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5.68. Vter Pendragon.

Vter Pendragon.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AFter that Aurelius Ambroſius was dead, his brother Vter Pendragon (whome Harriſon calleth,Math. Weſt. noteth. Aurelius Vterius Ambroſianus) was made King in the yeare of our Lorde.500 500. in the ſeuenth yeare of the Emperour Anaſtaſius, and in the ſixteene yeare of Clodoueus King of the Frenchmen. The cauſe why hee was ſurnamed Pendragon, was, for that Merlyne the greate Prophete likened him to a Dragons head, that at the tyme of his natiuitie maruellouſly appea|red in the firmamente at the corner of a blaſing Starre as is reported. But Harriſon ſuppoſeth that hee was ſo called of his wiſedome and ſer|pẽtine ſubtiltie, or for that he gaue the Dragons head in his Banner.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Thys Vter, hearing that the Saxons with their Captaynes Occa or Octa the ſonne of Hengiſt, and his brother Oſra hadde beſieged the Citie of Yorke, haſted thither, and giuing them battell diſcomfited their power, and tooke the ſayd Occa and Oſra priſoners. From this varieth Hector Boetius in his Chronicle of Scotland, writing of theſe doings in Britaine:Hec. Boetius. for he affir|meth that the counterfet Monke whiche poyſo|ned Aurelius Ambroſius, was ſubornate, and ſent to worke that feate by Occa, and not by his brother Paſcentius: and further, that about the very ſelfe time of Aurelius his deathe, his brother Vter Pendragon lay in Wales, not as yet fully recouered of a ſore ſickneſſe wherewith of late he had bin greeuouſly vexed. Yet the Lords of Bri|tayne after the Buriall of Aurelius Ambroſius, came vnto him, and crowned him king & though he was not able to goe againſt yt Saxons which as then by reaſon of Aurelius Ambroſius hys death were very buſie, and more earneſt in pur|ſuing the war than before) an army was yet pre|pared and ſente foorth with all conuenient ſpeede [...] leading of one Nathaliod, a man neyther of any greate auntiente houſe, not yet of ſkill i [...] warlike affaires. The noble men were nothyng pleaſed herewith, as miſliking altogither ye lack of diſcretion in their new king, and doubted ſore, leaſt in time to come he would haue more delight to aduance the baſe degree, than ſuch as were diſ|cended of noble parentage. Yet bicauſe they wold [...] the ſtate of the common wealth in daun|g [...] [...] any muteny, they agreed to goe forth with him in that iourney. Occa had aduertiſe|mente giuen by ſecrete letters ſente to him from ſome cloſe friendes amongſt the Britaines of the whole matter, and therefore in hope of the better ſpeed he haſted foorth to encounter the Britaines, and ſo the one army comming within ſight of yt other, they prepare to the battell, and ſhortly af|ter buckling togither, the Britaines were ſoone [figure appears here on page 127] diſcomfited, by reaſon that one of their chiefeſt Captaines called Gothlois diſdeyning to bee at the appointmente of Nathaliod, gote him vp to the next hill with the battell which he led, leauing the other Britaines in al the daunger: which they perceyuing ſtraight wayes began to flee. There dyed no greate number of the Britaines, excepte thoſe that were killed in the fighte: for Occa mi|ſtruſting what Gothlois meant by his withdra|wing aſide, woulde not ſuffer the Saxons to followe the chaſe, but in the nyghte followyng, Gothlois gote hym away, and reſted not till EEBO page image 128 hee was out of daunger. Occa then perceiuing himſelfe to haue the vpper hand, ſent an Herrauld vnto King Vter with a certayne meſſage, thret|ning deſtruction to him and to his people, if he re|fuſed to do that which he ſhould appoynt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 Vter perceyuing what diſloyaltie reſted in the harts of his owne ſubiectes, agreed that the mat|ter might be committed to eyght graue and wiſe Counſellers, foure Britaines and foure Saxons, which might haue full power to make an ende of all controuerſies and variaunces depending be|twixt the two nations. Occa was likewiſe con|tented therewith, where vppon were named on eyther part four perſons, of ſuch wiſedom, know|ledge and experience, as were thought meéeteſt to take direction for the ordering of ſuch a weightie buſineſſe. By the arbitrement, warde and dome then of thoſe eighte perſons ſufficiently authori|ſed thereto, a league was concluded vppon cer|taine articles of agreement, amongſt the whyche the chiefeſt was, that the Saxons from thence|foorth ſhould quietly enioy all that part of Brit|tayne whiche lyeth fore aneynſt the Almayne Seas, the same to bee called euer after Engistlaunde, and all the residue shoulde remayne to the Britaines as their owne rightfull and aunciente inheritance. Thus hathe Hector Boetius, but nowe to returne vnto Vter according to that wee finde in the Brittish histories: but to proceede after our owne writers, that when he had vanquished the Saxons and taken their two chiefetaines prisoners, in processe of time, he fell in loue with a righte beautifull Lady called Igwarne or Igerna, Go [...]l [...] [...] of [...] wife to one Gorolus or Gorloys Duke of Cornewaile, the which Duke he slew at length neere to his owne Castell called Diuulioc in Cornewaile, to the ende that he mighte enioy the sayd Lady the which he afterwards married, and begate on hir that noble Knighte Arthur, and a daughter named Amye or Anna. Oca and Ossa escaping also out of prison assembled eftsoones a power of Saxons, and made warre againste the Britaynes, whereof Uter hauing aduertisement prepared to resist them, and finally went himselfe in person againste them, and at Saint Albanes (as some write) gaue them battel [...] and slew them [figure appears here on page 128] both in the fielde. By that which Polydore Ver|gill writeth it ſhoulde ſeeme that Germane the Biſhop of Auxerre came into Britayne in the dayes of this Vter, by whoſe preſence the Bryt|taynes had victory againſte the Saxons (as be|fore yet haue hearde) after whiche victory bothe parties reſted from troubling eyther other for a time, the Saxons as it were aſtonied with that preſente miracle, and the Britaynes not follo|wing their good ſucceſſe ſhortly after fell at diſ|cord amongſt themſelues, which finally brought them to vtter decay, as after ſhall appeare. But ye Saxons being deſirous to ſpoyle the Britaines of the whole poſſeſſion of that parte of the Iſle which they held, whereas they accompted the Ci|ties and Townes of ſmall ſtrength to be difen|ded, they gote them to an high Mountaine called Badon hill,Badon hill. whiche Polidore ſuppoſeth to bee Blackamore ye lieth neere to the water of Theiſe, which deuideth the Biſhoprike of Durham from Yorkſhire, hauing at the mouth thereof a [...] ha|uen meete to receyue ſuch Shippes as come out of Germany, from whence the Saxons looked dayly for ayde, hauing already ſent thither for the ſame. The Britaynes being thereof aduerti|ſed, make haſt towards the place, and beſieged it on euery ſide. They alſo lay the Sea coaſtes full of Souldiers to keepe ſuche of the enemies from landing as ſhoulde come out of Germany. The Saxons kept themſelues for a certayne ſpace a|loſt vpon the high grounde, but in the ende con|ſtreyned through wante of vittayles, they come EEBO page image 129 downe with their armie in order of bataile to the next plaines, and offring to fight, the batayl was anon begun, which continued from the morning till farre in the day, with ſuche ſlaughter, that the earth on euery ſide flowed with bloud: but ye Sa|xons ſuſteyned the greater loſſe, their capitaines Occa and Oſca beyng bothe ſlayne, ſo that the Britons might ſeme quite deliuered of al danger of thoſe enimies: but the fatall deſtenie could not be auoided, as hereafter may apere. And this was the ſlaughter made of the Saxons at Badon hil,Gildas. wherof Gildas maketh mention, and chanced the ſame yere that he was borne, which was in the 44. yere after the firſt cõming of the Saxons in|to this land,492 the yere of grace .492. & .15. indiction (as Hariſon alſo noteth.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About the ſame time Vter departed out of this life (ſaith Polydore) ſo that his accompte agreeth nothing with the cõmon accompte of thoſe au|thors, whom Fabiã and other haue folowed. For either muſt we preſuppoſe, that Vter reigned be|fore the time apointed to him by the ſaid authors, either elſe that the ſiege of Badon hill was before he began to reigne, as it ſhould ſeeme in deede by that which Wil. Malmſbury writeth therof, as hereafter ſhal be alſo ſhewed. Finally, according to the agreemente of the Engliſhe writers, Vter Pendragon died of poyſon when he had gouer|ned this land by the ful terme of .16. yeres,The deceaſſe of Vter Pen|dragon. Stonchenge, chorea gigantn & was after buried dy his brother Aurelius at Stonhẽg otherwyſe called Chorea Gigantũ, leauing his ſon Arthur to ſuccede him. Here muſt ye not that the ſcottiſh chronicles declare, that in al the war|res for the more parte wherein the Britons ob|teyned victorie againſt the Saxons, the Scots ayded them in the ſame warres, and ſo likewyſe did the Picts, but the ſame chronicles do not on+ly varie from the Brytiſh writers in accompt of yeres, but alſo in the order of things done, as in the ſame Chronicles more playnly may appere, and namely in the diſcourſe of the incidẽts which chanced during the reign of this Vter. For wher as the Britiſh hiſtories, as ye haue heard, attri|bute great praiſe vnto the ſame Vter for his vic|tories atchieued againſt the Saxons and theyr king Occa, whom he ſlew in battaile, and obtei|ned a greate victorie, the Scottiſhe writers make other report, affirming in deed that by the preſẽce of biſhop Germane hee obteyned victorie in one battaile againſt them: but ſhortly after the Bri|tons fought again with the Saxons, & were diſ|comfited, although Occa in following the chaſe ouer raſhly chaunced to be ſlaine: after whoſe de|ceaſſe the Saxons ordeyned his ſonn [...] named al|ſo Occa to ſucceede in his place, who to make himſelfe ſtrong againſt all his enimies, ſent in|to Germanie for one Colgerne, the whiche with a greate power of Tentſhmen came ouer into this our Britayne, and conquered by O [...]s ap|pointment, the countrey of Northumberland, ſi|tuate betwene Tyne & Tweede, as in the Scot|tiſh chronicles it may further appeare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Alſo this is to be remembred that the victorie which was got againſt the Saxons by the Bry|tons, at what time Germane biſhop of Aurerre was preſente: Hector Boetius affirmeth (by the authoritie of Veremond that wrote ye Scottiſhe chronicles) to haue chanced the ſecõd time of his cõming ouer into this lande, where Beda anon|cheth it to be at his firſt bring here. Againe, the ſame Boetius writeth, that ye ſame victory chã|ced in the dayes of Vter Pendragon, whiche can not be if it be true that Beda writeth, touchyng the tyme of ye death of ye ſayd German: for where he departed this life before the yere of oure Lorde 459. as aboue is noted, Vter Pendragon began not his reigne till the yere of our Lord .500.475. ſayth [...] a|riſon. or as the ſame Hector Boetius hath .503. ſo that biſhop Germane was dead long before that Vter began to reign. In deede ſome writers haue noted, that the third bataile which Vortimer ſought againſt the Saxons, was the ſame wherin S. Germane was preſent, and procured the victorie with the crie of Alleluya, as before ye haue heard whiche ſeemeth to be more agreeable to a truthe, and to ſtand alſo with that which holie Bede hath wri|ten, touching the time of the beeing heere of the ſayd German, than the opinion of other, whiche affirme that it was in the tyme of the reigne of Vter. The like is to bee founde in the reſidue of Hector Boetius his booke, touching the tyme ſpecially of the reignes of the Brytiſh kings that gouerned Brytaine aboute that ſeaſon. For as he affirmeth, Aurelius Ambroſius beganne his reigne in the yeare of our Lorde .498. and ruled but ſeuen yeres, and then ſuceeded Vter, whiche reigned .xviij. yeres, and departed this life in the yeare of our Lorde .521.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 BVt here is to be remẽbred, that whatſoeuer the Britiſh writers haue recorded touching the victories of this Vter had againſt ye Saxos, and how that Oſca the ſonne of Hengiſt ſhould be ſlaine in battayle by him and his power: In thoſe olde writers whiche haue regiſtred the Acts of the Engliſhe ſaxon kyngs wee fynde no ſuche matter, but wee fynde that after the deceaſſe of Hengiſt. hys ſonne Oſca or Occa reygned in Kente .24. yeares,Oſca. 34. hath Hen|ry Hnnt. in cor+rupted copies. defendyng hys kyngdome onely, and not ſeekyng to enlarge it (as before is touched.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After whoſe death his ſonne Oth, and Ir| [...]rike ſonne to the ſame Oth ſucceeded, more reſemblyng their father than their grandfather or greate grandfather. To their reignes are aſſig|ned fiftie and three yeares by the Chronicles: but whether they reigned ioyntely together, or EEBO page image 130 ſeuerally a parte, eyther after other, it is not cer|taynly perceyued.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But nowe to the incidentes whiche happened during the reigne of Vter Pendragon we fynde that one Porth a Saxon with his .ij. ſonnes Me|gla [figure appears here on page 130] and Beda,Port entred this land about the yere of our Lord . [...]01. as Math. VVeſt. noteth. came a lande at Port [...]ſmouth in Suſſex, about the beginning of the ſayde Vters reigne and ſlewe a noble yong man of the Bry|tons, and many other of the meaner ſorte with him. Of this Porth the towne and hauen of Porteſmouth tooke the name as ſome haue thou|ght.Hariſo [...] [...]ſeth the [...] to bee [...] Poets, [...] vvorde [...] i [...] the [...] fr [...]h [...] the ſea. Moreouer about .lx. yeres after the coming of the Saxons into this lande with their leader Hengiſt, one Nazaleod, a mightie king amongſt the Britons, aſſembled all the power hee coulde make to fight with Certicus king of the Weſt|ſaxons, who vnderſtandyng the greate power of his enimies, required ayd of Oſca King of Kent, alſo of Elle king of Suſſex, and of Porth and his ſonnes whiche were lately before arriued as ye haue heard. Certicus being then furniſhed with a conuenient armie, deuided the ſame in|to two batayls, reſeruing the one to himſelf, and the other he appointed to his ſonne Kenrike.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Nazaleod perceiuing that the wing which Certicus ledde was of more ſtrength than the o|ther whiche Kenrike gouerned, he ſet fyrſt vpon Certicus, thinking that if he might diſtreſſe that part of the enimies armie, he ſhould eaſily ouer|come the other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Herevpon he gaue ſuch a fierce charge vppon that wing that by pure force he opened the ſame, and ſo ouerthrew the Saxons on that ſide, ma|king great ſlaughter of them as they were ſtate|red, the whiche maner of dealing when Kenrike ſawe, he made forwarde with all ſpeed to ſuccor [figure appears here on page 130] his father, and ruſhing in amongſt the Brytons on their backs,The Bryton [...] ouerth [...]ovven. he brake their armie in peeces, and ſlew their king Na [...]alcod, and with all put his people to flight.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Mat. VVeſt. Hen. Hunt. Stuff and VVi|ghtgar. Math. VVeſt. noteth the yere of their riual to be .514.There died of the Brytons that daye .v. M. men and the reſidue eſcaped by fleeing as wel as they might.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the vj. yeare after this battayle Stuff and Wightgar ye were nephues to Certicus, came wyth three ſhippes, and landed at Certiceſt|ſhore, and ouerthrew a number of Britons that came againſte them in order of battayle, and ſo by the comming of thoſe his nephews being right valyant and hardie capitaines the part of Certi|cus became much ſtr [...]nger. About the ſame time Elle king of the Southſaxons departed this lyfe, after whome ſucceeded his ſonne Ciſſa, of whom wee fynde little lefte in writing to bee made ac|compte of.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 H. Hunt. Brytons ouer|throvven by Saxons.About the yeare of our Lorde .51 [...]. and in the yeare after the commyng of the Saxons .71. whyche was in the .xxvj. yeare of the Emperor Anaſtatius, the Brytons fought with Certicus and his ſonne Kenrike at Certiceſforde, where the Captaynes of the Brytons ſtoode to it man|fully: but in the ende they were diſcomfyted, and greate ſlaughter was made there of them by the Saxons, and greater had bene, if the nyghte commyng on, had not parted them, and ſo ma|ny were ſaued.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 From that daye forewarde Certicus was re|puted and taken for king of Weaſtſaxon,The kingdom of VVeſt [...] and ſo the ſame kyngdome at that tyme, whyche was as Harriſon noteth it (whoſe orderly pro|ce [...]dyng in this beha [...]ten, for the accoumpte of tyme, giueth greate lyght to our hiſtorie) the yeare of Chriſte fiue hundred and ninteene: af|ter the buylding of Rome, a thouſande, two hundred and ſeuentie, of the worlde, foure thou|ſande foure hundred eyghtie and fiue: of the cou [...]nyng of the Saxons ſeuentie of Iuſtinus Anicius Emperoure of the Eaſte, the fyrſte EEBO page image 131 and thirde of the renouned prince Patricius Ar|thurus then reygnyng oure the Brytaynes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſayd kingdom alſo conteyned the countreis of Wiltſhire, Somerſetſhire, Berkeſhire, Dor|ſetſhyre, Deuonſhire, and Cornewall, hauing on the Eaſt Hamſhire, on the North the [...] of Thames, and on the South and Weaſt the O|cean ſea: Howbeit at the firſte the kinges of the Weaſtſaxons had not ſo large dominion, but they dayly wanne grounde vpon the Brytons, & ſo in the rude by enlarging their confines they came to enioy all the ſayde countreys, and the whole at the laſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the nynthe yeare of the reigne of Certi|cus, he eftſoons fought with the Saxons at Cer|ticeſforde aforeſayde,Certiceſford. where great ſlaughter was made on bothe partes. This Certiceſforde was in times paſt called Nazaleoy of the late remem|bres Nazaleod king of the Brytons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Aboute this ſeaſon at ſundry tymes dyuerſe greate companies of the Saxons came ouer in|to Britayne out of Germanie, and got poſſeſſi|on of the countreys of Mercie and Eaſtangle: but as yet thoſe of Mercie had no one king that gouerned them, but were vnder certayne noble men that got poſſeſſion of diuers partes in that countrey, by meanes wherof great warres and many encounters enſued.

5.68.1. The kingdome of the Eaſtſaxons.

The kingdome of the Eaſtſaxons.

[figure appears here on page 131]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 IN thoſe dayes alſo the kyngdome of the Eaſtſaxons began,Erchen|wyn. the chiefe Citie where|of was London. It conteyned in effect ſo much as at this preſente belongeth to the Dioceſſe of London.The kingdom [...] of the Eaſtſax|ons. One Erchenwyn a Saxon was the fyrſt king thereof, the whiche was ſonne to one Offa, the ſixte in lineall deſcent from one Sax|not, from whom the kings of that countrey fet|ched their originall.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Hariſon noteth there exacte yeare of the erection of the kingdom of the Eaſtſaxons to begin with the end of the eight of Cerdicius K. of the Weſt|ſaxons that is, the .527. of Chriſte, and .7. after the commyng of the Saxons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the . [...]iij. yeare of the reigne of Cerdicius, he with his ſonne Kenrike, and other of the Sa|xon [figure appears here on page 131] capitayns fought with the Brytons, [...] the Iſle of Wight at Witgartſbridge, where they ſlewe a greate number of Brytons, and ſo con|quered the Iſle, the whiche aboute foure yeares after, was giuen by Cerdicius vnto hys ne|phues Stuff and Witgar.

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