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5.60. Maximianus, or rather Maximus.

Maximianus, or rather Maximus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Maxi|mianus, or Ma|ximus. [figure appears here on page 95] AFter the deceaſe of Octauius or Octa|uiã (as the old Engliſh chronicle nameth him) Maximianus or Ma|ximus, as the Romain writers name him begã to rule the Britõs in ye yere of our Lord .383. he was ye ſon of one Leo|nine,383. & couſin germain to Conſtantine the great, a valiant perſonage, & hardie of ſtomacke: but yet bicauſe he was cruell of nature, (and as Fabian ſaith) ſomwhat perſe|cuted the chriſtians, he was infamed by writers: but the chief cauſe that he was euil reported, was for that he ſlew his ſoueraign Lord, the emperor Gratianus, as after ſhall appeare, for otherwiſe he is ſuppoſed worthie to haue hadde the rule of the empire cõmitted to his handes in eche reſpect.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Betwixte him and the abouenamed Conan Meridoc duke of Cornwall, chaunced ſtrife and debate, ſo that Conan got him into Scotlande, and there purchaſing ayde, returned, and coming ouer Humber, waſted the countrey on eche ſide. Maximianus therof hauing aduertiſement, rey|ſed his power and went againſt him, and ſo figh|ting with him diuers batayles, ſometime depar|ted away with victorie, and ſomtime with loſſe. At length through mediation of frends, a peace was accorded betwixt thẽ. Finally this Maxi|mianus, or as the Romaine hiſtories haue, Ma|ximus, was by the ſouldioures choſen and pro|claimed Emperour here in Britayne: although ſome write, that this was done in Spayn.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After he had taken vpon him the imperial dig|nitie, vpon deſire to haue enlarged his dominion, Galfr. Mon. Fabian. Caxton. Mat. VVest. The Britishe youth led forth of the realme by Maximia|nus. hee aſſembled togyther all the choſen youthe of thys lande meete to doe ſeruice in the warres, with the whiche hee paſſed ouer into Fraunce, and there (as our writers recorde) he firſt ſubdued the countrey aunciently called Armorica, & ſlew in bataile the king therof called Imball. This done he gaue ye country vnto Conan Meridock,Britayne in France. the whiche was there with hym, to hold the ſame of him, & of the kings of great Britayne for euer. He alſo commaunded that the ſayde countrey from thenceforth ſhould be called Little Britaine, and ſo was the name changed. What people ſo euer inhabited there before, the ancient name ar|gueth that they were rather Britons than anye other: for Armorica in the Britiſhe tong ſigni|fieth as muche as a countrey lying vpon the ſea.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Conan then placing himſelf and his Britons in yt quarter of Gallia, auoyded all the old inha|bitãts, peopling ye coũtry only wt Britõs, which abhorring to ioyn themſelues with women born in Gallia, Conan was counſailed to ſende into Britayn for maydes to be coupled with his peo|ple in mariage.Dionethus duke of Corn|vvall. Herevpon a meſſenger was diſ|patched vnto Dionethus at that tyme Duke of Cornewal & gouernor of Britayn vnder Maxi|mianus,Maydes ſente foorth requiring him to ſende ouer into little Britaine .xj. thouſand maydes, that is to witte, viij. M. to be beſtowed vpon the meaner forte of Conans people, and .iij. thouſand to be ioyned in mariage with the nobles and Gentlemen. Dro|nethus to ſatiſfie the Conans requeſt, aſſembled the appoynted number of maydes, and amongſt them, he alſo appointed his daughter Vrſula, a lady of excellẽt beautie, to go ouer to be giuen in mariage vnto the foreſayd Conan Meridock, as he had earneſtly requeſted.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theſe number of maydes were ſhipped in Thames, and paſſing forewarde toward Bri|tayne, were by force of wether and rage of winde ſcattered abrode and part of them drowned,Vrſula the daughter of Dionethus. & the reſidue (amongſt whom was the forſayd Vrſu|la) were ſlayn by Guanius king of the Hunnes, and Melga king of the Picts, into whoſe hands they fell, the which Guanius and Melga were ſent by the emperor Gratian to the ſea coaſts of Germanye, to oppreſſe & ſubdue all ſuch as were frendes & maynteyners of the part of Maximus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 We fynde in ſome bookes that there were ſent ouer at that tyme .lj. M. maydes, that is to ſay, xj.M. of Gentlewomen, and .xl.M. of others.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After that Guanius and Melga had mur|thered the foreſayd Virgins,Guanius and Melga. they entred into the EEBO page image 96 north partes of Britayn, where the Scots now inhabite, and beganne to make ſore warre on the Britons, whereof when Maximus was aduertiſed, hee ſente into Britayne one Gra|tianus, with three Legions of Souldiours, the whiche bare himſelf ſo manfully againſt the eni|mies, that he conſtrayned the ſaid Guanius and Melga to flee out of the land, and to withdraw into Irelande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In this meane while, Maximus hauing ſlain the Emperour Gratian at Lyon in France, and after entring into Italy, was ſlain himſelf at A|quileia, (after he had gouerned the Britons eight yeares) by the Emperour Theodoſius, whyche came in ayde of Valentinian, brother to the ſaid Emperor Gratian, as in the Abridgement of the hiſtories of Italy ye may fynde recorded.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But heere yet before wee make an ende with this Maximus or Maximianus, I haue thou|ghte good to ſet downe the wordes whiche wee fynde in Gildas, where he writeth of the ſame Maximus,

Conſobrinus. Helenae impe|ratricis.


vndoubtedly a Briton born, nephew to the empreſſe Helena, and begot by a Romain. At length (ſayth Gildas) the ſpring of Tyrants budding vp, and nowe increaſing into an huge woodde, the Iſle being called after the name of Rome: but holding neyther maners nor lawes according to that name, but rather caſtyng the ſame from it, ſendeth foorthe a braunche of hir moſt bitter planting, to witte Maximus, accom|panied with a great number of warriors to gard him, and apparelled in the imperiall robes, which he neuer ware as became him, nor put them on in lawful wiſe, but (after the cuſtome of tyrants) was put into them by the mutening ſouldiours: whiche Maximus at the firſt by a craftie policie rather than by true manhood winding in (as nets of his periurie and falſe ſuggeſtion) vnto his wic|ked gouernement, the countreys and prouinces next adioyning, gainſte the Imperiall ſtate of Rome, ſtretching one of his wings into Spayn, & the other into Italy, placed the throne of his moſte vniuſt empire at Trier, and ſhewed ſuche rage in his woodde dealing agaynſt his ſoueraine lordes, that the one of the lawfull Emperors he expulſed foorth of Rome, and the other hee be|refte of his moſte religious and godly lyfe. And without long tariance, compaſſed aboute with ſuche a furious and bolde garde as he hadde got together, at the Citie of Aquileia hee loſeth his wicked head, whiche had caſt downe the moſte honourable heades of all the worlde from theyr kingdome and Empire.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 From thencefoorth Britayne bring depriued of all hir warlyke ſouldiours and armies, of hir gouernours alſo, though cruell, and of an huge number of hir youthe (the whiche following the ſteppes of the foreſayde tyraunt, neuer retour|ned home agayne, ſuche as remayned beyng vt|terly vnſkilfull in feates of warre, were trodden downe by two nations of beyonde the ſeas, [...] the Scots from the Weaſt, and the Pictes from the North. And as men thus quite diſmayed, la|mente their myſerable caſe, not knowing what elſe to doe for the ſpace of manye yeares togy|ther. By reaſon of whoſe greeuous inuaſion and cruell oppreſſion wherewith ſhe was miſe|rably diſquieted, ſhe ſendeth hir Ambaſſadours vnto Rome, makyng lamentable ſute euen with teares to haue ſome power of men of warre ſent to defend hir againſt the enimies, promiſing to be true ſubiects with all faithfulneſſe of mynd, if the enimie might be kept off and remoued.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus farre Gildas and more, as in place hereafter ye ſhall fynde recited.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But nowe where the Britiſhe hiſtories, and ſuche of our Engliſhe writers as followe them make mention of one Gratianus a Romayne ſente ouer with three Legions of ſouldiours by Maximus, as before ye haue hearde: We may ſuppoſe that it was Gratianus the Briton, that afterwardes vſurped the imperial dignitie here in Britayn, in the days of the emperor Honorius: for it ſtandeth neyther with the concurrence of tyme, nor yet with reaſon of the hiſtorie,Sextus A [...]+relius. that it ſhould be Gratianus, ſurnamed Funarius, fa|ther to Valentinian, and grandfather to the Em+perour Gratianus, agaynſt whome Maximus rebelled. And yet I remember not that any of the Romayn writers maketh mention of any other Gratianus, beeyng a ſtraunger, that ſhould be ſent hither as lieutenant to gouerne the Romain armie, except of the foreſayd Gratianus Funa|rius, Lib. 30. who as appeareth by Am. Marcellinus was general of ye Romain army here in this yle, and at lengthe being diſcharged, returned home (into Hungarie, were he was borne) with ho|nour, and there remayning in reſt, was at length ſpoyled of his goodes by the Emperoure Con|ſtantius as confiſcate, for that in tyme of the ciuill warres, he had receyued Magnentius, as he paſt through his countrey.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 But lette vs graunte, that eyther Gratianus the Briton, or ſome other of that name, was ſente ouer into Britayne (as before is ſayd) by Maximus, leaſt otherwyſe ſome errour maye bee doubted in the writers of the Britiſh hiſto|ries, as hauyng haply myſtaken the tyme, and matter, bringing Eratianus Funarius to ſerue vnder Maximus, where peraduenture that whi|che they haue redde or hearde of hym, chaunced long before that tyme by them ſuppoſed: And ſo thorough myſtaking the thyng, haue made a wrong reporte, where neuertheleſſe it ſtandeth with greate lykelyhoode of trouthe, that ſome not able ſeruice of Chyualrie was atchieued by EEBO page image 97 the ſame Gratianus Funarius whileſt he remay|ned heere in this Iſle, if ye troth might be knowẽ of that whiche hathe bin written by authors, and happily by the ſame Am. Marcellinus, if his firſt thirteene Bookes might once come to lighte and be extãt. But now to end with Maximus. Wil|liam of Malmeſburie (as yee haue hearde) wri|teth, that not Maximus, but rather Conſtantine the Great firſte peopled Armorica: but yet hee a|greeth, that both Maximus, and alſo Conſtanti|nus the vſurper, of whome after yee ſhall heare, ledde with them a great number of the Britaines out of this lande, the which Maximus or Max|imianus and Conſtantinus afterwardes beeyng ſlayne, the one by Theodoſius, and the other by Honorius, the Britaynes that followed them to the warres, parte of them were killed, and the re|ſidue eſcaping by flighte, withdrewe vnto the o|ther Britaynes whiche Conſtantine the Greate had firſt placed in Armorica. And ſo when the Tyrantes had left none in the countrey but rude people, nor any in the Townes but ſuch as were giuen to ſlouth and glutony, Britayne beeyng voyde of all ayde of hir valiant youth, became a pray to hir next neyghbors the Scottes & Pictes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Here is yet to bee conſidered in what price the Souldiers of the Brittiſh nation were hadde in thoſe dayes, with whoſe onely puiſſance Maxi|mus durſt take vpon him to goe againſt all other the forces of the whole Romayne Empire: and how he proſpered in that daungerous aduenture, it is expreſſed ſufficiently in the Romayne Hi|ſtories, by whoſe report it appeareth, that hee dyd not only conquere all the hither partes of France and Germany, namely on this ſide the Rhine, but alſo founde meanes to entrappe the Emperoure Gratian by this kind of policie.William Har| [...]ſon out of Paulus Diaco. [...]ib. 12. & aliis. He had a faithfull friend called Andragatius, who was Admirall of the Seas perteyning to the Empire. It was therefore agreed betwixte them, that this An|dragatius (with a choſen company of the army) ſhould be carried in ſecret wiſe in a coch towards Lions,Triparti. hiſt. lib. 9. cap. 21. as if it hadde bin Conſtantia-Poſthumia the Empreſſe, wife to the Emperoure Gratian, bruting abrode therewithall, that the ſayd Em|preſſe was comming forwardes on hir way to Lions, there to meete with hir huſbande, for that vpõ occaſion ſhe was very deſirous to commune with him about certayne earneſt buſineſſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 When Gracian hearde heereof, as one mi|ſtruſting no ſuche diſſimulation, he made haſt to meete his wife, and comming at length without any great gard about hym, as one not in doubte of any treaſon, approched the coche, where ſuppo|ſing to find his wife, he found thoſe that ſtraight|wayes murthered him: and ſo was hee there diſ|patched out of life by the ſayd Andragatius, who leapte foorthe of the coche to worke that feate when he had him once within his daunger.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Thus did the Emperoure Grocian finiſh hys life in the .29. yeare of his age, on the .25. of Au|guſt, in the yeare of Chriſt .383. and then dyed.


This Flauius Victor he be|gate of his wife Helena the daughter of Eudes.

H. Llhuyd.

Maximus ſucceded him (making his ſonne Fla|uius Victor Nobiliſſimus aſſiſtante with hym in the Empire) raigning fiue yeares and two dayes. In the beginning of his raigne Valenti|nian the yonger made great ſuite to him to haue his fathers body, but it woulde not be graunted. Afterwardes alſo Maximus was earneſtly re|queſted to come to an enterviewe with the ſame Valentinian, who promiſed him not only a ſafe conduct, but alſo many other beneficiall good turnes beſyde. Yet Maximus durſt not putte himſelfe in any ſuch hazard, but rather meant to purſue Valentinian as an vſurper, and ſo at length chaſed hym into Slauonie, where he was driuen to ſuch a ſtreight,Valentinian put in danger by Maximus. that if Theodoſius had not come to releeue him, Maximus hadde driuen him thence alſo, or elſe by ſlaughter ridde hym out of the way. But when Maximus thoughte himſelfe moſt aſſured,VV. Hariſon. and ſo eſtabliſhed in the Empire, as hee doubted no perils, hee liued care|leſſe of his owne ſafegard, and therefore diſmiſſed hys Brittiſhe Souldiers, who retiring into the Northweſt partes of Gallia, placed themſelues there among theyr countreymen whiche were broughte ouer by the Emperoure Conſtantius, whileſt Maximus paſſing the reſidue of hys time in delites and pleaſures, was ſurpriſed in the ende and ſlayne by Theodoſius, neere vnto Aquileia the .27.Eutropius. of Auguſt in the yeare of grace 388. and in the beginning of the ſixth yeare of hys raigne, or rather vſurpation,388 as more rightly it may be tearmed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 His ſonne Flauius Victor ſurnamed Nobi|liſſimus was alſo diſpatched and brought to hys ende, not farre from the place where his father was ſlayne,Arbogaſtes. by the practiſe of one Arboga [...]es a Goth, whiche Flanius Victor was by the ſayde Maximus made Regente of the Frankey [...]ers, and partaker (as before is ſayde) with him in the Empire.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, the Ile of Britayne remayned in meetely good quiet by the ſpace of twentie yeares, till one Marcus (that was then Legate or as we may call him Lorde Lieutenante or deputie of Britayne for the Romaynes) was by the Souldiers heere proclaymed Emperour againſt Honorius, whiche Marcus was ſoone after killed in a tumult rayſed among the people within few dayes after his begunne vſurpation.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Then one Gracianus a Britaine borne;Gracianus a Britayne. He raigned four yeares if we ſhall be|leeue the Brittiſh hiſto|rie. ſuc|ceeded in his place, who was alſo ſlayne in the fourth moneth after he had taken vppon hym the imperiall ornamentes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 The Souldiers not yet heerewith pacifyed, EEBO page image 98 proceeded to the election of an other Emperoure, or rather vſurper, and ſo pronounced a noble Gentleman called Conſtantine, borne alſo in Britayne, to be Emperoure, who tooke that ho|nour vpon him in the .409.409 yeare after the birth of our Sauiour, continuing his raigne by the ſpace of two yeares and odde monethes, as the Ro|mayne hiſtories make mention. Some reporte this Conſtantine to be of no great towardly diſ|poſition worthy to gouerne an Empire, and that the Souldiers choſe him rather for the names ſake, bycauſe they would haue another Conſtan|tine, more than for anye vertues or ſufficiente qualities found in his perſon. But other commẽd him, both for manhoode and wiſedome, wherein to ſpeake a troth, hee deſerued ſingular commen|dation, if this one note of vſurpation of the Im|periall dignitie had not ſtayned his other noble qualities. But heerein he did no more than many other woulde haue done, neyther yet after his in|ueſture he did ſo muche as was looked for at hys handes. Beeyng placed in the Imperial throne, he gathereth an army with all poſſible endeuour, purpoſing out of hande to goe ouer therewith in|to France, and ſo did, thinking thereby to winne the poſſeſſion of that countrey out of the handes of Honorius, or at the leaſt to worke ſo as hee ſhoulde not haue the Souldiers and people there to be againſt him if he miſſed to ioyne in league with the Suabeyners, Alanes, and Vandales, which he ſought to performe: but in the ende, whẽ neyther of theſe his deuiſes coulde take place, hee ſendeth ouer for his ſonne Conſtans, (whome in his abſẽce his aduerſaries had ſhorn a Monke) and making him partaker with him in the Em|pire, hee cauſed him to bring ouer with him ano|ther army, whiche vnder the conduct of the ſame Conſtans hee ſente into Spayne to bring that countrey vnder his obeyſance. This Conſtans therefore comming vnto the paſſages that leade ouer the Pyrenine Mountaynes, Dindimus and Verianianus two brethren, vnto whom the kee|ping of thoſe paſſages was committed to defende the ſame againſte the Vandalles and all other enemies of the Empire,His Souldi [...] were P [...] and p [...] [...]+mong [...] men of [...] that ſerued vnder the [...]+ſignes of the Empire, a [...] were [...] after Ho|us, H [...]|ciani. Bl [...]d [...]. were ready to reſiſt hym with their ſeruants and countreymen that inha|bited thereaboutes, giuing him a right ſharpe en|counter, and at the firſt putting him in great dan|ger of an ouerthrow, but yet at length by the va|liant prowes of his Brittiſhe Souldiers Con|ſtans put his aduerſaries to flighte, and killed the two Captaynes with diuers other men of name that were partakers with him in the neceſſary de|fence of the countrey againſt the enimies.

[figure appears here on page 98]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 When Conſtans had thus repulſed thoſe that reſiſted him, the cuſtodie of the paſſages in the Pi|renine Mountaynes was committed vnto ſuche bandes of Pictes and other as were appoynted to to goe with him about the atchieuing of this en|terpriſe, who hauing the poſſeſſiõ of thoſe ſtreites or paſſages in their handes, gaue entrie vnto o|ther barbarous nations to inuade Spayne, who being once entred, purſued the former inhabitants with fire and ſworde, ſettled themſelues in that coũtrey, and droue out the Romaines. The Em|peror Honorius perceyuing the reeling ſtate of ye Empire, determined foorthwith to recouer it be|fore it fell altogither into ruine: & therefore he ſent one Conſtantius an Earle to driue Conſtantine out of Gallia, which he acordingly performed: for after certayne bickerings, he ſlew ye ſayd Conſtã|tine at Arles, although not without great bloud|ſhed. He purſued alſo ye reſidue of ye Britains, dri|uing thẽ to ye very Sea coaſts, where they ſhrou|ded thẽſelues amõg the other Britayns, yt before wer ſettled in the countrey there, antiently called (as before we ſayd) Armorica, yt is, a region lying on ye ſea coaſt: for Ar in the Brittiſh tong ſignifi|eth vpon, & Moure perteining to the Sea. And as this Conſtantine ye father was ſlayn by Cõſtan|tius, ſo was Cõſtans ye ſon killed at Vienna by one of his owne Captaynes named Gerontius, wherby it came to paſſe, ye Honorius ſhortly after hauing thus obteined ye victory of both theſe vſur|pers EEBO page image 186 recouered the Iſle, [...]. Harriſon. but yet not till the yeare next following, and that by the high induſtrie & great diligence of that valiant Gentleman Earle Conſtantius. The ſlaughter of Conſtantine and his ſonne hapned in the firſt yeare of the .297. O|lympiade 465. after the comming of Ceſar .162. after the building of Rome, the dominicall letter being A. and the golden number .13. ſo that the re|couering of the Ilande fell in the yeare of oure Lord .411.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 411Heere alſo is eftſoones to bee conſidered the valure of the Brittiſhe Souldiers, who follo|wing this laſt remembred Conſtantine the vſur|per, did put the Romayne ſtate in great daunger, and by force brake through into Spayne, van|quiſhing thoſe that kept the ſtreights of ye moun|taynes betwixt Spayne and Gallia, nowe called France, an exployt of no ſmall conſequence, ſith thereby the number of Barbarous nations gote free paſſage to enter into Spayne, whereof enſued many battayles, ſackings of Cities and townes, and waſting of the countreys accordingly as the furious rage of thoſe fierce people was moued to put their crueltie in practiſe. If therefore the Bri|tayne writers hadde conſidered and marked the valiant exploytes and noble enterpriſes which the Brittiſh aydes, armyes and legions atchieued in ſeruice of the Romayne Emperours (by whome whileſt they had the gouernement ouer thys Iſle, there were at ſundry times notable numbers cõ|ueyed forth into the parties of beyonde the Seas, as by Albinus and Conſtantius, alſo by his ſonne Conſtantine the great, by Maximus, and by this Conſtantine, both of them vſurpers) if (I ſay) the Brittiſh writers had taken good note of the num|bers of the Brittiſhe youth thus conueyed ouer from hence, and what notable exploytes they boldly attempted, and no leſſe manfully atchie|ued, they needed not to haue giuen eare vnto the fabulous reportes forged by their Bardes of Ar|thur and other their Princes worthy indeede of high cõmendation. And pitie it is, that theyr fame ſhoulde bee brought by ſuche meanes out of cre|dite by the incredible and fonde fables whyche haue bin deuiſed of their actes ſo vnlike to be true, as the tales of Robin Hood, or the ieſtes written by Arioſt the Italian in his booke entituled Or|lando Furioſo, ſith the ſame writers had other|wiſe true matter ynough to write of concernyng the worthy feates by their countreymen in thoſe dayes in forraine parties boldly enterpriſed and no leſſe valiantly accompliſhed, as alſo ye warres whiche nowe and then they maynteyned a|gainſt the Romaynes here at home, in times whẽ they felte themſelues oppreſſed by their tyranni|cal gouernement, as by yt which is written before of Caratacus, Voadicia, Cartimãdua, Venuſi|us, Galgagus or Galdus (as ſome name him) and diuers other, who for their noble valiancies de|ſerue as much prayſe, as by tong or pen is able to be expreſſed. But nowe to returne vnto the Brit|tiſh hiſtorie: we will proceede in order with theyr Kings as wee fynde them in the ſame mentio|ned, and therefore we haue thought good to ſpeake ſomewhat further of Gracian from whome [...] haue digreſſed.

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