne caues, and afresh trouble all the north Scotland with their raised seditions and spoiles. Which things inforced the quéene, that she did go into those parts, to hold iustice of oires: in which she might bridle the euils of wicked men, and purge those prouinces from all the roots of sedition.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon, in the moneth of Iulie, the quéene accompanied with the earles of Huntleie, Argile, Rothes, Cassils, and Marshall; the bishop of Aber|den and Rosse, M. Doisell, Rubie, and others, went 1555. Buch. 1556. H. B. to the towne of Inuernesse, in which citie (the faults known by publike accusation) there was iust punish|ment taken vpon the offendors. And because there Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 527. Buchan. lib. 16. were manie hidden in the higher and mounteine countries, which by their absence fled the punish|ment; she commanded the heads of the mounteine families, that they should bring their guiltie coun|trimen and kindred to iudgement, according to the law established by Iames the fift; with a great EEBO page image 359 paine set vpon the chiefe of those families; if the o|ther did stiflie resist, & would not come into iudge|ment.

Wherevpon it followed, that sundrie of diuerse families, that were by contempt departed awaie, did come to publike iudgement. Where manie, and those not of the meanest sort, paied the punishment for troubling the peace; amongest which, one Grant a baron being commanded to bring Iames Grant and diuerse other wicked persons before the iudges, did prouide to bring their dead heads, when they could not take their liue bodies. The earle of Cath|nes also, because that being warned thervnto, he did not bring his people before the iudges; was first committed to prison in Inuernesse, then at Aber|den, and lastlie at Edenburgh, from whence he pur|chased his libertie with a great masse of monie.

Mackeie in like sort, head and chiefe of the tribe of Strathnauerne & of Glencone, being called to iudgement (for that he had often wasted the countrie of Southerland next adioining) did contemne the precept. Wherevpon the quéene prouided a great ar|mie, which vnder the erle of Southerland brake into Strathnauerne, where he possessed all the places of doubt, least anie hole might be left for the théeues to passe awaie from thence. Wherevpon Mackeie, when he saw himselfe so beset (as that no place of flight was left him) yeelded himselfe to Hugh Kene|die, who led him to the quéene, by whom he was com|mitted to prison at Edenburgh a long time, but they of Glencone put in pledges, & (being committed to safe and strong prisons) were reserued to the iudge|ment of the quéenes pleasure.

After this, the queene leauing Inuernesse, and progressing the prouince of Rosse, she came to El|gine, Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 528. Bamf, Aberden, and the chiefe places there|abouts, diligentlie to inquire of the misdemeanor of those people. At what time she did temper the rigor of law with such courtesie, that she punished the of|fendors by fine, and not by death. From thence shée came to Dundée, and to saint Iohns towne, obser|uing the same cause and course of hir comming. When she had thus passed ouer the summer in brin|ging the mounteine people to their dutie, she sent the earle of Huntleie to ioine with the bishop of Rosse and Orkeneie, and to Hugh Kenedie; to whom she did substitute a better and more commodious forme of dispatch of their affaires by others: who should receiue the libels and accusations of priuate persons, and diligentlie to inquire of them, in the townes of Inuernesse, Elgine, and other places. By whose diligence it came to passe, that all those countries (being reduced to the rule of iustice) were made the more quiet.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here I will not (saith Lesleus) now declare how honourablie & sumptuouslie the queene in all hir pro|gresse was receiued (without anie charge to hir) of the péeres, bishops, and other nobles and gentlemen of Scotland, sith the Frenchmen (which were then present with hir) haue opened to other nations as well as to their own people (with singular commen|dations to the Scots) the gorgious shew of this Scotland, being a most woorthie signe of the fauour they bare to the queene.] In the meane time there C [...]mmissio|ners sent. were sent commissioners to the borders, as the bi|shop of Dunblane, the lard of Lethington, & maister Iames Macgill: where doctor Tunstall bishop of Durham, & certeine others for England met them at Duns, and remained there till the queenes com|ming Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 527. backe foorth of the north in September next following.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yéere was a parlement hold [...]n, in which the lards Brimston, Or [...]ston, and Grange, with mai|ster A parlement. Henrie Balnaues, and others, which were for|falted Gentlemen restored. in the gouernors time, were restored. At the same time the queene, by the counsell of monsieur Doisell, and Rubie, and certeine of the nobilitie of Scotland, requested that a new order might b [...] A yéerelie tax to be leuied is proponed. made, whereby euerie mans substance should be put in an inuentarie, and according to the rate thereof to paie a yéerelie taxation, to be put and kept in the treasure-house till warres began, and that then men of warre might be waged, therewith to lie vpon the borders, and none in that case to be charged to come from their owne houses, but when anie great armie came foorth of England to inuade Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Diuerse of the great lords were agreed to this This taxati|on is not granted. 1556. ordinance: but the most part of the barons hearing thereof, assembled togither in Edenburgh, to the number of two hundred & aboue, and sent the lards Iames Sandlandie of Calder in Louthian, and Iohn of Wemis in Fife, to the queene and lords, be|séeching them not to set such new taxations vpon them, for they could not beare such burdens; but would defend the realme, as before time their elders had doone, not meaning to put their goods in inuen|tarie, as if they should alreadie make their last will and testaments: and be past all hope of inioieng their temporall goods, as persons not to liue longer in the world, but to take their farewell, and giue o|uer all that they had by law of fatall necessitie not to be auoided. Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 16 [...]

Adding further, that their elders did not onelie defend themselues, and their goods a|gainst the English, when they were of farre greater power than they now be; but did also manie times make further inuasion vpon them into their owne countrie. For which cause, they being not anie iot now so degenerat from their ancestors, that they wold not, when néed required, bestow their substance and life in defense of their countrie.

And as touching the hired souldiers, it was a thing full of danger, to commit the state of Scot|land to men without substance, or without hope of aduancement, and to such as for monie will dare to doo anie thing, being a thing apt to kindle their déepe couetousnesse, and to minister occasion to them to attempt other matters. But to the end all other things may the better be looked vnto, let them more remember the déerenes of their countrie, than their owne estate or condition. For will anie man beleeue, that hired souldiers will more valiantlie fight for strangers, than the owners will fight for the defense of their owne? That a little hire or wages readie to be abated in peace, will greatlier incense the minds of the common people; than goods, chil|dren, wiues, and temples, will mooue the hearts of the nobilitie?

Wherevnto may be ioined, that this matter per|teineth to the highest good of the kingdome of Scot|land, and that the same is of farre more importance than that it should be communed of at this time, and in the tender age of our yoong queene. Besides which the greater part of men doo suspect and feare, that the same new order for warre is vnprofitable, and such as cannot be performed without some commotion of the Scotish nation, especiallie sith so great sums of monie can hardlie be wroong out by tribute impo|sed on the same Scots, as may suffice to nourish a hired armie to defend the borders. Wherefore it is to be feared, least the end of persuasion grow to this point, that it doo not rather open a gap to let in the e|nimie, than to be a barre to kéepe them backe. For if the English, after this example, being a farre richer nation, shall gather a much greater summe: who doubteth, but that they may with lesse trouble to the cõmon people, susteine an armie twise as great as that of the Scots, & such as shall not onelie enter the borders, but rush euen into the verie bowels of the EEBO page image 360 kingdome of Scotland?

For the other part of the oration, I cannot tell whether it be better to suppresse it in silence, or to deli|uer it (saith Buchanan) to common eies & eares. For I doo heare (writeth he) manie which doo murmur and aske who shall gather this monie? How much thereof shall be necessarie to and for the hired souldi|ors, and how much to be left in the hands of the trea|suror? There be manie things which put vs in great hope, that no such thing shall be established for the especiall goodnesse and temperancie of that woorthie princesse (in whose hand the whole gouernment now resteth) dooth incourage vs, that we shall not bée so taxed. But yet when we remember the outward déeds of others, and our owne at home, which haue before time béene doone; we cannot so gouérne our selues, but that we must feare the same hereafter to fall vpon vs, which we haue alreadie felt.

But letting these things passe, which perchance we vainlie feare, let vs come to those things in which our ancestors did place their chiefe helpe (for mainte|nance of their libertie) against the weapons of their aduersaries. Robert the first of that name (in com|parison of whome none of the Scotish kings were counted more wise, and without all doubt none more valiant, as we all confesse) did not onelie profit his subiects whilest he liued, but also after his death: for when he laid at point to surrender his life, he gaue this admonition, that we should neuer make con|tinuall peace, nor long truce with the English. For that man (by nature and by vse of long time exerci|sed in both fortunes) did well perceiue, that such as li|ued in idlenesse and slouth, had their stomachs and minds abated, and their bodies weakened with de|lights of pleasures, and that couetousnesse and le|cherie did spring vp as it were in vntilled ground, when seuere discipline and sparing was quenched, which made them also to be vnpatient of labor, and to hate battell, whereby their strength being dimini|shed, they should easilie giue place to their enimies.

After that these two noble men had said thus much, the regent fearing tumultuous insurrections if she perseuered in this exaction, left off anie further to pursue this tax, and is (in often acknowledging hir error) said to haue vsed this spéech; That some of the best of the Scots, and not she, were authors and workers of the same. By which words manie supposed that she ment the earle Huntleie, a man of a sharpe wit, latelie deliuered out of prison, and rather readie to reuenge the iniurie receiued by re|streint of his libertie, than mindfull of anie benefit shewed vnto him in his deliuerance. Wherfore when he saw the regent bent to this one thing to inure the Scots with taxes and paiments of monie: and fea|ring least hir power being ouermuch increased, that she would abate the strength of the nobilitie, dimi|nish their authoritie, and call the whole gouernment of Scotland into the hands of hir people, it was sup|posed that he gaue hir counsell answerable to hir disposition for the gathering of monie which she had then in hand, being in déed the part of an enimie to hir, bicause he knew that the Scots would not paie anie tribut, nor be so obedient vnto hir as they had beene before. There were also some that supposed this deuise to grow from Dauid Painter bishop of Rosse; for he being a man of rare wit, and no lesse learning, was with manie benefits tied to the Ha|miltons, and was not anie waie estranged from their counsels and kinreds.

In this yéere, an ambassador of Muscouie going into England with a great ship, & another bote, was 1557. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 328. cast on land by sudden tempest of the sea in the coast of Buchquane, a prouince in the north part of Scot|land; who hauing lost all his goods by shipwracke, was saued himselfe, and some of his companie, be|cause they lighted on a rocke, where he & they might saue their liues. The inhabitants did liberallie in|terteine this strange man, and brought him to E|denburgh to the queene, who would not permit this new ghest to want anie thing so long as he remai|ned with hir: and further, commanded and procured, that his goods lost by sea, and come into the hands of the people, should be faithfullie restored to him a|gaine, appointing moreouer the lord Hume for ho|nors sake to accompanie him to Berwike.

This yéere also in the moneth of Iulie was Hoter Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 529. Traberne sent ambassador (from Anna duke of Ol|denberge, and Delmensore, and earle of Emden) out of east Frisia into Scotland, to require that the ancient couenant of an hundred yéeres made be|twéene the Scots and the people of Emden (which by course of some yéeres past, was now of no force) might now againe be renewed. Which being gran|ted & solemnelie established, both those nations from that day did liue togither in mutuall & perfect friend|ship. After this, warres arising betweene England and France, quéene Marie of England, fearing least the Scots would be stirred at the motion of the French to attempt something against England, Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 529. sent ambassadors to the regent, to require that some of the Scots might with hir people méet on the borders, to treat of matters belonging vnto them both.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon in the moneth of Iulie, the procura|rators for both the kingdomes met at Caerleill, whi|ther for the Scots came Robert Reid bishop of Ork|neie, Henrie Seintclere deane of Glascow, Robert Carnegie knight, senators; and the lord Harries, at that time president of the west borders. For the English did come Tunstall bishop of Durham, the lords Dacres, and Wharton; amongst whome there was talke for peace, and recompense of such iniu|ries as were committed by both the nations. In the meane time a certeine Frenchman landed at the west part on Scotland, and declared to the quéene the warres betwéene England and France, dest|ring hir to make warre vpon the English. Where|vpon the quéene sent for the lords to commune with 1557. The queene regent desi|red warres. them at Newbottell, where she opened to them di|uerse wrongs doone on the borders by Englishmen, and how no redresse could be got: wherfore she requi|red that warres might be mooued against England in reuenge of those iniuries, although the bishop of Orkeneie was the same time at Caerleill in talke An assemblie at Caerleill. with Cutbert Tunstall bishop of Durham and o|thers, commissioners for England. The principall cause that mooued the queene regent to seeke to The occasion why the quéen regent desired to haue war. make war against England, was for that the Eng|lishmen aided the Emperor in fauor of his sonne king Philip against the French king, bicause their quéene had taken to husband the same king Philip, and sent the earle of Penbroke ouer with an armie to ioine with king Philips power.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It was thought therefore, that if the Scots inua|ded the English borders, it might cause them to call backe their power foorth of France to defend their owne countrie. But the Scotish lords would not The Scotish lords refuse to take warre in hand. Haimouth is fortified. Inuasions are made into England. consent in anie wise to begin anie warres: which their dealing when monsieur Doisell perceiued, hée spéedily went to Haimouth beside Berwike, and for|tified the same with all diligence, making inuasions into England. Wherevpon the Scotishmen in their owne defense were constreined to make warre, and the erle of Huntleie was made lieutenant vpon the borders, who came thither; and remaining there by the assistance of the Frenchmen, made sundrie inua|sions and rodes into England, burnt diuers townes and villages, and cast downe manie stone houses, piles EEBO page image 361 piles and strengths.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane while were the Scotish commissioners at Caerleill; and the maister of Maxwell warden of the west borders, being there with them, with much adoo got away and came home into Scotland. The queene assembled a great armie out of all parts of the realme, the which came forward to Kelso in the moneth of October, where the queene & Frenchmen persuaded them to enter by inuasion into England. But they mening to take further aduise, passed ouer Tweed to Maxwell hugh, where they incamped, and afterward approched the castell of Warke, inuironing the same with a siege for the space of two or three dais. Capteine Read at that present had charge of that castell, with three or foure hundred footmen, and one hundred horssemen, seeming to care little for the Scottishmens forces.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Westmerland, being then lieutenant of the north parts, gathered such power togither as he might make, and came to Lowike, accompanied with the lord Talbot, sir Iames Crofts, and others, to suceor where most need should appeare. The Scotish armie, perceiuing the Englishmen thus in a readinesse to resist their attempts, tooke aduise togither, and concluded that it was not for the weale of the realme, at that time to hazard battel foorth of the bounds of their owne land, their princesse being absent, and as yet in hir minoritie; considering also that the war was not taken in hand for their owne quarell, but for the pleasure of France. These and other the like reasons, being alleged by the earles of Arrane, Huntleie, Argile, Cassils, and others, to the queene and French capteins, they were nothing satisfied therewith; but the Scotish lords would attempt no further, but retired backe and scaled their armie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In remoouing from Warke, they were pursued by certeine bands of the borderers, and others, which were repelled, and stood in danger to haue beene distressed, if capteine Read had not with noble corage issued forth, and in time relieued them that were retiring: whereby they staied and gaue a new charge, and chased ouer the water to their maine armie that was already passed ouer. The queene and monsieur Doisell, perceiuing that they could not get the Scotish lords to make anie further exploit at that present, she retired home: but Doisell with his Frenchmen were appointed to remaine still in Haimouth, to countergarrison the Englishmen within Berwike.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There were diuerse foot bands of Scots waged by the French king, which were appointed to lie in places about the borders, as at Kelso, Rockesburgh, and such like for defense of the countrie, and the annoiance of the Englishmen, as occasions might serue. After this, sir Andrew Kar, and diuerse other entered England with a power of men about Martinmasse. Neuerthelesse, the earle of Northumberland, being then lieutenant of the north parts of England, and lieng on the borders, assembled his forces togither, & comming to incounter the Scots in the very borders side neere to Cheuiot, at the first the Englishmen were put to the woorsse, and yet at length the Scots were ouerthrowne and chased: sir Andrew Kar, and manie other being taken prisoners.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Sir Iohn Forster bare himselfe verie valiantlie at this incounter, so that his seruice might not well haue beene spared. He was thrust through the mouth into the necke, and also through the thigh; moreouer, his horsse was slaine vnder him. The conflict was sharpe, for both the horssemen and footmen came to make proofe of their forces. The warre thus being begun and followed, the Scots kept their quarterrage, and euerie noble man (as he was appointed) laie on the borders with a thousand horssemen, during his ordinarie tearme. And on the other side, the English borders were furnished with new supplies of men of warre, so that there were dailie rodes and incursions made by the parties, to the great damage and spoile of the townes and villages scituate neere to the confines of both the realmes.

In December the queene assembled a parlement at Edenburgh, where shee (highlie fauouring the French) shewed foorth the letters of Henrie king of France, to be read by the whole assemblie, touching the solemnization of the mariage betwene the yoong queene of Scots, and the French kings sonne, which I haue here set downe.

[Section heading:] The substance of the letter of the French king, concerning the mariage of his sonne to the queene of Scots.

Henrie by the grace of God, king of the French, to his woorthie coosines & princes of Scotland, and to the rest of the orders, being our deere friends, greeting. It is most plainlie knowen to all nations, how fast a bond hath alwaies hitherto remained betweene Scotland & France. Neither can it be hidden what these signs of amitie were, being for number manie, for greatnesse large, and for dutie of friendship mutuall ech to other; by which the kings our ancestors haue seemed to confirme, and as it were to increase this amitie, to the end it might remaine whole and sound for euer: yea and so farre the shew thereof hath appeered, that all the benefits of either realme haue seemed to be common to ech other. Which bond of friendship we also haue (for the time in which we first receiued the ensignes of our kingdome) labored firmlie to reteine, to the end the same should not anie waie be decaied or broken. The which in like sort we well vnderstand, that you haue likewise abundantlie performed vnto vs.

Wherefore (more stronglie to knit the same) we will not suffer this opportunitie (which the diuine goodnesse hath laied before vs, as we verelie suppose) of mariage to be solemnized betweene our son the Dolphin, and your queene our deere and sweet sister intreated) was to vrged by all parts, and the yoong queene was caried into France, by the consent of our sister the Dowager, and the governor of Scotland, to the great reioising of all you that yeelded there vnto; there now she hath atteined such beautie and number of vertues, partlie by the liberalitie of nature (which she receiued from the kinglie bloud of hir parents) and partlie by the instruction of my wife, that I can hardlie anie longer suffer (in respect of the age of my sonne) that this mariage (which we haue so much desired) should anie longer be deferred. And sith at Christmasse next my son shall come to those yeeres, in which he may promise all things that shall be necessarie for the knitting vp of the mariage; and sith also we haue determined (if it so seeme good to the queene hir mother, and to the rest of the parlement of Scotland, which we earnestly request at your hands) that the mariage shall publikelie at Paris (on the day consecrated to the three kings) with such ceremonies as is requisite, be fullie consummate with the speech of my sonne and of your queene:

We doo by these letters request you, that by common consent you foorthwith send some of your chiefe nobilitie EEBO page image 362 nobilitie, that may honor the mariage with their pre|sence, and that (hauing publike authoritie therefore) may fréelie and according to law, dispose of those things which are accustomed to fall in such matters and affaires.

The which if you shall doo, I promise that hereafter they shall liberallie vnderstand how acceptable they shall be to me: and how that you shall receiue all the fruit and benefit which shall arise of my sons ma|riage (for the performance whereof, by reason of his sufficient age, we will shortlie prouide) which said cõ|moditie shall not onclie now remaine to you that be present, but also most abundantlie with great plea|sure shall continue to your posteritie. For sith both our and your people of France and Scotland shall be so firmelie conioined (as we hope) by this mutuall knot of mariage, and our affaires with yours, and yours with ours, shall hang the one vpon the other, as it were by a certeine mutuall linke and knot, that both we (being out of the danger of such as would di|minish and ouerthrow our states) maie for euer in|ioy such quiet as we did neuer hope to doo before this. From our castell of saint Germans, the fourth ka|lends of Nouember. 1557.

Subscription, A little below: By the king, Henrie: De Laubespine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Upon the reading of which letters in the parle|ment, by the consent of the whole estates, there were elected and chosen Iames Beton archbishop of Glas|cow, Robert Read bishop of Orkeneie, George Le|sle earle of Rothes, Gilbert Kennedie earle of Cas|siles, Iames Steward prior of saint Andrewes [the Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 533. Fr. Thin. queenes bastard brother] George lord Seton [cap|teine of Edenburgh] Iames Fleming, and Iohn Erskine lard of Dun [gouernor of Montrosse] am|bassadors and commissioners to go into France, and Ambassadors sent into France to consummate the mariage betwixt the quéene of Scotland and the Dolphin of France. 1558. there to contract mariage betwixt Marie quéene of Scotland, and Francis Dolphin of France, and to solemnize the same mariage. Wherevpon, sufficient commissions and instruments were made to them by the estates of the parlement, and they accepting the same, made preparation for that iournie, and de|parted in the moneth of Februarie foorth of the rode of Leith, and with great winds & boisterous stormes came into France, loosing in their iournie one of their ships, with men and horsses before saint Ebbes head, in the Forth of Scotland, and an other with great riches & manie gentlemen, with the capteine called Waterton in the rode of Bullongne. Two ships lost.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The ambassadors themselues neuerthelesse esca|ped, and comming safe vnto the French court in the moneth of March, were honorablie receiued of the king at Paris, where the contract of mariage was made, and thr [...]e score thousand franks assigned in The assigne|ment of the Scots quéens dowrie. dowrie to the queene of Scotland, & thirtie thousand franks of yéerelie pension, with manie rich iewels. There was also a perpetuall bond of league conclu|ded betwixt France and Scotland, and great prepa|ration made for the mariage, which was solemnized in Paris with great triumph and assistance of all the cardinals, dukes, earles, barons, lords, and bishops of the realme, in the church of Nostre dame, the 24 of Aprill in that present yeere, 1558.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 16. After the solemnitie of this mariage, the legats of Scotland were called into the councell-house of the French king: at what time the chancellor of France delt with them, that they should represent the crowne and scepter, and other ornaments of the kingdome, to th' end the husband of the yong queene might be crowned king also of Scotland Where vn|to the ambassadors did shortlie make answer, that they had no such thing giuen in charge to them After which, the cardinall said;

We desire nothing more at your hands at this time, but that which lieth in your power to performe; which is, here now to confirme by writing that you will hereafter, forward, approoue & worke that this honor (which now we iustlie demand) maie be granted to the Dolphin, when the same shall be talked of in the parlement of Scotland. Which re|quest (when it séemed full of impudencie) they suppo|sed best more constantlie and sharpelie to reiect.

Wherefore they answered, that their ambassage was restreined within certeine bounds, which they neither could nor would excéed. But and if they had beene sent with frée libertie of their ambassage, that yet it were not the part of faithfull friends (as the French professed to be) to require that which could not be granted without certeine and assured danger and infamie of treason, though danger of life were absent from it. All which notwithstanding, in all ho|nest things which might well be granted they would yéeld vnto the French, ioined vnto them by so manie necessarie occasions. Wherefore they requested the French that they would not in their demands excéed the limits of modestie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Whervpon the ambassadors being dismissed from the court, foure of the chiefe of them (before they departed home) which were these, Gilbert Kennedie, George Lesse, Robert Read, and also Iames Fle|ming, all men of singular vertue and loue to their countrie, besides manie other of the companie, died there, not without mistrust of poison. It was also be|léeued, that Iames the queenes brother had receiued the same draught: for (although he were of a better composition of bodie, stronger constitution of com|plexion, and of more youthfull strength, whereby he escaped death) he had alwaies after a continuall and dangerous infirmitie of his bellie whilest he liued, of the death of all which shall be somewhat more said héereafter. Thus leauing the Scotish lords ambassa|dors there in France for a time, we will returne to shew what happened betwixt the Scots and English|men at home, where the warres were pursued, to the losse or little gaine of both parts.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About Whitsuntide, sir Henrie Persie with di|uerse bands of the countrie garrisons, & sir George Bowes then marshall of Berwike, with sundrie bands of the garrison of that towne, passed foorth in|to A rode into Scotland. Scotland, they being in all about seuen or eight hundred horssemen, and two thousand footmen. They burnt the townes of Duns and Langton; and ha|uing Duns and Langton burnt. got togither a great number of cattell, retur|ned homewards. The Scots that laie in Kelso; and other places, kéeping their quarterage on their bor|ders (for the realme, as ye haue heard, was quarie|red, euerie part kéeping their turne, as the manner is) assembled togither to the number of two thou|sand horssemen (or few lesse) and three bands of foot|men, hasting foorth to defend the countrie. And per|ceiuing where the Englishmen were, followed and coasted them as they returned with their bootie, till they came to Swinton, where they ouertooke them, and skirmished with them sharplie as they were pas|sing through the towne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scotish footmen beat backe part of the Eng|lishmens The Scots assaile the Englishmen at Swinton. shot into their battell, and preassed verie forward in hope to be assisted by their horssemen, the which (as ye haue heard) ouermatched greatlie the English horssemen in number: but the fight grew somewhat hot, and the more vnto the disaduantage of the Englishmen, forsomuch as their shot & pow|der began to faile them, by reason the mistie mor|ning had made much of their powder da [...]kish, so that they could haue no vse thereof. But héerewith sir Henrie Lée, capteine Read, and others, being in the battell, behaued themselues verie stoutlie, causing EEBO page image 363 the footmen to staie, and boldlie to abide the enimie: & heerewith procured the horssemen to giue a charge in such conuenient time, as if the same had béene pro|tracted, it might haue turned verie euill to the Eng|lish side.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now as well the horssemen as footmen plai|eng their parts, the Scotish horssemen abiding with|out the towne in troope (while their footmen were in The Scots horssemen flée. skirmish) fled awaie, leauing their footmen to be slaine and spoiled of the Englishmen, and yet those foo [...]m fought if out right manfullie: so that if the Scots horssemen had doone their parts so well as the footmen, it was like to haue gone harder on the English side than it did. But now the Scotish horsse|men not entring the fight, their footmen were inclo|sed by the Englishmen: for those that were in the fore-ward, and were passed by, returned, and com|ming behind their enimies, holpe to beat them downe, so that few or none of the Scots or French|men The Scots footmen slaine. (whereof there were some few amongest them) escaped, but were either taken or slaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Amongest others, capteine Cullane, and cap|teine The lord of Keith with o|thers taken prisoners. Kenedie, two chiefe leaders of the footmen were taken: diuerse of their horssemen also in the retire were taken, amongest whome William lord Keith, sonne to the earle Marshall of Scotland was the chiefest. But this victorie was not atchiued with|out losse of diuerse Englishmen. Amongest other one Pell, ensigne-bearer to sir Iohn Markhams band of footmen was slaine. Also master Edrington a capteine of light horssemen was taken prisoner by M Edring|ton taken. the lard of Edmonston, at the first charge giuen vp|on the Scotish horssemen, and led awaie without rescue. Beside the manfull prowesse of sir Henrie Persie, and the other English capteins before men|tioned, the forward valiancie shewed that day of sir William Brereton, and Thomas Markham, that Sir William Brereton. led his father sir Iohn Markehams band of footmen, also of Rafe Ellerkar a capteine of horssemen, are not to be forgotten, who with diuerse other capteins & souldiers behaued themseues in such wise at that present seruice, as their dealings therein deserue speciall memorie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, at an other time the Scots & French|men entring into England, the Scotish horssemen, to the number of a thousand or thereabouts, passed foorth to burne and forraie the countrie: but the earle of Northumberland, & his brother sir Henrie Per|sie, assembled togither a power of horssemen: and sir Henrie Persie méeting with them at Grendon, set vpon the Scots and chased them ouer the water of Twisell, vnto the foot battell of the Frenchmen: The Scots put to flight at Grendon. who retiring to the riuer of Twéed, passed ouer the same at Chapell Fourd, where they were assailed both by certeine foot bands of the garrison of Ber|wike, that were come foorth to aid the earle, and al|so by the horssemen: so as diuerse were drowned in the riuer before they could get ouer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But after they were once got to the further side, they put themselues in order of battell againe, and retired in a squadron verie stronglie, susteining lit|tle or no hurt at all, notwithstanding that the erle of Northumberland (being then come) and his brother sir Henrie Persie, with the rest of the capteins and The good or|der of the Frenchmen in their retire. gentlemen of the countrie, pursued them ouer the water for the space of two miles, skirmishing with them still as they marched awaie, but could doo them no harme, because they kept themselues in so good order, & the English footmen were not able to reach them. Wherevpon the English horssemen suffering the Frenchmen to depart, left them, and passing in|to the countrie, burnt long Ednam, and diuerse Lõg Ednam burnt. other hamlets and villages, and so returned. Di|uerse Scots that day at the ouerthrow and chase of their horssemen were taken prisoners, as the lord The lord Greie of Scotland ta|ken prisoner. Cawmils woone by the Englishmen. Greie, and others.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And after this, the Englishmen wan the strong pile of Cawmils, wherein were sixtéene French|men that defended it for the time verie stoutlie, so that it cost the liues of diuerse Englishmen, before they could take it. Shortlie after, there was a fore skirmish at Halidon hill. For whereas the most part of summer it was ordeined, that euerie daie cer|teine bands of souldiers should ward on the same hill, to giue libertie to the inhabitants of Berwike, to mow and carie in their haie; they continued for a time without anie trouble offered by the Scots or French, so that the warders standing in no doubt of the enimies, vsed out of their armor to shoot, bowle, quait, & exercise such like games of pleasure. Where|of the Scots & Frenchmen being aduertised, came one day from Aimouth in so secret wise, that they were drawen verie néere to the Englishmen, yer they had anie warning of their approch.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This approch as it was priuie, so was it like wise sudden, insomuch that before they could be got into order, the Scots and Frenchmen were almost at their elbowes; and falling in skirmish with them, handled them verie roughlie: although sir William Brereton, sir Iohn Markeham, maister William A sore skir|mish vpon Halidon hill. Drewrie, Cutbert Uaughan, and other the capteins of the Englishmen did behaue themselues right manfullie, bringing their men in order, incoura|ging them, and dooing what apperteined vnto har|die and skilfull warriors. But yet three times that day the Scots and Frenchmen put them from the higth of the hill, till at length sir Iames Croft com|ming from Berwike, vsed such diligence and po|licie in the matter, that the Scots and Frenchmen were repelled and constreined to retire, withdraw|ing backe into Aimouth, after they had continuedin skirmish from one of the clocke till it was past foure with no small losse on both parts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, the earle of Bothwell, lieng on the bor|ders The earle of Bothwell. as lieutenant, according to the order for the time of his quarterage, entred on a day into Eng|land, and sent his forraie to burne Fenton towne, kéeping himselfe in ambush at Haltwell Sweire. Sir Henrie Persie aduertised that the Scots were thus entred, got togither a thousand horsse, and ma|king foorth to defend the countrie, set vpon the earle at the aforesaid place of Haltwell Sweire; but some Haltwell Sweire. feare entring into the hearts of the Englishmen, by reason of certeine shot which the Scots had there with them, fled, and were pursued by the Scots o|uer the water of Till. There were taken aboue six score Englishmen, amongst whom capteine Ering|ton, The English men put to flight. and capteine Kar, that had the leading of light horssemen, were two: beside diuerse other men of good account in seruice, as one Uaughan a gentle|man and such like.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About this time, whilest the lord Eure commonlie called Euers, remained capteine of Berwike, one Kirkaudie cousine to sir William Kirkaudie lard of Grange, chanced to be taken prisoner into Ber|wike; and afterwerds being ransomed, at his com|ming home to Aimouth, he made report that he had beene too streictlie vsed, during the time that he re|mained prisoner, at the hands of the said lord Eure. By reason wherof, vpon chalenge made by Grange to fight a combat with the lord Eure, the matter The lard of Grange chal|lẽgeth the lord Eure. grew to this issue; that where their degrées were not equall, Rafe Eure brother to the lord Eure vnder|tooke (in his brothers behalfe) to breake a staffe with the lard of Grange vpon the side of Halidon hill at a day appointed: where they met, either of them bring|ing twelue gentlemen with them, to sée the triall of this chalenge performed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 EEBO page image 364 But when they came to haue their armor & wea|pons viewed, the truth is so, that Grange was ar|med in a cote of plate, and a cura [...]e alo [...]t vpon it: wherewith some fault was found, because maister Cure was clad onelie in a single cote of plate, with|out anie other péeces of armor for defense of his bo|die. But yet such was the great courage of the said maister Eure, that he would not refuse the chalenge, notwithstanding his aduersaries aduantage of ar|mor. The lard of Grange and maister Rafe Eure ran one against ano|ther. Wherevpon they ran togither, and brake both their staues; and as it fortuned maister Eure was hurt in the flanke. The warre being thus pursued betwixt England and Scotland, beside the incoun|ters and roads which are before mentioned, there were two great roads made into Scotland; the one by the earle of Westmerland, and the other by the earle of Northumberland: the lord Talbot being there, & hauing the leading of certeine demilances.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Moreouer, it was thought good by the English|men, not onelie to annoie the Scots by land, but al|so by sea. Wherevpon sir Iohn Clere with certeine Sir Iohn Clere slaine in the Ile of Orkeneie. ships of warre sailed foorth alongest the coast, till at length he arriued at the Iles of Orkeneie; where going on land about an enterprise, & staieng longer than was requisit, he was incountred by his aduer|saries, and slaine with manie of his people, which were there on land with him. But though the Scots had good successe in that part, they susteined great damage on the west side of the realme, by a iournie which the erle of Sussex then lord deputie of Ireland attempted against them. For the better vnderstan|ding whereof ye shall note, that after the lord Clin|ton high admerall of England had burnt the towne of Conquest in Britaine, there were seuen ships of warre appointed to passe into Ireland, as the Marie Willoughbie, the New barke, the Sacret, the Ger|falcon, and thrée other that were merchants, and ap|pointed that yeare to serue the quéene of England in hir warres.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There were also beside those seuen ships of war, two vittellers appointed to attend vpon them. Sir Thomas Cotton was ordeined their admerall, and one Southweke of Douer was assigned to be their viceadmerall. Now vpon their arriuall in Ireland, the earle of Sussex hauing also prepared thrée o|ther The iournie of the earle of Sussex into the west parts of Scotland. ships, with sufficient and necessarie prouision for his iourneie, imbarked with so manie soul|diers as conuenientlie might be bestowed aboord in that fléet, conteining twelue saile in the whole; and departing toward the west of Scotland, land|ded in a part of the countrie called Kentire, with as manie souldiers and mariners as might be spared Kentire. out of the ships, leauing them furnishd with com|petent numbers for their safegard; and being got to land, he passed foorth into the countrie, & burnt two houses that belonged to Iames Maconell chiefe go|uernor of those parts, & a great enimie to the Eng|lishmen. Iames Ma|conell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 He burnt also diuerse townes, villages, and ham|lets belonging vnto the said Maconell, with great store of corne and other things which came in their waie. The Scots oftentimes skirmished with the Englishmen, but durst not aduenture to ioine with them in battell, they kept so good order by the earle of Sussex his politike and valiant conduction. There were a sort of Scots gotten into a bo [...] meaning to haue fled, but being apprehended by the English|men, they were executed. Finallie, after the earle had remained there on land, in burning and spoiling the countrie for the space of thrée daies, he retur|ned to his ships, and in safetie went aboord againe with his men: and making saile to the Ile of Ar|rane, The earle of Sussex burnt the Ile of Ar|rane. entred the hauen called Amalasche, and lan|ding at that place, burnt the countrie, and after went to Cumber, where he likewise burnt and [...]ar|ried that Ile.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This doone, he meant to haue gone into two other Ilands, Ila and Iureie: but the winds grew so ter|rible Foule wea|ther. with tempests and foule weather, that they lost one of their ships; and some of the rest were so rent & spoiled of their tackle and furniture, as they esca|ped in great hazard of being cast awaie also. There were six and twentie mariners drowned, the which perceiuing the ship to be in danger of sinking, sled into the boate, and so perished: the other that re|mained in the ship were saued, as maister Francis Randoll, and others. By reason therefore of such foule weather, the earle of Sussex was constreined to returne into Ireland, arriuing in Cragfergus The earle of Sussex retur|neth into Ire|land. where he landed with his souldiers: and appointing the ships to returne into England, he passed by land vnto Dublin, spoiling the enimies countries by the waie, and taking from them a great preie and bootie of cattell; notwithstanding the painfull passage that he had to make through the cumbersome waies, bogs, and woods, without reliefe of all necessarie things in that so troublesome a iournie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus far for those yeares warre in the daies of Marie quéene of England, betwixt the Englishmen and Scots: whereof sith I haue found none that hath written anie thing at all, I haue yet set downe these od notes, as I haue learned the same of such as had good cause to know the truth thereof, being eie-witnesses themselues of such enterprises and ex|ploits as chanced in the same warres; namelie cap|teine Read, capteine Wood, capteine Erington, capteine Gurleie, and capteine Markham; with o|thers, which of their courtesie haue willinglie im|parted to me the report of diuerse such things, as I wisht to be resolued in. Which accordinglie (so far as my remembrance hath serued) I haue here deliue|red, to the end the same maie giue occasion to others (that maie happilie light vpon more full instructi|ons) to impart to posteritie a more perfect discourse, where otherwise the matter might peraduenture wholie passe in forgetfulnesse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And now to returne vnto the Scotish ambassa|dors that were sent into France, for the conclusion of the mariage betwixt their quéene & the Dolphin. After that the same mariage was consummat, and euerie thing ordered and brought to passe according to the effect of their commission; in the moneth of August they tooke their leaue of the French king, The ambas|sadors died almost all. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 538, 539. the quéene, and nobilitie there, to returne home|wards into Scotland: albeit few of them came home, for the bishop of Ork [...]neie departed this tran|sitorie life in Diepe, the fiftéenth of September; the earle of Roths deceassed there the ninth of No|uember; the earle of Cass [...]ls lord treasuror departed in the same place the fourteenth of Nouember; and the lord Fleming deceassed in Paris the eightéenth Thrée came home againe. of December. And so onelie the archbishop of Glas|cow, the prior of saint Andrews, and the lard of Lard of Dun. A parlement. Dun returned into Scotland in October. After whose comming, there was a parlement summoned by the quéene, to be holden in Dcember next.

[In August, Archembald Campbell erle of Argile, Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag 539. whose wit was singular in dispatch of the affaires aswell of peace as of warre, was made high iustice of Scotland; and in France was aduanced to the title of knight of the order of saint Michaell. Few daies betweene these things departed this life the bishop of Brechin, and Andrew Durie bishop of Whitechurch. To the one did succeed the abbat of Candid [...] C [...]. Couper, in place of the other came Alexander Gordon archbishop of Athens by the queenes benefit. Dauid Painter or Paniter bishop of Ros, & Iames Steward, whome Iames the fift (being illegitimat father EEBO page image 365 father vnto him) had made abbat of Melrosse and Kelso died also this yeare. Whose monasteries the queene did forthwith giue vnto the cardinall Guise; long after which followed also the death of the abbat of Bamtorinoch. At this verie time manie prodigious sights (which I will not here recite, being touched by Lesleus) did appeare by a marker of such ominous things, whereof these verses were made:

Portentum est miserae gentis, quae numine laeso
Diuisis sacris diuidet imperium.

In September there was a parlement holden at Edenburgh, in which the acts of the former legats in France (about the mariage of the queene of Scots [...]. [...]. to the Dolphin) were confirmed. At what time the Dolphin of France by his ambassadors did vehementlie request, that the crowne (which they term matrimoniall) should be giuen vnto him by the decree of the states, whereby he might be called king of Scotland a long as the queene liued. The queene also iudging it a point of honor, to heape all title of glorie which she could vpon hir husband, as one that by a certeine inclination of mind did vertuouslie fauor him; gaue in charge also to the ambasdors, that they should earnestlie follow the same cause amongest the Scots. And to the end to draw them more easilie into hir opinion; she drew the matter into certeine articles, deliuered to the ambassadors with more ample instructions touching the same: the summe of all which was this.

First, diligentlie to beat into the Scots with what disposition of mind the Dolphin was affected toward them, as well as his father, who held the Scots in that account as he did his owne people, and so alwaies would haue them: which good mind of the French towards the Scots to be plaine without anie dissimulation, it maie well appeere as well by the couenants established for the mariage, as also by the benefits which he hath not onelie bestowed vpon the Scots and Scotland in generalitie, but also in particularitie vpon certeine especiall Scots, of his owne free will, almost without the request of anie bodie. And that they should also further laie abroad, what helpe the queene and Scots haue had of the woorthie cardinall of Lorraine, & the duke of Guise the queenes vncle. All which the ambassadors themselues (as they haue fullie proued) did well understand.

Secondlie, where the queene dooth thinke that she is greatlie benefited with manie honors by so great a king, but especiallie in this, that so mightie a prince hath taken hir into the fellowship of the holie bed, by which there can not anie other commoditie grow to the king than the reuenues of the kingdome which he had purchased with his great charge and labor: and that the queene considering all this (with great griefe of mind) doth seeke by what meanes she might at least expresse some small token of a thankefull mind for so manie benefits (because if she should not doo s [...]me thing, no small blot would séeme to be imputed to the queene and the Scots) it came into hir mind to thinke by what meanes she could requite some part therof, which she could doo (as she thought) if at the least she did but honor hir husband with the kinglie title, & giue vnto him the mariage crowne of Scotland.

This thing therefore the queene hir selfe dooth earnestlie desire, and dooth courteouslie request all the estates of Scotland, that the same maie be established by the voices of the full parlement, and that they will command some three or foure of the chiefest nobilitie honorablie to carie the ensignes of the kingdome to him, that at the least by this token of loue, the king & the best of the court maie well perceiue, with that reuerence and with that dutie they fauour the king hir husband.

And to the end that this request of the queene, for the rarenesse of the example, should not breed anie doubt in the mind of the nobilitie, and to hold them as it were in suspense, it was giuen in charge also to the ambassadors, that they should in manner point with their finger, that manie ages past, the queene of Naples did not onelie for loue she did beare vnto him, adorne the duke of Aniou hir husband, with the bare name of a king; but did also by the consent of the nobilitie, giue him rule and gouernement ouer the same kingdome. The like whereof was also doone in our memorie by the queene of Spaine to hir husband the archduke of Austrich, & by the queene of Nauarre to the duke of Vandosme.

But if that the Scots be mooued by the example of the English, who haue excluded Philip king of Spaine, that then the ambassadors should easilie wipe awaie that doubt, if they admonish the Scots that the English are not tied to the Spaniards with that firme and needfull band as the Scots are to the French, both which nations haue one priuilege, magistrats to gouerne, and one fellowship and participation of the administration of all the things in either kingdome. Whervnto they must further adde that it was so far off, that the English should reape anie fruit or commoditie by the Spaniards, that the king of Spaine himselfe did (as it were) wring from the English all the commoditie he could, to performe his affaires out of the realme. And further, that the English being out of all hope for their queene to haue anie issue by the same mariage, they would not grant vnto it, when there is a certeine and full hope left to the Scots, that issue may come of this marriage.

Besides all this, let it be opened vnto the Scots, what a great benefit maie redound vnto them by this signe of a thankefull mind. For it maie so happen, that if the king Dolphin shall feele himselfe increased with this title of honor by the Scots, as a note of their good fauour to him, that he maie raise vp his Well [...]shed to [...] a fr [...]g. father the king of France, that he will not by anie meanes permit the queene of Scots his wife to be excluded from the kingdome of England, after the death of queene Marie, who was not like to liue long being sore troubled with the dropsie.

These things and manie others were giuen in charge to the ambassadors (com [...]n out of France) to declare to the parlement of Scotland. Which being thus declared to the sta [...]es and the quéene regent, with might and maine s [...]eking the furthering there|of; at length it was granted that he should be king during the life of the quéene. For which cause Gil|lesper Campbell earle of Argile, and Iames Ste|ward, bastard brother to the yoong quéene, being pri|or of S. Andrews, were named to e [...]ute their con|sent vnto the Dolphin, to declare him king, and to inuest him with the ornaments thereto belonging, and further to shew the readie minds of the Scots toward him, not onlie in this but in all other things: by which anie honor or profit might anie waie rise vnto him.

But whilest these men doo prepare all things for such a iournie, certeine factio [...]s persons did beat in|to their eares, how heauie a iournie that would b [...] vnto them. For it would happen, that [...] they were busie in prouiding for small things abrode, they should by delaie corrupt, or by absence cleane ouer|turne matters of greater importance at home. For they did know how the subtill [...]it of Iames, and the great power and strength of the earle of Argile would be missing in those new things which were in hand amongst these of the religion: for which they neuer left off intreating and persuading, vntill they EEBO page image 366 had wholie staied them from that iournie.

During these affaires, Marie quéene of England Buch. lib. 10. died, and that woorthie ladie Elizabeth succeeded in hir place. Immediatlie wherevpon, the yoong quéene of Scots bare hir selfe as heire to that kingdome, and caused all hir hangings, bedding, vessels, and o|ther houshold stuffe to be stamped and marked with the title and armes of the kings of England. And although France were then miserablie afflicted in chalenging the dominion and gouernment of Mil|lane, Naples, and Flanders; yet they would needes heape euill vpon euill, and adde therevnto the title of England, as being vnto them a verie scorne and mockerie (as Buchanan tearmeth it.) Neither did the wiser sort of the French looke into that matter: for the Guises, who at that time gouerned all things, did consent to this error of the Scotish quéene, bicause they would thereby séeme to haue gotten to them|selues a singular honor in adding the title of Eng|land to the French name.

The regent hauing now gotten a consent (as be|fore you haue heard) of the matrimoniall crowne to be bestowed vpon the husband of the yoong quéene of Scots, began after a sort to put on a new mind: for by little and little she conuerted that old and accep|ted courtesie, into commanding arrogancie; and the gentle answers wherewith she was woont to ap|pease all parts, were turned contrarie. Which before she durst not doo by reason of the present state, which then was such, as she feared not to promise what she would not haue to be performed, bicause she had not then obteind the grant of the matrimoniall crowne: but now hauing all things after hir owne mind, she vsed other conditions, and other spéeches. There was also a parlement appointed at Striueling in the sixt Ides of Maie.

And bicause she was heard oftentimes to saie, that she would not suffer the maiestie of the chiefe go|uernement to be cast downe from the seat thereof, but wold restore it to the former place. By which sai|engs manie were admonished of some troublesome tempest to follow. Wherevpon diuerse came to in|treat hir for the protestants, amongest which for the dignitie of his name, to make the matter to be more easilie obteined, there were sent Alexander Cu|nigame earle of Glencarne, and Hugh Campbell shiriffe of Aine, a woorthie knight, before whom the regent could not refraine hirselfe, but burst foorth into these woords.

These men (saith shee) sith they haue preached not verie sincerelie, shall be banished, though you andyour ministers resist against it.
And when they re|plied, beséeching hir that she would remember what she had often promised: she answered, that the per|formance of promise is to bée chalenged of prin|ces, so farre as it séemeth commodious for them to performe it. Wherevnto they replied, that they there|fore renounced all dutie and obedience vnto hir, and did further forewarne hir of the great mischiefes that would flow out of this founteine: with which an|swer shée being stroken more than shée looked for, said in the end, that she would both thinke on it and them.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Iulie and August, there was a conuention of all the prelats and cleargie holden at Edenburgh, An assemblie of the cleargie. Fr. Thin. in the which certeine men & women of Edenburgh were accused of heresie, and abiured at the towne crosse with faggots on their backes: [wherevpon (as saith Lesleus lib. 10. pa. 538.) were great tumults rai|sed at Edenburgh, for the appeasing whereof, the lord Seiton was made gouernor there.] In this assem|blie it was required, that the common praiers Cõmon prai|ers to be had in the vulgar toong. might be read in the Scotish toong in churches, with certeine other articles of reformation, whereof the answer was deferred till March, in which moneth a prouinciall councell was appointed to be holden at Edenburgh. The second of March, the said prouinci|all A prouinciall councell. councell of all the prelats and clergie of Scot|land began, wherein diuerse articles were proponed Requests made by the laitie. by the temporaltie; as to haue the praiers and admi|nistration of the sacraments in the Scotish lan|guage, the election of bishops and all beneficed men to passe by the voices of the temporall lords & people of their diocesses and parishes, with diuerse other re|formations: all the which the bishops refused to grant, where through there arose shortlie after great trouble in Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The queene regent caused summons to be giuen 1559. Iohn Knox with other are summoned. to Iohn Knox, Iohn Wullocke, Iohn Dowglas, and Paule Meffane, to appeare at Striueling the tenth day of Maie: and for lacke of appearance they were denounced rebels, and put to the horne. Wher|vpon the said Iohn Knox being in Perth, persuaded the maister of Lindseie, the lards of Tulibardin, Dun, Pettarrow, and diuerse other being there as|sembled, with the burgesses of the townes of saint Iohns towne and Dundee, to pull downe the ima|ges Images and frier houses pulled downe. and altars in all churches, and to suppresse the houses of friers, & other religious places. Who after a sermon made by him to that effect, the same tenth of Maie they began in saint Iohns towne, and cast downe the abbeie of the Charterhouse, the Blacke and Carmelite friers, called the Tullelum [and so Fr. Thin. cleane, that (as saith Buchanan) within two daies there was left no signe thereof almost to be séene] and reformed all other churches thereabouts, brea|king downe the images and altars in Fife, Angus, Mernis, and other parts there next adioining.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The queene regent being aduertised thereof, sent for the duke of Chatelerault, and diuerse other of the nobilitie, as the earles of Atholl, Argile, Marshall, The quéene regent came to Perth. and others, who came with hir to Perth, otherwise called saint Iohns towne, hauing with them two thousand Frenchmen [to whome also repaired (as Fr. Thin. saith Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 548) the archbishop of saint Andrew and Glascow, the bishops of Dunkeld, and Dunblane, Iames prior of saint Andrews, the ab|bat of Cowper and Dunfermeling, with manie o|ther chiefe of the cleargie] who entered the towne vp|on appointment of the lord Ruthen capteine thereof, and so receiuing it, gaue it in keeping to capteine Iames Steward, and capteine Cullane, with their bands of men of warre. In the meane time the erle S. Andrews. of Argile, and the prior of saint Andrews, left the quéene in Perth, and went to saint Andrews, ioi|ning themselues with the other, and made reforma|tion of the churches, casting downe altars, images, houses of friers, and abbeies in that towne, and in Cowper, and other places thereabout: and assem|bling Cowper. a great companie of countrie men, came to Londros, Balmeare, & Cowper, to make resistance against the Frenchmen that were in Falkeland with the quéene [come thither from Perth, after that Fr. Thin. she had left in Perth six hundred men vnder the charge of Iames Steward cardinall, & Iames Cul|lane.] But when they should haue met on Cowper Two armies were pacified, moore in battell, the duke of Chatelerault, the earle Marshall, and others, laboured betwixt them, so that the battell was staied, & the queene with the French|men returned vnto Edenburgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Argile, the prior of saint Andrews, and their assisters came to saint Iohns towne and Saint Iohns towne be|besieged. besieged it, till it was to them surrendered. The erle of Huntleie was sent to them from the queene to treat with them of some accord, but he profited not. At the same time a certeine number of persons of the townes of Dundée & Perth, came to the abbeie Scone abbei [...] burnt. of Scone, and spoiling the church, burnt it with the EEBO page image 367 most part of the house, the earle of Argile, and the prior of saint Andrews being with them in compa|nie. After this they went to Striueling, and to Lith|quo, The friers in Striueling destroied. where they caused the houses of the blacke friers and graie friers to be throwne downe. From thence they passed to Edenburgh where the quéene hearing of their comming, departed with the Frenchmen vnto Dunbar, the duke of Chatelerault, and the erle The quéene departed from Edenburgh. of Huntleie being with hir in companie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Argile and his companie, called the lords of the congregation, were receiued into Eden|burgh by the bailiffes of the towne, where the places of the blacke and graie friers were suddenlie ouer|throwne, & the Church a field, and Trinitie college, The frierhou|ses ouer|throwne. and saint Giles church were reformed, and the ima|ges and altars pulled downe. The lords remaining thus in Edenburgh [apprehended Robert Richard|son Fr. Thin. (as saith Lesleus) that was gouernor of the pub|like treasurie, tooke the keis by force from him, ente|red the abbeie] the coming house, tooke the coining i|rons, seized vpon the quéenes mooueables, which they found in the palace, and kept the same. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 551.Whilest these things were thus doone at Edenburgh, Max|well lord Harries gouernor of the west marches, which at that time was deteined prisoner in Eden|burgh castell, did priuilie get out of the same by a rope hanged to the wall, and hauing spéedie horsses, departed to his owne companie, shortlie after ioi|ning himselfe to the lords of the religion.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Monsieur Doisell and the Frenchmen came from Dunbar to the links of Leith, accompanied with the duke of Chatelerault, the earles of Huntleie, Both|well, Two armies pacified. Mourton, and others. And the lords of the con|gregation came foorth of the towne of Edenburgh of purpose to haue giuen battell to the Frenchmen, al|beit they were not sufficient partie to resist them. But the erle of Huntleie trauelled betwixt them, by whose meanes there met twelue on euerie side, who a|gréed vpon certeine articles, and so the quéene and Frenchmen entered into Leith, and foorthwith began Leith fortified to fortifie it.