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5.69. ArthurArthure.


[figure appears here on page 131]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 After the deceaſe of Vter Pendragon (as we finde in the Britiſhe hiſtories, his ſonne Arthur, a yong towardly Gentleman, of the age of .xv. yeares or theraboutes, began his reigne ouer the Britons in the yere of our lord .516. or as Math.516. Math. VVeſt hath noted .5 [...] Weſt. hath .57. in ye .18. yere of the emperor Ana|ſtaſius, & in the .iij. yere of the reignes of Ch [...]|bert, Clathare, Clodain [...]e, & Theodorik brethrẽ, yt were [...] of the Frenchmẽ. Of this Arthure [...] are writen beyond credite, for that there is no ancient author of authoritie that cõ|firmeth the ſame: But [...]inely as may be thought he was ſome worthie man, and by all [...] a great [...] to the Saxons, by rea [...] wherof the Wei [...]hemen which or the very Brytons in [...] haue [...] fa [...] [...]. He fought as the common report of him goeth .xi [...]. notable batayles agaynſt the Saxons, and in euery of them wente awaye with the victorie. But yet hee myghte not vtterlye dryue them oute of EEBO page image 136 the lande, but that they kepte ſtill the countreys whiche they had in poſſeſſion, as Kent, South|rey, Northfolke, and others: howbeit ſome wri|ters teſtifie, that they helde theſe countreyes as tributaries to Arthure. But trouth it is (as dy|uers authours agree) that hee helde continuall warre agaynſt them, and alſo agaynſt the Pic|tes, the whiche were alyed wyth the Saxons: For as in the Scottiſhe hiſtories is conteyned, euen at the fyrſte beginning of hys reigne, the two kings of Scottes and Pictes ſeemed to en|uie hys aduauncemente to the crowne of Bry|tayne, bycauſe that they had maryed the two ſyſters of the two brethren, Aurelius Ambro|ſius, and Vter Pendragon, that is to witte, Loth kyng of Pictes hadde maryed Anne theyr eldeſt ſyſter, and Conran kyng of Scottes had in maryage Alda theyr yonger ſiſter, ſo that bi|cauſe Arthur was begot out of wedlocke, they thoughte it ſtoode wyth more reaſon, that the kyngdome of the Brytons ſhould haue deſcen|ded vnto the ſiſters ſonnes rather than to a ba|ſtarde, namely Loth the Pictiſhe king, whyche had iſſue by his wyfe Anna, ſore repined at the matter: and therefore at the fyrſt when he ſawe that by ſuite he coulde not preuayle, hee ioyned in league wyth the Saxons, and ayding them agaynſte Arthure, loſte many of his menne of warre being ouerthrown in battayle, which he had ſent vnto the ſuccours of Colgerne the Sa|xon Prince that ruled as then in the north par|tes. But fynallye a league was concluded be|twixte Arthur and the foreſayde Lothe kyng of Pictes, vpon certain conditions, as in the Scot|tiſhe hiſtory is expreſſed, where ye may read the ſame, with many other things touching the acts of Arthure, ſomewhat in other order, than oure writers haue recorded.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Britiſhe authors declare, that Arthure immediately after he had receyued the Crowne of Dubrighte Biſhoppe of Caerlleon, wente wyth his power of Brytons agaynſt the Sax|ons of Northumberlande, whiche had to their Capitayne, as before is ſayde one Colgrime or Colgerne, whome Arthure diſcomfited and cha|ſed into the Citie of Yorke,Yorke beſie|ged. within which place Arthur beſieged him, til at length the ſame Col|grime eſcaped out of the Citie,Cheldrike co|nmeth in ap [...] of Colgrime. and leauing it in charge with his brother called Bladulffe paſſed ouer into Germanie vnto Cheldrike kyng of that Countrey, of whome he obteyned ſuccors, ſo that the ſayde Cheldrike made prouiſion of menne and ſhippes,Mat [...]. VVeſt hath but [...] hundred. and came hymſelfe ouer i [...]|to Scotlande, hauing in his company .xv. hun|dred ſayles of one and other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 When Arthur was aduertiſed thereof, he rey|ſed his ſiege, and withdrewe to London, ſending letters with all ſpeede vnto Howell king of lit|tle Britayne in Fraunce, that was his ſiſters ſonne, requiring hym in moſte earneſt wyſe of ayde.Hovvell [...] of Britayn [...]|meth ouer a ayde of [...] Howell incontinentely aſſembled hys people, to the number of xv. thouſande men, and taking the ſea, landed with them at Southamp|ton, where Arthure was ready to receyue hym with great ioye and gladneſſe. From thence they drewe Northewardes, where both the hoſtes of Arthur and Howell beeing aſſembled together, marched forewarde to Lyncolne, whiche Citie Cheldrike did as then beſiege.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Heere Arthur and Howell aſſayling the Sa|xons [figure appears here on page 136] with greate force and manhoode, and at lengthe after greate ſlaughter made of the eni|myes, they obteyned the victorye, and chaſed Chelderyke) wyth the reſ [...]dewe of the Saxons that were lefte alyue) vnto a woodde, where they compaſſed them aboute wythin the ſame,Childerike o|uerthrovvne in batayle. in ſuche wyſe, that in the ende they were con|ſtreyned to yeelde themſelues, wyth condition EEBO page image 133 that they myghte bee ſuffred to departe a foote to their ſhippes, and ſo auoyde the lande, leauyng theyr horſe, armour, and other furniture vnto the Brytons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Heerevpon the Brytons takyng good hoſt a|ges for aſſuraunce, permitted the Saxons to go their ways, and ſo Cheldrike and his people got them to theyr ſhippes, in purpoſe to returne in|to their countrey: but being on the ſea, they were forted by wynde to chaunge theyr courſe, and comming on the coaſtes of the Weaſt partes of Britayne, they arriued at Totneſſe, and con|trarye to the couenaunted articles of theyr laſte compoſition wyth Arthure, inuade the countrey of newe, and taking ſuch armure as they could fynde, marched foorth in robbing and ſpoyling the people, til they came to Bathe, which towne the Brytons kepte and defended agaynſt them, not ſuffryng them by any meanes to enter there,Bathe beſieged wherevppon the Saxons enuironed it with a ſtrong ſiege.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Arthur enfourmed hereof, with all ſpeede ha|ſted [figure appears here on page 133] thyther, & giuyng the enimies battayle, ſlew the moſte parte of Cheldrikes men.The Saxons ouerthrovve Colgrime and Bladulff.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There were ſlayne both Colgrime and Bla|dulff, howbeit Cheldrike himſelfe fled out of the fielde towardes his ſhippes, but beeing purſued by Cador Earle of Cornewall (that had with him .x.Cheldrik ſlayne by Cador duke of Cornvvall. thouſande men) by Arthures appoynte|ment, he was ouertaken and in fight ſlayn with all his people.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Arthur himſelfe retourned from this battayle foughten at Bathe with all ſpeede towardes the marches of Scotlande, for that he hadde recey|ued aduertiſement,K. Hovvell be|ſieged by the Scottes. howe the Scottes had be|ſieged Howell kyng of Brytayne there, as hee laye ſicke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo when Cador had accompliſhed his en|terpryſe and ſlayne Chelderike, hee retourned with as muche ſpeede as was poſſible towardes Arthure, and founde him in Scotlande, where he reſkued Howell, and afterwarde purſued the Scottes which fled before him by heapes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Guillomer.About the ſame tyme one Guillomer king of Ireland arriued in Scotlande with a myghtie power of Iriſhmen (neare to the place where Ar|thur lodged) to healpe the Scottes agaynſte the Britons: whervpon Arthur turning his forces towardes the ſame Guillomer, vanquiſhed him, and chaſed him into Irelande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This don, he cõtinued in purſute of the Scots til he cauſed thẽ to ſue for pardon, and to ſubmit themſelues wholly to him, and ſo receiuing them to mercie, and taking homage of them, hee re|turned to Yorke,Guenever. and ſhortly after tooke to wyfe one Guenhera a right beautifull Lady, that was neere kinſwoman to Cador Erle of Cornwall.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare folowing,VVil. Harriſon noteth it to be which Hariſon noteth to be. 525. he went into Irelande, and diſcomfi|ting king Guillomere in battayle,525. hee conſtray|ned him to yelde, and to acknowledge by doing his fealtie to holde the realme of Ireland of him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 It is further remembred in thoſe Britiſhe hi|ſtories,Gothland [...]. that hee ſubdued Gutlande and Iſeland with all the Iſles in and about thoſe ſeas.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo that hee ouercame the Romaines in the countrey aboute Parys wyth theyr capitayne Lucius, and waſted the moſte parte of all Fraunce, and ſlewe in ſyngular combates cer|tayne Gyauntes that were of paſſyng force and hugeneſſe of ſtature.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And if he had not bene reuoked home to reſiſt his couſin Mordred that was ſon to Loth king of Pightlande that rebelled in his countrey, he had paſſed to Rome, intending to make himſelfe Emperour, and afterwarde to vanquiſhe the o|ther Emperoure, that then ruled the Empire: but for ſo muche as there is not anye appro|ued EEBO page image 134 authour dothe ſpeake of any ſuche doings, the Britons are thoughte to haue regiſtred mere fables in ſtede of true matter, vpon a vayne de|ſire to aduaunce more than reaſon woulde, thys Arthur theyr noble champion, as the Frenche|men haue doone by their Roulande, and others. But to proceede.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At his returne into Britayne, he found [...] that Mordred had cauſed himſelfe to be made kyng,Rather Cer|dick as Io. Le|land thinketh. and hauing alyed himſelf with Cheldrike a Sa|xon, not hym whome Galfride (as yee haue heard,) ſuppoſeth to haue ben ſlaine before, was readie to reſiſt his landing, ſo that before he could come a lande, he loſt many of his men: but yet at lengthe hee repulſed the enimies, and ſo tooke lande at Sandwiche, where he fyrſte arriued: and then ioyning in battayle wyth his enimies, diſ|comfited them, but not without great loſſe of his people: ſpecially hee ſore lamented the death of Gawayn the brother of Mordred, whyche lyke a faythfull gentleman, regarding more his ho|nour and loyall truthe than neareneſſe of bloud and couſinage, choſe rather to fight in the qua|rell of his liege king and louing maiſter, than to take parte with his naturall brother in an vn|iuſt cauſe, and ſo there in the battaile was ſlayn, together alſo with Anguſſell, to whome Arthur afore tyme had committed the gouernemente of Scotland. Mordred fled from this battayle, and getting ſhippes, ſayled Weſtwarde, and fy|nally landed in Cornewall.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Arthur cauſed the corps of Gaway [...] to be buryed at Douer,Gawa [...]ed at [...] (as ſome holde opinion:) But Willyam Malmeſburie ſuppoſeth, he was buryed in Wales, as after ſhall be ſhewed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The dead bodie of Anguyſſell was conueyed into Scotlande, and was there buryed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After that Arthur hadde put his enimies to flight, and had knowledge into what part Mor|dred was withdrawne, wyth all ſpeede he rein|forced his armie with newe ſupplyes of ſouldi|ours called out of diuers parties, and with hys whole puiſſaunce, haſted forwarde; not reſting tyll hee came neere to the place where Mordred was encamped, wyth ſuche an A [...]iye as hee coulde aſſemble togither oute of all ſuch parties where he had any frendes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Here (as it appeareth by Iohn Leylande, in his booke entitled, The Aſſertion of Arthure,) it may be doubted in what place Mordred was en|camped: but Geffrey of Monmouthe ſheweth, that after Arthure hadde diſcomfyted Mordred in Kent at the firſte landyng, it chaunced ſo that Mordred eſcaped, and fledde to Wyncheſter, whyther Arthure followed hym, and there gy|uyng hym battayle the ſeconde tyme, didde al|ſo put hym to flyght. And following him from thence, foughte efteſoones wyth hym at a place called Camblan, or Kemelene in Cornewall, (or as ſome Authours haue neere vnto Glaſten|bury.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This battayle was foughte ſo to the vtte|rance,Richarde To|ner. [figure appears here on page 134] that finally Mordred was ſlayne, wyth the more parte of his whole armie, and Arthur receyuyng diuers mortall woundes dyed of the ſame ſhortly after, when he had reigned ouer the Britons by the terme of .xxvj. yeares. His corps was buryed at Glaſtenburye aforeſayde, in the Churche yarde, betwixte two pillers: where it was founde in the dayes of kyng Henry the ſe|conde, about the yeare of our Lorde .1191. which was in the laſte yeare of the reigne of the ſame Henry, more than ſixe hundred yeeres after the buryal therof. He was layd .xvj. foot deepe vnder grounde, for doubte that his enimies the Saxons ſhoulde haue founde hym. But thoſe that dig|ged the grounde there to fynde his bodye, after they had entred aboute seuen foote deepe into the earth EEBO page image 135 earth, they founde a myghtie broade stone with a leaden crosse fastned to that parte whiche laye downewardes towarde the corps, conteynyng this incription.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
Hic iacet sepultus inclytus rex Arthurius inInsula Aualonia.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thys inscription was grauen on that syde of the Crosse whiche was nexte to the stone: so that till the Crosse was taken from the stone, it was not seene. His body was founde, not enclosed within a tombe of marble or other stone curiously wrought, but within a greate tree made hollow for the nonce lyke a trounke, the whych being founde and digged vp, was opened, and therein was founde the kyngs bones, of suche maruellous bignesse, that the shinne bone of his legge being sette on the grounde, reached vp to the middle thighe of a ryghte tall manne: As a Monke of that Abbey hath written, whyche did lyue in those dayes, and sawe it. But Giraldus Cambrensis, whyche also lyued in those dayes, and spake with the Abbot of the place, by whome the boanes of thys Arthure were then founde, affirmeth, that by reporte of the same Abbotte, hee learned, that the shinne boane of the sayd Arthur being sette vp by the legge of a very tall manne, (the whiche the Abbot shewed to the same Giraldus) came aboue the knee of the same man the length of three fingers breadth, whiche is a greate deale more lykely than the other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The skull of his head was also of a wonderfull largenesse, so that the space of his forheade betwixt his two eyes was a spanne broade. There appeared in his heade the signes and printes of tenne woundes or moe: All the whyche were growen into one wemme, excepte only that whereof it should seeme hee dyed, whiche beyng greater than the residue, appeared very playne. Also in openyng the Tombe of his wyfe queene Guenhera, that was buryed wyth hym, they founde the tresses of hir haire whole and perfect, and fynely platted, of colour lyke to the burnished golde, the whiche being touched, immediately fell to duste. The Abbotte, whyche then was gouernour of the house, hyght Stephan, or Henry de Bloys, Henricus Ble+cenſis ſeu So|liacenſis. Io. Leland. otherwyse de Sullie, nephew to king Henry the second (by whose commaundement he hadde searched for the graue of Arthure) translated the boanes as well of him as of Queene Guineuer, beyng so founde, into the greate Churche, and there buryed them in a fayre double Tombe of Marble, laying the bodye of the kyng at the head of the Tombe, and the bodye of the Queene at his feete towardes the weast parte.

Iohn Lelande in his booke entitled Assertio Arthuri, hath for the worthie memorie of so noble a prince, honored him with a learned Epitaph, as here follovveth.

Saxonicas toties qui fudit marte cruento
Turmas, & peperit spolijs sibi nomen opimis.
Fulmineo toties Pictos qui contudit ense,
Imposuitq(ue) iugum Scotti cervicibus ingens:
Qui tumidos Gallos, Germanos quiq(ue) feroceis
Perculit, & Dacos bello confregit aperto:
Deniq(ue) Mordredum e medio qui sustulit illud
Monstru(m), horrendu(m) inge(n)s, dirum, saeuu(m)q(ue) tyrranu(m),
Hoc iacet extinctus monumento Arturius alto,
Militae clarum decus, & virtutis alumnus:
Gloria nunc cuius, terram circumuolat omnem,
Aetherijq(ue) petit sublimia tecta Tonantis.
Vos igitur gentis proles generosa Britannae,
Induperatori ter magno assurgite vestro,
Et tumulo sacro roseas inferte corollas,
Officij testes redolentia munera vestri.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 These verses I haue the more willyngly inserted, for that I had the same deliuered to mee turned into Englishe by maister Nicholas Roscarock, both right aptly yelding the sense, & also properly aunswering the Latine, verse for verse.

VVho vanquisht Saxon troupes, with battayles bloudie broyles,
And purchaste to himselfe a name with warlyke wealthie spoyles,
Who hath with shiuering shining sworde, the Picts so oft dismayde,
And eke vnweildie seruile yoke on neck of Scots hath layde:
VVho Frenchmen pufft with pride, & who the Germaines fierce in fight
Discomfited, and daunted Danes with mayne and martiall might:
Who of that murdring Mordred did the vitall breath expell,
That monster grisly, lothsom, huge, that diresom tyrant fell,
Here lyuelesse Arthur lies entombde, within this stately hearse,
Of chiualrie the brighte renoume, and vertues nurslyng fierce:
VVhose glorie great, nowe ouer all the worlde doth compasse flye,
And of the ayry thunder skales, the loftie buylding hye.
Therfore you noble progenie of Brytayne lyne and race,
Aryse vnto your Emprour great, of thryce renoumed grace,
And caste vpon his sacred tombe, the roseal garlandes gaye,
That fragrant smell may witnesse well, your duties you display,

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 156The occaſion that moued kyng Henry the ſe|conde to cauſe his nephew the layd Abbotte to ſearche for the gra [...]e of kyng Arthur was, for that hee vnderſtoode by a Welch [...] minſtrell or Barde (as they call him) that coulde ſing manye hiſtories in the Welche language of the acts of the aunciente Brytons, that in the foreſayde Churcheyarde at Glaſtenburye, betwixte the ſayde two pillers the bodye of Arthur was to bee founde buryed ſixteene foote deepe vnder the grounde. Bi [...]aldus Cambrenſis affirmeth, that the tree in the whyche Arthurs bodie was founde ſo [...]oſed, was an oke, but other ſuppoſe, that it was an Alder tree, bycauſe that in the ſame place a great number of that kynde of trees doe growe, and alſo for that it is knowne, that an Alder lying vnder grounde where moyſture is, will long continue without rotting.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 By the fynding thus of the bodie of Arthure buryed (as before ye haue heard) ſuche as hither|to beleeued that he was not dead,As for example in a caue neere a vvater called Ponde peril|lous at Salisbu|rye, vvhere he and his knights should ſlepe ar|med, till an o|ther knighte should be born that shoulde come and a|vvake them. but conueyed away by the Fairies into ſome pleaſaunt place, where he ſhoulde remayne till a tyme, and then to returne agayne, and reigne in as great autho|ritie as euer he didde before, mighte well perceiue themſelues deceyued in crediting ſo vayne a fa|ble: but yet (where it myghte otherwyſe be dou|ted whether any ſuche Arthur was at all, as the Britiſhe hiſtories mencion, bicauſe neyther Gil|das nor Beda in their workes ſpeake any thyng of hym) it maye appeare, the circumſtaunces conſidered, that ſurely ſuche one there was of that name hardie and valiaunt in armes, though not in diuers poyntes ſo famous as ſome wri|ters paint him out.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 William Malmeſburie a writer of good cre|dite and authoritie amongeſt the learned hathe theſe wordes in his fyrſte booke entitled De regi|bus Anglorum, VVil. Mal. lib. 1. de regi|bus Ang. ſaying: But he being dead (mea|ning Vortimer) the force of the Britons waxed feeble, their decayed hope went backewarde a|pace: and euen then ſurely hadde they gone to deſtruction, if Ambroſius (whiche alone of the Romaynes remayned yet alyue, and was king after Vortigerne) hadde not kepte vnder, and ſtayed the loftye Barbarous people, that is to meane the Saxons, by the notable ayde and aſ|ſiſtaunce of the valiaunt Arthur.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This is the ſame Arthur, of whome the tri|fling tales of the Britons euen to this day fan|taſtically doe deſcante and reporte wounders: but worthie was he doubtleſſe of whome feigned fables ſhoulde not haue ſo dreamed, but rather that true Hiſtories myghte haue ſette foorth hys woorthye prayſes, as he that dyd for a long ſea|ſon ſuſteyne and holde vp hys Countrey that was readie to goe to vtter ruyne and decaye, en|couraging the bolde hearts of the Brytons vn|to the wa [...]e, and finally in the ſiege of Ba [...]o [...] hyll, hee ſette vppon nyne hundred of the [...]|myes, and with incredible ſlaughter didde p [...]e them all to flighte.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 On the contrarye parte, the Engliſhe Sa|xons, althoughe they were toſſed with ſundrye happes of Fortune, yet ſtill they [...]hued theyr bandes wyth newe ſupplyes of their countrey|menne that came out of Germany, and ſo with holder courage aſſayled their enemies, and by little and little cau [...]yng them to giue place, ſpred themſelues ouer the whole Iſle. For althoughe there were manye battayles in the whiche ſome|tyme the Saxons and ſometyme the Brytons got the better, yet the greater number of Sax|ons that was ſlayne, the greater number of them ſtill came ouer to the ſuccour of their coun|treymen, being called in and ſente for out of eue|ry quarter about them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Here is alſo to be noted, that where the Bri|tiſhe hiſtorie declareth, that Gawen or Ga [...]lo|wy [...] beeing ſlay [...]ie in the battayle [...]oughte be|twixte Arthure and Mordred in [...], was bu|ryed at Douer,Ga [...] [...] he is buryed. ſo that his boane [...] remayned there to be ſhewed of long time after: yet by that whyche the foreſayde Willyam Malmeſburye writeth in the thirde booke of his volume enti|titled De regibus Anglorum, VVil. M [...]|li. [...] de reg|bus. the contrarie may ſeeme true: his woordes are theſe Then (ſayth he) in the prouince of Wales, whiche is called Roſſe, the ſepulture of Walwyne was founde, the whyche was [...]phue to Arthur by his ſiſter, not going out of kind from ſo worthy an vnel [...]. He reigned in that part of Britaine whiche vnto this daye is called VValwithia, a knighte for hys high prowes moſt highly, renoumed, but exp [...]l|ſed out of his kingdome by the brother & nephew of Hengiſt, of whome in the firſte booke we haue made mention, firſte requiting his baniſhemente with greate detrimente and loſſe to thoſe his eni|mies, wherein he was partaker by iuſt deſerte of his vncles worthy praiſe, for that he ſtayed for a great many yeres, the deſtruction of his countrey which was now running hedlong into vtter ru|ine and decay. But Arthurs graue no w [...]ere ap|peareth: but the others tombe (as I haue ſayde) was founde in the dayes of William the Con|queror, king of England, vpon the ſeaſide, and conteyned in length fourtene foote, where he was (as ſome ſay) wounded by his enimies, and caſt vp by ſhipwrack. But other write, that he was ſlayne at a publike feaſte or banket by his owne countreymen. Thus hathe William Mal|meſburye.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But here you muſte conſider, that the ſayde Malmeſburie departed this lyfe about the begin|nyng of the reigne of kyng Henry the ſeconde, certayne yeres before the boanes of Arthur were EEBO page image 157 found as before ye haue hearde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But now to speak somewhat of queene Guenhera or Guennever, Io. Leland. some iudge that she tooke the name of hir excellent beautie, bycause Guynne or Guenne in the Welch toung signifieth fayre, Quene Gury|here. so that she was named Guennere or rather Gue(n)llean: euen (as you wold say) the faire or beautyfull Leonore or Helene. She was brought vp in the house of Cador Earle of Cornewall before Arthur maryed hir: and as it appeareth by writers, she was euill reported of, as noted of incontinencie and breache of faith to hir husbande, in sorte as for the more parte women of excellente beautie hardly escape the venimous blast of euill toungs, and the sharpe assaultes of the followers of Venus. The Britishe historie affirmeth, that she did not onely abuse hir selfe by vnlawfull co(m)panying wyth Mordred, but that also in Arthurs absence, she consented to take him to husbande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 It is lykewyſe founde recorded by an olde w [...]yter, that Arthure beſieged on a tyme thẽ mariſhes neere to Glaſtenburye, for diſpleaſur [...] that he bare vnto a certayne Lorde that hyghte Mel [...]: whiche hadde rauiſhed Gumnere, and ledde h [...] into thoſe Marſhes, and there dydd [...] keepe hir. Hir corps notwithſtandyng (as be|fore is recited) was enterred togyther wyth: Ar|thurs, ſo that it is thought ſhe liued not long af|ter his deceaſſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Arthur had two wynes, as Giralou [...] Cam|brenſis affirmeth, of whiche the latter (ſayth hee) was buryed wyth hyde, and hi [...] boanes founde with his mone Sepulchre, ſo deuided yet, that two partes of the Tombe towardes the heade were appoynted to receyue the bones of the man, and the thyrde parte towardes the feete con|teyned the womans boanes, a parte by them ſelues.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Here is to bee remembred, that Hector Boe|tius wryteth otherwyſe of the death of Arthure than before in thys booke is mencioned, and al|ſo that Guen [...]ere beeyng taken pryſon [...] by the Pictes, was conueyed into Scotlande, where fynally ſhee dyed, and was there buryed in A [...]|gus, as in the Scottiſhe Chronicle further ap|peareth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And thys may be true, if he hadde three ſun|drye wyues, eche of them bearing the name of Guenhere, as ſir Iohn Price doth auouche that hee had.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Bycauſe of the contrarie [...]ie in wryters tou|chyng the greate actes atchieued by this Arthur, and alſo for that ſome difference there is amon|geſt them, aboute the tyme in whyche he ſhould reigne, many haue doubted of the truthe of the whole hiſtorie whyche of hym is written (as be|fore ye haue hearde.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Britiſhe hiſtories and alſo the Scottiſhe Chronicles doe agree, that he lyued in the days of the Emperour Iuſtinian, about the fifteenth yeare of whoſe reigne hee dyed, whiche was in the yeare of our Lorde: 542.542. as Harriſon alſo confirmeth. Howbeit ſome write farther from all lykely [...], that he was aboute the tyme of the Emperor [...]eno, who began his reign about the yeare of our Lord. 47 [...].

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The writer of the booke entitled Aurea historia affirmeth, Aurea hi|ſtoria. Leland. that in the tenth yeare of Cerdicus king of Weast Saxons, Arthur the warriour rose amongest the Brytons. Also Diovionensis writeth, that Cerdicius fyghtyng oftentymes with Arthur, if he were ouercome in one moneth, he rose in another moneth more fierce and strong to giue battayle than before.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At length Arthure awearyed with yrksomnesse, VVeſtſexon. after the twelfth yeare of the comming of Cerdicius, gaue vnto him vpon his homage don and feaultie receyued the shyres of Southampton and Somerset, the whiche countreys Cerdicius named West saxon.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Cerdicius or Cerdicus came into Britayne aboute the yeare of oure Lorde. 495. and xxiiij. yere after his commyng hither, that is to witte, about the yeare of our Lorde. 519. he beganne his reigne ouer the Weast Saxons, and gouerned them as kyng by the space of xv. yeares, as before ye haue heard.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But to followe the courſe of oure Chroni|cles accordingly as we haue begunne, we muſte allowe of their accompte herein as in other pla|ces and ſo proceede.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In this meane [...] that the Real [...] was diſ [...]eted with ſore and continuall warres be|twixte the Brytons and Saxons [...] (a [...] before you haue hearde) the chriſtian religion was not only aboliſhed in places where the Saxons got habitation [...], but alſo amongſt the Britons,The hereſie of the Pelagiane reu [...]ded the ryght faithe was broughte into daunger by the remnaunt of the Pelagian hereſye whiche be|ganne agayne to be brached by dyuers naughtie [figure appears here on page 157] perſones. Hist. Mag. Dubritius and Dauid learned Bishops. But Dubritius that was fyrſte Bi|ſhoppe of Lan|daffe, and after Archbiſhoppe of Ca [...]l [...]on. Ar|wſke and hys ſucceſſoure Da|uid, with other lerned men ear|neſtlye bothe by preaching and writing defended the contrarye cauſe, to the confuting of thoſe errours, and ree|ſtabliſhing of the truth.

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5.14. Vpon what occasion the graue of king Arthur was sought for, the follie of such discouered as beleeued that he should returne and reigne againe as king in Britaine, whether it be a fiction or a veritie that there was such an Arthur or no; discordance among writers about the place of Gawains buriall and Arthurs death; of queene Gueneuer the wife of king Arthur, hir beautie and dishonest life, great disagreement among writers touching Arthur and his wiues to the impeachment of the historie, of his life and death. The xiiij. Chapter.

Vpon what occasion the graue of king Arthur was sought for, the follie of such discouered as beleeued that he should returne and reigne againe as king in Britaine, whether it be a fiction or a veritie that there was such an Arthur or no; discordance among writers about the place of Gawains buriall and Arthurs death; of queene Gueneuer the wife of king Arthur, hir beautie and dishonest life, great disagreement among writers touching Arthur and his wiues to the impeachment of the historie, of his life and death. The xiiij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe occasion that mooued king Henrie the second to cause his nephue the foresaid abbat to search for the graue of king Arthur, was, for that he vnderstood by a Welsh minstrell or Bardh (as they call him) that could sing ma|nie histories in the Welsh language of the acts of the ancient Britains, that in the forsaid churchyard at Glastenburie, betwixt the said two pillers the bo|die of Arthur was to be found sixtéene foot déepe vnder the ground. Gyraldus Cambrensis affirmeth, that the trée in the which Arthurs bodie was found so inclosed, was an oke, but other suppose that it was an alder trée, bicause that in the same place a great number of that kind of trées doo grow, and also for that it is not vnknowne, that an alder lieng vnder ground where moisture is, will long continue with|out rotting.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 ¶By the finding thus of the bodie of Arthur bu|ried (as before ye haue heard) such as hitherto belee|ued that he was not dead, but conueied awaie by the fairies into some pleasant place,As for exam|ple in a caue néere a water called pond perillous at Salisburie, where he and his knights should sléepe armed, till an other knight should be borne that should come and awake them. where he should re|maine for a time, and then to returne againe, and reigne in as great authoritie as euer he did before, might well perceiue themselues deceiued in credi|ting so vaine a fable. But yet (where it might other|wise be doubted, whether anie such Arthur was at all, as the British histories mention, bicause neither Gyldas nor Beda in their woorks speake anie thing of him) it may appéere, the circumstances conside|red, that suerly such one there was of that name, har|die and valiant in armes, though not in diuerse points so famous as some writers paint him out. William Malmesburie a writer of good credit and authoritie amongst the learned, hath these woords in his first booke intituled De regibus Anglorum, Will. Malme. lib. 1. de regibus Ang. saieng:

But he being dead [meaning Uortimer] the force of the Britains waxed féeble, their decaied hope went backward apace: and euen then suerlie had they gon to destruction, if Ambrosius (who alone of the Ro|mans remained yet aliue, and was king after Uor|tigerne) had not kept vnder and staied the loftie bar|barous people, that is to say the Saxons, by the notable aid and assistance of the valiant Arthur.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This is the same Arthur, of whom the trifling tales of the Britains euen to this day fantasticallie doo descant and report woonders: but woorthie was he doubtlesse, of whom feined fables should not haue so dreamed, but rather that true histories might haue set foorth his woorthie praises, as he that did for a long season susteine and hold vp his countrie that was readie to go to vtter ruine and decaie, incouraging the bold harts of the Britains vnto the warre, and fi|nallie in the siege of Badon hill, he set vpon nine hundred of the enimies, and with incredible slaugh|ter EEBO page image 93 did put them all to flight. On the contrarie part, the English Saxons, although they were tossed with sundrie hops of fortune, yet still they renewed their bands with new supplies of their countriemen that came out of Germanie, and so with bolder courage assailed their enimies, and by little and little causing them to giue place, spread themselues ouer the whole Ile. For although there were manie battels, in the which sometime the Saxons and sometime the Bri|tains got the better, yet the greater number of Sax|ons that were slaine, the greater number of them still came ouer to the succour of their countriemen, being called in and sent for out of euerie quarter a|bout them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Héere is also to be noted, that where the British hi|storie declareth, that Gawaine or Gallowine being slaine in the battell fought betwixt Arthur and Mor|dred in Kent,Gawaine where he is buried. was buried at Douer, so that his bones remained there to be shewed a long time after: yet by that which the foresaid William Malmesburie wri|teth in the third booke of his volume intituled De re|gibus Anglorum, Wil. Malm. lib. 3. de regib. the contrarie maie séeme true: his woords are these.

Then (saith he) in the prouince of Wales, which is called Rosse, the sepulture of Gal|lowine was found, who was nephue to Arthur by his sister, not going out of kind from so woorthie an vn|cle. He reigned in that part of Britaine which vnto this day is called Walwichia, a knight for his high prowesse most highlie renowmed, but expelled out of his kingdome by the brother and nephue of Hengist, of whome in the first booke we haue made mention, first requiting his banishment with great detri|ment and losse to those his enimies, wherein he was partaker by iust desert to his vncles woorthie praise, for that he staied (for a great manie yéeres) the de|struction of his countrie, which was now running headlong into vtter ruine and decaie. But Arthurs graue no where appéereth: yet the others toome (as I haue said) was found in the daies of William the conqueror, king of England, vpon the sea side, and conteined in length fouretéene foot, where he was (as some say) wounded by his enimies, and cast vp by shipwracke. But other write, that he was slaine at a publike feast or banket by his owne countriemen.
Thus saith William Malmesburie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶But heere you must consider, that the said Mal|mesburie departed this life about the beginning of the reigne of king Henrie the second, certeine yéers before the bones of Arthur were found (as ye haue heard.) But omitting this point as néedles to be con|trouerssed, & letting all dissonant opinions of writers passe, as a matter of no such moment that we should néed to sticke therein as in a glewpot; we will pro|céed in the residue of such collections as we find ne|cessarilie pertinent to the continuation of this histo|rie; and now we will say somewhat of quéene Guen|hera or Guenouer, the wife of the foresaid king Ar|thur.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Some iudge that she tooke hir name of hir excel|lent beautie, bicause Guinne or Guenne in the Welsh toong signifieth faire, so that she was named Guennere or rather Guenlhean, euen (as you would say) the faire or beautifull Elenor or Helen. She was brought vp in the house of one Cador earle of Cornewall before Arthur maried hir: and as it ap|peareth by writers, she was euill reported of, as no|ted of incontinencie & breach of faith to hir husband, in maner as for the more part women of excellent beautie hardlie escape the venemous blast of euill toongs, and the sharpe assaults of the followers of Uenus. The British historie affirmeth, that she did not onelie abuse hir selfe by vnlawfull companie with Mordred, but that also in Arthurs absence she consented to take him to husband. It is likewise found recorded by an old writer, that Arthur besie|ged on a time the marishes neere to Glastenburie, for displeasure that he bare to a certeine lord called Melua, who had rauished Gueneuer, and led hir in|to those marishes, and there did kéepe hir. Hir corps notwithstanding (as before is recited) was inter|red togither with Arthurs, so that it is thought she liued not long after his deceasse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Arthur had two wiues (as Gyraldus Cambrensis affirmeth) of which the latter (saith he) was buried with him, and hir bones found with his in one sepul|chre, but yet so diuided, that two parts of the toome towards the head were appointed to receiue the bones of the man, and the third part towards the féet conteined the womans bones, apart by them|selues. Here is to be remembred, that Hector Boe|tius writeth otherwise of the death of Arthur than before in this booke is mentioned, & also that Guene|uer being taking prisoner by the Picts, was con|ueied into Scotland, where finallie she died, and was there buried in Angus, as in the Scotish chro|nicles further appeareth. And this may be true, if he had thrée sundrie wiues, each of them bearing the name of Gueneuer, as sir Iohn Price dooth auouch that he had. Now bicause of contrarietie in writers touching the great acts atchiued by this Arthur, and also for that some difference there is amongst them, about the time in which he should reigne, manie haue doubted of the whole historie which of him is written (as before ye haue heard.) ¶But others there be of a constant beléefe, who hold it for a grounded truth, that such a prince there was; and among all other a late writer,Dauid Pow. pag. 238, 239. who falling into necessarie mention of prince Arthur, frameth a spéech apologeticall in his and their behalfe that were princes of the British bloud, discharging a short but yet a sharpe inuectiue against William Paruus, Polydor Virgil, and their complices, whom he accuseth of lieng toongs, en|uious detraction, malicious slander, reprochfull and venemous language, wilfull ignorance, dogged en|uie, and cankerd minds; for that they speake vnre|uerentlie and contrarie to the knowne truth concer|ning those thrisenoble princes. Which defensitiue he would not haue deposed, but that he takes the mo|numents of their memories for vndoubted verities.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The British histories and also the Scotish chro|nicles doo agrée, that he liued in the daies of the em|perour Iustinian, about the fiftéenth yeere of whose reigne he died, which was in the yéere of our Lord 542,542 as diuerse doo affirme. Howbeit some write farther from all likelihood, that he was about the time of the emperor Zeno, who began his reigne about the yéere of our Lord 474. The writer of the booke intituled Aurea historia affirmeth, Aurea historia. I. Leland. that in the tenth yéere of Cerdicus king of Westsaxons, Ar|thur the warriour rose against the Britains. Also Diouionensis writeth, that Cerdicus fighting often|times with Arthur, if he were ouercome in one mo|neth, he arose in an other moneth more fierce and strong to giue battell than before. At length Arthur wearied with irkesomnes, after the twelfth yéere of the comming of Cerdicus, gaue vnto him vpon his homage doone and fealtie receiued, the shires of Southampton and Somerset, the which countries Cerdicius named Westsaxon.Westsaxon. This Cerdicius or Cerdicus came into Britaine about the yéere of your Lord 495. In the 24 yere after his comming hither, that is to say, about the yéere of our Lord 519, he began his reigne ouer the Westsaxons, and gouer|ned them as king by the space of 15 yéeres, as be|fore ye haue heard. But to follow the course of our chronicles accordinglie as we haue began, we must allow of their accounts herein as in other places, and so procéed.