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5.67. Aurelius Ambroſius.

Aurelius Ambroſius.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 [figure appears here on page 122] AVrelius Am+broſius,Aureli|us Am|broſius. ye ſe|cond ſon of king Conſtantine, & brother to Con|ſtãtius, murthe|red by the trea|ſon of Vorti|gerne (as before ye haue hearde) was made king of Brytons, in the yere of our Lord .481.Mat. VVeſt. hath. 466. which was about the thirde yeare of the reigne of the Emperour Zeno, and the .xxiij. of Childericus, King of Fraunce. Odocer King of the Heruli as then vſurping the gouernement of Italy. Af|ter that this Aurelius Ambroſius had diſpatched Vortigerne, and was nowe eſtabliſhed Kyng of the Britaynes, hee made towardes Yorke,Galfr. M [...]. and paſſing the Riuer of Humber, encountred with the Saxons at a place called Maeſbell, and ouer|threwe them in a ſtrong battell, from the which as Hengiſt was fleeing to haue ſaued himſelfe,Hengiſt taken & beheaded, hee was taken by Edoll Earle of Glowceſter (or as ſome haue Cheſter) and by him ledde to Conningeſbourrowe and was there beheaded EEBO page image 123 by the counſell of Eldade then Biſhop of Col|cheſter.Mat. VVeſt. But ther be that write how Hengiſt was taken at an other battell fought vpon the Riuer of Dune, in the yeare of our Lord .489. and not in the chaſe of the battell whiche was foughte at Maeſbelle in the yeare .427. as the ſame au|thors do alledge.Occa. Occa the ſonne of Hengiſt, by flight eſcaped to Yorke, and being there beſieged, at length was conſtreyned to yeelde hymſelfe to Aurelius: the which dealing fauorably with him, aſſigned foorth to him and other of the Saxons a countrey borduring neere to the Scottes, whych (as ſome affirme) was Galloway, where the ſayd Occa and the Saxons began to inhabite. Then did Aurelius Ambroſius put the Saxons out of all other partes of the land, and repared ſuche Ci|ties, Townes, and alſo Churches, as by them had bin deſtroyed or defaced, and placed agayne Prieſtes, and ſuch other as ſhoulde attende to the miniſterie and ſeruice of God in the ſame Chur|ches.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo for a perpetuall memorie of thoſe Bri|taynes that were ſlayne on the playne of Saliſ|burie by the treaſon of Hengiſt, he cauſed ſtones to bee fetched out of Irelande, and to be ſet vpon the ſame place where that ſlaughter was com|mitted and called the place Stonheng, whiche name continueth vnto this day. There were ſent fifteene thouſand men as Galfride ſaith,Galfrid. for thoſe ſtones, vnder the leading of Vter Pendragon the Kings brother, the whiche giuing battell vnto Gillomanus King of Ireland that went aboute to reſiſt the Britaynes, and would not permittte them to fetche away the ſame ſtones out of hyr countrey; diſcomfyted him and his people, and ſo maugre his will broughte the ſtones away with him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Shortly after Paſcentius that was Vorti|gernes yongeſt ſonne, and had eſcaped into Ire|land (when Aurelius Ambroſius came into Bri|tayne) returned with a greate power of ſtraunge nations, and toke ye Citie of Meneuia in Wales, afterwardes called Saint Dauid, and did much hurt in the countrey with fire and ſworde. At whiche time the ſame Aurelius Ambroſius laye ſicke at Wincheſter, and beeing not able to goe foorth himſelfe, deſired his brother Vter Pendra|gon to aſſemble an army of Britaines, and to goe againſt Paſcentius and his adherents. Vter according to his brothers requeſt, gathering hys people, wente forthe, and encountring with the e|nimies, gaue them the ouerthrowe, ſlew Paſcen|tius and Gillomare or Gilloman King of Ire|lande that was come ouer with him in ayde a|gainſt [figure appears here on page 123] the Britaynes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the meane while, a Saxon, or ſome other ſtranger,Hec. Boetius. whoſe name was Eopa or Copa [...] long before procured thereto by Paſcentius, fay|ned himſelfe to be a Britayne, and for a couloure counterfeyting himſelfe a Monke, and ſo haue great knowledge in Phiſicke, was admitted to miniſter as it were medicines vnto Aurelius: but in ſtead of that whiche ſhoulde haue broughte him health, he gaue him poyſon, whereof hee dyed ſhortly after at Wincheſter aforeſayde,Fabian. when hee had raigned after moſt accorde of writers nine|teene yeares: his body was co [...]hed to Stone|heng and there buried.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus finde wee in the Britiſhe and common Engliſh hiſtories of the doings of Aurelius Am|broſius, which as ye haue heard make him a Bri|tayne borne, and diſcended of the bloud of the an|cient Britaynes. But Gildas and Beda reporte him to be a Romayne by diſcent as before is mẽ|tioned.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Polydore Virgill writeth in this ſorte of the victorious actes atchieued by the foreſayde Aure|lius Ambroſius. Then ſaith he,Polidor. the Saxons ha|uing EEBO page image 124 already gotten the whole rule of the Iſle, practiſe their outragious cruelty ſpecially againſt the Princes of the Britaynes, to the end, that the ſayde Princes beeing ouercome and deſtroyed, they might with more eaſe obteyne poſſeſſion of the whole Iſle, whiche thing they only ſoughte for. But the fauor of almightie God was not wanting to the miſerable Britaynes in that greate neceſſitie, for beholde, Aurelius Ambroſius was at hande, the which had no ſooner cauſed the Trumpet to blowe to armour, but euery man for himſelfe prepareth and reſorteth to him, praying and beſieching him to help to defende them, and that it might ſtand with his pleaſure to goe forth with them againſt the enimies with all ſpeede.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus an army beeyng aſſembled, Aurelius Ambroſius goeth againſte them, and valiantly aſſayleth them, ſo that within the ſpace of a fewe dayes, they foughte three battayles with greate fierceneſſe on both ſydes in triall of their high diſ|pleaſures and vttermoſt forces, in which at lẽgth the Britaynes put the Saxons to flight, Horſus the brother of Hengiſt being ſlayne with a greate number of his people. But yet notwithſtanding the enimies rage was little abated heereby, for within a fewe dayes after receyuing out of Ger|many a newe ſupply of menne, they brake foorth vpon the Britaynes with greate confidence of victory. Aurelius Ambroſius was no ſooner ad|uertiſed thereof, but that withoute delay he ſette forwarde towardes Yorke from whence the eni|mies ſhould come, and hearing by the way that Hengiſt was encamped about ſeuen and twentie miles diſtante from that Citie, neere to the banke of a Riuer at this day called Dune, in the place where Doncaſter now ſtandeth, he returneth out of his way and marcheth towards that place, and the nexte daye ſetteth on the enimie and vanqui|ſheth him,Hengiſt is ſlayne. Hengiſt at the firſt meeting of the bat|tels beeyng ſlayne, with a greate number of the Germanes. The fame of this victory (ſaith Po|lidore) is had in memory with the inhabitantes of thoſe parties euen vnto this day, the which victo|ry did ſore diminiſh the power of the Saxons, in ſomuch that they began now to thinke it ſhoulde be more for their profit to ſit in reſt with that diſ|honor, than to make any newe warres to theyr great diſaduantage and likelyhod of preſent loſſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Hengiſt lefte behynde him two ſonnes, Ofea and Otha, the which as menne moſt ſorrowfull for the ouerthrowe of late receyued, aſſembled ſuche power as they could togither, and remooued there with towardes the Weſt parte of the Iſle, ſuppoſing it to bee better for them to drawe that way foorth, than to returne into Kent, where they thought was already a ſufficient number of their people to reſiſt the Britaynes on that ſyde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Nowe therefore, when they were come into the Weſt partes of the land, they waſt the coun|trey, bre [...]ne Villages, and abſtayne from no ma|ner [figure appears here on page 124] of crueltie that might be ſhewed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theſe things beeing reported vnto Aurelius Ambroſius, hee ſtraightwayes haſteth thither to reſiſt thoſe enimies, and ſo giuing them battell, eftſoones diſcomfiteth them:Aurelius dieth a wounde. but he himſelfe recey|uing a wounde, dyed thereof within a few dayes after.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 The Engliſh Saxons hauing thus ſuſteined ſo many loſſes within a few monethes togither, were contented to bee quiet nowe that the Bri|taynes ſtirred nothing agaynſte them, by reaſon they were brought into ſome trouble by the death of ſuch a noble Captayne as they had nowe loſt.Vortimer de|parteth this life. In the meane time Vortimer died, after whome ſucceeded Vter ſurnamed Pendragon. Thus hath Polidore written of the foreſayde Aurelius EEBO page image 125 Ambroſius, not naming him to be King of Bri|tayne, and differing indeede in ſundry poyntes in this behalfe from diuers aunciente writers of the Engliſh hiſtories, for wher he attributeth the vic|tory to the Britaynes in the battel fought, wher|in Horſus the brother of Hengiſt was ſlayne by the reporte of Polychronicon, and other, the Sax|ons hadde the victory in that reencounter, and William of Malmeſburie ſayeth,VVil. Mal that they de|parted from that battell with egall fortune, the Saxons loſing their Captayne Horſus,Katigerne. and the Britaynes their Captayne Katigerne (as before yee haue hearde) but there is ſuche [...] [...]arietie in writers touching the doings bet [...] [...] Bri|taynes and Saxons in thoſe dayes [...] well in accompte of yeares, as in the reporte of thynges done, that ſetting affection aſide, hard it is to iudge to which part a man ſhould giue credite. Where Fabian and other authors write, that Aurelius Ambroſius began his raigne ouer the Britaines about the yeare of our Lord .481. Hor|ſus was ſlayne about the yeare .458.458 during the raigne of Vortimer, as aboue is mentioned, ſo that it cannot ſtande with the froth of the Brit|tiſh hiſtories (the whiche Fabian followeth) that Horſus was ſlayne by Aurelius Ambroſius, if according to the ſame hiſtories hee returned not into Britayne, till the time there ſuppoſed. But diuers ſuch manner of contrarieties ſhall ye [...]nde in peruſing of thoſe writers that haue written the Chronicles of the Britaynes and Saxons, the which in euery point to recite would be too te|dious and comberſome a matter, and therefore we are forced to paſſe ye ſame ouer, not knowing how to bring them to any iuſt accorde for the ſa|tiſfying of all mens mindes, and namely the cu|rious, whiche may with diligente ſearche ſatiſfye themſelues happily muche better than any other ſhall be able to doe in vttering his opinion neuer ſo much at large, and agreeable to a troth: onely therefore haue we thought good as it were by the way to touch what diuers authors do write, lea|uing it ſo to euery mans iudgemente to conſtrue therof, as his affection leadeth him. We fynde in the writings of thoſe that haue regiſtred the do|ings of theſe times,Sigebertus. that Aurelius hauing vanqui|ſhed the Saxons, reſtored Churches to the fur|therance of the Chriſtian Religion, which by the inuaſion of the Saxons was greatly decayed in diuers partes of Britayne,488. as Math. Weſt hath. and thys chanced in the days of the Emperour Theodoſius ye yonger.

5.67.1. The beginning of the Kingdome of Suſſex.

The beginning of the Kingdome of Suſſex.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Ella entred this land as M. VVeſt. hath anno. 477.IN the time of the foreſayd Aurelius Ambroſius one Ella a Saxon with his three ſonnes Cy|men, Plettinger & Ciſſa, came out of Germany with three Shippes, and landed in the South partes of Britayne, and being encountred with a power of Britaynes at a place called Cuneue|ſhore, diſcomfited them, and chaſed them vnto a wood then called Andredeſwold, and ſo tooke that countrey, and inhabited there with his people the Saxons which he brought with him, and made himſelfe King and Lord thereof, in ſomuche that afterwardes the ſame countrey was named the kingdome of the South Saxons,The kingdom of the South Saxons doth begin. whiche had for limittes on the Eaſt ſide Kent, on the South, the Sea and Iſle of Wight, on the weſt Hamſhire, and on the North part Southerie. This Kyng|dome (after ſome) began vnder the forſayd El|la, aboute the .32. yeare after the firſte commyng of the Saxons into this lãd, which by following that accompt, ſhould be about the ſecond yeare of the raigne of Aurelius Ambroſius, and about the yeare of oure Lord .482. But other write,482 that it did begin about the .30. yeare after the firſte com|ming of Hengiſt, which ſhould be two yeares ſoo|ner. William Harriſon differing from al other, noteth it to begin in the fourth yeare after ye death of Hengiſt .4458. of the worlde .2. of the .317. O|lympiad .1243. of Rome .492. of Chriſte, and .43. after the comming of the Saxons: his words are theſe. Ella erecteth the Kingdome of the South Saxons, in the .1 [...]. after his arriuall, and raigned 32. yeares, the chiefe Citie of his Kingdome alſo was Chicheſter, & after her had enioyed the fame his Kingdome awhile, he ouerthrew ye Citie cal|led Andredeſceſter, whiche as then was taken for one of the moſt famous in all the South ſide of England. For my parte I thinke my dutie diſ|charged, if I ſhew the opinions of ye writers: for if I ſhould thereto adde mine owne, I ſhould but increaſe coniectures, whereof already we haue ſu|perfluous ſtore. To proceede therfore as I fynde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 About the ninth yeare after the comming of Elle, the Britaynes perceyuing that he with hys Saxons ſtill enlarged the boundes of his Lord|ſhip by entring further into the lande, aſſembled themſelues togither vnder their Kings and Ru|lers, and gaue battell to Elle and his ſonnes at Mecredeſbourne, where they departed with dout|full victory, the armies on both ſides being ſore diminiſhed, and ſo returned to their homes. Elle after this battell ſente into his countrey for more ayde. But nowe touching Hengiſt which as yre haue hearde, reigned as King in the prouince of Kente, the writers of the Engliſhe Kings varie ſomewhat from the Brittiſhe hiſtories, bothe in reporte of the battels by him foughte againſte the Britaynes, and alſo for the manner of his deathe: as thus. After that Vortimerus was dead, which departed this life (as ſome write) in the firſt yeare of the Emperour Leo, ſurnamed the greate,Policron. and firſt of that name that gouerned the Empire, who began to rule in the yeare of our Lorde .457.457 wee fynde that Hengiſt and his ſonne Occa or Oſta EEBO page image 126 gathered their people togither that were before ſparkled,H. Hunt. and hauing alſo receyued new ayde out of Germany,VV. Mal. fought with ye Britaynes at a place called Crekenforde,Creyſourd. wher were ſlayne of the Bri|taynes foure Dukes or Captaynes, and foure thouſand of other men,Britaynes o|uerthrowen. and the reſidue were cha|ſed by Hengiſt out of Kent vnto London, ſo that they neuer returned afterwards againe into Kẽt: and ſo the Kingdome of Kent began vnder Hen|giſt the twelfth yeare after the comming of the Saxons into Britayne, and Hengiſt raigned in Kent after this (as the ſame writers agree) foure and twentie yeares.Polychron. It is remembred that thoſe Germanes whiche lately were come ouer to the ayde of Hengiſt, beeing choſen men, mightie and ſtrong of body, with their axes and ſwords made great ſlaughter of the Britaynes in that battell at Crekenford or Creyforde, whiche Britaynes were aranged in foure battayles vnder their a|foreſayd foure Dukes or Captaynes, and were (as before is mentioned) ſlayne in the ſame battel.H. Hunt. About the ſixth yere of the ſayd Emperour Leo, which was in the .17. yeare after the comming of the Saxons.

VVipers field Mat. VVeſt. This battell was fought anno .473. as the ſame Mat. VVeſt noteth Wipet

Hen. Hunt.

Hengiſt and his ſonne Occa or O|ſca fought at Wyptiſhe fielde in Kent, neere to a place called Tong with the Britaynes, & ſlewe of them twelue Dukes or Captaynes, and on the parte of the Saxons was ſlayne beſyde common Souldiers but onely one Captayne that highte Vipet, of whome ye place after yt day tooke name.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This victory was nothing pleaſaunte to the Saxons, by reaſon of the great loſſe whiche they ſuſteyned, as well by the death of the ſayd Vipet, as of a greate number of others: and ſo of a long time neyther did the Saxons enter into the con|fynes of the Britaynes, nor the Britaynes pre|ſumed to come into Kent. But whileſt outward warres ceaſſe among the Britaynes, they exer|ciſe ciuill battell, falling togither by the eares a|mong themſelues, one ſtriuing againſt another. Finally, Hengiſt departed this life by courſe of nature,Fortie yeares hath H. Hunt. in the .39. yeare after his firſte comming into Britayne, hauing proceeded in his buſineſſe no leſſe with craft and guyle than with force and ſtrength, following therewith his natiue crueltie, ſo that he rather did all things with rigoure than with gentleneſſe.By this it is euident that he was not driuen out of the lande after he had once got foote within it. After him ſucceeded a ſonne whiche hee left behinde him, who beeing attentiue rather to defende than to enlarge his King|dome, neuer ſet foote out of his fathers boundes, duryng the ſpace of .24. yeares, in the whiche hee raigned.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About three yeares after the deceſſe of Hengiſt, a new ſupply of men of warre came out of Ger|many vnto the ayde of Elle King of Suſſex,Mat. VVeſt. the which hauing his power ſo encreaſſed,Hen. Hunt. beſieged the Citie of Andredeſceſtre,The Citie of Andredeſce|ſtre. which was very ſtrõg & well furniſhed with men & all things neceſſary.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Britaynes alſo aſſembling togither in companies, greatly annoyed the Saxons as they lay there at ſiege, laying ambuſhes to de|ſtroy ſuche as wente abrode, and ceaſſing not to giue alarmes to the campe in the night ſeaſon: & the Saxons could no ſooner prepare themſelues to giue the aſſault, but the Britaynes were ready to aſſayle them on the backes, till at length the Saxons deuiding themſelues into two compa|nies, appoynted the one to giue the aſſault, and the other to encounter with the army of the Bri|taynes without, and ſo finally by that meanes preuayled, tooke the Citie, and deſtroyed manne, woman and childe. Neyther ſo contented, they did alſo vtterly raſe the ſayde Citie, ſo as it was neuer after that daye builded or reedified a|gayne.

5.67.2. The Kingdome of the Eaſtangles.

The Kingdome of the Eaſtangles.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 126] MOreouer,The Kingdome of the Eaſt|angles beg [...]. This King|dome a [...] [...]+riſon much began nor till Aurelius Conanus raigned. in the dayes of the fore|named Aurelius Am|broſius about the yeare of our Lorde .561. the kingdome of the Eaſt|angles began vnder a Saxon named Vffa.561 This Kingdome con|teyned Northfolke and Suffolke, hauing on the Eaſt and North partes the Sea, on the North|weſt Cambridge ſhire, and on the Weſt Sainte Edmonds ditch with a part of Hertfordſhire, and on the South ſide lieth Eſſex. This Kingdome at the firſte was called Vffines dominion, and the Kings that raigned, or the people that inha|bited there, were at the firſte named Vffines, but at length they were called Eaſtangles.

[figure appears here on page 126]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 FVrthermore about ye yere of oure Lorde 495.Cerdic. VVil. Mal. and in the eyght yeare af|ter that Hen|giſt was dead,495 one Cerdicus, and his ſonne Kenricus came out of Germa|ny with fiue Shippes,Fabian. Policrus. and landed at a place cal|led Cerdiceore, whiche as ſome thinke is nowe called Yermouth in Northfolke. Hee was at the firſt receyued with battell by the Britaynes,VVil. Mal. but beeing an olde ſkilfull warriour, hee eaſily beate backe and repulſed the inconſtante multitude of his enimies, and cauſed them to flee: by whyche good ſucceſſe hee procured for the time to come, both vndoubted aſſurance to himſelfe, and to the EEBO page image 127 inhabitantes good and perfect quietneſſe, for they thinking good neuer after to prouoke him more by reſiſtãce, ſubmitted themſelues to his pleaſure: but yet did not he then gyue himſelfe to ſlouthful reſt, but rather extending his often atchieued vic|tories on eache ſyde [...] foure and twentith yeare after his comming into this land he obtey|ned the title of the Weſt partes thereof, and go|uerned there as King ſo that the Kingdome of Weſt Saxons began vnder the ſayde [...]icus in the .519.519 of Chriſt as [...] ſhall be ſhewed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus may yee ſee that if Aurelius Ambroſius did ſucceede after Vortigerne, and raigned in the tyme ſuppoſed by the Brittiſh hiſtories, [...] before is alledged, the lande euen in his dayes was full of trouble, and the olde inhabitauntes the Bri|taynes ſore vexed by the Saxons that [...]ed the ſame, ſo that the Britaynes dayly were hampe|red, and brought vnderſubiection to the valiante Saxons, or elſe driuen to remoue further off, and to giue place to the victorers. But nowe to pro|ceede with the ſucceſſion of the Brittiſhe Kings as in their Hiſtories wee fynde them regiſtred, whiche I delyuer ſuche as I fynde, but not ſuche as I do wiſhe, being written with no ſuche cou|loure of credite as we may ſafely put foorthe the ſame for an vndoubted truth.

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