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3.3. ¶ Of the Lawes of England. Cap. 3.

¶ Of the Lawes of England. Cap. 3.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THat Samothes or Dis gaue the firſt Lawes vnto the Celtes (whoſe King|dome he erected about the fiftéene of Nym|brote) the teſtimonye of Beroſus, Samo|thes. is proofe ſuf|ficient. For he not only affirmeth him to pub|liſh the ſame in the fourth of Ninus, but alſo addeth thereto, howe there lyued none in hys dayes of more excellent wiſdome, nor polli|tike EEBO page image 107 inuention then he, whereof he was na|med Samothes, as ſome other doe affyrme. What his lawes were it is now altogyther vnknowne,Albion. as moſt things of thys age, but that they were altered againe at the cõming of Albion, no mã cã abſolutly deny, ſith new Lordes vſe commonly to gyue newe lawes, and conquerours aboliſh ſuch as were in vſe before them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The lyke alſo maye be affirmed of our Brute,Brute. notwythſtanding that the certayne knowledge ſo well of the one as of the other is periſhed, & nothing worthy memory left of all theyr doyngs. Somewhat yet we haue of Mulmutius, Mulmutius who not only, ſubdued ſuch prin|ces as reigned in this land, but alſo brought the Realme to good order, that long before had béene torne wyth ciuill diſcorde. But where his lawes are to be found, and which they be from other mens, no man lyuing in theſe dayes is able to determine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The praiſe of Dun|wallon.Certes there was neuer Prince in Bry|teyne, of whome his ſubiectes conceyued bet|ter hope in the beginning, then of Bladudus, and yet I reade of none that made ſo ridicu|lous an ende: in lyke ſorte there hath not reigned any Monarche in thys Iſle, whoſe wayes were more feared at ye firſt, thẽ thoſe of Dunwallon, (king Henry the fift excep|ted) & yet in the end he proued ſuch a Prynce, as after hys death, there was in maner no ſubiecte, that did not lament his funerralles. And this only for his pollicy in gouernance, ſeuere adminiſtration of iuſtice, and proui|dent framing of his lawes, and conſtituti|ons. His people alſo coueting to continue his name vnto poſterity, intituled thoſe his ordi|naunces according to theyr maker, callyng them by the name of the lawes of Mulmuti|us, which indured in execution among the Brytons, ſo long as our homelynges had the dominiõ of this Iſle. Afterward when the Saxons had once obteyned the ſuperioritie of the kingdome, the maieſtie of theſe laws fell for a time into ſuch decaye, that although non penitus cecidit, tamen potuit cecidiſſe videri, as Leland ſayth, and the lawes them|ſelues had vtterlye periſhed in deede at the very firſt brunt had they not béene preſerued in wales, where they remayned amongſt the reliques of the Brytons, and not onely vntil the comming of the Normans, but euen vn|till the time of Edwarde the firſt, who obtei|ning the ſouereinty of that portion, indeuou|red to extinguiſhe thoſe of Mulmutius, and to eſtabliſhe his owne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 But as the Saxõs at their firſt arriuall did what they coulde to aboliſhe the Bryttiſhe lawes, ſo in proceſſe of time they yéelded a li|tle to relent and not ſo much to abhorre [...] miſlike of the lawes of Mulmutius, as to [...] receyue and embrace the ſame, eſpecially at ſuch time as the Saxon princes entered in|to amitie with the Brittiſh Princes, and af|ter that ioyne in matrimonie, with the Bry|tiſhe Ladyes. Hereof alſo it came to paſſe in the ende, that they were contented to make a choiſe and inſert no ſmall [...]n [...]rs of them into their own volumes, as may [...] gathered by thoſe of Atherbert ye great ſur|named king of Kent, Inas & Alfrede, kinges of the weſt Saxons, and diuers other yet ex|tant to be ſéene. Such alſo was the lateward eſtimation of them, that when anye of the Saxon Princes went aboute to make anye newe lawes, they cauſed thoſe of Mulmutius which Gildas ſometime tranſlated into La|tine, to be expounded vnto them, and in thys peruſall if they founde anye there alreadye framed, that might ſerue their turnes, they foorthwith reuiued the ſame, and annexed them to their owne. But in this dealing, the diligence of Alfrede is moſt of all to bée commended, who not onelye chooſe out the beſt, but gathered togither all ſuch whatſo|euer the ſayde Mulmutius had made: & then to the ende they ſhoulde lye no more in cor|ners as forlorne bookes and vnknowne, he cauſed them to be turned into the Saxon tongue, wherein they continued long after hys deceaſe. As for the Normans, who nei|ther regarded the Brittiſh, nor cared for the Saxon lawes, they alſo at the firſt vtterlye miſliked of thẽ, till at the laſt when they had well weighed that one kinde of regiment is not cõuenient for al peoples, & that no ſtran|ger beyng in a forriene Countrey newely brought vnder obedience, coulde make ſuch equall ordinaunces, as he might thereby go|uerne his new cõmon wealth without ſome care of trouble: they fell in ſo wyth a deſire to ſée by what rule the eſtate of the land was gouerned in time of the Saxons, that hauing peruſed the ſame, they not onely commended their maner of regiment, but alſo admitted a great part of their lawes, (nowe currant vnder the name of S. Edwardes lawes, and vſed as principles and groundes) whereby they not onely qualified the rygor of theyr owne, and mittigated their almoſt intollera|ble burden of ſeruitude which they had late|ly layde vpon the ſhoulders of the Engliſh, but alſo left vs a great number of Mulmu|tin lawes, wherof the moſt part are in vſe to thys daye as I ſayde, albeit that we knowe not certeinly howe to diſtinguiſh them from other, that are in ſtrength amongſt vs.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After Dunwallon, the next lawe gyuer EEBO page image 98 was Martia whome Lelande ſurnameth Proba, [...]ia. & after him Iohn bale alſo, who in hys Centuries doth iuſtely confeſſe himſelfe to haue béene holpen by the ſayde Leland, as I my ſelfe doe likewiſe for many thinges con|teined in thys treatize. Shée was wyfe vnto Gutteline king of ye Brytons: & being made protrectrix of the realme, after hyr huſbands deceaſe in the nonage of hyr ſonne, and ſée|ing many thinges daily to growe vp among hir people worthy reformation, ſhée deui|ſed ſundry and thoſe very pollitike lawes, for the gouernaunce of hyr kingdome, which hir ſubiectes when ſhée was deade and gone, did name the Mertian ſtatutes. Who turned them into latine, as yet I doe not read, how|beit as I ſaid before of the lawes of Mulmu|tius, ſo the ſame Alfrede cauſed thoſe of thys excellently well learned Lady (whome dy|uers cõmende alſo for hir great knowledge, in the Gréeke tong) to bée turned into hys owne language, wherevpon it came to paſſe that they were dailye executed among hys ſubiectes, afterwarde allowed of (among the reſt) by the Normans, and finally remaine in vſe in theſe dayes, notwithſtanding that we can not diſſeuer them very redily from the other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The 7. alteratiõ of lawes was practiſed by the Saxons, for I ouerpaſſe the lawes made by the Romaines, whoſe order do partly re|maine in publike notice, vnder ye names of the mercian, [...]ercian [...]. [...]xon [...]. [...]ne law. and the Saxon Lawe. Beſide theſe alſo I reade of the Danelawe, ſo that the people of middle england, were ruled by the firſt, the weſt Saxons by the ſeconde, as Eſſex, Norffolke, Suffolke, Cambridgſhire, and part of Herford ſhyre, were by the third, of al the reſt the moſt inequal & intollerable. Among other things alſo vſed in the time of ye Saxons, it ſhal not be amyſſe to ſet downe the forme of their Ordalian law, which they brought hither with them from beyonde the Seas, and vſed onely in the tryall of giltye and vngiltineſſe. Certes it conteyned not an ordinary procéeding by dayes and termes, as in the Ciuile and common lawe we ſée practiſed in theſe dayes but a ſhorte diſpatch and tryall of the matter, by fyre, or water, whereof at this preſent I wil deliuer the cir|cumſtance, as I haue faithfully tranſlated it out of an auncient volume, and conferred wyth a prynted coppie, lately publiſhed by M. Lambert, nowe extaunt to be redde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Ordalian ſaith the aforeſayd authour, was a certaine maner of purgation vſed two wayes, whereof the one was by fire, the other by water. In thexecution of that which was done by fire, the party accuſed ſhoulde go a certaine number of paces, with an hote péece of yron in his hande, or elſe bare footed vpon certaine plough ſhares, redde hotte, ac|cording to the maner. This Iron was ſome|time of one pounde weight, and then was it called ſingle Ordalium, ſometimes of three, & then named treble, Ordalium, and whoſoe|uer did beare or treade on the ſame without hurt of his body, he was adiudged giltleſſe, otherwyſe if his ſkin were ſcorched, he was foorthwith condemned as gylty of the treſ|paſſe wherof he was accuſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There were in lyke ſorte two kinds of tri|all by ye water, that is to ſay, either by hote, or colde: & in this tryall the partye thought culpeable, was eyther tumbled into ſome pond, or huge veſſel of colde water, wherein if he continued for a ſeaſon, without wreſt|ling or ſtrugling for lyfe, he was foorthwyth acquited as giltleſſe of the facte whereof hée was accuſed: but if he beganne to plunge, & labor once for breath immediately vpon his falling into that lyqour, he was by and by condemned, as gilty of the crime. Or elſe he did thurſt his arme vp to the ſhoulder into a leade, copper, or Caldron of ſéething water, from whence if he withdrewe the ſame with|out any maner of damage, he was diſchar|ged of farder moleſtation: otherwyſe hée was taken for a treſpaſſer, and puniſhed ac|cordingly. The fiery maner of purgation be|longed onely to noble men and women, and ſuch as were frée borne, but the huſbandmen and villaines, were tryed by water, whereof to ſhewe the vnlearned dealing and blynde ignoraunce of thoſe times, it ſhall not bée impertiment to ſet foorth the whole maner, which continued here in England vntill the time of King Iohn, who ſéeyng the manifold ſubtilties in the ſame, did extinguiſh it alto|gither as flat lewdeneſſe and bouerye. The Rubrik of ye treatize entereth thus. Here be|ginneth ye execution of Iuſtice, whereby the giltie or vngiltie are tried by hote Iron. Thẽ it followeth. After accuſatiõ lawfully made, and thrée dayes ſpent in faſting and prayer, the Prieſt being cladde in all his holly ve|ſt [...]es, ſauing his veſtiment, ſhall take the Iron layde before the alter with a payre of tongues, and ſinging the himme of the thrée children, that is to ſaye, O all yée wookes of God the Lorde, and in latine Benedicite om|nia opera, &c. he ſhall cary it ſolemly to ye fire (already made for ye purpoſe) & firſt ſay theſe words ouer the place where ye fire is kindled wherby this purgation ſhall bée made in la|tin as inſueth Benedic domine deus locum, iſ|tum vt ſit nobis in eo ſanitas, ſanctitas, caſtitas, virt et victoria, et ſanctimonia, humilitas, bo|nitas, EEBO page image 108 lenitas, et plenitudo Legis, et obediẽtia deo patri et filio etſpiritui ſancto, Hec Be|nedictio, ſit ſuper hunc locum, et ſuper omnes habitantes in eo, in Engliſh: Bleſſe thou O Lorde this place that it may be to vs health holyneſſe, chaſtity, vertue, and victory, pure|neſſe, humilitie, goodneſſe, gentleneſſe, and fulneſſe of the lawe, and obedience to God the father, the ſonne, & the holy ghoſt. This bleſſing be vpon this place, and all that dwel in it. Then followeth the bleſsing of the fire. Domine deus, pater omnipotens lumen inde|ficiens, exaudi nos, quia tu es conditor, omni|um luminum. Benedic domine hoc lumen, quod aute ſanctificatum eſt, qui illuminaſti omnẽ hominem, venientem in hunc mundũ, (vel mundum) vt ab eo lumine accedamur igne claritatis tuae, & ſicut igne illuminaſti, Moſen, ita nunc illumina corda noſtra, et ſen|ſus noſtros, vt ad vitam eternam, mereamur peruenire, per chriſtum. &c. Lord God father almightie, light euerlaſting, heare vs, ſith yu art the maker of all lyghtes. Bleſſe O Lord this light, yt is already ſanctified in thy ſight, which haſt lightned all men that come into the worlde, (or the whole worlde) to the ende that by the ſame lyght, we may be lightned wyth the ſhining of thy brightneſſe. As thou diddeſt lighten Moyſes, ſo nowe illuminate our hearts, and our ſenſes, that we may de|ſerue to come to euerlaſting lyfe, thorowe Chriſt our &c. Thys beyng ended let him ſaye the pater noſter. &c. then theſe wordes. Sal|uum fac ſeruum &c. Mitte ei auxilium deus. &c. De Sion tuere eum. &c. Dominus vobiſcũ. &c, that is. O Lorde ſaue thy ſeruant, &c. Sende him helpe O God frõ thy holy place defende him out of Syon. &c. Lorde here. &c. The Lorde be with you. &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The prayer. Benedic domine ſancte pater omnipotens deus, per inuocationem ſanctiſ|ſimi nominis tui, et per aduentum fihj tui, at| per donum ſpiritus paracleti, ad manifeſtã|dum verum iudicium tuum, hoc genus metal|li, vt ſit ſanctificatum, et omni demonum fal|ſitate procul remota, veritas veri iudicij tui fi|delibus tuis manifeſta fiat, per eundem domi|num. &c. in Engliſhe. Bleſſe we beſéech thée O Lorde, holy father, euerlaſting God tho|rowe the inuocation of thy moſt holy name, by the comming of thy ſonne, and gyft of the holy ghoſt, and to the manifeſtation of thy true iudgement, this kinde of mettall, that being hallowed, and all fraudulent practiſes of the deuils vtterly remooued, the manifeſt truth of thy true iudgement, maye be reuea|led, by the ſame Lorde Ieſus &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this let the yron be layde into the fyre, and ſprinckled with holy water, and whileſt it hea|teth, let the Prieſt go to maſſe, and doe as order re|quireth, and when he hath receiued the hoſt, he ſ [...]d, call the man that is to be purged (as it is written hereafter) firſt adiuring him, and then permitting hym to communicate according to the maner.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Office of the maſſe.

Iuſtus es domine, &c. O Lord thou art iuſt. &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Prayer.

ABſolue queſumus domine delicta famu [...]|li tui, vt a peccatorum ſuonim nexibus quae pro ſua fragilitate contraxit, tua benig|nitate liberetur, & in hoc iudicio quoad me|ruit iuſtitia tua praeueniente, ad veritatis ce [...]|ſuram peruenire mereatur. per Chriſtum do|minum. &c.
That is
Pardon wée beſéech thée O Lorde, the ſinnes of thy ſeruaunt, that be|ing deliuered from the burden of his offen|ces, wherewith he is intangled, he may be cleared by thy benignitie, and in thys hys tryal (ſo farre as he hath deſerued, thy mercy preuenting him) he maye come to the know|ledge of the truth, by chriſt our Lorde. &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Goſpell. Mar. 10.

IN illo tẽpore, cum egreſſus eſſet Ieſus in via, procurrens quidã genu flexo ante eum, ro|gabat eum dicens, Magiſter bone, quid faciam vt vitam eternam percipia. Ieſus autem dixit ei, quid me dicis bonum? &c.
In thoſe dayes when Ieſus went foorth towarde hys iour|ney, & one méeting in him the way running [...] & knéeling vnto him, aſked him ſaying, God Maiſter what ſhal I doe that I may poſſeſſe eternall lyfe. Ieſus ſayd vnto him, why cal|leſt yu me good. &c.
Then followeth the ſecrete and ſo foorth all of the reſt of the maſſe. But be|fore the partye doth communicate, the Pryeſt ſhall vſe theſe wordes vnto hym.
Adiuro [...] per patrem, & filium, & ſpiritum ſanctum, & per veram chriſtianitatem quam ſuſcepiſti, & per ſanctas relliquias quae in iſta eecleſiaſu [...] & per baptiſmum quo te ſacerdos regenera [...] vt non preſumas vllo modo communi [...]a [...] neque accedere ad altare, ſi hoc feciſti aut cõ|ſenſiſti &c.
I adiure thee by the Father the ſonne and the holy Ghoſt, by the true chriſten+dome which thou haſt receyued, by the holly relliques which are in this Church, and [...] the baptiſme, wherewith the Prieſt hath re|generated thée, that thou preſume not by a|ny maner of meanes, to communicate, nor come about the aultar, if thou haſt done or conſented vnto thys, whereof thou art accu|ſed. &c.
Here let the Prieſt ſuffer him to com|municate, ſaying.
Corpus hoc, & ſanguis do|mini noſtri Ieſu Chriſti, ſit tibi ad probatiou [...] hodie. The [...] yet [...] This body & this bloud of our Lord Ieſus Chriſt, be vnto thée a tryall this daye

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 EEBO page image 99 The prayer.

Perceptis domine deus noſter ſacris muneribus, ſupplices deprecamur, vt huius participatio ſacramenti a proprijs nos reatibus expediat, & in famulo tuo veritatis ſententiam declaret. &c.Hauing receaued O Lord God theſe holy miſteries, we humbly beſéeche thée that the participation of thys ſacrament, maye rydde vs of our guilty|neſſe, and in this thy ſeruaunt ſet foorth the truth.
Then ſhall followe Kyrieleſon, the Leta|nye, and certayne Pſalmes, and after all them
Oremus, Let vs praye, Deus qui per ignem ſigna magna oſtendens Abraham puerum tu|um de incendio Chaldeorum quibusdam pe|reuntibus eruiſti, Deus qui rubum ardere an|te conſpectum Moyſis & minime comburi permiſiſti. Deus qui de incẽdio fornacis Chal|daicis pleriſque ſuccenſis, tres pueros tuos il|leſos eduxiſti. Deus qui incendio ignis popu|lum Sodomae inuoluens, Loth famulum tuũ cum ſuis ſalute donaſti, Deus qui in aduentu ſancti ſpiritus tui, illuſtratione ignis fideles tuos ab infidelibus decreuiſti. Oſtẽde nobis in hoc prauitatis noſtrae examine virtutẽ eiuſ|dem ſpiritus &c. Et per ignis huius feruorem diſcernere infideles, vt a tactu eius cui inquiſi|tio agitur, conſcius exhorreſcat, & manus e|ius comburatur, innocens vero poenitus illae|ſus permaneat, &c. Deus cuius noticiam nul|la vnquam ſecreta effugiunt, fidei noſtrae tua bonitate reſponde, & preſta vt quiſquis pur|gandi ſe gratia, hoc ignitum tulerit ferrum, vel abſoluatur vt innocens vel noxius detega|tur. &c. in Engliſhe thus. O God which in ſhowing great tokens by fire diddeſt deliuer Abraham thy ſeruaunt frõ the burnyng of ye Chaldeis, whileſt other periſhed. O god whi|che ſuſſeredſt the buſhe to burne, in ye ſight of Moyſes, & yet not to conſume. O God which deliueredſt the thrée childrẽ frõ bodily harme in the Fornace of the Chaldies, whileſt dy|uers were conſumed. O God which by fyre diddeſt wrap the people of Sodome in their deſtruction, and yet ſauedſt Lot & his daugh|ters from peryll. O God which by the ſhy|ning of thy brighneſſe at the comming of the holly ghoſt in likewyſe of fire, diddeſt ſepe|rate the faithfull, from ſuch as beléeued not: ſhew vnto vs in ye tryall of this our wicked|neſſe, the power of the ſame ſpirit. &c. And by ye heate of this fire deſcer [...]e the faithful from the vnfaithfull, that the giltie whoſe cauſe is nowe in tryall, by touching thereof, maye tremble and feare, and his hande be burned, or beyng innocent, that he maye remaine in ſafety. &c. O God frõ whom no ſecretes are hidden, let thy goodnes anſwere to our faith, & graunt that whoſoeuer in thys purgation, ſhall touch and beare thys Iron, may either be tryed an innocent, or reuealed as an offẽ|der. &c.
After this the Prieſt ſhall sprynckle the Iron wyth Holly water, ſaying.
The bleſſing of God, the Father, the Sonne, and the Ho|ly ghoſt, be vpon this Iron, to the reuelation of the iuſt iudgement of God.
And foorthwith lette hym that is accuſed, beare it by the length of nyne foote, and then lette his hande be wrap|ped and ſealed vppe for the space of three dayes, after thys yf anye corruption or rawe fleſhe ap|peare where the Iron touched it, lette him be con|demned as guiltie: yf it be whole and ſounde, let hym giue thankes to God. And thus much of the fierye Ordalia, wherevnto that of the water hath ſo precyſe relation that in ſet|ting foorth of the one, I haue alſo deſcribed the other, wherefore it ſhall be but in vaine, to deale any farder withall. Hetherto alſo as I thinke, ſufficiently of ſuch lawes as were in vſe before the conqueſt. Nowe it reſteth that I ſhould declare the order of thoſe, that haue béene made ſith the comming of the Normãs, but for aſmuch as I am no lawier, & therfore haue but lyttle ſkyll to procéede in the ſame accordingly, it ſhall ſuffice to ſet downe ſome generall dyſcourſe of ſuch as are vſed in our daies, and ſo much as I haue gathered by report and common here ſaye. We haue therfore in Englãd ſundry lawes, and firſt of all the ciuile, vſed in the chaunce|ry, admiraltie, and dyuers other courtes, in ſome of which, the ſeuere rygor of Iuſtice is often ſo mittigated by conſcience, that dyuers thinges are thereby made eaſie and tollerable, whyche otherwyſe woulde ap|peare to be méere iniurye and extremity. We haue alſo a great part of the Cannon lawe daily practiſed among vs, eſpecially in caſes of tithes, contracts of matrimony, and ſuch lyke, as are vſually to be ſéene in the conſiſtories of our Biſhoppes, where the ex|ercyſe of the ſame is verye hotely follow|ed. The third ſorte of lawes, that we follow, are our owne, and thoſe alwaies ſo variable, and ſubiect to alteration and change, that oft in one age, diuers iudgementes doe paſſe vpon one maner of caſſe, wherby the ſaying of the Poet
Tempora mutantur, & nos mutamur in illis.
maye very well be applyed vnto ſuch as be|yng vrged with theſe wordes in ſuch a yeare of the Prince this opinion was taken for ſounde lawe, doe aunſwere nothing elſe, but that the iudgement of our lawyers is nowe altered, ſo that they ſaye farre otherwyſe. The regiment that we haue therefore after our owne ordinaunces dependeth vpon Sta|tute lawe, Common law, Cuſtomary law, & Preſcription.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 109 Parlia|ment law.The firſt is deliuered vnto vs by Parlia|ment, which court is the higheſt of all other, and conſiſteth of thrée ſeuerall ſortes of peo|ple, that is to ſay, the Nobility, Clergy, and commons of thys Realme, and there to is not ſomoned, but vppon vrgent occaſion when the prince doth ſée his time, and that by ſeueral writtes, dated commonly ful ſixe wéekes before it begin to be holden. Such lawes as are agréed vpõ in the higher houſe by the Lordes ſpirituall and temporall, and in the lower houſe by the commons and bo|dye of the realme, (wherof the conuocation of the cleargy holden in Powles is a mem|ber,) there ſpeaking by the mouth of the knights of the ſhire and burgeſſes, remaine in the ende to be confirmed by the Prince, who commonly reſorteth thither vppon the firſt and laſte daies of thys court, there to vnderſtande what is done, & giue his royall conſent to ſuch eſtatutes as him lyketh of. Comming therefore thither into the higher houſe, and hauing taken his throne, the ſpea|ker of the Parliament (for one is alwayes appoynted to go betwéene the houſes, as an indifferent mouth for both) readeth openlye the matters there determined by the ſayde thrée eſtates, and then craueth the Princes conſent and confirmation to the ſame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The king hauing heard the ſomme & prin|cipall pointes of each eſtatute briefly recited vnto him, aunſwereth in French with great deliberation vnto ſuch as he lyketh, (Il nous plaist) but to the reſt Il ne plaist, whereby the latter are vtterly made voyde and fruſtrate. That alſo which his Maieſtie liketh of, is e|uer after holden for law, except it be repealed in any the lyke aſſembly. The number of the commons aſſembled in the lower houſe, be|ſide the clergie cõſiſteth of ninetie Knights. For eache ſhyre of England hath twoo gen|tlemen or knights of greateſt wiſedome and reputation choſen out of the bodye of the ſame for that only purpoſe, ſauing that for wales one only is ſuppoſed ſufficient in eue|rie countie, whereby the number afore men|tioned is made vp. There are likewyſe four|tie and ſixe Citizens, 289. Burgeſes, and fourtéene Barons, ſo that the whole aſſem|bly of the layetie of the lower houſe, cõſiſteth of foure hundred thirtie and nine perſons, if the iuſt number be ſupplyed. Of the lawes here made lykewyſe ſome are penall and re|ſtraine the common lawe, and ſome againe are founde to inlarge the ſame. The one ſort of theſe alſo are for the moſt part takẽ ſtrict|lye according to the letter, the other more largely and beneficially after their intende|ment and meaning.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 The Common Lawe ſtandeth vppon Sundrye Maximes or Princyples,Common Lawe and yeares or tearmes, which doe conteine ſuch caſes as by great ſtudye and ſolemne argu|ment of the iudges, and thereto the déepeſt reach & foundations of reaſon, are ruled and adiudged for lawe. Certes theſe caſes are o|therwiſe called plées or actiõs, wherof there are two ſortes the one criminall & the other ciuile. The meanes & meſſengers alſo to de|termine thoſe cauſes are our writtes, wher|of there are ſome Originall and ſome Iudi|ciall. The parties plaintife and defendant when they appeare procéede (if the caſe do ſo require) by plaint or declaration, aunſwere, replication and reioynder, and ſo to iſſue, the one ſide affirmatiuely, the other negatiuely. Our trialles, and recoueries are eyther by verdict and demourre, confeſſion or default, wherein if any negligence or treſpaſſe hath béene committed, eyther in proceſſe & forme, or in matter & iudgement, the partie grieued may haue a writte of errour to vndoe ye ſame but not in the ſame court where the former iudgement was giuen.Cuſto [...] La [...] Cuſtomarie law con|ſiſteth of certaine laudable cuſtomes vſed in ſome priuate country, entended firſt to be|ginne vppon good and reaſonable conſidera|tions, as gauell kinde which is all the male children to inherite, & cõtinued to this day in Kent: or Burrow kinde where the yongeſt is preferred before the eldeſt, which is the cuſtome of many countries of this region, & ſo forth of ſuch like to be learned elſe where.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Preſcription is a certayne cuſtome,Preſcrip [...]|tion. which hath continued time out of minde, but it is more particular then cuſtomarie lawe, as where onely a pariſh or ſome priuate perſon doth preſcribe to haue common, or a way, in another mans ſoyle, or tithes to be payde af|ter this or that maner, I meane otherwyſe then the common courſe & order of the lawe requyreth, whereof let thys ſuffice at thys tyme, in ſtéede of a larger diſcourſe of our owne lawes, leaſt I ſhoulde ſéeme to enter farre into that whereof I haue no ſkill. For what hath the meditation of the lawe of God to doe with any preciſe knowledge of the law of man, ſith they are ſeuerall trades and in|cident to diuers perſons. There are alſo ſun|drie vſuall courtes holdẽ once in euery quar|ter of the yeare, which we commonlye call tearmes of the latin worde Terminus, Ter [...]. wher|in all cõtrouerſies are determined, that hap|pen within the Quéenes dominions. Theſe are commonly holden at London except vpõ ſome great occaſion they be tranſferred to o|ther places, at what times alſo they are kept the table inſuing ſhal eaſily declare. Finally EEBO page image 100 howe well they are followed by ſutet [...] the great welth of our lawiers without any tra|ueyle of mine can eaſily [...]. This fur|thermore is to be noted that albeit the prin|ces heretofore reigning in this lande [...] [...]e|rected ſundry courtes eſpecially of the th [...]| [...]erie at Yorke and Lu [...] the caſe of poore men dwelling in [...], yet will the pooreſt (of all [...] moſt con|tencious) refuſe to haue his cauſe hearde ſo néere home, but indeuoureth rather [...] vtter vndooing to trauelle vpon Londõ, th [...] king there ſooneſt to pr [...] againſt his ad|uerſary, though his [...] ſo doubtful. But in this toye [...] [...]oe exc [...] of all that euer I hearde, for [...] ſhall here & there haue ſome one adde poore Dauid of the giuen ſo much to contention and ſtrife, that without all reſpect of charges he will vp to London, though he go bare legged by the waye, and carye his hoſen on his necke (to ſaue theyr féete from [...]) bycauſe he hath no chaunge. When he commeth there alſo he will make ſuch importunate begging of his countreymẽ, and hard ſhift otherwiſe, that he will ſometymes carye downe ſixe or ſeuen writtes in his purſe, wherwith to mo|leſt his neighbour, though the greateſt quar|rell be ſcarſely woorth the price that he payd for any one of thẽ. But ynough of this leaſ [...] in reuealing the ſuperfluous follye of a fewe brablers in this behalfe, I bring no good wil to my ſelfe amongſt the wyſeſt of that natiõ. Certes it is a lamentable caſe to ſée further|more how a number of poore men are dayly abuſed and vtterly vndone, by ſundrie var|lets that go about the countrey as brokers betwéene the petty foggers of the lawe,Thrée Varlettes worthie to be chroni|cled. and the common people, onely to kyndle coales of contention, wherby the one ſide may reape commodity and the other be put to traueyle. But of all that euer I knew in Eſſex, Denis and Mainford excelled, till Iohn of Ludlow aliâs Maſon came in place, vnto whome in compariſon they two were but children and babes, for he in leſſe thẽ thrée or foure yeres, did bring one man (among many elſe where in other places almoſt to extréeme miſery, (if beggery be the vttermoſt) who before hée had the ſhauing of his bearde, was valued at two hundred pounde (I ſpeake with the leſt) who finally féeling that he had not ſufficent wherwith to ſuſteine himſelf, & his familie, & alſo to ſatiſfie that gréedie rauenour, that ſtil called vpon him for new fées, he went to bed and within foure dayes made an ende of hys wofull life, euen with care & penſiueneſſe. Af|ter his death alſo he ſo hãdled his ſonne, that there was neuer ſhéepe ſhorne in Maie, ſo néere clypped of hys [...]ée [...]e preſent, as hée was of manye to come, ſo that he was com|pelled to let away his leaſe land, becauſe his cattell and ſtocke were conſumed, and he no longer able to occupie the ground. But here|of let this ſuffiſe, [...] [...]ſtée [...]e of theſe enor|mities, two tables ſhall [...], whereof the firſt ſhall containe the names of the Coun|tyes, Cities, Borowes and Portes, which ſend knightes, Burgeſes and Barons to the Parliament houſe, the other an [...] report of the beginnings and endes of tearme with their returnes, according to the maner, as I haue borrowed them [...] my friende Iohn Stow, whyche this impreſſion was in hande.

The names of Counties, Cities, Borowghes, and Portes, ſending Knightes, Citizens, Burgeſes and Barons, to the Par|liament of Eng|lande.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52
  • Bedforde.

    • KNightes 2
    • The borowgh of Bedforde. 2
  • Buckingham.

    • Knightes 2
    • The borowgh of Buckingham. 2
    • The borowgh of Wickombe. 2
    • The borowgh of Aileſbury. 2
  • Barcleeſhyre.

    • Knightes 2
    • The borowgh of New Windſore. 2
    • The borowgh of Reding. 2
    • The borowgh of Wallingforde. 2
    • The borowgh of Abington. 2
  • Cornewall.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borow of Launceſton alias Newport 2
    • The borowgh of Leſkero. 2
    • The borowgh of Loſt wythiell. 2
    • The borowgh of Danheuet. 2
    • The borowgh of Truro. 2
    • The borowgh of Bodmin. 2
    • The borowgh of Helſton. 2
    • The borowgh of Saltaſh. 2
    • The borowgh of Camelforde. 2
    • The boro. of Portighſam alias Portlow. 2
    • The borowgh of Graunpount. 2
    • The borowgh of Eaſtlow. 2
    • The borowgh of Prury. 2
    • The borowgh Tregonye. 2
    • The borow. of Trebenna alias Boſſinny. 2
    • The borowgh of S. Ies. 2
    • The borowgh of Foway. 2
    • The borowgh of Germine. 2
    • The borowgh of Michell. 2
    • The borowgh of Saint Maries. 2
  • Cumberlande.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Caerlile. 2
  • Cambridge.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Cambridge. 2
  • Cheſter.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The Citie of Cheſter. 2
  • Darby.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Darby. 2
  • Deuon.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Exceſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Totnes. 2
    • The borowgh of Plimmouth. 2
    • The borowgh of Bardneſtable. 2
    • The borowgh of Plimton. 2
    • The borowgh of Taueſtocke. 2
    • The borowgh of Dartmouth, Cliſton, and Herdynes. 2
  • Dorſet ſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Poole. 2
    • The borowgh of Dorcheſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Linne. 2
    • The borowgh of Melcombe. 2
    • The borowgh of Waymouth. 2
    • The borowgh of Bureport. 2
    • The borowgh of Shafteſbury. 2
    • The borowgh of Warham. 2
  • Eſſex.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Colcheſter. 2
    • The borowgh Malden. 2
  • Yorkeſhire.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Yorke. 2
    • The borowgh of Kingſton vpon Hull. 2
    • The borowgh of Knareſbrugh. 2
    • The borowgh of Skardborowgh. 2
    • The borowgh of Rippon. 2
    • The borowgh of Hudon. 2
    • The borowgh of borowghbridge. 2
    • The borowgh of Thuſke. 2
    • The borowgh of Aldebrugh. 2
    • The borowgh of Beuerley. 2
  • Gloceſterſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The Citie of Gloceſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Cirenceſter. 2
  • Huntingtonſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Huntingdon. 2
  • Hertfordſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Saint Albons. 2
  • Herefordeſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The Citie of Hereford. 2
    • The borowgh of Lempſter. 2
  • Kent.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Cantorbury. 2
    • The citie of Rocheſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Maideſton. 2
    • The borowgh of Qranborowgh. 2
  • Lincolne.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Lincolne. 2
    • The borowgh of Boſtone. 2
    • The borowgh of great Grineſby. 2
    • The borowgh of Stamforde. 2
    • The borowgh of Grantham. 2
  • Leiceſter ſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Leiceſter. 2
  • Lancaſterſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Lancaſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Preſton in Andernes. 2
    • The borowgh of Liuerpole. 2
    • The borowgh of Newton. 2
    • The borowgh of Wigan. 2
    • The borowgh of Clithero. 2
  • Middleſex.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of London. 4
    • The citie of Weſtminſter. 2
  • Monmouth.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Monmouth. 1
  • Northampton.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Peterborowgh. 2
    • The borowgh of Northampton. 2
    • The borowgh of Barkley. 2
    • The borowgh of Higham Ferres. 1
  • Notingham.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Notingham. 2
    • The borowgh Eſtreatforde. 2
  • Norfolke.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Norwich. 2
    • The borowgh of Linne. 2
    • The borowgh of great Iernemouth. 2
    • The borowgh of Thetford. 2
    • The borowgh of caſtell Riſing. 2
  • Northumberland.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of New Caſtell vpon Tine. 2
    • The borowgh of Morpeth. 2
    • The borowgh of Barwike. 2
  • Oxforde.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Oxforde. 2
    • EEBO page image 101The borowgh of Bambiley. 2
    • The borowgh of Woodſtocke.
  • Rutlando.

    • Knightes. 2
  • Surrey.

    • Knightes. P 2
    • The borowgh of Southwac [...]. 2
    • The borowgh of Bleching [...]g [...] 2
    • The borowgh of Rigate. 2
    • The borowgh of Guildford. 2
    • The borowgh of Gatton. 2
  • St [...]atford.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Lichfielde. 2
    • The borowgh of St [...]acforde. 2
    • The borowgh of New [...]aſ [...]e [...] vnder Linne. 2
    • The borowgh of Tainworth. 2
  • Salop.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Salop. 2
    • The boro. of Bruges alias bridgenorth. 2
    • The borowgh of Ludlow. 2
    • The borowgh of Wenl [...]e. 2
  • Southampton.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Winton. 2
    • The borowgh of Southampton. 2
    • The borowgh of Porteſmouth. 2
    • The borowgh of Peterfielde. 2
    • The borowgh of Stockebridge. 2
    • The borowgh of Chriſt Church. 2
  • Suffolke.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Ippeſwich. 2
    • The borowgh of Dunwich. 2
    • The borowgh of Ortford. 2
    • The borowgh of Aldeborowgh. 2
    • The borowgh of Sudbury. 2
    • The borowgh of Eya. 2
  • Somerſet.

    • Knightes.
    • The citie of Briſtow. 2
    • The citie of Bath. 2
    • The citie of Welles. 2
    • The borowgh of Taunton. 2
    • The borowgh Bridgewater. 2
    • The borowgh of Minched. 2
  • Suſſex.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Chicheſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Horſham. 2
    • The borowgh of Midhurſt. 2
    • The borowgh of Lewes. 2
    • The borowgh of Shorham. 2
    • The borowgh of Brember. 2
    • The borowgh of Stening. 2
    • The borowgh of Eaſtgreneſted. 2
    • The borowgh of Arundell. 2
  • Weſtmerland.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of App [...]ſby. 2
  • Wilton.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of New Satum. 2
    • The borowgh of Wilton. 2
    • The borowgh of Dounton. 2
    • The borowgh of Hindon. 2
    • The borowgh of Heyteſbury. 2
    • The borowgh of Weſtbury. 2
    • The borowgh of Caine. 2
    • The borowgh of Deuſ [...]es. 2
    • The borowgh of Chypenham. 2
    • The borowgh of Malmeſ [...]ury. 2
    • The borowgh of Cricklade. 2
    • The borowgh of Bu [...]wln. 2
    • The borowgh of Ludge [...]a [...]e. 2
    • The borowgh of Olde Sarum. 2
    • The borowgh of Wotton Baſſet. 2
    • The borowgh of Matleborowgh. 2
  • Worceſter.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Worceſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Withée. 2
  • Warwike.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The Citie of Couentry. 2
    • The borowgh of Warwike. 2
  • Barons of the portes.

    • Haſtings. 2
    • Winchelſey. 2
    • Rye. 2
    • Rumney. 2
    • Hithe. 2
    • Douer. 2
    • Sandwich. 2
  • Mountgomery.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Mountgomery. 1
  • Flint.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Flint. 1
  • Denbigh.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Denbigh. 1
  • Merionneth.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Hauerfordweſt. 1
  • Carneruan.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Carneruan. 1
  • Angleſey.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Beaumares. 1
  • Carmarden.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of New Carmarden. 1
  • Pembroke.

    • Knightes. 1
    • EEBO page image 111The borowgh of Pembroke. 1
  • Cardigan.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Brecknocke. 1
  • Radnor.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Radnor. 1
  • Glamorgan.

    • Knights. 1
    • The borowgh of Cardiffe. 1
  • ¶ The Summe of the foreſayde number of the common houſe videlicet, of

    • Knights. 90.
    • Citizens. 46.
    • Burgeſſes. 289.
    • Barons. 14.
    • 439.

3.3.1. A perfect rule to knowe the beginning and ending of euery terme, with their returnes.

A perfect rule to knowe the beginning and ending of euery terme, with their returnes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 HIllary terme beginneth the xx [...]ij. day of Ianuary, if it be not Sunday, otherwiſe the next daye after, & endeth the twelfth of February, and hath foure returnes.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Octabis Hilarij.
  • Quind. Hilarij.
  • Craſtino Purific.
  • Octabis Purific.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ Eaſter terme beginneth xvij. daies after Eaſter, and endeth foure dayes after the aſ|cention day, and hath fiue returnes.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Quind. Paſch.
  • Tres Paſchae.
  • Menſe.
  • Paſchae.
  • Quinquae Paſchae.
  • Craſt Aſcention.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ Trinitie terme beginneth the next daye after Corpus Chriſti daye, and endeth the wedneſdaye fortnight after, and hath foure returnes.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Craſt. Trinitatis.
  • Octabis Trinitat.
  • Quind. Trinitatis
  • Tres Trinitatis.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ Michelmas terme beginneth the ix. of October if it be not Sunday, and endeth the xxviij. of Nouember, and hath viij. returnes

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Octabis Michael.
  • Quind. Michael.
  • Tres Michael.
  • Menſe Michael.
  • Craſt. anima.
  • Craſt. Martini.
  • Octa. Martini.
  • Quind. Martini.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Note alſo that the Eſchequer openeth eight dayes before any terme begin, except Trinitie terme, which openeth but foure dayes before.

¶ And nowe followeth the lawe dayes in the court of Tharches, and audience of Can|terbury, with other Eccleſiaſticall & Ciuill lawes, through the whole yeare.

Theſe dayes are not chaunged excepte they lyght on a Sunday or holy daye, and e|uery daye is called a lawday, vnleſſe it bée Sunday or holyday.

Michelmas terme.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • S. Faith.
  • S. Edward.
  • S. Luke.
  • Simon & Iu.
  • All Soules.
  • S. Martin.
  • Edmond.
  • Katherin.
  • S. Andrewe.
  • Conception of our Lady.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ It is to be noted that the firſt day follow|ing euery of theſe feaſtes noted in euery terme, the court of the Arche [...] is kept in Bowe church in the forenoone And the ſame firſt daye in the afternoone i [...] the Admyralty Court for Ciuill cauſes kept in South|warke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſeconde daye followyng euery one of the ſayde feaſtes, the court of Audience of Caunterburye is kept in the Conſiſtory in Paules in the forenoone. And the ſame daye in the after no [...]ne, in the ſame place is the Prerogatiue court of Caunterbury holden.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The thirde daye after any ſuch feaſt in the forenoone, the conſiſtory court of the Biſhop of London is kept in Paules Church in the conſiſtory, and the ſame thirde daye in the afternoone is the court of the Delegates and of the Quéenes highneſſe Commiſſyoners vpon appeales kept in the ſame place.

Hilary terme.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • S. Hilary.
  • S. Wolſtan.
  • Conuerſion of S. Paule.
  • S. Blaſe.
  • S. Scolaſtic.
  • S. Valentine.
  • Aſh wedneſd.
  • S. Mathie.
  • S. Chad.
  • Perpet. & Fel.
  • S. Gregory.
  • Anunciation of our Ladye.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Note that the foure firſt dayes of thys terme be certain and vnchanged. The other are altered after the courſe of the yere, and ſometime kept and ſomtime omitted. For if it ſo happen that one of thoſe feaſtes fall on wedneſdaye cõmonly called Aſhwedneſday, after the day of S. Blaſe (ſo that ye ſame law day after Aſhwedneſday cannot bée kept by|cauſe the lawday of thother feaſt doth lyght on the ſame) then the ſeconde law day after Aſhwedneſday ſhall be kept, and the other o|mitted. And if the lawday after that wedneſ|day be ye next daye after the feaſt of ſ. Blaſe, then ſhall all & euery thoſe court daies be ob|ſerued in order, as they may be kept cõueni|ently. And marke although that Aſhwedneſ|day be put the ſeauenth in order, yet it hath no certaine place, but is chaunged as the courſe of Eaſter cauſeth it,

Eaſter Tearme. The fithtéene day after Eaſter.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • S. Alphege.
  • S. Marke.
  • Inuention of the Croſſe.
  • Gordiane.
  • S. Dunſtane.
  • Aſcention day.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ In thys terme the firſt ſitting is al|waye kept the Munday beyng the 15. day af|ter Eaſter, and ſo foorth after the feaſts here EEBO page image 103 noted, which next followe by courſe of the yeare after Eaſter. And the lyke ſpace be|ing kept betwéene other feaſtes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The reſt of the lawe dayes are kept to the thirde of the Aſcention, which is the laſt day of this terme. And if it happen that the feaſt of ye Aſcention of our Lord, doe come before any of the feaſtes aforeſayde, then they are omytted for that yeare. And lykewiſe if anye of thoſe dayes come before the xv. of Eaſter thoſe dayes are omitted alſo.

Trinitie Tearme.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Trinitie Sunday.
  • Corpus Chriſti.
  • Boniface Biſhop.
  • S. Barnabie.
  • S. Butolphe.
  • S. Iohn.
  • S. Paule.
  • Tranſla. Thomas,
  • S. Swythune.
  • S. Margaret.
  • S. Anne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ Note that the lawedayes of this tearme are altered by meane of Whitſuntyde, & the firſt ſitting is kept alwayes on the firſt law daye after the feaſt of the holy Trinitie, and the ſeconde ſeſſion is kept the firſt lawe daye after Corpus Chriſti, except Corpus chriſti daye fall on ſome daye aforenamed: which chaunceth ſometime, and then the fitter daye is kept. And after the ſecond ſeſſion account foure dayes or thereabout, and then looke which is the next feaſt daye, and the fyrſt lawe daye after the ſayde feaſt, ſhall bée the thirde ſeſſion. The other lawe dayes followe in order, but ſo many of them are kept, as for the time of the yere ſhalbe thought méete.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ And note generally that euery day is cal|led a lawe daye that is not Sundaye or holly daye: and that if the feaſt day being knowne of any court day in any terme, the firſt or ſe|conde daye followyng be Sundaye, then the court daye is kept the daye after the ſayd ho|ly daye or feaſt.

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