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3.2. Of our apparell and attire. Cap. 2.

Of our apparell and attire. Cap. 2.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 AN Engliſhman indeuouring ſometime to write of our attire, made ſundry plat|formes for his purpoſe, ſuppoſing by ſome of EEBO page image 97 them to finde out one ſtedfaſt ground where|on to builde the ſumme of his diſcourſe. But in the ende (like an oratour, long without ex|erciſe) when he ſaw what a difficult péece of worke he had taken in hande, he gaue ſet his traueile, and onelye drue the picture of a naked man, vnto whome he gaue a paire of ſheares in the one hande, and a péece of cloth in the other, in the ende he ſhould ſhape his apparrell after ſuch faſhion as himſelfe liked, ſith he could [...]de no kind of garment that coulde pleaſe him [...]ny whyle togyther, and this he called an Englishemen. Certes thys writer (otherwiſe being a leawde and vngracious prieſt) ſhewed himſelfe herein not to be voyde of iudgement, [...]rewe. [...]rd. ſith the phan|taſticall follye of our nation is ſuch, that no forme of apparrell liketh vs longer then the firſt garment is in the wearing, if it conti|nue ſo long and be not layde aſide, to receyue ſome other trinket newly deuiſed by the ficle headded Taylours, who couet to haue ſeue|rall trickes in cutting, thereby to draw fond cuſtomers to more expence of money. For my part I can tell better howe to inueigh a|gainſt this enormitie, then deſcribe our at|tire: ſithens ſuch is our mutabilitie, that to day there is none to the Spaniſhe guiſe, to morowe the French toyes are moſt fine and delectable, ere long no ſuch apparell as that which is after the high Almaine faſhion, by and by the Turkiſh maner is generally beſt liked of, otherwiſe the Moriſco gownes and the Barbarian ſléeues make ſuch a comelye Veſture, that except it were a dog in a dub|let, you ſhall not ſée anye ſo diſguiſed, as are my coũtry men of england. And as theſe faſhiõs are diuers, ſo likewiſe it is a worlde to ſe the coſtlineſſe and the curioſitie: the ex|ceſſe and the vanitie: the pompe and the bra|uery: the chaunge and the variety: and final|ly the ficleneſſe and the folly that is in all de|grées: inſomuch that nothing is more con|ſtant in england then inconſtancie of attire. Neither cã we be more iuſtly burdened with any reproche, then inordinate behauiour in apparrell, for which moſt nations deride vs, as alſo for that we men doe ſéeme to beſtowe moſt coſt vpon our arſes & much more then vpon all the reſt of our bodies, as women do likewiſe vpon their heads and ſhoulders. In women alſo it is moſt to be lamented, that they doe now farre excéede the lightneſſe of our men (who neuertheleſſe are tranſformed from the cap euen to the very ſhoe) and ſuch ſtaring attire as in time paſt was ſuppoſed méete for none but light houſewiues onely, is now become an habit for chaſt & ſober ma|trones. What ſhould I ſay of their dublets wyth p [...]nd [...]nt c [...]piſes on the breaſt [...] tags and c [...], and [...]ée [...] of ſ [...]dy [...], theyr g [...]g [...]ſoons, couloured [...] their [...], and ſuch lyke, whereby their bodies [...] ther deform [...] then co [...] I haue [...] with ſome of them in London ſo but diſgui|ſed, that it hath paſſed my ſkill to diſcerne whyther they were men or women. Thus it is now come to paſſe, that womẽ are become men, and men turned into monſters: & thoſe g [...] giftes which almightie God hath giuen vnto vs to reléeue our neceſſitie withall, not otherwyſe beſtowed them in all exce [...]e as if we wiſt not otherwiſe howe to conſume and waſt them. I pray God that in this behalfe our ſinne be not lyke vnto that of Sodome and Gomorha, whoſe errors were pride,Ezech. 16. ex|ceſſe of diet, & abuſe of Gods benefits abun|dantly beſtowed vpon them, beſide want of charitie toward the poore, and certaine other pointes which ye Prophet ſhutteth vp in ſci|lence. Certes the commõwealth can not be ſayde to floriſhe where theſe abuſes reigne, but is rather oppreſſed by vnreaſonable ex|actions made vpõ farmers & tenants, wher|with to maintayne the ſame. Neither was it euer meryer with Englande then when an Engliſhmã was knowne by [...]owne cloth, and contented himſelfe with his fine carſie hoſen, and a meane ſlop: his coate, gowne & cloake of browne blew or putre, with ſome pretie furniture of veluet or furre, & a doub|blet of ſadde Tawny, or blacke Veluet, or other comelye Sylke, without ſuch gawriſh coulours as are worne in theſe dayes, & ne|uer brought in but by the conſent of ye french, who thincke thẽſelues the gaieſt men, when they haue moſt diuerſitie, & chaunge of cou|lours about them. I might here name a ſort of hewes deuiſed for the nones, wherewith to pleaſe fantaſticall heades, as gooſeturde gréene, the Deuell in the heade, (I ſhoulde ſay the hedge) and ſuch like, but I paſſe them ouer thincking it ſufficient to haue ſayd thus much of apparell generally, when nothing can particularly be ſpoken of any conſtancie thereof.

3.3. ¶ Of the Lawes of England. Cap. 3.

¶ Of the Lawes of England. Cap. 3.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THat Samothes or Dis gaue the firſt Lawes vnto the Celtes (whoſe King|dome he erected about the fiftéene of Nym|brote) the teſtimonye of Beroſus, Samo|thes. is proofe ſuf|ficient. For he not only affirmeth him to pub|liſh the ſame in the fourth of Ninus, but alſo addeth thereto, howe there lyued none in hys dayes of more excellent wiſdome, nor polli|tike EEBO page image 107 inuention then he, whereof he was na|med Samothes, as ſome other doe affyrme. What his lawes were it is now altogyther vnknowne,Albion. as moſt things of thys age, but that they were altered againe at the cõming of Albion, no mã cã abſolutly deny, ſith new Lordes vſe commonly to gyue newe lawes, and conquerours aboliſh ſuch as were in vſe before them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The lyke alſo maye be affirmed of our Brute,Brute. notwythſtanding that the certayne knowledge ſo well of the one as of the other is periſhed, & nothing worthy memory left of all theyr doyngs. Somewhat yet we haue of Mulmutius, Mulmutius who not only, ſubdued ſuch prin|ces as reigned in this land, but alſo brought the Realme to good order, that long before had béene torne wyth ciuill diſcorde. But where his lawes are to be found, and which they be from other mens, no man lyuing in theſe dayes is able to determine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The praiſe of Dun|wallon.Certes there was neuer Prince in Bry|teyne, of whome his ſubiectes conceyued bet|ter hope in the beginning, then of Bladudus, and yet I reade of none that made ſo ridicu|lous an ende: in lyke ſorte there hath not reigned any Monarche in thys Iſle, whoſe wayes were more feared at ye firſt, thẽ thoſe of Dunwallon, (king Henry the fift excep|ted) & yet in the end he proued ſuch a Prynce, as after hys death, there was in maner no ſubiecte, that did not lament his funerralles. And this only for his pollicy in gouernance, ſeuere adminiſtration of iuſtice, and proui|dent framing of his lawes, and conſtituti|ons. His people alſo coueting to continue his name vnto poſterity, intituled thoſe his ordi|naunces according to theyr maker, callyng them by the name of the lawes of Mulmuti|us, which indured in execution among the Brytons, ſo long as our homelynges had the dominiõ of this Iſle. Afterward when the Saxons had once obteyned the ſuperioritie of the kingdome, the maieſtie of theſe laws fell for a time into ſuch decaye, that although non penitus cecidit, tamen potuit cecidiſſe videri, as Leland ſayth, and the lawes them|ſelues had vtterlye periſhed in deede at the very firſt brunt had they not béene preſerued in wales, where they remayned amongſt the reliques of the Brytons, and not onely vntil the comming of the Normans, but euen vn|till the time of Edwarde the firſt, who obtei|ning the ſouereinty of that portion, indeuou|red to extinguiſhe thoſe of Mulmutius, and to eſtabliſhe his owne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 But as the Saxõs at their firſt arriuall did what they coulde to aboliſhe the Bryttiſhe lawes, ſo in proceſſe of time they yéelded a li|tle to relent and not ſo much to abhorre [...] miſlike of the lawes of Mulmutius, as to [...] receyue and embrace the ſame, eſpecially at ſuch time as the Saxon princes entered in|to amitie with the Brittiſh Princes, and af|ter that ioyne in matrimonie, with the Bry|tiſhe Ladyes. Hereof alſo it came to paſſe in the ende, that they were contented to make a choiſe and inſert no ſmall [...]n [...]rs of them into their own volumes, as may [...] gathered by thoſe of Atherbert ye great ſur|named king of Kent, Inas & Alfrede, kinges of the weſt Saxons, and diuers other yet ex|tant to be ſéene. Such alſo was the lateward eſtimation of them, that when anye of the Saxon Princes went aboute to make anye newe lawes, they cauſed thoſe of Mulmutius which Gildas ſometime tranſlated into La|tine, to be expounded vnto them, and in thys peruſall if they founde anye there alreadye framed, that might ſerue their turnes, they foorthwith reuiued the ſame, and annexed them to their owne. But in this dealing, the diligence of Alfrede is moſt of all to bée commended, who not onelye chooſe out the beſt, but gathered togither all ſuch whatſo|euer the ſayde Mulmutius had made: & then to the ende they ſhoulde lye no more in cor|ners as forlorne bookes and vnknowne, he cauſed them to be turned into the Saxon tongue, wherein they continued long after hys deceaſe. As for the Normans, who nei|ther regarded the Brittiſh, nor cared for the Saxon lawes, they alſo at the firſt vtterlye miſliked of thẽ, till at the laſt when they had well weighed that one kinde of regiment is not cõuenient for al peoples, & that no ſtran|ger beyng in a forriene Countrey newely brought vnder obedience, coulde make ſuch equall ordinaunces, as he might thereby go|uerne his new cõmon wealth without ſome care of trouble: they fell in ſo wyth a deſire to ſée by what rule the eſtate of the land was gouerned in time of the Saxons, that hauing peruſed the ſame, they not onely commended their maner of regiment, but alſo admitted a great part of their lawes, (nowe currant vnder the name of S. Edwardes lawes, and vſed as principles and groundes) whereby they not onely qualified the rygor of theyr owne, and mittigated their almoſt intollera|ble burden of ſeruitude which they had late|ly layde vpon the ſhoulders of the Engliſh, but alſo left vs a great number of Mulmu|tin lawes, wherof the moſt part are in vſe to thys daye as I ſayde, albeit that we knowe not certeinly howe to diſtinguiſh them from other, that are in ſtrength amongſt vs.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After Dunwallon, the next lawe gyuer EEBO page image 98 was Martia whome Lelande ſurnameth Proba, [...]ia. & after him Iohn bale alſo, who in hys Centuries doth iuſtely confeſſe himſelfe to haue béene holpen by the ſayde Leland, as I my ſelfe doe likewiſe for many thinges con|teined in thys treatize. Shée was wyfe vnto Gutteline king of ye Brytons: & being made protrectrix of the realme, after hyr huſbands deceaſe in the nonage of hyr ſonne, and ſée|ing many thinges daily to growe vp among hir people worthy reformation, ſhée deui|ſed ſundry and thoſe very pollitike lawes, for the gouernaunce of hyr kingdome, which hir ſubiectes when ſhée was deade and gone, did name the Mertian ſtatutes. Who turned them into latine, as yet I doe not read, how|beit as I ſaid before of the lawes of Mulmu|tius, ſo the ſame Alfrede cauſed thoſe of thys excellently well learned Lady (whome dy|uers cõmende alſo for hir great knowledge, in the Gréeke tong) to bée turned into hys owne language, wherevpon it came to paſſe that they were dailye executed among hys ſubiectes, afterwarde allowed of (among the reſt) by the Normans, and finally remaine in vſe in theſe dayes, notwithſtanding that we can not diſſeuer them very redily from the other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The 7. alteratiõ of lawes was practiſed by the Saxons, for I ouerpaſſe the lawes made by the Romaines, whoſe order do partly re|maine in publike notice, vnder ye names of the mercian, [...]ercian [...]. [...]xon [...]. [...]ne law. and the Saxon Lawe. Beſide theſe alſo I reade of the Danelawe, ſo that the people of middle england, were ruled by the firſt, the weſt Saxons by the ſeconde, as Eſſex, Norffolke, Suffolke, Cambridgſhire, and part of Herford ſhyre, were by the third, of al the reſt the moſt inequal & intollerable. Among other things alſo vſed in the time of ye Saxons, it ſhal not be amyſſe to ſet downe the forme of their Ordalian law, which they brought hither with them from beyonde the Seas, and vſed onely in the tryall of giltye and vngiltineſſe. Certes it conteyned not an ordinary procéeding by dayes and termes, as in the Ciuile and common lawe we ſée practiſed in theſe dayes but a ſhorte diſpatch and tryall of the matter, by fyre, or water, whereof at this preſent I wil deliuer the cir|cumſtance, as I haue faithfully tranſlated it out of an auncient volume, and conferred wyth a prynted coppie, lately publiſhed by M. Lambert, nowe extaunt to be redde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Ordalian ſaith the aforeſayd authour, was a certaine maner of purgation vſed two wayes, whereof the one was by fire, the other by water. In thexecution of that which was done by fire, the party accuſed ſhoulde go a certaine number of paces, with an hote péece of yron in his hande, or elſe bare footed vpon certaine plough ſhares, redde hotte, ac|cording to the maner. This Iron was ſome|time of one pounde weight, and then was it called ſingle Ordalium, ſometimes of three, & then named treble, Ordalium, and whoſoe|uer did beare or treade on the ſame without hurt of his body, he was adiudged giltleſſe, otherwyſe if his ſkin were ſcorched, he was foorthwith condemned as gylty of the treſ|paſſe wherof he was accuſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There were in lyke ſorte two kinds of tri|all by ye water, that is to ſay, either by hote, or colde: & in this tryall the partye thought culpeable, was eyther tumbled into ſome pond, or huge veſſel of colde water, wherein if he continued for a ſeaſon, without wreſt|ling or ſtrugling for lyfe, he was foorthwyth acquited as giltleſſe of the facte whereof hée was accuſed: but if he beganne to plunge, & labor once for breath immediately vpon his falling into that lyqour, he was by and by condemned, as gilty of the crime. Or elſe he did thurſt his arme vp to the ſhoulder into a leade, copper, or Caldron of ſéething water, from whence if he withdrewe the ſame with|out any maner of damage, he was diſchar|ged of farder moleſtation: otherwyſe hée was taken for a treſpaſſer, and puniſhed ac|cordingly. The fiery maner of purgation be|longed onely to noble men and women, and ſuch as were frée borne, but the huſbandmen and villaines, were tryed by water, whereof to ſhewe the vnlearned dealing and blynde ignoraunce of thoſe times, it ſhall not bée impertiment to ſet foorth the whole maner, which continued here in England vntill the time of King Iohn, who ſéeyng the manifold ſubtilties in the ſame, did extinguiſh it alto|gither as flat lewdeneſſe and bouerye. The Rubrik of ye treatize entereth thus. Here be|ginneth ye execution of Iuſtice, whereby the giltie or vngiltie are tried by hote Iron. Thẽ it followeth. After accuſatiõ lawfully made, and thrée dayes ſpent in faſting and prayer, the Prieſt being cladde in all his holly ve|ſt [...]es, ſauing his veſtiment, ſhall take the Iron layde before the alter with a payre of tongues, and ſinging the himme of the thrée children, that is to ſaye, O all yée wookes of God the Lorde, and in latine Benedicite om|nia opera, &c. he ſhall cary it ſolemly to ye fire (already made for ye purpoſe) & firſt ſay theſe words ouer the place where ye fire is kindled wherby this purgation ſhall bée made in la|tin as inſueth Benedic domine deus locum, iſ|tum vt ſit nobis in eo ſanitas, ſanctitas, caſtitas, virt et victoria, et ſanctimonia, humilitas, bo|nitas, EEBO page image 108 lenitas, et plenitudo Legis, et obediẽtia deo patri et filio etſpiritui ſancto, Hec Be|nedictio, ſit ſuper hunc locum, et ſuper omnes habitantes in eo, in Engliſh: Bleſſe thou O Lorde this place that it may be to vs health holyneſſe, chaſtity, vertue, and victory, pure|neſſe, humilitie, goodneſſe, gentleneſſe, and fulneſſe of the lawe, and obedience to God the father, the ſonne, & the holy ghoſt. This bleſſing be vpon this place, and all that dwel in it. Then followeth the bleſsing of the fire. Domine deus, pater omnipotens lumen inde|ficiens, exaudi nos, quia tu es conditor, omni|um luminum. Benedic domine hoc lumen, quod aute ſanctificatum eſt, qui illuminaſti omnẽ hominem, venientem in hunc mundũ, (vel mundum) vt ab eo lumine accedamur igne claritatis tuae, & ſicut igne illuminaſti, Moſen, ita nunc illumina corda noſtra, et ſen|ſus noſtros, vt ad vitam eternam, mereamur peruenire, per chriſtum. &c. Lord God father almightie, light euerlaſting, heare vs, ſith yu art the maker of all lyghtes. Bleſſe O Lord this light, yt is already ſanctified in thy ſight, which haſt lightned all men that come into the worlde, (or the whole worlde) to the ende that by the ſame lyght, we may be lightned wyth the ſhining of thy brightneſſe. As thou diddeſt lighten Moyſes, ſo nowe illuminate our hearts, and our ſenſes, that we may de|ſerue to come to euerlaſting lyfe, thorowe Chriſt our &c. Thys beyng ended let him ſaye the pater noſter. &c. then theſe wordes. Sal|uum fac ſeruum &c. Mitte ei auxilium deus. &c. De Sion tuere eum. &c. Dominus vobiſcũ. &c, that is. O Lorde ſaue thy ſeruant, &c. Sende him helpe O God frõ thy holy place defende him out of Syon. &c. Lorde here. &c. The Lorde be with you. &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The prayer. Benedic domine ſancte pater omnipotens deus, per inuocationem ſanctiſ|ſimi nominis tui, et per aduentum fihj tui, at| per donum ſpiritus paracleti, ad manifeſtã|dum verum iudicium tuum, hoc genus metal|li, vt ſit ſanctificatum, et omni demonum fal|ſitate procul remota, veritas veri iudicij tui fi|delibus tuis manifeſta fiat, per eundem domi|num. &c. in Engliſhe. Bleſſe we beſéech thée O Lorde, holy father, euerlaſting God tho|rowe the inuocation of thy moſt holy name, by the comming of thy ſonne, and gyft of the holy ghoſt, and to the manifeſtation of thy true iudgement, this kinde of mettall, that being hallowed, and all fraudulent practiſes of the deuils vtterly remooued, the manifeſt truth of thy true iudgement, maye be reuea|led, by the ſame Lorde Ieſus &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this let the yron be layde into the fyre, and ſprinckled with holy water, and whileſt it hea|teth, let the Prieſt go to maſſe, and doe as order re|quireth, and when he hath receiued the hoſt, he ſ [...]d, call the man that is to be purged (as it is written hereafter) firſt adiuring him, and then permitting hym to communicate according to the maner.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Office of the maſſe.

Iuſtus es domine, &c. O Lord thou art iuſt. &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Prayer.

ABſolue queſumus domine delicta famu [...]|li tui, vt a peccatorum ſuonim nexibus quae pro ſua fragilitate contraxit, tua benig|nitate liberetur, & in hoc iudicio quoad me|ruit iuſtitia tua praeueniente, ad veritatis ce [...]|ſuram peruenire mereatur. per Chriſtum do|minum. &c.
That is
Pardon wée beſéech thée O Lorde, the ſinnes of thy ſeruaunt, that be|ing deliuered from the burden of his offen|ces, wherewith he is intangled, he may be cleared by thy benignitie, and in thys hys tryal (ſo farre as he hath deſerued, thy mercy preuenting him) he maye come to the know|ledge of the truth, by chriſt our Lorde. &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Goſpell. Mar. 10.

IN illo tẽpore, cum egreſſus eſſet Ieſus in via, procurrens quidã genu flexo ante eum, ro|gabat eum dicens, Magiſter bone, quid faciam vt vitam eternam percipia. Ieſus autem dixit ei, quid me dicis bonum? &c.
In thoſe dayes when Ieſus went foorth towarde hys iour|ney, & one méeting in him the way running [...] & knéeling vnto him, aſked him ſaying, God Maiſter what ſhal I doe that I may poſſeſſe eternall lyfe. Ieſus ſayd vnto him, why cal|leſt yu me good. &c.
Then followeth the ſecrete and ſo foorth all of the reſt of the maſſe. But be|fore the partye doth communicate, the Pryeſt ſhall vſe theſe wordes vnto hym.
Adiuro [...] per patrem, & filium, & ſpiritum ſanctum, & per veram chriſtianitatem quam ſuſcepiſti, & per ſanctas relliquias quae in iſta eecleſiaſu [...] & per baptiſmum quo te ſacerdos regenera [...] vt non preſumas vllo modo communi [...]a [...] neque accedere ad altare, ſi hoc feciſti aut cõ|ſenſiſti &c.
I adiure thee by the Father the ſonne and the holy Ghoſt, by the true chriſten+dome which thou haſt receyued, by the holly relliques which are in this Church, and [...] the baptiſme, wherewith the Prieſt hath re|generated thée, that thou preſume not by a|ny maner of meanes, to communicate, nor come about the aultar, if thou haſt done or conſented vnto thys, whereof thou art accu|ſed. &c.
Here let the Prieſt ſuffer him to com|municate, ſaying.
Corpus hoc, & ſanguis do|mini noſtri Ieſu Chriſti, ſit tibi ad probatiou [...] hodie. The [...] yet [...] This body & this bloud of our Lord Ieſus Chriſt, be vnto thée a tryall this daye

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 EEBO page image 99 The prayer.

Perceptis domine deus noſter ſacris muneribus, ſupplices deprecamur, vt huius participatio ſacramenti a proprijs nos reatibus expediat, & in famulo tuo veritatis ſententiam declaret. &c.Hauing receaued O Lord God theſe holy miſteries, we humbly beſéeche thée that the participation of thys ſacrament, maye rydde vs of our guilty|neſſe, and in this thy ſeruaunt ſet foorth the truth.
Then ſhall followe Kyrieleſon, the Leta|nye, and certayne Pſalmes, and after all them
Oremus, Let vs praye, Deus qui per ignem ſigna magna oſtendens Abraham puerum tu|um de incendio Chaldeorum quibusdam pe|reuntibus eruiſti, Deus qui rubum ardere an|te conſpectum Moyſis & minime comburi permiſiſti. Deus qui de incẽdio fornacis Chal|daicis pleriſque ſuccenſis, tres pueros tuos il|leſos eduxiſti. Deus qui incendio ignis popu|lum Sodomae inuoluens, Loth famulum tuũ cum ſuis ſalute donaſti, Deus qui in aduentu ſancti ſpiritus tui, illuſtratione ignis fideles tuos ab infidelibus decreuiſti. Oſtẽde nobis in hoc prauitatis noſtrae examine virtutẽ eiuſ|dem ſpiritus &c. Et per ignis huius feruorem diſcernere infideles, vt a tactu eius cui inquiſi|tio agitur, conſcius exhorreſcat, & manus e|ius comburatur, innocens vero poenitus illae|ſus permaneat, &c. Deus cuius noticiam nul|la vnquam ſecreta effugiunt, fidei noſtrae tua bonitate reſponde, & preſta vt quiſquis pur|gandi ſe gratia, hoc ignitum tulerit ferrum, vel abſoluatur vt innocens vel noxius detega|tur. &c. in Engliſhe thus. O God which in ſhowing great tokens by fire diddeſt deliuer Abraham thy ſeruaunt frõ the burnyng of ye Chaldeis, whileſt other periſhed. O god whi|che ſuſſeredſt the buſhe to burne, in ye ſight of Moyſes, & yet not to conſume. O God which deliueredſt the thrée childrẽ frõ bodily harme in the Fornace of the Chaldies, whileſt dy|uers were conſumed. O God which by fyre diddeſt wrap the people of Sodome in their deſtruction, and yet ſauedſt Lot & his daugh|ters from peryll. O God which by the ſhy|ning of thy brighneſſe at the comming of the holly ghoſt in likewyſe of fire, diddeſt ſepe|rate the faithfull, from ſuch as beléeued not: ſhew vnto vs in ye tryall of this our wicked|neſſe, the power of the ſame ſpirit. &c. And by ye heate of this fire deſcer [...]e the faithful from the vnfaithfull, that the giltie whoſe cauſe is nowe in tryall, by touching thereof, maye tremble and feare, and his hande be burned, or beyng innocent, that he maye remaine in ſafety. &c. O God frõ whom no ſecretes are hidden, let thy goodnes anſwere to our faith, & graunt that whoſoeuer in thys purgation, ſhall touch and beare thys Iron, may either be tryed an innocent, or reuealed as an offẽ|der. &c.
After this the Prieſt ſhall sprynckle the Iron wyth Holly water, ſaying.
The bleſſing of God, the Father, the Sonne, and the Ho|ly ghoſt, be vpon this Iron, to the reuelation of the iuſt iudgement of God.
And foorthwith lette hym that is accuſed, beare it by the length of nyne foote, and then lette his hande be wrap|ped and ſealed vppe for the space of three dayes, after thys yf anye corruption or rawe fleſhe ap|peare where the Iron touched it, lette him be con|demned as guiltie: yf it be whole and ſounde, let hym giue thankes to God. And thus much of the fierye Ordalia, wherevnto that of the water hath ſo precyſe relation that in ſet|ting foorth of the one, I haue alſo deſcribed the other, wherefore it ſhall be but in vaine, to deale any farder withall. Hetherto alſo as I thinke, ſufficiently of ſuch lawes as were in vſe before the conqueſt. Nowe it reſteth that I ſhould declare the order of thoſe, that haue béene made ſith the comming of the Normãs, but for aſmuch as I am no lawier, & therfore haue but lyttle ſkyll to procéede in the ſame accordingly, it ſhall ſuffice to ſet downe ſome generall dyſcourſe of ſuch as are vſed in our daies, and ſo much as I haue gathered by report and common here ſaye. We haue therfore in Englãd ſundry lawes, and firſt of all the ciuile, vſed in the chaunce|ry, admiraltie, and dyuers other courtes, in ſome of which, the ſeuere rygor of Iuſtice is often ſo mittigated by conſcience, that dyuers thinges are thereby made eaſie and tollerable, whyche otherwyſe woulde ap|peare to be méere iniurye and extremity. We haue alſo a great part of the Cannon lawe daily practiſed among vs, eſpecially in caſes of tithes, contracts of matrimony, and ſuch lyke, as are vſually to be ſéene in the conſiſtories of our Biſhoppes, where the ex|ercyſe of the ſame is verye hotely follow|ed. The third ſorte of lawes, that we follow, are our owne, and thoſe alwaies ſo variable, and ſubiect to alteration and change, that oft in one age, diuers iudgementes doe paſſe vpon one maner of caſſe, wherby the ſaying of the Poet
Tempora mutantur, & nos mutamur in illis.
maye very well be applyed vnto ſuch as be|yng vrged with theſe wordes in ſuch a yeare of the Prince this opinion was taken for ſounde lawe, doe aunſwere nothing elſe, but that the iudgement of our lawyers is nowe altered, ſo that they ſaye farre otherwyſe. The regiment that we haue therefore after our owne ordinaunces dependeth vpon Sta|tute lawe, Common law, Cuſtomary law, & Preſcription.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 109 Parlia|ment law.The firſt is deliuered vnto vs by Parlia|ment, which court is the higheſt of all other, and conſiſteth of thrée ſeuerall ſortes of peo|ple, that is to ſay, the Nobility, Clergy, and commons of thys Realme, and there to is not ſomoned, but vppon vrgent occaſion when the prince doth ſée his time, and that by ſeueral writtes, dated commonly ful ſixe wéekes before it begin to be holden. Such lawes as are agréed vpõ in the higher houſe by the Lordes ſpirituall and temporall, and in the lower houſe by the commons and bo|dye of the realme, (wherof the conuocation of the cleargy holden in Powles is a mem|ber,) there ſpeaking by the mouth of the knights of the ſhire and burgeſſes, remaine in the ende to be confirmed by the Prince, who commonly reſorteth thither vppon the firſt and laſte daies of thys court, there to vnderſtande what is done, & giue his royall conſent to ſuch eſtatutes as him lyketh of. Comming therefore thither into the higher houſe, and hauing taken his throne, the ſpea|ker of the Parliament (for one is alwayes appoynted to go betwéene the houſes, as an indifferent mouth for both) readeth openlye the matters there determined by the ſayde thrée eſtates, and then craueth the Princes conſent and confirmation to the ſame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The king hauing heard the ſomme & prin|cipall pointes of each eſtatute briefly recited vnto him, aunſwereth in French with great deliberation vnto ſuch as he lyketh, (Il nous plaist) but to the reſt Il ne plaist, whereby the latter are vtterly made voyde and fruſtrate. That alſo which his Maieſtie liketh of, is e|uer after holden for law, except it be repealed in any the lyke aſſembly. The number of the commons aſſembled in the lower houſe, be|ſide the clergie cõſiſteth of ninetie Knights. For eache ſhyre of England hath twoo gen|tlemen or knights of greateſt wiſedome and reputation choſen out of the bodye of the ſame for that only purpoſe, ſauing that for wales one only is ſuppoſed ſufficient in eue|rie countie, whereby the number afore men|tioned is made vp. There are likewyſe four|tie and ſixe Citizens, 289. Burgeſes, and fourtéene Barons, ſo that the whole aſſem|bly of the layetie of the lower houſe, cõſiſteth of foure hundred thirtie and nine perſons, if the iuſt number be ſupplyed. Of the lawes here made lykewyſe ſome are penall and re|ſtraine the common lawe, and ſome againe are founde to inlarge the ſame. The one ſort of theſe alſo are for the moſt part takẽ ſtrict|lye according to the letter, the other more largely and beneficially after their intende|ment and meaning.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 The Common Lawe ſtandeth vppon Sundrye Maximes or Princyples,Common Lawe and yeares or tearmes, which doe conteine ſuch caſes as by great ſtudye and ſolemne argu|ment of the iudges, and thereto the déepeſt reach & foundations of reaſon, are ruled and adiudged for lawe. Certes theſe caſes are o|therwiſe called plées or actiõs, wherof there are two ſortes the one criminall & the other ciuile. The meanes & meſſengers alſo to de|termine thoſe cauſes are our writtes, wher|of there are ſome Originall and ſome Iudi|ciall. The parties plaintife and defendant when they appeare procéede (if the caſe do ſo require) by plaint or declaration, aunſwere, replication and reioynder, and ſo to iſſue, the one ſide affirmatiuely, the other negatiuely. Our trialles, and recoueries are eyther by verdict and demourre, confeſſion or default, wherein if any negligence or treſpaſſe hath béene committed, eyther in proceſſe & forme, or in matter & iudgement, the partie grieued may haue a writte of errour to vndoe ye ſame but not in the ſame court where the former iudgement was giuen.Cuſto [...] La [...] Cuſtomarie law con|ſiſteth of certaine laudable cuſtomes vſed in ſome priuate country, entended firſt to be|ginne vppon good and reaſonable conſidera|tions, as gauell kinde which is all the male children to inherite, & cõtinued to this day in Kent: or Burrow kinde where the yongeſt is preferred before the eldeſt, which is the cuſtome of many countries of this region, & ſo forth of ſuch like to be learned elſe where.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Preſcription is a certayne cuſtome,Preſcrip [...]|tion. which hath continued time out of minde, but it is more particular then cuſtomarie lawe, as where onely a pariſh or ſome priuate perſon doth preſcribe to haue common, or a way, in another mans ſoyle, or tithes to be payde af|ter this or that maner, I meane otherwyſe then the common courſe & order of the lawe requyreth, whereof let thys ſuffice at thys tyme, in ſtéede of a larger diſcourſe of our owne lawes, leaſt I ſhoulde ſéeme to enter farre into that whereof I haue no ſkill. For what hath the meditation of the lawe of God to doe with any preciſe knowledge of the law of man, ſith they are ſeuerall trades and in|cident to diuers perſons. There are alſo ſun|drie vſuall courtes holdẽ once in euery quar|ter of the yeare, which we commonlye call tearmes of the latin worde Terminus, Ter [...]. wher|in all cõtrouerſies are determined, that hap|pen within the Quéenes dominions. Theſe are commonly holden at London except vpõ ſome great occaſion they be tranſferred to o|ther places, at what times alſo they are kept the table inſuing ſhal eaſily declare. Finally EEBO page image 100 howe well they are followed by ſutet [...] the great welth of our lawiers without any tra|ueyle of mine can eaſily [...]. This fur|thermore is to be noted that albeit the prin|ces heretofore reigning in this lande [...] [...]e|rected ſundry courtes eſpecially of the th [...]| [...]erie at Yorke and Lu [...] the caſe of poore men dwelling in [...], yet will the pooreſt (of all [...] moſt con|tencious) refuſe to haue his cauſe hearde ſo néere home, but indeuoureth rather [...] vtter vndooing to trauelle vpon Londõ, th [...] king there ſooneſt to pr [...] againſt his ad|uerſary, though his [...] ſo doubtful. But in this toye [...] [...]oe exc [...] of all that euer I hearde, for [...] ſhall here & there haue ſome one adde poore Dauid of the giuen ſo much to contention and ſtrife, that without all reſpect of charges he will vp to London, though he go bare legged by the waye, and carye his hoſen on his necke (to ſaue theyr féete from [...]) bycauſe he hath no chaunge. When he commeth there alſo he will make ſuch importunate begging of his countreymẽ, and hard ſhift otherwiſe, that he will ſometymes carye downe ſixe or ſeuen writtes in his purſe, wherwith to mo|leſt his neighbour, though the greateſt quar|rell be ſcarſely woorth the price that he payd for any one of thẽ. But ynough of this leaſ [...] in reuealing the ſuperfluous follye of a fewe brablers in this behalfe, I bring no good wil to my ſelfe amongſt the wyſeſt of that natiõ. Certes it is a lamentable caſe to ſée further|more how a number of poore men are dayly abuſed and vtterly vndone, by ſundrie var|lets that go about the countrey as brokers betwéene the petty foggers of the lawe,Thrée Varlettes worthie to be chroni|cled. and the common people, onely to kyndle coales of contention, wherby the one ſide may reape commodity and the other be put to traueyle. But of all that euer I knew in Eſſex, Denis and Mainford excelled, till Iohn of Ludlow aliâs Maſon came in place, vnto whome in compariſon they two were but children and babes, for he in leſſe thẽ thrée or foure yeres, did bring one man (among many elſe where in other places almoſt to extréeme miſery, (if beggery be the vttermoſt) who before hée had the ſhauing of his bearde, was valued at two hundred pounde (I ſpeake with the leſt) who finally féeling that he had not ſufficent wherwith to ſuſteine himſelf, & his familie, & alſo to ſatiſfie that gréedie rauenour, that ſtil called vpon him for new fées, he went to bed and within foure dayes made an ende of hys wofull life, euen with care & penſiueneſſe. Af|ter his death alſo he ſo hãdled his ſonne, that there was neuer ſhéepe ſhorne in Maie, ſo néere clypped of hys [...]ée [...]e preſent, as hée was of manye to come, ſo that he was com|pelled to let away his leaſe land, becauſe his cattell and ſtocke were conſumed, and he no longer able to occupie the ground. But here|of let this ſuffiſe, [...] [...]ſtée [...]e of theſe enor|mities, two tables ſhall [...], whereof the firſt ſhall containe the names of the Coun|tyes, Cities, Borowes and Portes, which ſend knightes, Burgeſes and Barons to the Parliament houſe, the other an [...] report of the beginnings and endes of tearme with their returnes, according to the maner, as I haue borrowed them [...] my friende Iohn Stow, whyche this impreſſion was in hande.

The names of Counties, Cities, Borowghes, and Portes, ſending Knightes, Citizens, Burgeſes and Barons, to the Par|liament of Eng|lande.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52
  • Bedforde.

    • KNightes 2
    • The borowgh of Bedforde. 2
  • Buckingham.

    • Knightes 2
    • The borowgh of Buckingham. 2
    • The borowgh of Wickombe. 2
    • The borowgh of Aileſbury. 2
  • Barcleeſhyre.

    • Knightes 2
    • The borowgh of New Windſore. 2
    • The borowgh of Reding. 2
    • The borowgh of Wallingforde. 2
    • The borowgh of Abington. 2
  • Cornewall.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borow of Launceſton alias Newport 2
    • The borowgh of Leſkero. 2
    • The borowgh of Loſt wythiell. 2
    • The borowgh of Danheuet. 2
    • The borowgh of Truro. 2
    • The borowgh of Bodmin. 2
    • The borowgh of Helſton. 2
    • The borowgh of Saltaſh. 2
    • The borowgh of Camelforde. 2
    • The boro. of Portighſam alias Portlow. 2
    • The borowgh of Graunpount. 2
    • The borowgh of Eaſtlow. 2
    • The borowgh of Prury. 2
    • The borowgh Tregonye. 2
    • The borow. of Trebenna alias Boſſinny. 2
    • The borowgh of S. Ies. 2
    • The borowgh of Foway. 2
    • The borowgh of Germine. 2
    • The borowgh of Michell. 2
    • The borowgh of Saint Maries. 2
  • Cumberlande.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Caerlile. 2
  • Cambridge.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Cambridge. 2
  • Cheſter.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The Citie of Cheſter. 2
  • Darby.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Darby. 2
  • Deuon.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Exceſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Totnes. 2
    • The borowgh of Plimmouth. 2
    • The borowgh of Bardneſtable. 2
    • The borowgh of Plimton. 2
    • The borowgh of Taueſtocke. 2
    • The borowgh of Dartmouth, Cliſton, and Herdynes. 2
  • Dorſet ſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Poole. 2
    • The borowgh of Dorcheſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Linne. 2
    • The borowgh of Melcombe. 2
    • The borowgh of Waymouth. 2
    • The borowgh of Bureport. 2
    • The borowgh of Shafteſbury. 2
    • The borowgh of Warham. 2
  • Eſſex.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Colcheſter. 2
    • The borowgh Malden. 2
  • Yorkeſhire.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Yorke. 2
    • The borowgh of Kingſton vpon Hull. 2
    • The borowgh of Knareſbrugh. 2
    • The borowgh of Skardborowgh. 2
    • The borowgh of Rippon. 2
    • The borowgh of Hudon. 2
    • The borowgh of borowghbridge. 2
    • The borowgh of Thuſke. 2
    • The borowgh of Aldebrugh. 2
    • The borowgh of Beuerley. 2
  • Gloceſterſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The Citie of Gloceſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Cirenceſter. 2
  • Huntingtonſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Huntingdon. 2
  • Hertfordſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Saint Albons. 2
  • Herefordeſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The Citie of Hereford. 2
    • The borowgh of Lempſter. 2
  • Kent.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Cantorbury. 2
    • The citie of Rocheſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Maideſton. 2
    • The borowgh of Qranborowgh. 2
  • Lincolne.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Lincolne. 2
    • The borowgh of Boſtone. 2
    • The borowgh of great Grineſby. 2
    • The borowgh of Stamforde. 2
    • The borowgh of Grantham. 2
  • Leiceſter ſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Leiceſter. 2
  • Lancaſterſhyre.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Lancaſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Preſton in Andernes. 2
    • The borowgh of Liuerpole. 2
    • The borowgh of Newton. 2
    • The borowgh of Wigan. 2
    • The borowgh of Clithero. 2
  • Middleſex.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of London. 4
    • The citie of Weſtminſter. 2
  • Monmouth.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Monmouth. 1
  • Northampton.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Peterborowgh. 2
    • The borowgh of Northampton. 2
    • The borowgh of Barkley. 2
    • The borowgh of Higham Ferres. 1
  • Notingham.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Notingham. 2
    • The borowgh Eſtreatforde. 2
  • Norfolke.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Norwich. 2
    • The borowgh of Linne. 2
    • The borowgh of great Iernemouth. 2
    • The borowgh of Thetford. 2
    • The borowgh of caſtell Riſing. 2
  • Northumberland.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of New Caſtell vpon Tine. 2
    • The borowgh of Morpeth. 2
    • The borowgh of Barwike. 2
  • Oxforde.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Oxforde. 2
    • EEBO page image 101The borowgh of Bambiley. 2
    • The borowgh of Woodſtocke.
  • Rutlando.

    • Knightes. 2
  • Surrey.

    • Knightes. P 2
    • The borowgh of Southwac [...]. 2
    • The borowgh of Bleching [...]g [...] 2
    • The borowgh of Rigate. 2
    • The borowgh of Guildford. 2
    • The borowgh of Gatton. 2
  • St [...]atford.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Lichfielde. 2
    • The borowgh of St [...]acforde. 2
    • The borowgh of New [...]aſ [...]e [...] vnder Linne. 2
    • The borowgh of Tainworth. 2
  • Salop.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Salop. 2
    • The boro. of Bruges alias bridgenorth. 2
    • The borowgh of Ludlow. 2
    • The borowgh of Wenl [...]e. 2
  • Southampton.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Winton. 2
    • The borowgh of Southampton. 2
    • The borowgh of Porteſmouth. 2
    • The borowgh of Peterfielde. 2
    • The borowgh of Stockebridge. 2
    • The borowgh of Chriſt Church. 2
  • Suffolke.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of Ippeſwich. 2
    • The borowgh of Dunwich. 2
    • The borowgh of Ortford. 2
    • The borowgh of Aldeborowgh. 2
    • The borowgh of Sudbury. 2
    • The borowgh of Eya. 2
  • Somerſet.

    • Knightes.
    • The citie of Briſtow. 2
    • The citie of Bath. 2
    • The citie of Welles. 2
    • The borowgh of Taunton. 2
    • The borowgh Bridgewater. 2
    • The borowgh of Minched. 2
  • Suſſex.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Chicheſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Horſham. 2
    • The borowgh of Midhurſt. 2
    • The borowgh of Lewes. 2
    • The borowgh of Shorham. 2
    • The borowgh of Brember. 2
    • The borowgh of Stening. 2
    • The borowgh of Eaſtgreneſted. 2
    • The borowgh of Arundell. 2
  • Weſtmerland.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The borowgh of App [...]ſby. 2
  • Wilton.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of New Satum. 2
    • The borowgh of Wilton. 2
    • The borowgh of Dounton. 2
    • The borowgh of Hindon. 2
    • The borowgh of Heyteſbury. 2
    • The borowgh of Weſtbury. 2
    • The borowgh of Caine. 2
    • The borowgh of Deuſ [...]es. 2
    • The borowgh of Chypenham. 2
    • The borowgh of Malmeſ [...]ury. 2
    • The borowgh of Cricklade. 2
    • The borowgh of Bu [...]wln. 2
    • The borowgh of Ludge [...]a [...]e. 2
    • The borowgh of Olde Sarum. 2
    • The borowgh of Wotton Baſſet. 2
    • The borowgh of Matleborowgh. 2
  • Worceſter.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The citie of Worceſter. 2
    • The borowgh of Withée. 2
  • Warwike.

    • Knightes. 2
    • The Citie of Couentry. 2
    • The borowgh of Warwike. 2
  • Barons of the portes.

    • Haſtings. 2
    • Winchelſey. 2
    • Rye. 2
    • Rumney. 2
    • Hithe. 2
    • Douer. 2
    • Sandwich. 2
  • Mountgomery.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Mountgomery. 1
  • Flint.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Flint. 1
  • Denbigh.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Denbigh. 1
  • Merionneth.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Hauerfordweſt. 1
  • Carneruan.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Carneruan. 1
  • Angleſey.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Beaumares. 1
  • Carmarden.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of New Carmarden. 1
  • Pembroke.

    • Knightes. 1
    • EEBO page image 111The borowgh of Pembroke. 1
  • Cardigan.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Brecknocke. 1
  • Radnor.

    • Knightes. 1
    • The borowgh of Radnor. 1
  • Glamorgan.

    • Knights. 1
    • The borowgh of Cardiffe. 1
  • ¶ The Summe of the foreſayde number of the common houſe videlicet, of

    • Knights. 90.
    • Citizens. 46.
    • Burgeſſes. 289.
    • Barons. 14.
    • 439.

3.3.1. A perfect rule to knowe the beginning and ending of euery terme, with their returnes.

A perfect rule to knowe the beginning and ending of euery terme, with their returnes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 HIllary terme beginneth the xx [...]ij. day of Ianuary, if it be not Sunday, otherwiſe the next daye after, & endeth the twelfth of February, and hath foure returnes.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Octabis Hilarij.
  • Quind. Hilarij.
  • Craſtino Purific.
  • Octabis Purific.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ Eaſter terme beginneth xvij. daies after Eaſter, and endeth foure dayes after the aſ|cention day, and hath fiue returnes.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Quind. Paſch.
  • Tres Paſchae.
  • Menſe.
  • Paſchae.
  • Quinquae Paſchae.
  • Craſt Aſcention.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ Trinitie terme beginneth the next daye after Corpus Chriſti daye, and endeth the wedneſdaye fortnight after, and hath foure returnes.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Craſt. Trinitatis.
  • Octabis Trinitat.
  • Quind. Trinitatis
  • Tres Trinitatis.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ Michelmas terme beginneth the ix. of October if it be not Sunday, and endeth the xxviij. of Nouember, and hath viij. returnes

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Octabis Michael.
  • Quind. Michael.
  • Tres Michael.
  • Menſe Michael.
  • Craſt. anima.
  • Craſt. Martini.
  • Octa. Martini.
  • Quind. Martini.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Note alſo that the Eſchequer openeth eight dayes before any terme begin, except Trinitie terme, which openeth but foure dayes before.

¶ And nowe followeth the lawe dayes in the court of Tharches, and audience of Can|terbury, with other Eccleſiaſticall & Ciuill lawes, through the whole yeare.

Theſe dayes are not chaunged excepte they lyght on a Sunday or holy daye, and e|uery daye is called a lawday, vnleſſe it bée Sunday or holyday.

Michelmas terme.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • S. Faith.
  • S. Edward.
  • S. Luke.
  • Simon & Iu.
  • All Soules.
  • S. Martin.
  • Edmond.
  • Katherin.
  • S. Andrewe.
  • Conception of our Lady.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ It is to be noted that the firſt day follow|ing euery of theſe feaſtes noted in euery terme, the court of the Arche [...] is kept in Bowe church in the forenoone And the ſame firſt daye in the afternoone i [...] the Admyralty Court for Ciuill cauſes kept in South|warke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſeconde daye followyng euery one of the ſayde feaſtes, the court of Audience of Caunterburye is kept in the Conſiſtory in Paules in the forenoone. And the ſame daye in the after no [...]ne, in the ſame place is the Prerogatiue court of Caunterbury holden.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The thirde daye after any ſuch feaſt in the forenoone, the conſiſtory court of the Biſhop of London is kept in Paules Church in the conſiſtory, and the ſame thirde daye in the afternoone is the court of the Delegates and of the Quéenes highneſſe Commiſſyoners vpon appeales kept in the ſame place.

Hilary terme.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • S. Hilary.
  • S. Wolſtan.
  • Conuerſion of S. Paule.
  • S. Blaſe.
  • S. Scolaſtic.
  • S. Valentine.
  • Aſh wedneſd.
  • S. Mathie.
  • S. Chad.
  • Perpet. & Fel.
  • S. Gregory.
  • Anunciation of our Ladye.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Note that the foure firſt dayes of thys terme be certain and vnchanged. The other are altered after the courſe of the yere, and ſometime kept and ſomtime omitted. For if it ſo happen that one of thoſe feaſtes fall on wedneſdaye cõmonly called Aſhwedneſday, after the day of S. Blaſe (ſo that ye ſame law day after Aſhwedneſday cannot bée kept by|cauſe the lawday of thother feaſt doth lyght on the ſame) then the ſeconde law day after Aſhwedneſday ſhall be kept, and the other o|mitted. And if the lawday after that wedneſ|day be ye next daye after the feaſt of ſ. Blaſe, then ſhall all & euery thoſe court daies be ob|ſerued in order, as they may be kept cõueni|ently. And marke although that Aſhwedneſ|day be put the ſeauenth in order, yet it hath no certaine place, but is chaunged as the courſe of Eaſter cauſeth it,

Eaſter Tearme. The fithtéene day after Eaſter.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • S. Alphege.
  • S. Marke.
  • Inuention of the Croſſe.
  • Gordiane.
  • S. Dunſtane.
  • Aſcention day.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ In thys terme the firſt ſitting is al|waye kept the Munday beyng the 15. day af|ter Eaſter, and ſo foorth after the feaſts here EEBO page image 103 noted, which next followe by courſe of the yeare after Eaſter. And the lyke ſpace be|ing kept betwéene other feaſtes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The reſt of the lawe dayes are kept to the thirde of the Aſcention, which is the laſt day of this terme. And if it happen that the feaſt of ye Aſcention of our Lord, doe come before any of the feaſtes aforeſayde, then they are omytted for that yeare. And lykewiſe if anye of thoſe dayes come before the xv. of Eaſter thoſe dayes are omitted alſo.

Trinitie Tearme.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Trinitie Sunday.
  • Corpus Chriſti.
  • Boniface Biſhop.
  • S. Barnabie.
  • S. Butolphe.
  • S. Iohn.
  • S. Paule.
  • Tranſla. Thomas,
  • S. Swythune.
  • S. Margaret.
  • S. Anne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ Note that the lawedayes of this tearme are altered by meane of Whitſuntyde, & the firſt ſitting is kept alwayes on the firſt law daye after the feaſt of the holy Trinitie, and the ſeconde ſeſſion is kept the firſt lawe daye after Corpus Chriſti, except Corpus chriſti daye fall on ſome daye aforenamed: which chaunceth ſometime, and then the fitter daye is kept. And after the ſecond ſeſſion account foure dayes or thereabout, and then looke which is the next feaſt daye, and the fyrſt lawe daye after the ſayde feaſt, ſhall bée the thirde ſeſſion. The other lawe dayes followe in order, but ſo many of them are kept, as for the time of the yere ſhalbe thought méete.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 ¶ And note generally that euery day is cal|led a lawe daye that is not Sundaye or holly daye: and that if the feaſt day being knowne of any court day in any terme, the firſt or ſe|conde daye followyng be Sundaye, then the court daye is kept the daye after the ſayd ho|ly daye or feaſt.

3.4. Of the degrees of people in the common wealth of Englande. Cap. 4.

Of the degrees of people in the common wealth of Englande. Cap. 4.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 WE in Englande deuide our people commonlye into foure ſortes, as Gentlemen, Citizens or Burgeſes, Yeomẽ, and Artificerers or labourers. Of gentlemẽ the firſt & chiefe next the king be the Prince, Dukes, Marquiſes, Earles, Viſcontes and Barons: and theſe are called the Nobilitie, they are alſo named Lordes and noble men, and next to them be Knightes and Eſquires, and ſimple gentlemen.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Prince.The tytle of Prince doth peculiarly be|long to the Kinges eldeſt ſonne, who is cal|led Prince of Wales, and is the heire ap|parant to the Crowne, as in Fraunce the kings eldeſt ſonne hath ye title of Dolphine, and is named peculiarly Monſieur. So that the Prince is ſo termed of the latine worde, quia eſt principalis poſt Regem. The Kinges yonger ſonnes be but gentlemen by byrth, till they haue receyued creation of hygher eſtate to bée eyther Viſcontes, Earles or Dukes: & called after their names, as Lord Henry, or Lorde Edwarde wyth the additiõ of the worde Grace, properly aſſigned to the king and prince, and by cuſtome conueighed to Dukes, Marquiſes, and their wyues.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The title of Duke commeth alſo of the La|tine worde Dux, à ducendo, Duke. bycauſe of hys valoir and power ouer the army. In times paſt a name of Office due to the chiefe go|uernour of the whole armie in the warres, but now a name of honour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In olde tyme he onely was called Mar|quiſe Qui habuit terram limitaneam, a mar|ching prouince vpon the enemies countreis. But that alſo is chaunged in common vſe, & reputed for a name of great honour next the Duke, euen ouer Counties and ſometimes ſmall cities, as the Prince is pleaſed to be|ſtowe it.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The name of Earle likewyſe was among the Romaines a name of Office,Erle. who had Comites ſacri palatij, Comites aerarij, Comi|tes ſtabuli and ſuch like, howbeit it appereth that with vs it hath the next place to ye Mar|quiſe, and he that beareth it is called per|aduenture Comes à comitiua, quia dignus eſt ducere comitiuam in bello. Or elſe bicauſe he is Comes Ducis, a companiõ of the Duke in the warres. And he hath his follower the Viſcont, called eyther Pro Comes, Viſcont. or viceco|mes: who in tyme paſt, gouerned in the coũ|tie vnder the Earle, and nowe without any ſuch ſeruice or office, it alſo is become a name of dignitie next after the Earle, and in degrée before the Baron.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Baron is ſuch a frée Lorde,Baron. as hath a Lordſhip or Barony, whereof he beareth his name, & holding of him diuers Knightes & fréeholders: who were woont to ſerue the king in the warres and helde their landes in Baronia, for doing ſuch ſeruice. Theſe Brac|ton (a learned wryter of the lawes of Eng|lande in king Henry the thirdes tyme) tear|meth Barones, quaſi robur belli. The worde Baro is older thẽ that it may eaſily be found frõ whence it came: for euen in the oldeſt hi|ſtories both of the Germaines & French|men, we reade of Barons, and thoſe are at this day called among the Germaines Libe|ri, vel ingenui, as ſome men doe coniecture.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Vnto this place I alſo refer our Biſhops,Byſhops. who are accounted honourable, and whoſe countenaunces in time paſt was much more glorious then at this preſent it is, bycauſe thoſe luſty Prelates ſought after earthly e|ſtimation, EEBO page image 112 and authoritie wyth far more di|ligence then after the loſt ſhéepe of Chriſt, whereof they had ſmall regarde, as men be|ing otherwiſe occupyed & voyde of leyſure to attende vnto ye ſame. Howbeit in theſe daies their eſtate remayneth ſtill honourable as before, and the more vertuous they are that be of this calling, the better are they eſtée|med with highe and lowe. Herein there|fore their caſe is growen to be much better then before, for whereas in tymes paſt the cleargie men were feared bycauſe of theyr authoritie and ſeuere gouernement vnder the Prince, now are they beloued generally (except peraduẽture of a few hungrie wõbes that couet to plucke and ſnatch at their loſe endes) for their painefull diligence ſhewed in their calling, and vertuous conuerſation. Finally how it ſtandeth with the reſt of the cleargie, I neyther can tell nor greatly care to know, neuertheleſſe wyth what degrées of honour and woorſhip they haue béene mat|ched in times paſt Iohannes Bohemus in hys De omnium gentium moribus and other doe expreſſe.De Aſia. cap. 12. But as a number of theſe compari|ſons and ambitions tytles are now decayed & woorthily ſhronke in the wetting, ſo giuing ouer in theſe daies to maintayne ſuch pom|pous vanitie, they thincke it ſufficient for thẽ to preache the worde and holde their liuinges to their ſies from the handes of ſuch as inde|uour to diminiſhe them. This furthermore will I adde generally in commendation of the cleargie of Englande that they are for their learning reputed in Fraunce, Portin|gale, Spaine, Germany & Polonia, to be the moſt learned deuines, & therto ſo ſkilfull in the two principal tongues that it is accoun|ted a maime in any one of them, not to be ex|actely ſéene in the Gréeke and Hebrue, much more then to be vtterly ignorant or nothing conuerſaunt in them. As for the latine ton|gue it is not wanting in any, eſpeciallye in ſuch as haue béene made within this twelue or fourtéene yeares, whereas before there was ſmall choyſe, and many cures were left vnſerued bycauſe they had none at all.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Dukes, Marquiſes, Earles, Viſcontes, and Barons, either be created of the Prince, or come to that honour by being the eldeſt ſonnes or higheſt in ſucceſſiõ to their parẽts. For the eldeſt ſonne of a Duke during hys fathers lyfe is an Earle,Duke. the eldeſt ſonne of an Erle is a Baron, or ſometymes a Viſ|cont, according as the creation is. The crea|tion I call the originall donation and condi|tion of the honour giuen by the Prince for the good ſeruice done by the firſt aunceſtor, with ſome aduauncement, which with the ti|tle of that honour is alwayes giuen to hym & to his heires maſles onely. The reſt of the ſonnes of the nobilitie by the rigour of the law be but Eſquires: yet in common ſpeach all Dukes and Marquiſes ſonnes, & Earle [...] eldeſt ſonnes be called Lordes, the which name commõly doth agrée to none of lower degrée then Barons, yet by lawe & vſe theſe be not eſtéemed Barons. The Baronny or degrée of Lords doth aunſwere to the degrée of Senatours of Rome: and the tytle of [...]|bilitie as we vſe to call it in England to the Romaine Patricij. Alſo in Englãd no man is created Baron except he may diſpende of yerly reuenues ſo much as may fully main|tayne and beare out his countenaunce and port. But Viſconts, Earles, Marquiſes and Dukes excéede them according to the pro|portiõ of their degrée & honor. But though by chaunce he or his ſonne haue leſſe, yet he kée|peth his degrée: but if the decay be exceſſiue & not able to maintayne the honour, as Se|natores Romani were moti Senatu: ſo ſome|tymes they are not admitted to the vpper houſe in the parliament, although they kep [...] the name of Lord ſtill, which cannot be takẽ from them, vpon any ſuch occaſion.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Knightes be not borne, [...] neytheir is any mã a knight by ſucceſſion, no not the Kyng or Prince: but they are made eyther before the battaile to encourage them the more to ad|uenture and trie their manhoode, or after, as an aduauncement for their courage & prow|eſſe alreadie ſhewed, or out of the warres for ſome great ſeruice done, or for the ſingular vertues which doe appeare in them. They are made eyther by the king himſelfe, or by his commiſſion and Royall authoritie giuen for the ſame purpoſe: or by his lieutenaunt in the warres. This order ſeemeth to aun|ſwere in part to that which the Romaines called Equitũ Romanorum. For as Equites Romani were choſen ex cenſu, that is accor|ding to their ſubſtaunce and riches: ſo be Knightes in Englande moſt commonly ac|cording to their yearelye reuenues or ſub|ſtaunce and riches, wherewith to maintaine the eſtate. Yet all that had Equaeſtrem cen|ſum, were not choſen to be knights, no more be all made knightes in England that maye ſpende a knightes landes, but they onelye whom the Prince will honour. The number of the knightes in Rome was vncertaine: and ſo is it of knyghtes wyth vs, as at the pleaſure of the Prince. We call him Knight in Engliſh that the French calleth Cheualier, and the latine Equitem, or Equeſtris ordinis virum. And when any man is made a knight, he knéeling downe is ſtriken of the Prince EEBO page image 103 or his ſubſtitute with his ſworde naked vpõ the ſhoulder, the Prince. &c. ſaying, S [...]yes che|ualier au nom de I [...]ieu. And when he ryſeth vp the Prince ſayth Aduances [...] cheualier. Th [...] is the maner of dubbing knightes at th [...] preſent, and the tearme (dubbing) is the [...] terme for that purpoſe and not creation.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]ghtes [...].At the Coronation of a King or Quéene there be knightes made with longer & more curious ceremonies, called Knightes of the Bath. But howſoeuer one be dubbed or made Knight, his wyfe is by and by cal [...]d Madame, or Ladye, ſo well as the Barons wyfe, he himſelfe hauing added to his name in common appellatiõ this ſiliable Sir, which is the title whereby we call our Knightes here in Englande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The other order of Knighthod in Englãd & the moſt honorable is that of ye Garter, [...]ghtes [...] gar| [...] in|ſtituted by king Edwarde the third, who af|ter he had gayned many notable victories; taken king Iohn of France, & king Iames of Scotland (& kept them both pryſoners in the Tower of London at one time) expulſed king Henry of Ca [...]ſtil the baſtarde out of his realme, and reſtored Don Petro vnto it (by ye helpe of the Prince of Wales & Duke of Aquitaine his eldeſt ſonne called the black Prince) He then inuented this ſocietie of ho|nour, & made a choiſe out of his owne realme & dominions, & thorowout all Chriſtendome of the beſt moſt excellent and renowmed perſons in all vertues & honour, & adourned thẽ with ye title to be Knightes of his Order; giuing thẽ a Garter garniſhed with golde & precious ſtones, to were daily on the left leg only, alſo a Kirtle, gowne, cloke, chaperon, coler & other ſolemne and magnificent ap|parell, both of ſtuffe and faſhion exquiſite & heroicall to weare at high feaſtes, as to [...] high and Princely an Order apperteyneth. Of this company alſo he and his ſucceſſours Kinges and Quéenes of Englande, be the Soueraignes, and the reaſt by certaine ſta|tutes and lawes amongſt themſelues be ta|ken as brethren and fellowes in that order to the number of ſixe and twentie, as I finde in a certayne Treatize written of the ſame an example whereof I haue here inſerted worde for worde as it was deliuered vnto me, beginning after this maner.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 I might at this preſent make a long tra [...]|tation of the Rounde table and order of the knightes thereof, erected ſometymes by Ar|thur the great monarche of thys Iſland: and thervnto intreate of the number of his Kni|ghtes and ceremonies belonging to the or|der, but I thincke in ſo dooing that I ſhoulde rather ſet downe ye latter inuentions of other men, then a true deſcription of ſuch [...] as were performed in déede. I could furthermore with more facilitie describe the Royaltie of Charles the great & his twelue Peeres, with their solemne rites and vsages but vnto this also I haue no great deuotion, considering the truth hereof is nowe so stayned wyth errours and fables inserted into the same by the lewde religious sort, that except a man shoulde professe to lye with the(m) for companye, there is little sounde knowledge to be gathered hereof woorthie ye reme(m)braunce. In lyke maner dyuers aſwell ſub|iectes as Princes haue [...] to reſtore againe a [...]ounde table in this lande, but ſuch was ye exceſſiue charges appertayning th [...]|vnto (as they dyd make allowa [...]nce) and to great moleſtation dayly inſued there vpõ be|ſide the bréeding of ſundr [...]e quarrels among the knightes and ſuch as reſorted hyther frõ forrien countries (as it was firſt vſed) that in [...]ne they gaue it ouer & ſuffred their whole inuentions to periſhe and decaye, vntill Ed|warde the third deuiſed an other order not ſo much peſtered with multitude of Knightes as the rounde table, but much more honou|rable for princely port and countenance, as ſhall appeare hereafter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The order of the Garter therefore was deuised in the time of King Edward the third, and as some write vppon this occasion. The Queenes maiestie the(n) liuing, being departed from his presence the next way towarde hir lodging, he following soone after, happened to finde hir Garter which slacked by chaunce and so fel from hir legge. His gromes & gentlemen passed by it, as distaining to stoupe & take vp such a trifle: but he knowing ye owner commaunded one of them to staye & take it vp. Why and like your Grace saieth a Gentleman is but some womans garter that hath fallen fro(m) hir as she folowed ye Queenes maiestie. Whatsoeuer it be quoth the Kyng take it vp and giue it me. So whe(n) he had receyued the garter, he sayde to such as stoode about him: you my maisters doe make small account of this blew garter here (and therewith helde it out) but if God lende me lyfe for a fewe monethes,Peraduẽ|ture it was but a blew Rib|bon. I will make the prowdest of you all to reuerence the like: and euen vpon this slender occasion he gaue himselfe to the deuising of this order. Certes I haue not read of any thing that hauing had ſo ſim|ple a beginning hath growne in the ende to ſo great honour and eſtimation. But to pro|céede, after he had ſtu [...]yed a whyle about the performaunce of his deuiſe & had ſet downe ſuch orders as he himſelfe had inuented con|cerning ye ſame, he proclaimed a royall feaſt EEBO page image 113 to be holden at Windſore, whyther all his nobilitie reſorted with their Ladyes, where he publiſhed his inſtitutiõ, and furthwith in|ueſted an appointed number into the afore|ſayd fellowſhip, whoſe names inſue, himſelf being the Soueraigne and principall of that companie. Next vnto him alſo he placed.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Edwarde Prince of Wales.
  • Henry duke of Lan|caſter.
  • N. Earle of Warw.
  • N. Capt. de Bouche.
  • N. Earle of ſtafford.
  • N. Earle of Sarum.
  • N. L. Mortimer.
  • Sir Iohn Liſ [...]e.
  • Sir Bartholomewe Burwaſh.
  • N. Sonne of S. Iohn Beauchamp.
  • Sir N. de Mahun.
  • S. Hugh Courtnay.
  • S. Thomas Holland
  • S. Iohn Gray.
  • S. Rich. Fitzſimon.
  • S. Miles Stapleton.
  • S. Thomas Wale.
  • S. Hugh Wrotoſley.
  • S. Neale Lording.
  • S. Iohn Chandos.
  • S. Iames Dawdley.
  • S. O [...]ho Holland.
  • S. Henry Eme.
  • Sir Sanchet Dam|bricourt.
  • Sir Walter Pan|nell alias Paganell.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 What order of electiõ, and what eſtatutes were preſcribed vnto the elected at this firſt inſtitution, as yet I can not exactely vnder|ſtande, neyther can I learne what euerye Prince afterwarde added therevnto before the ſixe and thirtieth yeare of king Henry the eyght, and thirde of king Edwarde the ſixt: wherfore of neceſſitie I muſt reſort vnto the eſtate of the ſayde order as it is at this pre|ſent, which I will ſet downe ſo briefely as I may. When any man therefore is to be e|lected (vpon a rowme found voyd for his ad|miſſiõ) into this fellowſhip, the king directeth his letters vnto him, notwithſtanding that he before hande be nominate vnto the ſame, to this effect. Right truſtie and welbeloued we greete you well, aſſertayning you, that in conſideration aſwell of your approoued trueth & fidelitie, as alſo of your couragious and valiant actes of knighthoode, with other your probable merites knowne by experiẽce in ſundrie parties and behalfes: we with the companions of the noble order of the Gar|ter aſſembled at the election holden this day within our manour of N. haue elected & cho|ſen you amongſt other to be one of the com|panions of the ſayd Order, as your deſertes doe condignely require. Wherfore we will yt with conuenient diligence vpõ the ſight her|of, you repaire vnto our preſence, there to re|ceyue ſuch thinges as to the ſayde order ap|pertayneth. Dated vnder our ſignet at our maner of Grenewich the 24. of April. Theſe letters as it ſhoulde ſéeme were written An. 3. Edwardi ſexti, vnto the Earle of Hun|tingdon, & the Lorde George Cobham your Lordſhippes honourable father, at ſuch time as they were called vnto the aforeſaide com|pany. I finde alſo theſe names ſubſcribed vnto the ſame.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Edwarde Duke of Somerſet, Vncle to the king.
  • The Marq. of North|hampton.
  • Earle of Arundell L. Chamberleine.
  • Earle of Shreweſ|bury.
  • L. Ruſſell Lord pri [...]y ſeale.
  • L. S. Iohn L. great maiſter.
  • Sir Iohn Gage.
  • S. Anthony Wing|fielde.
  • Sir Wylliam Pa|get.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beyng elected preparation is made for his enſtalling at windſore (the place appoin|ted alwaies for this purpoſe) wherat it is re|quired that his Banner be ſet vppe, at twoo yardes and a quarter in length, and thrée quarters in bredth, beſides the frynge. Secondly his ſworde of whatſoeuer length hym ſéemeth good, thyrdely his helme, which frõ the charnell vpwards ought to be of thrée ynches at the leaſt, fourthly the creſt, wyth mantelles to the helme belonging of ſuch conuenient ſtuffe and biggeneſſe, as it ſhall pleaſe him to appoint.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a plate of armes at the backe of hys ſtall, and creſt with mantelles and beaſtes ſupportant, to be grauen in mettall.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item lodging ſcoucheons of hys armes in the garter, to be occupyed by the way.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item two mantelles one to the remayne in the colledge at Windſore, the other to vſe at hys pleaſure, with the ſcocheon of the armes of S. George in the garter with La|ces Taſſelettes, and knoppes of blewe ſilcke and Golde belonging to the ſame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a Surcote or Gowne of redde or crimoſine veluet, with a whodde of the ſame lyned wyth white Sarcenet or Damaſke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a collor of the garter of thirtie oun|ces of golde troye weight.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a tablet of S. George, rychely gar|niſhed with precious ſtones, or otherwyſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a Garter for his (left) legge, hauing the buckle and Pendaunt garniſhed wyth Golde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a booke of the ſtatutes of the ſayde order.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a ſcocheon of ye armes of S. George in ye garter to ſet vpon the mantell. And thys furniture is to be prouided againſt his inſta|lation.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 When any Knight is to bée inſtalled, he hath, with hys former letters, a garter ſent vnto him, and when he commeth to be inſtal|led, EEBO page image 104 [...] or his dep [...]tie, [...] him hys collor, and ſo he ſhall haue the [...] of his habit. As for his [...] not giuẽ ac|cording vnto the calling, & [...] of the receyuer, but as the place [...] that happe|neth to be v [...]yd [...], ſo that eache one called vn|to this knyghthoode, (the ſ [...]uereigne, & Em|perours, and Kinges, and Princes alwaies excepted) ſhall haue the ſame [...] which be|came voyd by the death of hys predeceſſor, howſoeuer it fall out, whereby a knight one|ly oftentimes, doth ſit before a Duke, wyth|out anye murmuring or g [...]dgyng at hys roome, except it pleaſe the ſouereigne, once in hys lyfe, to make a generall alteration, of thoſe ſeates, and ſo ſette eache one accor|ding to hys degrée.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Nowe as touching the apparell of theſe Knyghtes, it remaineth ſuch as King Ed|warde the firſt deuiſor of thys order left it, that is to ſay, euery yere one of the cullours, that is to ſay, Scarlet, Sanguine in graine, blewe and white. In lyke ſorte the Kinges Grace, hath at his pleaſure the content of cloth for hys Gowne & whodde, lyned wyth white Satine, or Damaſke, and multitude of garters with letters of Golde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Prince hath fiue yardes of cloth for his Gowne and whoodde, and garters with letters of Golde at his pleaſure, beſide fiue timber of the fyneſt mineuer.A tymber containeth fourtie ſkinnes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Duke hath fiue yardes of wollen cloth, fyue timber of mineuer, 120. garters with title of Golde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Marquiſe hath fiue yardes of woollen clothe, fiue timber of mineuer 110. garters of ſilke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 An Earle fiue yardes of woollen clothe, fiue timber of mineuer, and 100. garters of ſilke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Viſcount, fiue yardes of woollen cloth, fiue timber of mineuer, 90. garters of ſilke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Baron fiue yardes of woollen cloth, three timber of mineuer: gresle 80. garters of silke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Banneret, fiue yardes of woollen cloth, three timber of mineuer 70. garters of silke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Knight, fiue yards of woollen cloth, three timber of mineuer 60. garters of silke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Bishop of Winchester Chaplaine of the garter, hath eyght and twentie timber of mineuer pure, nyneteen timber of gr. three timber and a halfe of the best and foure and twentie yardes of woollen cloth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Chauncellour of the Order 5. yardes of woolle cloth, three timber of mineuer pure.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The register of the Order fiue yardes of woollen cloth, three timber of mineuer pure, and this order to be holden generally amo(n)g the knights of this companie, which are sixe and twentie in number, and whose patrone in time of superstition was supposed to be S. George, of whome they were also called S. Georges knightes as I haue hearde reported.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Furthermore at his installation, he is solemnely sworne, the maner whereof I haue thought good also to annexe, in this maner. You being chosen to be one of the honorable companie of the order of the Garter, shall promise and sweare vpon the holly Euangelies by you bodily, touched to be faithful and true to the kings magestie, and to obserue & keepe all the poyntes of the statutes of the sayde order, and euery article in them contayned, the same being agreeable and not repugnant to the kings highnesse other godly proceedings, so farre as to you belongeth and appertaineth, as God you helpe, &c. And thus much haue I thought good to note concerning the premises. As touching the estatutes belonging to this order they are many, and therefore not to be touched here. Howbeit yf any doubt doe aryse aboue the interpretation of them, the king who is the perpetuall Soueraine of that order hath to determine and resolue ye same. Neither are any chosen therunto vnder the degree of a Knight, and that is not a gentleman of bloud and of sounde estimation. And for the better vnderstanding what is meant by a gentill man of bloude, he is defined to descend of three descentes, of noblenesse, yt is to say, of name & of armes both by father and mother. There are also foure degrees of reproch, which may inhibit from the entraunce into this order: of which ye first is heresie lawfully prooued, the second high treason, the thirde is flight from the battaill, the fourth ryot and prodigall excesse of expences, wherby he is not likely to holde out, and maintayne the port of knight of this order, according to the dignitie thereof. Moreouer touching the wearing of their aforesaid apparell it is their custome to weare ye same when EEBO page image 114 when they enter the Chappell of Saint George, or be in the chapter house of their order, or finally doe go about any thing appertainyng to that company. In lyke sort they weare also theyr mantelles vpon the euen of S. George, & go with the Souereine, or his deputie in the same in maner of procession from the kings great chamber vnto the chapel, or vnto the Colledge and likewyſe back againe vnto the aforeſayde place, not put|ting it from them, vntill ſuppe [...] be ended, & the auoyde done. The next daye they reſorte vnto the chappell alſo in the lyke order, and from thence vnto diner, wearing afterward theyr ſayde apparell vnto euening prayer, & lykewyſe all the ſupper tyme, vntill the avoyd be finiſhed. In the ſolemnity likewiſe of theſe feaſtes, the thirtéene chanons there, & ſixe and twentie poore knightes, haue man|telles of the order, whereof thoſe for the cha|nons are of Murrey with a roundell of the armes of S. George,Sicke or abſent. the other of redde, with a ſcocheon onely of the ſayde armes. If a|nye Knyght of thys order bée abſent from thys ſolemnety vpon the euen and daye of S. George, and be inforced not to be preſent eyther through bodily ſickeneſſe, or hys ab|ſence out of the land: he doth in the Church Chappell, or Chamber where he is remay|ning, prouide an honorable ſtall for ye kings maieſtie in the ryght hande of the place with a cloth of eſtate, and cuſhions, & ſco|chion of the Garter, and therein the armes of the order. Alſo his owne ſtal of which ſide ſoeuer it be diſtaunt from the kinges or the Emperours in his owne place, appoynted ſo nyghe as he can, after the maner & ſcituation of his ſtall at Windſore, there to remaine, ye firſt euening prayer on ye euen of S. George, or thrée of the clocke, & likewiſe the next day duryng the time of the diuine ſeruice, vntyll the Morning prayer, and reſt of the ſeruyce be ended: and to weare in the meane time his mantell onely, wyth the George and the the lace, without eyther whoodde, collor or ſurcote. Or if he be ſo ſicke that he doe kéepe his bedde, he doth vſe to haue that habite laid vpon him during the times of diuine ſeruice aforeſaide. At the ſeruice time alſo vpon the morrow after S. George, two of the chyefe knights (ſauing the deputy of the ſouereigne if he himſelfe be abſent) ſhall offer the kings banner of armes, then other two the ſworde with the hyltes forwardes, which being done the firſt two ſhall returne againe and offer the helme and creſt, hauing at eache time two Harraldes of armes going before, ac|cording to the ſtatutes. The Lorde Deputy or Leeftenaunt vnto the kings Grace, for the tym [...] [...] to offer for himſelfe, whoſe [...] beyng made, euery knight according to their [...], wyth [...] H [...]rald before him procéedeth to the [...].

Compare 1587 edition: 1 What ſolemnitie is vſed at ye [...] of any knight of ye [...], [...] it is but in vain to declare wherefore I will ſhewe generally what is done at ye diſgrading of one of theſe knights, if thorowe any grieuous offence he be ſepa|rated from this companye. Whereas other|wyſe the ſigne of the order is neuer taken from him vntill death doe ende and finiſhe vp his dayes. Therfore when any ſuch thing is to be done, promulgation is made ther|of much after thys maner inſuing. [...]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Be it knowne vnto all men that. N. N. knyght of the moſt noble order of the Gar|ter, is founde gylty of the abhominable and deteſtable cryme of high treaſon, for he hath moſt trayterouſly cõſpired againſt our moſt high and mightie Prince ſouereigne of the ſayde order contrary to all ryght, his duety, and the faithful othe, which he hath ſworne & taken. For which cauſes therfore he hath de|ſerued to be depoſed from thys noble order, & felowſhip of the Garter. For it may not be ſuffred that ſuch a traytour & diſloyall mem|ber remayne among the faithfull knights of noble ſtomacke and bountifull proweſſe, or that hys armes ſhould be myngled wyth thoſe of noble chiualry. Wheerfore our moſt excellent Prince and ſupreame of this noble order, by the aduyſe and counſell of his Col|leges, wylleth and commaundeth that hys armes which he before time had deſerued ſhall be from hencefoorth taken awaye and throwne downe: and he himſelfe cleane cut of from the ſociety of this renowmed order, and neuer from this day reputed any more for a member of the ſame, that all other by hys example may hereafter beware howe they committe the lyke treſpaſſe, or fall in|to ſuch notorious ſhame and rebuke. Thys notice beyng gyuen, there reſorteth vnto the party to be deſgraded certaine officers with diuers of his late fellows appointed, which take frõ him his George, & other inueſtiture, after a ſolemne maner. And thus much of this moſt honorable order, hoping yt no man wil be offẽded wt me, for vttering thus much. For ſith the noble order of the Toyſon D [...]r or Golden fléeſ, with the ceremonies apper|teyning EEBO page image 105 vnto the creation and inueſtiture of the ſixe and thirtie knightes thereof: [...]ome [...]ink that [...]is was [...]e aun| [...]er of the Queene, [...]hen the [...]ng aſked [...]hat men [...] think [...]her, in [...]ing the [...]rter af| [...] ſuche a [...]aner. And lykewyſe that of S. Michaell and hys one & thirtie knights, are diſcourſed vpon at large by the hyſtoryographers of thoſe countreys, wtout reprehenſion or checke, I truſt I haue not gyuen any cauſe of diſpleaſure, briefely to ſet foorth thoſe things that appertaine vn|to our renoumed order of the Garter, in whoſe compaſſe is written commonly, Honi ſoit qui mal y penſe. which is ſo much to ſay, as euill come to him that euill thinketh: a very ſharpe imprecation; and yet ſuch as is not contrary to the worde, which promyſeth lyke meaſure to the meater, as he doth meat to others.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There is yet an other order of Knights in Englande called Knightes Bannerets,Bãnerets. who are made in the fielde with the ceremony of cutting of the point of his pennant of armes, and making it as it were a Banner. He be|ing before a Bacheler Knight, is nowe of an higher degrée & alowed to diſplay his armes in a banner as Barrons doe. Howbeit theſe Knights are neuer made but in the warres, the kinges Standard being vnfolded.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]ſquire.Eſquire (which we call commonly Squire) is a Frenche word, and ſo much in latine as Scutiger vel armiger, and ſuch are all thoſe which beare Armes, or Armoires, teſtimo|nies of their race from whence they be diſ|cended. They were at the firſt Coſterelles or the bearers of the Armes of Barrons, or knightes, and therby being inſtructed in Ar|mes, had that name for a dignitie giuen to di|ſtinguiſhe them from common ſouldiours, when they were togither in the fielde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 [...]entlemẽ.Gentlemen be thoſe whome their race and bloode doth make noble and knowne. The la|tines call them Nobiles & generoſos, as the Frenche doe Nobles. The Etimologie of the name expoundeth the efficacie of the worde & for as Gens in latin betokeneth the race and ſurname. So the Romaines had Cornelios, Sergios, Appios, Fabios, Aemilios, Iulios, Bru|tos. &c. of which, who were agnati and ther|fore kept the name, were alſo called Gentiles, gentlemen of that or that houſe and race. As the king or Quéene doth dubbe knights, and createth the Barons and higher degrées, ſo gentlemẽ whoſe aunceſtours are not knowẽ to come in with Williã Duke of Norman|die, do take their beginning in Englãd, after this maner in our tymes. [...]yers [...]ents Vni| [...]ſities. [...]iſitiõs [...]pteines Whoſoeuer ſtu|dieth ye lawes of the realme, who ſo ſtudieth in the Vniuerſitie, or profeſſeth Phiſicke and the liberall Sciences, or beſide his ſeruice in the rowme of a capitaine in the warres, can liue ydlely and without man [...]ell labour, and therto is able and wil beare the port, charge and countenaunce of a gentleman, he ſhall be called Maſter (which is the title that men giue to Eſquires and Gentlemenne) and reputed for a Gentleman, which is ſo much the leſſe to be diſalowed, as for that ye Prince doth loſe nothing by it, ye gentlemã being ſo much ſubiect to taxes and publicke paymẽts as is the Yeoman or huſbandman, which he alſo doth beare the gladlyer for the ſauing of his reputation. Being called in the warres, whatſoeuer it coſt him, he will both arraye and arme himſelfe accordinglye, and ſhewe ye more manly courage and all the tokens of ye perſon which he repreſenteth: No mã hath hurt by it but himſelf, who peraduenture wil now and then heare a bigger ſayle then hys boate is able to ſuſtaine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Citizens and Burgeſes haue next place to gentlemen,Citizens. who be thoſe that are frée with|in the cities, and are of ſome ſubſtaunce to beare. Office in ye [...]au [...]e. But theſe citizens or Burgeſes are to ſerue the cõmon wealth in their cities and Borowghes, or in corporate towne [...] where they dwell. And in the com|mon aſſembly of the realme to make lawes (called the Parliament,) the ancie [...]t Ei [...]e [...] appoint foure, and the borowghe tw [...] Bur|geſes to haue voy [...]es in it, and to giue their conſent or diſſent vnto ſuch thinges as paſſe or ſtay there in the name of the citie or Bo|rowe, for which they are appointed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In thys place alſo are our Marchauntes to be enſ [...]alled as amõg the Citizens,Marchãts whoſe number is ſo increaſed in theſe our dayes, that theyr onely maintenaunce is the cauſe of the excéeding prices of forreine wares, which otherwyſe when eache nation was permitted to bring in hir owne commodi|tyes, were farre better cheape and more plentifully to be had. Among the Lacedemo|nians it was founde out that great num|bers of Merchauntes were nothing to the furtheraunce of the ſtate of the common wealth [...]: wherefore it is to be wyſhed that the heape of them were ſomewhat reſtreig|ned, ſo ſhould the reſt lyue more eaſily vpon theyr owne, & few honeſt chapmẽ be brought to decaye, by breaking of the bankcrupt. I doe not denie but that the nauie of the lande is in part maintained by their [...]a [...]c [...] and ſo are the highe prices of thinges kept vp now they haue gotten the only ſale of things into their handes: whereas in times paſt when the ſtrange bottomes were ſuffered to come in, we had Suger for foure pence the pounde, that nowe is worth halfe a crowne, Ra [...]ſons EEBO page image 115 of Corinth for a peny that now are holden at ſix pence, and ſometime at eight pence & ten pence the pounde: nutmegges at two pence halfe peny the mince: Gynger at a penny an ounce, Proynes at halfe penye fardyng: Great reyſons thrée pounde for a peny, Ci|namon at foure pence the ounce, Cloues at two pence, and Pepper at twelue, and ſixe|tene pence the pounde. Whereby we maye ſée the ſequele of thinges not alwayes to be ſuch as is pretended in the beginning. The wares that they carry out of the Realme, are for the moſt part brode clothes & carſies of all coulours, lykewyſe cottons, fréeſes rugges, tinne, wooll, leade, felles. &c. which being ſhipped at ſundry ports of our coaſts, are borne from thence into all quarters of the worlde, and there eyther exchaunged for other wares, or ready money: to the great game and commoditie of our Merchauntes. And whereas in times paſt our chiefe trade was into Spaine, Portingall, Fraunce, Flaunders, Danſke, Norway, Scotlande, and Iſeland onely: ſo in theſe dayes, as men not contented wyth thoſe iourneyes, they haue ſought out the eaſt and weſt Indies, & made voyages not only vnto the Canaries, and newe Spaine, but likewyſe into Catha|ia,Not ſéene in a bate|ment of price of thinges. Moſcouia, Tartaria, & the regions there|about, from whence as they pretende they bring home great commodities.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Our Yeomen, are thoſe which by our Law+yers are called Legales hommes, fre mẽ born Engliſh, and maye diſpende of theyr owne frée lande in yerely reuenewe, to the ſumme of 40. s. ſterling. This ſorte of people haue a certaine preheminence and more eſtimation then labourers and artificers, and commõ|ly lyue welthely, kéepe good houſes, & trauei|leth to get ryches. They are alſo for the moſt part fermers to gentlemen, & with grazing frequenting of markets and kéeping of ſer|uants ( [...]ot ydle ſeruaunts as the gentlemen doth, but ſuch as get both their owne & part of theyr Ma [...]ſters lyuing) doe come to great wealth, inſomuch that many of them are a|ble and doe buy the landes of vnthrifty gen|tlemen, & often ſetting theyr ſonnes to the Scholes, to the Vniuerſities, and to ye Innes of the Court or otherwiſe leauing them ſuf|ficient landes wherevpon they maye lyue without labour, doe make their ſayde ſonnes by that meanes to become gentlemẽ. Theſe were they yt in times paſt made al Fraunce afrayd. And the kings of England in fough|ten battailes, were woont to remaine among theſe Yeomen who were their footemen, as the French Kings did amongſt theyr horſe|men: the Prince thereby ſhewing where his chiefe ſtrength did conſiſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The fourth and laſt ſort of people in Eng|lande are day labourers, poore huſbandmẽ, and ſome retaylers (which haue no frée lande) copy holders, & al artificers, as Tay|lours, Shoomakers, Carpenters: Bricke|makers, Maſons. [...] &c. As for ſlaues & [...] we haue none. Theſe therfore haue neither voice nor authoritie in ye common welth, but are to be ruled, & not to rule other: yet they are not altogither neglected, for in cities and corporalte Townes, for default of Yeomen they are fayne to make vp their enqueſtes [...] of ſuch maner of people. And in Villages they are commonly made Church wardens Sidemen, Aleconners, Conſtables, & many tymes enioye the name of hedborowghes. Thys furthermore amonge other thynges I haue to ſaye of our huſbandmen and ar|tificers, that they were neuer ſo excellent in theyr trades as at this preſent. But as the workemanſhippe of the later ſort was neuer more fine and curious to the eye, ſo was it neuer leſſe ſtrong and ſubſtanciall for conti|nuance and benefite of the buyers. Certes there is nothing that hurteth our artificers more then haſt, and a barbarous or ſlauiſhe deſire, by ridding their work to make ſpéedy vtteraunce of theyr wares: which inforceth thẽ to bũgle vp & diſpatch many things they care not howe ſo they be out of theyr hands, whereby the buyer is often ſore defraude [...], and findeth to hys coſt, that haſt maketh waſt; accordyng to the prouerbe. But to leaue, theſe thinges and procéede wyth [...] purpoſe, and herein (as occaſion ſerueth) generally to ſpeake of the common wealth of Englande, I find that it is gouerned and maintained by thrée ſortes of perſons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 1 The Prince Monarch and heade gouer|nour which is called the king, or (if ye crown fall to the Woman) the Quéene: in whoſe name and by whoſe authoritie, all thynges are adminiſtred.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The Gentlemen, which be deuided into two parts, as ye Barony or eſtates of Lord [...], (which conteyneth Barons and all aboue that degrée) and alſo thoſe that be no Lords, as Knightes, Eſquiers, and ſimple Gentle|men. &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 3 The third and laſt ſort is named the Yeo|manrye, of whome and their ſequele, the la|bourers and Artificers, I haue ſayde ſome|what euen nowe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of theſe alſo ſomeare by the Prince, choſe & called to great offices, in the cõmon welth, of which offices diuers concerne the whole realme, ſome be more pryuate and peculyar to the kinges houſe. And they haue their pla|ces EEBO page image 106 and degrées, preſcribed by an Act of par|liament made Ann [...]. 3 [...]. H [...]octaui, after this maner inſuing.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theſe foure the Lorde Chauncelour, the Lorde Treaſorour, the Lord preſident of the Counſell, and the Lorde Pri [...]e Seale bée|yng perſons of the degrée of a Ba [...]on or a|boue, are in the ſame act appointed to ſit in ye Parliament and in all aſſemblies or counſel aboue all Dukes, not being of the bloud roy|all, Videlicet the kinges Brother, Vncle or Nephewe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And theſe ſixe, the L. great Chamberlein of Englande: the L. high Conſtable of Eng|lande: the Lorde Marſhall of Englande: the Lorde Admirall of Englande: the Lorde great Maiſter, or Kings Stewarde of the Kings houſe: and the Lorde Chamberleyne: by that acte are to be placed in all aſſemblies of Counſell, after the Lorde Priuie Seale, according to their degrées & eſtates: ſo that if he be a Barron, then to ſitte aboue all Ba|rons: or an Earle, aboue all Earles.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And ſo likewyſe the kynges Secretarye beyng a Barron of the Parliament, hath place aboue all Barons, and if he be a man of higher degrée, hée ſhall [...]tte and be placed according therevnto.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 The Temporall Nobilitie of England ac|cording to the auncientie of theyr creations or firſt calling to their degrées.

  • [...] Duke [...] Eng| [...]de.The Marquiſe of Wincheſter.
  • The Earle of Arondell.
  • The Earle of Oxforde.
  • The Earle of Northumberlande.
  • The Earle of Shreweſbury.
  • The Earle of Kent.
  • The Earle of Derby.
  • The Earle of Worceſter.
  • The Earle of Rutlande.
  • The Earle of Cumberlande.
  • The Earle of Suſſex.
  • The Earle of Huntingdon.
  • The Earle of Bath.
  • The Earle of Warwicke.
  • The Earle of Southampton.
  • The Earle of Bedforde.
  • The Earle of Penbrooke.
  • The Earle of Hertforde.
  • The Earle of Leyceſter.
  • The Earle of Eſſex.
  • The Earle of Lincolne.
  • The Viſcont Montague.
  • The Viſcont Byndon.
  • The Lorde of Abergeuenny.
  • The Lorde Awdeley.
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...] of the [...].
  • The Lorde Cobham.
  • The Lorde Talbot.
  • The Lorde Stafforde.
  • The Lorde Grey of Wilton.
  • The Lorde Scrope.
  • The Lorde Dudley.
  • The Lorde La [...]ymer.
  • The Lorde St [...]urton.
  • The Lorde Lumley.
  • The Lorde Moun [...]y.
  • The Lorde Ogle.
  • The Lorde Darcy of the North.
  • The Lorde Mountegie.
  • The Lorde Sandes.
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde Wind [...]ore.
  • The Lorde Wen [...]woorth.
  • The Lorde Borough.
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde Cromwell.
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde Riche.
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde Paget.
  • The Lorde D [...]rcy of [...].
  • The Lord H [...]warde of Oſſingham.
  • The Lord North.
  • The Lord Chaundes.
  • The Lord of Hunſdon.
  • The Lord Saint Iohn of Bleſſo.
  • The Lorde of Buckhirſt.
  • The Lord Delaware.
  • The Lorde Burghley.
  • The Lorde Compton.
  • The Lorde Cheyney.
  • The Lorde Norreys.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

Byshoppes in their aunciencie, as they [...] in Parliament in the fift of the Queenes Maieſties the reigne.

  • The Arch Byſhop of Caunterbury.
  • The Arch Byſhop of Yorke.
  • London.
  • Durham.
  • Wincheſter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The reſt had theyr places in Seniority of Conſecration.

  • Chicheſter.
  • Landaphe.
  • Hereforde.
  • Ely.
  • Worceter.
  • Bangor.
  • EEBO page image 116Lincolne.
  • Saliſbury.
  • S. Dauids.
  • Rocheſter.
  • Bathe & Welle [...].
  • Couentre and Lich|fielde.
  • Exceter.
  • Norwiche.
  • Peterborough.
  • Carleile.
  • Cheſter.
  • S. [...]e.
  • Gloceſter.

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