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5.61. Gracianus.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 186] GRacianusGraci|anus. then (whõ Maximus or Maximianus had ſente into Britayne (as before ye haue heard) hearing that his ma|ſter was ſlain, tooke vppon him the rule of this our Britaine, and made him|ſelfe King thereof in the yeare .390.390 Hee was a Britaine borne, as Polydore writeth, conſtru [...]ng ſo by that hee is named by Authors to be Muni|cep [...], that is to ſay, a free man of ye countrey or ci|tie wher he inhabiteth. For his ſterneneſſe & rough manner of gouernement,Of the Ro|mayne Soul|diers as Blon|dus hath. he was of the Britaines ( [...] the hiſtories alledge) ſlayne and diſpatched out of the way after he hadde raigned the [...] of four yeares, or rather foure monethes, as ſhoulde ſeeme by that whiche is founde in autentike wri|ters and as Harriſon in his Chronologie hath ful well noted. Then the forenamed Kings Gua|nius and Melga,Caxton. Galfrid. which (as ſome write were bre|thren) returned into thys lande with their armies encreaſed with newe ſupplyes of menne of warre, as Scottes, Danes, and Norwegians, and de|ſtroyed the countrey from ſide to ſyde. For the Britaynes in this ſeaſon were ſore enfeabled, and were not able to make anye greate numbers of Souldiers,Galfrid. Mat. VVeſt Caxton. by reaſon that Maximus hadde ledde foorthe of the lande the floure and chiefeſt choice of all the Brittiſh youth into Gallia, as before ye haue hearde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Gildas maketh no mention of theſe two Kings Guanius and Melganor of the Hunnes,Gildas. but rehearſing this great deſtruction of the lande, declareth (as before yee haue hearde,) that the Scottes and Pictes were the ſame that dyd all the miſchiefe, whome hee calleth two nations of beyonde the Seas, the Scottes comming out of the Northweſt, and the Pictes out of the North|eaſt, by whome (as hee ſayeth) the lande was o|uerrunne, and broughte vnder foote manye yeeres after. Therefore the Britaines beeyng thus vexed, ſpoyled, and cruelly perſecuted EEBO page image 187 by the Scottes and Pictes (if wee ſhall ſo take them) ſente meſſengers with all ſpeede vnto Rome to make ſuite for ſome ayde of menne of warre to bee ſente into Britayne: wherevpon im|mediately a legion of Souldiers was ſente thy|ther Anno .414.414 the whiche eaſily repulſed the eni|mies, and chaſed them backe with greate ſlaugh|ter, to the great comfort of the Britaines, ye which by this meanes were deliuered from preſent dan|ger of vtter deſtruction as they thought. But the Romaynes beeing occaſioned to depart agayne out of the lande, appointed ye Britaynes to make a wall (as had bin made aforetime by the Empe|rors Adrian, Antoninus & Seuerus) ouerthwart the coũtrey from ſea to ſea,Beda & Policro. ſtretching from Pen|nelton vnto the Citie of Aclud, whereby the eni|mies might be ſtayed from entring the lande: but this wall being made of turfe and ſoddes, rather than with ſtones, after the departure of the Ro|manes was eaſily ouerthrowen by the Scottes & Pictes, which eftſoones returned to inuade the cõ|fines of the Britaines, and ſo entring the coun|trey, waſted and deſtroyed all afore them, accor|ding to their former cuſtome.Gildas. Policrus. Beda. Mat. VV [...] Herevpõ were meſ|ſengers with lamentable letters agayn diſpatched towards Rome for new ayde againſt thoſe cruell enimies, with promiſe, that if the Romaynes would now in this great neceſſitie help to deliuer the land, they ſhould be aſſured to finde the Brit|taynes euermore obediente ſubiectes, and ready at their commaundement.Blondus. Valentinianus (pitying the caſe of the poore Britaynes) appoynted ano|ther legion of Souldiers (of the which one Gal|lio of Rauenna had the leading) to goe to theyr ſuccours,Gallio Raue|nas ſent into Britayne. the which arriuing in Britayne ſet on ye enimies, and giuing them the ouerthrowe, ſlewe a great number of them, & chaſed ye reſidue out of the countrey.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The Romanes thus hauing obteyned the vic|tory, declare to the Britaynes, that from thence|foorth they would not take vppon them for euery light occaſion ſo paynefull a iourney, alledgyng, how there was no reaſon why the Romayne en|ſignes with ſuch a number of men of warre ſhuld be put to trauell ſo farre by ſea and lande, for the repulſing and beating backe of a ſort of ſcattering rouers and pilfering theeues: wherefore they ad|uiſed the Britaynes to looke to their duties, & lyke men to endeuor themſelues to defende their coun|trey by their owne force from the enimies inuaſi|ons. And bicauſe they iudged that this mighte be an help to ye Britaynes, they ſet in hande to build a wall yet once againe ouerthwart the Iſle in ye ſame place where the Emperour Seuerus cauſed his trench & rampire to be caſt. [...] wall built [...]uerthwart [...]e Ilande. [...]eda. This wall whiche the Romanes nowe builte with help of the Bri|taynes, conteyned in breadth eyght foote, and in heigth twelue foote, trauerſing the land from Eaſt to Weſt, and was made of ſtone. After that thys wall was finiſhed,Gildas & Beda. the Romaynes giuing good exhortations to the Britaynes to play the men, they ſhewed alſo vnto thẽ the way how to make armour and weapon. And beſydes this, on the coaſt of the Eaſt ſea where their Shippes lay at roade, and where it was doubted that the enimies woulde lande, they cauſed towers to bee erected with ſpaces betwixt, out of the whiche the Seas might be diſcouered. Theſe things ordered in this wiſe, the Romanes bade the Britaynes farewel, as not minding to returne thither agayne. The Romanes then being departed out of the land,Gildas. the Scottes and Pictes hauing knowledge thereof, ſtraight wayes returne againe by Sea, and being more emboldned than before, bycauſe of the deni|all made by the Romaynes to come any more to the ſuccoure of the Britaynes, they take into poſ|ſeſſion all the Northe and vttermoſt boundes of the Iſle, euen vnto the foreſayde wall, therein to EEBO page image 101 remayne as inhabitants.This chanced in the yere .43 as M. VV. hath And whereas the Bri|taynes gote them to their wal to defend the ſame, that the enimies ſhould not paſſe further into the country, they were in the ende beaten from it, and diuers of them ſlayne, ſo that the Scottes and Pictes entred vppon them and purſued them in more cruell manner than before, ſo that the Bri|taynes being chaſed out of their Cities, Townes, and dwelling houſes, were conſtreyned to flee in|to deſert places, and there to remayne and lyue after the manner of ſauage people, & in the ende, began to robbe and ſpoyle one another, ſo to a|uoyde the daunger of ſteruing for lacke of foode: and thus at the laſt the countrey was ſo deſtroy|ed and waſted, that there was no other ſhifte for them that were left aliue to liue by, excepte onely by hunting and taking of wilde beaſts and foules. And to augment their miſerie, the commons im|puting the faulte to reſt in the Lordes and go|uernoures, roſe againſt them in armes,Hecto. Boetiu [...] Rebellion. but were vanquiſhed and eaſily put to flight at two ſeue|rall times being beaten downe and ſlayne throgh [figure appears here on page 101] lacke of ſkill in ſuch number, eſpecially the latter time, that the reſidue whiche eſcaped, withdrewe into the craggy Mountaines, where within the buſhes and caues they kepte themſelues cloſe, ſometimes comming downe and fetching away from the heardes of beaſtes and flockes of Sheepe whiche belonged to the nobles and Gentlemen of the countrey great booties to relieue them with|all, but at length oppreſſed with extreame fa|mine when neyther parte coulde long remayne in this ſtate, as needing one anothers help, neceſſitie made peace betwixt the Lordes and commons of the lande, all iniuries being pardoned and cleerely forgiuen.Ciuill warre decayed the force of the Britaynes. This ciuill warre decayed the force of ye Britaynes, little leſſe than the Tyrannicall pra|ctiſes of Maximus, for by the aduoyding of the commons thus out of their houſes, the grounde lay vntilled,What miſ|chiefe followe of ciuil warres whereof enſued ſuche famine for the ſpace of three yeares togither, that a wonder|full number of people dyed for wante of ſuſte|nance.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Thus the Britaynes being brought generally into ſuche extreame miſerie, they thought good to trie if they might purchaſe ſome ayde of that no|ble man Actius,Actius. whiche at that time remayned in Fraunce as yet called Gallia, gouerning the ſame as Lieutenant vnder the Emperour Honorius: and herevpon taking counſel togither, they wrote a letter to him, the tenor whereof enſueth. To A|ctius thrice Conſull. The lamentable requeſt of vs the Britaynes beſeecheth you of ayde to bee miniſtred vnto the prouince of the Romane Em|pire, vnto our countrey, vnto our wiues & children at this preſente, the whiche ſtande in moſt ex|treame perill. For the barbarous people driue vs to the Sea, and the Sea driueth vs backe vnto them agayne hereof riſe two kindes of deathe, for eyther are wee ſlayne, or drowned, and agaynſte ſuch euils haue we no remedie nor help at all. Therefore in reſpect of your clemencie, ſuccoure youre owne wee moſt inſtantly require you. &c. But notwithſtanding that the Britaines thus ſought for ayde at the handes of Aetius,The Britayne could get no ayde from th [...] Romaynes. as then the Emperours Lieutenaunte, yet coulde they none get, either for that Actius woulde not, as he that paſſed little howe things wente, bicauſe he bare diſpleaſure in his mind againſt Valenti|nianus as the Emperour, or elſe for that he could not, being otherwiſe conſtreyned to employ al his forces in other places againſt ſuch barbarous na|tions as then inuaded the Romane Empire. And ſo by ye meanes was Britayne loſt, & the tribute whiche the Britaynes were accuſtomed to paye vnto the Romaynes ceaſſed, iuſt a fiue hundred yeares after that Iulius Ceſar firſte entred the Iſle.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Britaynes being thus put to their ſhifts, many of them as hunger ſtaruen were conſtrey|ned to yeeld themſelues into the hãds of their eni|mies, where other yet keeping within the Moun|taynes, wooddes and caues, brake out as occaſion ſerued vpon their aduerſaries, and then firſt (ſaith Gildas) did the Britaynes not putting their truſt in man but in God (according to the ſaying of Philo, where mans help faileth, it is needeful that Gods help be preſent) make ſlaughter of their e|nimies that hadde bin accuſtomed many yeares to robbe and ſpoyle them in manner as before is recited,Puniſhment ceaſteth but ſin encreaſe [...] and ſo the bolde attemptes of the ene|mies ceaſſed for a time, but the wickedneſſe of the Brittiſhe people ceaſſed not at all. The enimies departed out of the lande, but the EEBO page image 102 inhabitantes departed not from their naughtye doings, beeyng not ſo ready to putte backe the common enimies, as to exerciſe ciuill warre and diſcord amongſt themſelues. The wicked Iriſhe people departed home, to make returne againe within a while after. [...] But the Pictes [...] themſelues firſte in that ſeaſon in the vttermoſt boundes of the Iſle, and there continued, making reyſes oftentimes vppon theyr neyghbours, and ſpoyling them of their goodes.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 This with more alſo hath Gildas and lyke|wiſe Beda written of this great deſolation of the Brittiſh people: Galfridus. Gildas his [...]ords are to [...]e conſidered. wherein if the wordes of Gildas be well wayed and conſydered of, it may leade vs to thinke that the Scottes hadde no habitacions heere in Britayne, but only in Irelande, till after this ſeaſon, and that at this preſente time the Pictes whiche before inhabited within the Iſles of Orkney, now placed themſelues in the North partes of Scotland, and after by proceſſe of time came and neſtled themſelues in Louthian, in the Mers and other coũtreys more neere to our bor|dures. But to procede: The Brittiſh hiſtories af|firme, that whileſt the Britaynes were thus perſecuted by thoſe two moſt cruell and fierce na|tions the Scottes and Pictes, the noble and chie|feſt men amongſt them conſulted togither, and concluded to ſende an honorable Ambaſſade vn|to Aldroenus as then King of little Brittayne in Gallia,An ambaſſade [...]ent from the Britaynes vnto Aldroenus King of Bri|taine in Frãce. which Aldroenus was the fourth from Conam Meridoc the firſt King there of the Bri|tiſh nation.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of this Ambaſſade the Archbiſhop of London named Guetheline or Goſſeleyne was appoynted for chiefe and principall, the whiche paſſing ouer into little Britaine, and comming before the pre|ſence of Aldroenus, ſo declared the effect of hys meſſage, that his ſuite was graunted.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 For Aldroenus agreed to ſend his brother Cõ|ſtantine ouer into great Britayne with a conue|nient power,Conſtantine the brother of Aldroenus. vppon condition, that the victory beeing obteyned againſte the enimies, the Brit|taynes ſhould make hym Kyng of greate Brit|tayne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus it is apparant that this lande of Brit|tayne was withoute any certayne gouernoure,A dig [...] after that Gracian the vſurper was diſpatched certaine yeares togither, but how many yeares, writers in their accompt varry.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Fabian gathereth by ſundry coniectures,Fabian. that the ſpace betwixte the deathe of Gracian and the beginning of the raigne of the ſayd Conſtantine, brother of Aldroenus, continued nine and thirtie yeares, during whiche time the Britaynes were ſore and miſerably afflicted by the inuaſions of the Scottes and Pictes, as before ye haue hearde by teſtimonies taken out of Beda, Gildas, Gef|frey of Monmouth, and other writers of the Brittiſhe and Engliſh hiſtories.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But nowe ſith no mention is made of the Scottes in oure hiſtories till the dayes of Maxi|mus the vſurper or Tyrante, as ſome call him,Maximus. whyche beganne hys raigne here in Britaine a|bout the yeare of oure Lorde .383.383 and that tyll after hee had bereft the lande of the chiefeſt forces thereof in taking the moſt parte of the youth ouer with him: wee fynde not in the ſame hiſtories of any troubles wroughte to the Britaynes by that nation. Therefore we haue thought good herre to come backe to the former tymes, that wee maye ſhewe what is found mentioned in the Romaine hiſtories, both before that time and after, as well concerning the Scottes and Pictes, Ammianus Marcellinus lib. 20. The Empe [...] Iulianus. as alſo the Saxons, and eſpecially in Ammianus Marcel|linus, where in the beginning of his twentith booke entreating of the doyngs of the Emperoure EEBO page image 103 Iulianus, hee hathe theſe wordes in effect as fol|lowe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In this ſtate ſtoode thyngs in Illir [...] or Sla|uonia, and in the Eaſt partes, at what tyme Cõ|ſtantius bare the office of Conſull the tenth time, and Iulianus the thirde tyme, that is to witte, in the yeare of our Lord,360 360. when in Britaine qui|etneſſe beeing diſturbed by roades made by the Scottes and Pictes which are wilde and ſauage people, [...]ottes and [...]ictes trou| [...]e the ſtate [...] this Iſle. the frountiers of the contrey were waſted, and feare oppreſſed the prouinces awearied, with the heape of paſſed loſſes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The Emperour (hee meaneth Iulianus) as then remayning at Paris, and hauing his minde troubled with many cares, doubted to goe to the ayde of them beyond the Sea, as we haue ſhewed that Conſtantius dyd, leaſt hee ſhoulde leaue them in Gallia withoute a Ruler, the Almaynes beeyng euen then prouoked and ſtirred vp to cru|eltie and warre.Lupicinus ſent into Britayne. Hee thoughte good therefore to ſende Lupicinus vnto theſe places to bring things into frame and order, whiche Lupicinus was at that time maſter of the armory, a warlike perſon and ſkilfull in all poyntes of chiualrie, but proude and high minded beyonde meaſure, and ſuch one as it was doubted long whether he was more couetous or cruell.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Heerevppon, the ſayde Lupicinus ſetting for|warde the lighte armed menne of the Heruli and Bataui, Bataui nowe Hollanders. with diuers companies alſo of the people of Meſia now called Bulgarie: When winter was well entred and come on, hee came himſelfe to Bulleigne, and there prouiding Shippes and embarquing his men when the winde ſerued hys purpoſe,Rutupis. hee tranſported ouer vnto Sandwiche, and ſo marched foorth vnto London, from thence purpoſing to ſet forward, as vppon aduice taken according to the qualitie of his buſineſſe, he ſhould thinke meete and expedient.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Of the diſ|placing of theſe men the learned may ſee more in Am. Mar.In the meane time, whileſt Lupicinus was buſie here in Britaine to repreſſe the enimies, the Emperour Conſtantius diſplaced certayne offi|cers, and among other he depriued the ſame Lu|picinus of the office of Maſter of the armory, ap|poynting one Gumobarius to ſucceede hym in that roomth before any ſuche thing was knowen in theſe parties: and where it was doubted leaſt that Lupicinus (if hee hadde vnderſtoode ſo much whileſt hee was yet in Britayne) woulde haue attempted ſome newe trouble, as he was a man of a ſtoute and loftie mynde, he was called backe from thence, and withall there was ſente a nota|rie vnto Bulleyne to watche that none ſhoulde paſſe the Seas ouer into Britayne till Lupici|nus were returned: and ſo returning ouer from thence ere hee hadde anye knowledge what was done by the Emperoure, hee coulde make no ſturre, hauyng no ſuche aſſiſters in Gallia, as it was thoughte he myght haue hadde in Britayne if he ſhould haue moued Rebellion there. Beſide this alſo the ſame Marcellinus ſpeaking of the doings about the time that Valentinianus being elected Emperour, Lib. 26. had admitted his brother Va|lens as followe with him in gouernemente, hathe theſe words.Ammianus Marcellinus lib. 26. In this ſeaſon as though trumpets had blowen the ſounde to battell through out the whole Romayne Empire, moſt cruell nations being ſtyrred vp inuaded the bordures nexte to them adioyning,The Almanes. the Almaynes waſted and de|ſtroyed the partes of Gallia and Rhitia,The Sarmatae. The Quadi. Picts & Saxõs as the Sarmatians and Quadi did Parmonia. The Pictes, the Saxons, the Scottes, and the Atta|cottes vexed the Britaynes with continuall trou|bles, and greeuous domages. The Auſtoriani,Auſtoriani. The Gothes. and the people of the Mores ouerranne the countrey of Affrike more ſharply than in time paſt they had done. The pilfering troupes of the Gothes ſpoyled Thracia. The King of Perſia ſette in hande to ſubdue the Armenians, and ſoughte to bring them vnder his obeyſance, haſting with all ſpeede towardes Numomia, pretending (though vniuſtly) that now after the deceſſe of Iouianus with whome hee hadde contracted a league and bonde of peace, there was no cauſe of let why hee ought not recouer thoſe things which (as he al|ledged) did belong to his auncetours, and ſo foorthe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Moreouer, Lib. 27. the ſame Marcellinus in another place writeth in this wiſe, where hee ſpeaketh of the ſayde Valentinianus. Departing therefore from Amiens, and haſting to Trier, hee was troubled with greeuous newes that were brought hym, gyuing hym to vnderſtand, that Britayne by a conſpiracie of the Barbarous nations was broughte to vtter pouertie, that Nectaridus one of the Emperoures houſe Earle of the Sea coaſt hauyng charge of the partyes towardes the Sea, was ſlayne,Comesmari|timi tractus. and that the generall Bulcho|baudes was circumuented by traynes of the eni|mies. Theſe thyngs with greate horror beeyng knowen, hee ſent Seuerus as then Earle, or (as I may call hym Lorde Stewarde of his houſe|holde) to refourme things that were amiſſe if happe woulde ſo permitte,Comesdome|ſticorum. who beeyng ſhortly called backe, Iouinius goyng thyther, and with ſpeede haſting forwarde, ſent for more ayde and a greater power of menne, as the inſtant neceſſi|tie then required. At length, for many cauſes, and the ſame greatly to be feared, the which were reported and aduertiſed out of that Iſle,Theodoſius ſente into Britaine. Theo|doſius was elected and appoynted to goe thy|ther, a man of approoued ſkill in warlike affayres, and calling togyther an hardy youthfull num|ber of the legions and cohortes of men of warre, hee wente foorthe, no ſmall hope beeyng con|ceyued of hys good ſpeede: the fame whereof EEBO page image 104 ſpred and went afore him, and a little after Mar|cellinus adding what maner of people they were that troubled the Britaynes in this wiſe, he ſayth thus: This ſhall ſuffice to be ſayde, that in thys ſeaſon the Pictes deuided into two nations,Pictes deui|ded into two nations. Attacotti. Di|calidones, and Vecturiones, and in like maner the Attacotti a right warlike nation, and the Scots wandering heere and there, made foule worke in places where they came.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The confines of Fraunce were diſquieted by the Frankeyners and Saxons bordurers vnto them, euery one as they could breake foorth, doing great harme by cruell ſpoyle, fyre, and takyng of priſoners.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To withſtande thoſe doyngs if good fortune would giue hym leaue, that moſt able Captayne going vnto the vttermoſt boundes of the earthe,Theodoſius paſſeth ouer into Britayne. when hee came to the coaſt of Bulleyne whyche is ſeparated from the contrary coaſt on the other ſide by the Sea, with a narrowe ſtreighte, where ſometime the water goeth very high and rough, and ſhortly after becommeth calme and pleaſant without hurt to thoſe that paſſe the ſame, he tran|ſporting ouer at leyſure, arriued at Sandwiche (or rather Rextacheſter) where there is a quiete roade for veſſels to lie at ancre.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 Wherevppon, when the Bataui and Heruti with the Souldiers of the legions cleped Iouij, Bataui Hol|landers. and Victores, being companies that truſted well to their owne ſtrengthe, marched foorthe and drew towardes London, an auntient citie, whi|che now of late hath bin called Auguſta.London called Auguſta.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Herwith deuiding his army into ſundry parts, he ſet vppon the troupes of the enimies as they were abroade to forrey the countrey, [...]eſtred with burdens of their ſpoyles and pillage, and ſpeedily putting them to flighte as they were leading a|way thoſe priſoners whiche they had taken with their booties of cattell, hee berefte them of theyr pray, the whiche the poore Britaynes that were tributaries had loſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To bee briefe, reſtoring the whole excepte a ſmall portion beſtowed amongſt the weery ſoul|diers, he entred the Citie which before was ouer|ſet with troubles, but nowe ſodainly refreſhed, by|cauſe there was hope of reliefe, and aſſuted pre|ſeruation.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, when Theodoſius was comforted with proſperous ſucceſſe to attempte things of greater importance, and ſearching wayes howe with good aduice to worke ſurely: whileſt hee re|mayned doubtfull what would enſue, he learned as wel by the confeſſion of priſoners taken, as al|ſo by the information of ſuch as were fledde from the enimies, that the ſcattered people of ſundry nations which with practiſe of great crueltie wer become fierce and vndanted, could not be ſubdu|ed but by policie ſecretly contriued, and ſuddayne inuaſions. At length therefore ſetting foorthe hys Proclamations, and promiſing pardon to thoſe that were gone away from their Captaynes or charge, he called them backe againe to ſerue: and alſo thoſe that by licence were departed and lay ſcattered here and there in places abroade. By this meanes, when many were returned, he being on the one ſide earneſtly prouoked, and on the o|ther holden backe with thoughtfull cares, requi|red to haue one Ciuilis by name ſent to hym to haue the rule of the prouinces in Britayne in ſteede of the other gouernours,Theodoſ [...] required to haue Ciuilis ſent to him. a man of ſharpe witte, and an earneſt maynteyner of iuſtice. Hee likewiſe required that one Dulcitius a Captayne renoumed in knowledge of warlike affayres,Dulcitius mighte bee ſente ouer to him for his better aſſi|ſtance. Theſe things were done in Britayne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Agayne in hys eyght and twentie booke, the ſame Marcellinus reciting further what the ſame Theodoſius dyd atchieue in Britaine, hath in effect theſe wordes, Theodoſius verily a Cap|tayne of worthy fame, taking a valiant courage to hym, and departing from Auguſta,London cal [...] Auguſta. whyche men of olde tyme called London, with Souldi|ers aſſembled by greate diligence, did ſuccoure and releeue greatly the decayed and troubled ſtate of the Britaynes, preuenting euery conue|nient place where the barbarous people myghte lye in wayte to doe miſchiefe, and nothing hee commanded the mean Souldiers to doe, but that which he with a cheerefull mind would firſte take in hand to ſhew them an example.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 By this meanes accompliſhing the roomth of a valiant Souldier, and fulfilling the charge of a noble Captayne, hee diſcomfyted and putte to flight ſundry nations, whome preſumption (nou|riſhed by ſecuritie) emboldned to inuade the Ro|mayne prouinces: And ſo the Cities and Caſtels that had bin ſore endomaged by manyfolde loſſes and diſpleaſures, were reſtored to their former ſtate of welth, ye foundation of reſt and quietneſſe being layde for a long ſeaſon after to enſue.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 105But as theſe things were a doing, a wicked practiſe was in hande lyke to haue burſt forth, to the grieuous daunger of ſetting things in broyle, if it had not beene ſtayed euen in the beginning of the firſt attempt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Valentinus, Valeria now [...]tiermarke.There was one Valentinus, borne in the parties of Valeria adioyning to Pannonia, now called Stiermarke, a man of a prowde and loftie ſtomacke, brother to the wyfe of Maximinus, which Valentinus for ſome notable offence had beene baniſhed into Brytayne, where the naugh|tie man that coulde not reſt in quiet, deuiſed how by ſome commotion hee might deſtroy Theodo|ſius, who as he ſawe was onely able to reſiſt his wicked purpoſes. And going about many things both priuily and apertly, the force of his vnmea|ſurable deſire to miſchief ſtil encreaſing, he ſought to procure aſwell other that were in ſemblable wiſe baniſhed men, and inclined to miſchiefe lyke to him ſelfe, as alſo diuerſe of the ſouldiers, allu|ring them as the time ſerued, with large promiſes of great wealth, if they would ioyne with hym in that enterpryſe. But euen now in the verie nicke when they ſhould haue gone in hande with their vngracious exployt, Theodoſius warned of theyr intent, boldly aduaunced himſelfe to ſee due pu|niſhmẽt executed of the offenders that were forth|with taken and knowne to be guiltie in that con|ſpiracie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Dulcitius is [...]ppointed to [...]ut Valenti|nus to death.Theodoſius committed Valentine with a few other of his truſtie complices vnto the Captaine Dulcitius, commaunding him to ſee them put to death: but coniecturing by his warlike ſkill wher|in he paſſed all other in thoſe dayes) what might follow, he woulde not in any wiſe haue any fur|ther enquirie made of the other conſpirators, leaſt through feare that might be ſpread abrode in ma|ny, the troubles of the Prouinces now well quie|ted, ſhould be againe reuiued.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, Theodoſius diſpoſing himſelfe to redreſſe many things as neede requyred, all dan|ger was quite remoued, ſo that it was moſte ap|parant, that fortune fauoured him in ſuche wiſe, that ſhe left him not deſtitute of hir furtheraunce in any one of all his attempts: he therefore reſto|red the Cities and Caſtels that were appoynted to be kept with gariſons, and the borders he cau|ſed to be defended and garded with ſufficient nũ|bers to keepe watch and warde in places neceſſa|rie. And hauing recouered the Prouince whiche the enimies had gotten into their poſſeſſion, hee ſo reſtored it to the former ſtate, that vpon his motion to haue it ſo, a lawfull gouernour was aſſigned to rule it, and the name was chaunged ſo,A part of Bry|tayne called Valentia. as from thenceforth it ſhould be called Valen|tia for the Princes pleaſure.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Areani, a kinde of men ordeyned in tymes paſt by our elders, (of whom ſomwhat we haue ſpoken in the actes of the Emperour Con|ſtance) being now by little & little fallen into vi|ces, he remoued from theyr places of abyding, be|ing openly conuicted, that allured wyth brybes and fayre promyſes, they had oftentymes be|wrayed vnto the barbarous Nations what was done among the Romaines: for this was theyr charge, to runne vp and downe by long iourneys, and to giue warning to oure Captaines, what ſturre the people of the next confines were about to make.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theodoſius therfore hauing ordred theſe and other like things, moſt worthily to his high fame,The prayſe of Theodoſius. was called home to the Emperours Court, who leauing the Prouinces in moſt triumphant ſtate, was highly renowmed for his often and moſte profitable victories, as if he had bene an other Ca|millus, or Curſor Papyrius: and with the fauor and loue of all men was conueyed vnto the Sea ſide, and paſſing ouer with a gentle winde, came to the Court, where he was receyued wyth great gladneſſe and commendation, being immediate|ly appoynted to ſucceed in rowmth of Valence Iouinus that was maſter of the horſes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Finally, he was called by the Emperor Gra|tianus, to be aſſociate with him in the Imperiall eſtate, after the death of Valence, in the yeare after the incarnation of our ſauiour .379. and raigned Emperor ſurnamed Theodoſius the great, about xvj. yeares and two dayes.VVil. Har.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But now to our former matter. Hereto alſo may that be applyed which the foreſayd Marcel|linus wryteth after in the ſame booke, touching the inuaſion of the Saxons,VVolf. Lazi. the which (as Wolf. Lazius taketh it) entred then firſt into great Bri|taine, but were repulſed of the Emperour Va|lentinianus the fyrſt, by the conduct of Se|uerus.Seuerus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame yeare (ſayth he) that the Empe|rours were the thirde tyme Conſuls, there brake forth a multitude of Saxons, and paſſing the ſeas, entred ſtrongly into the Romain confines: a natiõ fed oftentimes with ye ſlaughter of our peo|ple, the brunt of whoſe firſt inuaſion,Nonneus Comes. Erle Nan|neus ſuſteyned, ye which was appointed to defend thoſe partyes, & an approued captain, with conti|nuall trauaile in warres verie expert: but then en|countring with deſperate and forlorne people, when he perceyued ſome of his ſouldiers to be o|uerthrowne and beaten downe, and himſelf woũ|ded, not able to abyde the often aſſaults of his eni|mies, he obteyned this by enforming the Empe|rour what was neceſſarie and ought to be done,Seuerus Co|ronell of the footemen. inſomuch that Seuerus, maiſter (or as I may cal him Coronell of the footemen) was ſent to helpe and relieue things that ſtoode in daunger: the which bringing a ſufficient power with him for the ſtate of that buſineſſe, when he came to thoſe EEBO page image 106 places, he deuiding his armie into partes, put the Saxons in ſuche feare and trouble before they fought, that they did not ſo muche as take wea|pon in hande to make reſiſtaunce, but being a|maſed wyth the ſight of the glyttering enſignes and Eagles figured in the Romaine ſtandardes, they ſtreight made ſute for peace, and at length after the matter was debated in ſundrie wiſe (by|cauſe it was iudged that it ſhoulde be profitable for the Romaine common wealth) truce was graunted vnto them, and many yong men (able for ſeruice in the warres) deliuered to the Ro|maines according to the couenants concluded.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this the Saxons were permitted to de|part without impechment, ſo to returne from whence they came, the which being now out of al feare and preparing to goe their wayes, dyuerſe bands of footmen were ſent to lie priuily in a cer|taine hid vally, ſo embuſhed as they might eaſily breake forth vpon the enimies as they paſſed by them. But it chaunced farre otherwiſe than they ſuppoſed: for certaine of thoſe footemen ſtyrred with the noyſe of them as they were comming, brake forth out of time, and being ſodenly diſco|uered whileſt they haſted to vnite and knit them|ſelues togither, by the hideous crie and ſhoute of the Saxons, they were put to flight. Yet by and by cloſing togither againe, they ſtayed, and the extremitie of the chaunce miniſtring to them force (though not ſufficient) they were dryuen to fight it oute, and beeing beaten downe wyth great ſlaughter, had dyed euery mothers ſonne, if a troupe of Horſemen armed at all poyntes (beeing in like maner placed in an other ſyde at the parting of the way to aſſayle the enimies as they ſhoulde paſſe) aduertyſed by the dolefull noyſe of them that foughte, had not ſpeedi|lye come in to the ſuccours of theyr fel|lowes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Then ranne they togyther more cruellye than before, and the Romaines bending themſel|ues towardes theyr enimies, compaſſed them in on eche ſyde, and with theyr drawne ſwordes ſlue them downe right, ſo that there was not one of them left to returne home to theyr natiue Countrey to bryng newes howe they had ſpedde, nor one ſuffred to liue after the death of his fel|lowes.

[figure appears here on page 106]

And although an indifferent man that ſhoulde iudge hereof, might with cauſe reproue ſo vniuſt and diſhonorable dealing: yet the thing being well weyed and conſidered, he would not thinke euill of it, that a wicked knotte of theeues and Robbers ſhoulde at length paye after the pryce of the Market.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus were the limittes of the Romain Em|pyre preſerued at that time in Brytaine, whiche ſhould ſeeme to be about the yere of our lord .399.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Honorius the Emperour.After this in the time of the Emperour Hono|rius, alſo the Scottes, Pictes, and Saxons, did eftſoones inuade the frontiers of the Romaine Prouince in Brytaine, as appeareth by that which the Poet Claudianus wryteth, in attry|buting the honour of preſeruing the ſame fron|tyers vnto the ſayde Emperour, in his booke inti|tuled Panegericus tertij Conſolatus, (which fell in the yeare .396. as thus:396 Claudi [...]

Ille leues Mauros nec falſo nomine Pictos
Edomuit, Scotum vago mucrone ſecutus,
Fregit Hyperboreas remis audacibus vndas.
Et geminis fulgens vtro ſub axe tropheis,
Tethyos alternae refluas calcauit arenas.
The nimble Mores and Pictes by right
ſo callde, he hath ſubdude,
And with his wandring ſworde likewiſe
the Scottes he hath purſude:
He brake with bolde courageous oare
the Hyperbore in waue,
EEBO page image 107And ſhyning vnder both the Poles
with double trophyes braue,
He marcht vpon the bubling ſandes
of either ſwelling ſeas.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame Claudian vpon the fourth Conſul|ſhip of Honorius, ſayth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
Quid rigor aeternus, cali? quid frigora proſunt,
Ignotum fretum? maduerunt Saxone fuſo
Orcades, incaluit, Pictonum ſanguine Thule,
Scotorum cumulos fleuit glacialis Hiberna.
N.R.VVhat laſting colde? what did to them
the froſtie Clymates gaine?
And ſea vnknowne? bemoyſted all
with bloud of Saxons ſlaine
[...]ule ſome [...]e to be Iſe| [...]de ſome [...]tland.The Orkneys were: with bloud of Picts
hath Thule waxed warme,
And yſie Irelande hath bewaylde
the heapes of Scottiſh harme.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame prayſe gyueth he to Stellco the ſonne in lawe of Honorius, and maketh mention of a Legion of Souldiers ſent for oute of Bry|tayne in the Periphraſes of the Scottiſh warres.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
Venit & extremis legio praetenta Britannis,
Quae Scoto dat fraena truci ferro notatas,
Perleget exanimes Picte m [...]riente figuras.
N.R.A legion eke there came from out
the fartheſt Brytaines bent,
VVhich brideled hath the Scots ſo ſterne:
and markes with yron brent
Vpon their liueleſſe limmes doth reade,
whiles Pictes their liues relent.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He rehearſeth the like in his ſecond Panegericus of Stilico.

Inde Calidonio velata Britannia monstro,
Ferro Picta genas, cuius vestigia verrit
Caerulus, Oceaniq(ue) aestum mentitur amictus.
Me quoq(ue), vicinus pereuntem gentibus inquit,
Muniuit Stilico, totam quum Scotus Hibernam
Mouit, & infesto spumavit remige Thetis.
Illius effectum curis, ne bella timerem,
Scotica, ne Pictum tremerem, ne littore toto,
Prospicerem dubijs venturum Saxona ventis.
N. [...].Then Brytaine whom the monſters did
of Calidone ſurrounde,
VVhoſe cheekes were ſcorcht with ſteele,
whoſe garments ſwept the ground,
Reſembling much the marble hew
of Ocean ſeas that boile,
Sayd, ſhe whom neighbour nations did
conſpire to bring to ſpoile,
Hath Stilico munited ſtrong, when
rayſde by Scots entice
All Ireland was, and enmies oares
the ſalt ſea ſome did ſlice.
His care hath cauſde, that I all feares
of Scottiſh broyles haue bard,
Ne do I dread the Picts, he looke
my countrey coaſts to gard,
Gainſt Saxon troupes, who chaunging winds
ſent ſayling hitherwardes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus may it appeare,Brytayne af|flicted by in|uaſion of bar|barous natiõs. that in the tyme when the Romaine Empyre beganne to decay, in like maner as other partes of the ſame Empyre were inuaded by barbarous nations, ſo was that part of Brytayne which was ſubiect to the Romaine Emperours grieuouſly aſſayled by the Scottes and Pictes, and alſo by the Saxons, the whiche in thoſe dayes inhabiting all alongſt the Sea coaſtes of lowe Germanie, euen from the Elbe vnto the Rhine, did not onely trouble the ſeate by continuall rouing, but alſo vſed comming a land into dyuerſe partes of Brytayne, and Gallia, in|uading the countreys and robbing the ſame with great rage and crueltie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To the which Sidonius Apollinaris thus al|ludeth, wryting to Namatius.Sidon. Apol. li. 8. Epiſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Meſſenger did aſſuredly affyrme, that lately ye blewe the trumpet to warre in your na|uie, and betwixt the office one while of a mariner, and another while of a ſouldier, wafted about the crooked ſhores of the Ocean Sea agaynſte the fleete of the Saxons,The piracie of the Saxons. of whome as many Ro|uers as ye beholde, ſo many Archpyrates ye ſup|poſe to ſee: ſo doe they altogyther with one ac|corde commaund, obey, teach, and learne to play the partes of Rouers, that euen now there is good occaſion to warne you to beware. This eni|mie is more cruell than all other enimyes. Hee aſſayleth at vnwares, hee eſcapeth foreſeeing the daunger aforehande, he deſpyſeth thoſe that ſtand agaynſt him, he throweth downe the vnware: if he be followed he ſhappeth them vp that purſue him, if he flee he eſcapeth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of like effect for proufe hereof be thoſe verſes which he wrote vnto Maiorianus in his Pane|gerike Oration.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
Tot Maria intravi duce te, longeq(ue) remotas,
Sole sub occiduo gentes, victricta Caesar
Signa Caledonios transvexit ad usq(ue) Brittanos.
Fuderit & quanqua(m) Scotu(m), & cu(m) Saxone Pictu(m)
Hostes quaesivit que(m) iam natura vetebat,
Quaerere plus homines.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Which is Engliſhed thus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
So many ſeas I entred haue,
and nations farre by weſt,
By thy conduct, and Caeſar hath
his banners borne full preſt,
Vnto the furtheſt Brytiſh coaſt,
where Calidonians dwell.
The Scot and Pict with Saxons eke,
though he ſubdued fell,
Yet would he ſeeke enmies vnknowne
whom nature had forbid: &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 108Thus farre haue we thought good to gather out of the Romaine and other wryters, that yee might perceyue the ſtate of Brytayne the better in that time of the decay of the Romain Empire, and that ye might haue occaſion to marke by the way, how not only the Scots, but alſo the Sax|ons had attempted to inuade the Brytaines be|fore any mention is made of the ſame theyr at|tempts by the Brytiſh and Engliſh wryters.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But whether the Scottes had any habitation within the boundes of Brytaine, til the time ſup|poſed by the Brytaine wryters, wee leaue that poynt to the iudgement of others that be trauay|led in the ſearch of ſuche antiquities, onely ad|moniſhing you, that in the Scottiſhe Chronicle you ſhall finde the opinion whiche their writers haue conceyued of this matter, and alſo manye things touching the actes of the Romaines, done agaynſt diuerſe of the Brytayns, which they pre|ſume to be done againſt their nation, though ſha|dowed vnder the generall name of Brytaines, or of other particular names, at this day to moſt mẽ vnknowne. But whenſoeuer the Scottes came into this Ile, they made the thirde nation that in|habited the ſame, cõming firſt out of Scithia, or rather out of Spaine (as ſome ſuppoſe) into Ire|lande,Polidor. and from thence into Brytayne, next after the Pictes, though their wryters fetche a farre more ancient beginning (as in their Chronicle at large appeareth) referring them to the reading thereof, that deſire to vnderſtande that matter as they ſet it forth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But now to returne where we left, touching the ſucceſſion of the Brytiſh kings, as their Hy|ſtories make mention: thus we finde, though ca|rying great ſuſpition withall, as ſome thinke.

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4.33. Gratians rough regiment procureth his owne destruction, the comming of his two brethren Guanius and Melga with their armies, the Scots and Picts plague the Britains, they send for aid to Rome, Valentinian sendeth Gal|lio Rauenna to releeue them, the Romans refuse anie longer to succour the Britains, whom they taught how to make ar|mour and weapons, the Scots and Picts enter afresh into Bri|taine and preuaile, the Britains are brought to extreme mi|serie, ciuill warres among them, and what mischiefe dooth follow therevpon, their lamentable letter to Actius for succour against their enimies, their sute is denied, at what time the Britains ceased to be tributaries to the Romans, they send ambassadors to the K. of Britaine in France, and obteine their sute. The xxxiij. Chapter.

EEBO page image 70

Gratians rough regiment procureth his owne destruction, the comming of his two brethren Guanius and Melga with their armies, the Scots and Picts plague the Britains, they send for aid to Rome, Valentinian sendeth Gal|lio Rauenna to releeue them, the Romans refuse anie longer to succour the Britains, whom they taught how to make ar|mour and weapons, the Scots and Picts enter afresh into Bri|taine and preuaile, the Britains are brought to extreme mi|serie, ciuill warres among them, and what mischiefe dooth follow therevpon, their lamentable letter to Actius for succour against their enimies, their sute is denied, at what time the Britains ceased to be tributaries to the Romans, they send ambassadors to the K. of Britaine in France, and obteine their sute. The xxxiij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _GRatianus then,Gratia|nus. whome Maximus or Maximinus had sent into Britaine (as before ye haue heard) hearing that his maister was slaine, tooke vpon him the rule of this our Britaine, and made himselfe king therof, in the yeare 390. He was a Britaine borne, as Polydor writeth, coniecturing so,390. by that he is named of authors to be Municeps, that is to saie, a frée man of the countrie or citie where he inhabited. For his sternehesse and rough gouernement, he was of the Britains (as the histories alledge)Of the Ro|mane souldi|ers as Blon|dus saith. slaine and dispatched out of the waie, after he had reigned the space of foure yeares, or rather foure moneths, as should seeme by that which is found in autentike writers. Then the forenamed kings Guanius and Melga, which (as some write) were brethren,Galfrid. Caxton. returned into this land with their armies increased with new supplies of men of warre, as Scots, Danes, the Norwegi|ans, and destroied the countrie from side to side. For the Britains in this season were sore inféebled, and were not able to make anie great numbers of souldiers, by reason that Maximus had led foorth of the land the floure and chiefest choise of all the Bri|tish youth into Gallia,Galfrid. Matth. West. Caxton. as before ye haue heard.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Gyldas maketh no mention of these two kings Guanius and Melga of the Hunnes,Gyldas. but rehear|sing this great destruction of the land, declareth (as before ye haue heard) that the Scots and Picts were the same that did all the mischiefe, whome he calleth two nations of beyond the seas, the Scots comming out of the northwest, and the Picts out of the northeast, by whome (as he saith) the land was ouerrun, and brought vnder foot manie yeares af|ter. Therefore the Britains being thus vexed, spoi|led, and cruellie persecuted by the Scots and Picts (if we shall so take them) sent messengers with all spéed vnto Rome to make sute for some aid of men of war to be sent into Britaine. Wherevpon imme|diatlie a legion of souldiers was sent thither in the yéere 414,414. which easilie repelled the enimies, and chased them backe with great slaughter, to the great comfort of the Britains, the which by this meanes were deliuered from danger of vtter destruction, as they thought.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the Romans being occasioned to depart a|gaine out of the land, appointed the Britains to make a wall (as had béene aforetime by the em|perours Adrian, Antoninus and Seuerus ouer|thwart the countrie from sea to sea,Beda and Polychron. stretching from Penuelton vnto the citie of Aclud, whereby the eni|mies might be staid from entring the land: but this wall being made of turfs and sods, rather than with stones, after the departure of the Romans was easi|lie ouerthrowne by the Scots and Picts, which eut|soones returned to inuade the confines of the Bri|tains, and so entring the countrie, wasted and de|stroied the places before them, according to their former custome. Herevpon were messengers with most lamentable letters againe dispatched towardsGyldas. Polychron. Beda. Matth West. Rome for new aid against those cruell enimies, with promise, that if the Romans would now in this great necessitie helpe to deliuer the land, they should be assured to find the Britains euermore obedient subiects, and redie at their commandement. Ua|lentinianus (pitieng the case of the poore Britains)Blondus. appointed another legion of souldiers (of the which one Gallio of Rauenna had the leading)Gallio Ra|uenna sent into Brit|taine. to go to their succours, the which arriuing in Britaine set on the enimies, and giuing them the ouerthrow, slue a great number of them, and chased the residue out of the countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Romans thus hauing obteined the victorie, declared to the Britains, that from thencefoorth they would not take vpon them for euerie light oc|casion so painefull a iournie, alledging how there was no reason why the Romane ensignes, with such a number of men of warre, should be put to tra|uell so far by sea and land, for the repelling and bea|ting backe of a sort of scattering rouers and pilfring théeues. Wherfore they aduised the Britains to looke to their dueties, and like men to indeuour them|selues to defend their countrie by their owne force from the enimies inuasions. And because they iud|ged it might be an helpe to the Britains, they set in hand to build a wall yet once againe ouerthward the Ile, in the same place where the emperour SeuerusA wall built ouerthwart the Iland Beda. caused his trench and rampire to be cast. This wall which the Romans now built with helpe of the Bri|tains, was 8 foot in bredth and 12 in length, trauer|sing the land from east to west, & was made of stone.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After that this wall was finished,Gyldas and Beda. the Romans exhorted the Britains to plaie the men, and shewed them the way how to make armor & weapons. Be|sides this, on the coast of the east sea where their ships lay at rode, & where it was douted that the enimies would land, they caused towers to be erected, with spaces betwixt, out of the which the seas might be dis|couered. These things ordered, the Romans bad the Britains farewell, not minding to returne thither againe.Gyldas. The Romans then being gon out of the land, the Scots and Picts knowing thereof, by & by came againe by sea, & being more emboldened than before, bicause of the deniall made by the Romans to come any more to the succor of the Britains, they tooke in|to possession all the north and vttermost bounds of the Ile, euen vnto the foresaid wall, therein to re|maine as inhabitans.This chanced in the yere 43. as M. W. saith And wheras the Britains got them to their wall to defend the same, that the eni|mies should not passe further into the countrie, they were in the end beaten from it, and diuers of them slaine, so that the Scots and Picts entred vpon them and pursued them in more cruell maner than before, so that the Britains being chased out of their cities, townes, and dwelling houses, were constreined to flie into desert places, and there to remaine and liue after the maner of sauage people, and in the end be|gan to rob and spoile one another, so to auoid the dan|ger of staruing for lacke of food: and thus at the last the countrie was so destroied and wasted, that there was no other shift for them that was left aliue to liue by, except onelie by hunting and taking of wild beasts and foules. And to augment their miserie, the commons imputing the fault to rest in the lords and Hector Boet. Rebellion. gouernors, arose against them in armes, but were vanquished and easilie put to fight at two seuerall times, being beaten downe and slaine (through lacke of skill) in such numbers, especiallie the latter time, EEBO page image 71 that the residue which escaped, withdrew into the craggie mounteins, where within the bushes and caues they kept themselues close, sometimes com|ming downe and fetching away from the heards of beasts and flocks of shéepe which belonged to the no|bles and gentlemen of the countrie, great booties to relieue them withall. But at length oppressed with ex|treme famine, when neither part could long remaine in this state, as néeding one anothers helpe, necessi|tie made peace betwixt the lords and commons of the land, all iniuries being pardoned and cléerelie for|giuen. This ciuill warre decaied for force of the Britains,Ciuill warre decaied the force of the Britains. What mis|chiefe follow of ciuill warres. little lesse than the tyrannicall practises of Maximus, for by the auoiding of the commons thus out of their houses, the ground laie vntilled, whereof insued such famine for the space of thrée yéeres togi|ther, that a woonderfull number of people died for want of sustenance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus the Britains being brought generallie in|to such extreame miserie, they thought good to trie if they might purchase some aid of that noble man Ac|tius,Actius. which at that time remained in France as yet called Gallia, gouerning the same as lieutenant vnder the emperor Honorius: and herevpon taking counsell togither, they wrote a letter to him, the te|nor whereof insueth.

4.33.1. To Actius thrise consull.

To Actius thrise consull.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe lamentable request of vs the Bri|tains, beseeching you of aid to bee ministred vnto the prouince of the Romane empire, vnto our countrie, vnto our wiues and children at this present, which stand in most extreame perill. For the barbarous people driue vs to the sea, and the sea driueth vs backe vnto them againe. Hereof rise two kinds of death, for either we are slaine, or drowned, and against such euils haue we no remedie nor helpe at all. Therefore in respct of your clemencie, succor your owne we most instantlie require you, &c.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Notwithstanding the Britains thus sought for aid at Actius hands as then the emperours lieutenant,The Bri|tains could get no aid frõ the Romans. yet could they get none; either for that Actius would not, as he that passed litle how things went, bicause he bare displeasure in his mind against Ualentinian as then emperor; or else for that he could not, being o|therwise constreined to imploie all his forces in o|ther places against such barbarous nations as then inuaded the Romane empire. And so by that means was Britaine lost, and the tribute which the Bri|tains were accustomed to pay to the Romans ceas|sed, iust fiue hundred yéeres after that Iulius Ce|sar first entred the Ile.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Britains being thus put to their shifts, ma|nie of them as hunger-starued were constrained to yéeld themselues into the griping hands of their eni|mies, whereas other yet kéeping within the moun|teins, woods and caues, brake out as occasion ser|ued vpon their aduersaries, and then first (saith Gyl|das) did the Britains not putting their trust in man but in God (according to the saieng of Philo, Where mans helpe faileth, it is needfull that Gods helpe be present) make slaughter of their enimies that had béene accustomed manie yéeres to rob and spoile them in maner as before is recited, and so the bold attempts of the enimies ceassed for a time,Punishment ceaseth, but sin increaseth. but the wickednesse of the British people ceassed not at all. The enimies departed out of the land, but the inha|bitants departed not from their naughtie dooings, being not so readie to put backe the common eni|mies, as to exercise ciuill warre and discord among themselues. The wicked Irish people departed home, to make returne againe within a while after. But the Picts settled themselues first at that season in the vttermost bounds of the Ile, and there conti|nued, making insurrections oftentimes vpon their neighbours, and spoiling them of their goods.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This with more also hath Gyldas, and likewise Beda written of this great desolation of the British Galfridus. Gyldas his words are to be considered. people: wherein if the words of Gyldas be well weighed and considered, it maie lead vs to thinke, that the Scots had no habitations here in Bri|taine, but onelie in Ireland, till after this season, and that at this present time the Picts, which before inhabited within the Iles of Orkenie, now placed themselues in the north parts of Scotland, and after by processe of time came and nestled themselues in Louthian, in the Mers, and other countries more neere to our borders. But to procéed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The British histories affirme, that whilest the Bri|tains were thus persecuted by these two most cruell and fierce nations the Scots and Picts, the noble and chiefest men amongst them consulted togither, & concluded to send an honorable ambassage vnto Al|droenus as then king of little Britaine in Gallia,An ambassage sent from the Britains vn|to Aldroenus king of Bri|taine in France. which Aldroenus was the fourth from Cnoan Meri|doc the first king there of the British nation. Of this ambassage the archbishop of London named Gue|theline or Gosseline was appointed the chiefe and principall, who passing ouer into little Britaine, and comming before the presence of Aldroenus, so decla|red the effect of his message, that his suit was gran|ted. For Aldroenus agréed to send his brother Con|stantine ouer into great Britaine with a conuenient power,Constantine the brother of Aldroenus. vpon condition, that the victorie being ob|teined against the enimies, the Britains should make him king of great Britaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 ¶Thus it is apparent, that this land of Britaine was without anie certeine gouernour (after that Gratian the vsurper was dispatched) a number of yéeres togither, but how manie, writers in their ac|count do varie.Fabian. Fabian deposeth by diuers coniecturs that the space betwixt the death of Gratian, and the beginning of the reigne of the said Constantine, brother; to Aldroenus, continued nine and thirtie yéeres, during which time the Britains were sore and miserablie afflicted by the inuasions of the Scots and Picts, as before ye haue heard by testimonies taken out of Beda, Gyldas, Geffrey of Monmouth, and other writers both British and English.