The Holinshed Project

Holinshed Project Home

The Texts

Previous | Next

3.4. Of the degrees of people in the common wealth of Englande. Cap. 4.

Of the degrees of people in the common wealth of Englande. Cap. 4.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 WE in Englande deuide our people commonlye into foure ſortes, as Gentlemen, Citizens or Burgeſes, Yeomẽ, and Artificerers or labourers. Of gentlemẽ the firſt & chiefe next the king be the Prince, Dukes, Marquiſes, Earles, Viſcontes and Barons: and theſe are called the Nobilitie, they are alſo named Lordes and noble men, and next to them be Knightes and Eſquires, and ſimple gentlemen.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Prince.The tytle of Prince doth peculiarly be|long to the Kinges eldeſt ſonne, who is cal|led Prince of Wales, and is the heire ap|parant to the Crowne, as in Fraunce the kings eldeſt ſonne hath ye title of Dolphine, and is named peculiarly Monſieur. So that the Prince is ſo termed of the latine worde, quia eſt principalis poſt Regem. The Kinges yonger ſonnes be but gentlemen by byrth, till they haue receyued creation of hygher eſtate to bée eyther Viſcontes, Earles or Dukes: & called after their names, as Lord Henry, or Lorde Edwarde wyth the additiõ of the worde Grace, properly aſſigned to the king and prince, and by cuſtome conueighed to Dukes, Marquiſes, and their wyues.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The title of Duke commeth alſo of the La|tine worde Dux, à ducendo, Duke. bycauſe of hys valoir and power ouer the army. In times paſt a name of Office due to the chiefe go|uernour of the whole armie in the warres, but now a name of honour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In olde tyme he onely was called Mar|quiſe Qui habuit terram limitaneam, a mar|ching prouince vpon the enemies countreis. But that alſo is chaunged in common vſe, & reputed for a name of great honour next the Duke, euen ouer Counties and ſometimes ſmall cities, as the Prince is pleaſed to be|ſtowe it.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The name of Earle likewyſe was among the Romaines a name of Office,Erle. who had Comites ſacri palatij, Comites aerarij, Comi|tes ſtabuli and ſuch like, howbeit it appereth that with vs it hath the next place to ye Mar|quiſe, and he that beareth it is called per|aduenture Comes à comitiua, quia dignus eſt ducere comitiuam in bello. Or elſe bicauſe he is Comes Ducis, a companiõ of the Duke in the warres. And he hath his follower the Viſcont, called eyther Pro Comes, Viſcont. or viceco|mes: who in tyme paſt, gouerned in the coũ|tie vnder the Earle, and nowe without any ſuch ſeruice or office, it alſo is become a name of dignitie next after the Earle, and in degrée before the Baron.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Baron is ſuch a frée Lorde,Baron. as hath a Lordſhip or Barony, whereof he beareth his name, & holding of him diuers Knightes & fréeholders: who were woont to ſerue the king in the warres and helde their landes in Baronia, for doing ſuch ſeruice. Theſe Brac|ton (a learned wryter of the lawes of Eng|lande in king Henry the thirdes tyme) tear|meth Barones, quaſi robur belli. The worde Baro is older thẽ that it may eaſily be found frõ whence it came: for euen in the oldeſt hi|ſtories both of the Germaines & French|men, we reade of Barons, and thoſe are at this day called among the Germaines Libe|ri, vel ingenui, as ſome men doe coniecture.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Vnto this place I alſo refer our Biſhops,Byſhops. who are accounted honourable, and whoſe countenaunces in time paſt was much more glorious then at this preſent it is, bycauſe thoſe luſty Prelates ſought after earthly e|ſtimation, EEBO page image 112 and authoritie wyth far more di|ligence then after the loſt ſhéepe of Chriſt, whereof they had ſmall regarde, as men be|ing otherwiſe occupyed & voyde of leyſure to attende vnto ye ſame. Howbeit in theſe daies their eſtate remayneth ſtill honourable as before, and the more vertuous they are that be of this calling, the better are they eſtée|med with highe and lowe. Herein there|fore their caſe is growen to be much better then before, for whereas in tymes paſt the cleargie men were feared bycauſe of theyr authoritie and ſeuere gouernement vnder the Prince, now are they beloued generally (except peraduẽture of a few hungrie wõbes that couet to plucke and ſnatch at their loſe endes) for their painefull diligence ſhewed in their calling, and vertuous conuerſation. Finally how it ſtandeth with the reſt of the cleargie, I neyther can tell nor greatly care to know, neuertheleſſe wyth what degrées of honour and woorſhip they haue béene mat|ched in times paſt Iohannes Bohemus in hys De omnium gentium moribus and other doe expreſſe.De Aſia. cap. 12. But as a number of theſe compari|ſons and ambitions tytles are now decayed & woorthily ſhronke in the wetting, ſo giuing ouer in theſe daies to maintayne ſuch pom|pous vanitie, they thincke it ſufficient for thẽ to preache the worde and holde their liuinges to their ſies from the handes of ſuch as inde|uour to diminiſhe them. This furthermore will I adde generally in commendation of the cleargie of Englande that they are for their learning reputed in Fraunce, Portin|gale, Spaine, Germany & Polonia, to be the moſt learned deuines, & therto ſo ſkilfull in the two principal tongues that it is accoun|ted a maime in any one of them, not to be ex|actely ſéene in the Gréeke and Hebrue, much more then to be vtterly ignorant or nothing conuerſaunt in them. As for the latine ton|gue it is not wanting in any, eſpeciallye in ſuch as haue béene made within this twelue or fourtéene yeares, whereas before there was ſmall choyſe, and many cures were left vnſerued bycauſe they had none at all.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Dukes, Marquiſes, Earles, Viſcontes, and Barons, either be created of the Prince, or come to that honour by being the eldeſt ſonnes or higheſt in ſucceſſiõ to their parẽts. For the eldeſt ſonne of a Duke during hys fathers lyfe is an Earle,Duke. the eldeſt ſonne of an Erle is a Baron, or ſometymes a Viſ|cont, according as the creation is. The crea|tion I call the originall donation and condi|tion of the honour giuen by the Prince for the good ſeruice done by the firſt aunceſtor, with ſome aduauncement, which with the ti|tle of that honour is alwayes giuen to hym & to his heires maſles onely. The reſt of the ſonnes of the nobilitie by the rigour of the law be but Eſquires: yet in common ſpeach all Dukes and Marquiſes ſonnes, & Earle [...] eldeſt ſonnes be called Lordes, the which name commõly doth agrée to none of lower degrée then Barons, yet by lawe & vſe theſe be not eſtéemed Barons. The Baronny or degrée of Lords doth aunſwere to the degrée of Senatours of Rome: and the tytle of [...]|bilitie as we vſe to call it in England to the Romaine Patricij. Alſo in Englãd no man is created Baron except he may diſpende of yerly reuenues ſo much as may fully main|tayne and beare out his countenaunce and port. But Viſconts, Earles, Marquiſes and Dukes excéede them according to the pro|portiõ of their degrée & honor. But though by chaunce he or his ſonne haue leſſe, yet he kée|peth his degrée: but if the decay be exceſſiue & not able to maintayne the honour, as Se|natores Romani were moti Senatu: ſo ſome|tymes they are not admitted to the vpper houſe in the parliament, although they kep [...] the name of Lord ſtill, which cannot be takẽ from them, vpon any ſuch occaſion.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Knightes be not borne, [...] neytheir is any mã a knight by ſucceſſion, no not the Kyng or Prince: but they are made eyther before the battaile to encourage them the more to ad|uenture and trie their manhoode, or after, as an aduauncement for their courage & prow|eſſe alreadie ſhewed, or out of the warres for ſome great ſeruice done, or for the ſingular vertues which doe appeare in them. They are made eyther by the king himſelfe, or by his commiſſion and Royall authoritie giuen for the ſame purpoſe: or by his lieutenaunt in the warres. This order ſeemeth to aun|ſwere in part to that which the Romaines called Equitũ Romanorum. For as Equites Romani were choſen ex cenſu, that is accor|ding to their ſubſtaunce and riches: ſo be Knightes in Englande moſt commonly ac|cording to their yearelye reuenues or ſub|ſtaunce and riches, wherewith to maintaine the eſtate. Yet all that had Equaeſtrem cen|ſum, were not choſen to be knights, no more be all made knightes in England that maye ſpende a knightes landes, but they onelye whom the Prince will honour. The number of the knightes in Rome was vncertaine: and ſo is it of knyghtes wyth vs, as at the pleaſure of the Prince. We call him Knight in Engliſh that the French calleth Cheualier, and the latine Equitem, or Equeſtris ordinis virum. And when any man is made a knight, he knéeling downe is ſtriken of the Prince EEBO page image 103 or his ſubſtitute with his ſworde naked vpõ the ſhoulder, the Prince. &c. ſaying, S [...]yes che|ualier au nom de I [...]ieu. And when he ryſeth vp the Prince ſayth Aduances [...] cheualier. Th [...] is the maner of dubbing knightes at th [...] preſent, and the tearme (dubbing) is the [...] terme for that purpoſe and not creation.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]ghtes [...].At the Coronation of a King or Quéene there be knightes made with longer & more curious ceremonies, called Knightes of the Bath. But howſoeuer one be dubbed or made Knight, his wyfe is by and by cal [...]d Madame, or Ladye, ſo well as the Barons wyfe, he himſelfe hauing added to his name in common appellatiõ this ſiliable Sir, which is the title whereby we call our Knightes here in Englande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The other order of Knighthod in Englãd & the moſt honorable is that of ye Garter, [...]ghtes [...] gar| [...] in|ſtituted by king Edwarde the third, who af|ter he had gayned many notable victories; taken king Iohn of France, & king Iames of Scotland (& kept them both pryſoners in the Tower of London at one time) expulſed king Henry of Ca [...]ſtil the baſtarde out of his realme, and reſtored Don Petro vnto it (by ye helpe of the Prince of Wales & Duke of Aquitaine his eldeſt ſonne called the black Prince) He then inuented this ſocietie of ho|nour, & made a choiſe out of his owne realme & dominions, & thorowout all Chriſtendome of the beſt moſt excellent and renowmed perſons in all vertues & honour, & adourned thẽ with ye title to be Knightes of his Order; giuing thẽ a Garter garniſhed with golde & precious ſtones, to were daily on the left leg only, alſo a Kirtle, gowne, cloke, chaperon, coler & other ſolemne and magnificent ap|parell, both of ſtuffe and faſhion exquiſite & heroicall to weare at high feaſtes, as to [...] high and Princely an Order apperteyneth. Of this company alſo he and his ſucceſſours Kinges and Quéenes of Englande, be the Soueraignes, and the reaſt by certaine ſta|tutes and lawes amongſt themſelues be ta|ken as brethren and fellowes in that order to the number of ſixe and twentie, as I finde in a certayne Treatize written of the ſame an example whereof I haue here inſerted worde for worde as it was deliuered vnto me, beginning after this maner.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 I might at this preſent make a long tra [...]|tation of the Rounde table and order of the knightes thereof, erected ſometymes by Ar|thur the great monarche of thys Iſland: and thervnto intreate of the number of his Kni|ghtes and ceremonies belonging to the or|der, but I thincke in ſo dooing that I ſhoulde rather ſet downe ye latter inuentions of other men, then a true deſcription of ſuch [...] as were performed in déede. I could furthermore with more facilitie describe the Royaltie of Charles the great & his twelue Peeres, with their solemne rites and vsages but vnto this also I haue no great deuotion, considering the truth hereof is nowe so stayned wyth errours and fables inserted into the same by the lewde religious sort, that except a man shoulde professe to lye with the(m) for companye, there is little sounde knowledge to be gathered hereof woorthie ye reme(m)braunce. In lyke maner dyuers aſwell ſub|iectes as Princes haue [...] to reſtore againe a [...]ounde table in this lande, but ſuch was ye exceſſiue charges appertayning th [...]|vnto (as they dyd make allowa [...]nce) and to great moleſtation dayly inſued there vpõ be|ſide the bréeding of ſundr [...]e quarrels among the knightes and ſuch as reſorted hyther frõ forrien countries (as it was firſt vſed) that in [...]ne they gaue it ouer & ſuffred their whole inuentions to periſhe and decaye, vntill Ed|warde the third deuiſed an other order not ſo much peſtered with multitude of Knightes as the rounde table, but much more honou|rable for princely port and countenance, as ſhall appeare hereafter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The order of the Garter therefore was deuised in the time of King Edward the third, and as some write vppon this occasion. The Queenes maiestie the(n) liuing, being departed from his presence the next way towarde hir lodging, he following soone after, happened to finde hir Garter which slacked by chaunce and so fel from hir legge. His gromes & gentlemen passed by it, as distaining to stoupe & take vp such a trifle: but he knowing ye owner commaunded one of them to staye & take it vp. Why and like your Grace saieth a Gentleman is but some womans garter that hath fallen fro(m) hir as she folowed ye Queenes maiestie. Whatsoeuer it be quoth the Kyng take it vp and giue it me. So whe(n) he had receyued the garter, he sayde to such as stoode about him: you my maisters doe make small account of this blew garter here (and therewith helde it out) but if God lende me lyfe for a fewe monethes,Peraduẽ|ture it was but a blew Rib|bon. I will make the prowdest of you all to reuerence the like: and euen vpon this slender occasion he gaue himselfe to the deuising of this order. Certes I haue not read of any thing that hauing had ſo ſim|ple a beginning hath growne in the ende to ſo great honour and eſtimation. But to pro|céede, after he had ſtu [...]yed a whyle about the performaunce of his deuiſe & had ſet downe ſuch orders as he himſelfe had inuented con|cerning ye ſame, he proclaimed a royall feaſt EEBO page image 113 to be holden at Windſore, whyther all his nobilitie reſorted with their Ladyes, where he publiſhed his inſtitutiõ, and furthwith in|ueſted an appointed number into the afore|ſayd fellowſhip, whoſe names inſue, himſelf being the Soueraigne and principall of that companie. Next vnto him alſo he placed.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Edwarde Prince of Wales.
  • Henry duke of Lan|caſter.
  • N. Earle of Warw.
  • N. Capt. de Bouche.
  • N. Earle of ſtafford.
  • N. Earle of Sarum.
  • N. L. Mortimer.
  • Sir Iohn Liſ [...]e.
  • Sir Bartholomewe Burwaſh.
  • N. Sonne of S. Iohn Beauchamp.
  • Sir N. de Mahun.
  • S. Hugh Courtnay.
  • S. Thomas Holland
  • S. Iohn Gray.
  • S. Rich. Fitzſimon.
  • S. Miles Stapleton.
  • S. Thomas Wale.
  • S. Hugh Wrotoſley.
  • S. Neale Lording.
  • S. Iohn Chandos.
  • S. Iames Dawdley.
  • S. O [...]ho Holland.
  • S. Henry Eme.
  • Sir Sanchet Dam|bricourt.
  • Sir Walter Pan|nell alias Paganell.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 What order of electiõ, and what eſtatutes were preſcribed vnto the elected at this firſt inſtitution, as yet I can not exactely vnder|ſtande, neyther can I learne what euerye Prince afterwarde added therevnto before the ſixe and thirtieth yeare of king Henry the eyght, and thirde of king Edwarde the ſixt: wherfore of neceſſitie I muſt reſort vnto the eſtate of the ſayde order as it is at this pre|ſent, which I will ſet downe ſo briefely as I may. When any man therefore is to be e|lected (vpon a rowme found voyd for his ad|miſſiõ) into this fellowſhip, the king directeth his letters vnto him, notwithſtanding that he before hande be nominate vnto the ſame, to this effect. Right truſtie and welbeloued we greete you well, aſſertayning you, that in conſideration aſwell of your approoued trueth & fidelitie, as alſo of your couragious and valiant actes of knighthoode, with other your probable merites knowne by experiẽce in ſundrie parties and behalfes: we with the companions of the noble order of the Gar|ter aſſembled at the election holden this day within our manour of N. haue elected & cho|ſen you amongſt other to be one of the com|panions of the ſayd Order, as your deſertes doe condignely require. Wherfore we will yt with conuenient diligence vpõ the ſight her|of, you repaire vnto our preſence, there to re|ceyue ſuch thinges as to the ſayde order ap|pertayneth. Dated vnder our ſignet at our maner of Grenewich the 24. of April. Theſe letters as it ſhoulde ſéeme were written An. 3. Edwardi ſexti, vnto the Earle of Hun|tingdon, & the Lorde George Cobham your Lordſhippes honourable father, at ſuch time as they were called vnto the aforeſaide com|pany. I finde alſo theſe names ſubſcribed vnto the ſame.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Edwarde Duke of Somerſet, Vncle to the king.
  • The Marq. of North|hampton.
  • Earle of Arundell L. Chamberleine.
  • Earle of Shreweſ|bury.
  • L. Ruſſell Lord pri [...]y ſeale.
  • L. S. Iohn L. great maiſter.
  • Sir Iohn Gage.
  • S. Anthony Wing|fielde.
  • Sir Wylliam Pa|get.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beyng elected preparation is made for his enſtalling at windſore (the place appoin|ted alwaies for this purpoſe) wherat it is re|quired that his Banner be ſet vppe, at twoo yardes and a quarter in length, and thrée quarters in bredth, beſides the frynge. Secondly his ſworde of whatſoeuer length hym ſéemeth good, thyrdely his helme, which frõ the charnell vpwards ought to be of thrée ynches at the leaſt, fourthly the creſt, wyth mantelles to the helme belonging of ſuch conuenient ſtuffe and biggeneſſe, as it ſhall pleaſe him to appoint.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a plate of armes at the backe of hys ſtall, and creſt with mantelles and beaſtes ſupportant, to be grauen in mettall.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item lodging ſcoucheons of hys armes in the garter, to be occupyed by the way.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item two mantelles one to the remayne in the colledge at Windſore, the other to vſe at hys pleaſure, with the ſcocheon of the armes of S. George in the garter with La|ces Taſſelettes, and knoppes of blewe ſilcke and Golde belonging to the ſame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a Surcote or Gowne of redde or crimoſine veluet, with a whodde of the ſame lyned wyth white Sarcenet or Damaſke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a collor of the garter of thirtie oun|ces of golde troye weight.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a tablet of S. George, rychely gar|niſhed with precious ſtones, or otherwyſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a Garter for his (left) legge, hauing the buckle and Pendaunt garniſhed wyth Golde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a booke of the ſtatutes of the ſayde order.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Item a ſcocheon of ye armes of S. George in ye garter to ſet vpon the mantell. And thys furniture is to be prouided againſt his inſta|lation.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 When any Knight is to bée inſtalled, he hath, with hys former letters, a garter ſent vnto him, and when he commeth to be inſtal|led, EEBO page image 104 [...] or his dep [...]tie, [...] him hys collor, and ſo he ſhall haue the [...] of his habit. As for his [...] not giuẽ ac|cording vnto the calling, & [...] of the receyuer, but as the place [...] that happe|neth to be v [...]yd [...], ſo that eache one called vn|to this knyghthoode, (the ſ [...]uereigne, & Em|perours, and Kinges, and Princes alwaies excepted) ſhall haue the ſame [...] which be|came voyd by the death of hys predeceſſor, howſoeuer it fall out, whereby a knight one|ly oftentimes, doth ſit before a Duke, wyth|out anye murmuring or g [...]dgyng at hys roome, except it pleaſe the ſouereigne, once in hys lyfe, to make a generall alteration, of thoſe ſeates, and ſo ſette eache one accor|ding to hys degrée.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Nowe as touching the apparell of theſe Knyghtes, it remaineth ſuch as King Ed|warde the firſt deuiſor of thys order left it, that is to ſay, euery yere one of the cullours, that is to ſay, Scarlet, Sanguine in graine, blewe and white. In lyke ſorte the Kinges Grace, hath at his pleaſure the content of cloth for hys Gowne & whodde, lyned wyth white Satine, or Damaſke, and multitude of garters with letters of Golde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Prince hath fiue yardes of cloth for his Gowne and whoodde, and garters with letters of Golde at his pleaſure, beſide fiue timber of the fyneſt mineuer.A tymber containeth fourtie ſkinnes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Duke hath fiue yardes of wollen cloth, fyue timber of mineuer, 120. garters with title of Golde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Marquiſe hath fiue yardes of woollen clothe, fiue timber of mineuer 110. garters of ſilke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 An Earle fiue yardes of woollen clothe, fiue timber of mineuer, and 100. garters of ſilke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Viſcount, fiue yardes of woollen cloth, fiue timber of mineuer, 90. garters of ſilke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Baron fiue yardes of woollen cloth, three timber of mineuer: gresle 80. garters of silke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Banneret, fiue yardes of woollen cloth, three timber of mineuer 70. garters of silke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Knight, fiue yards of woollen cloth, three timber of mineuer 60. garters of silke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Bishop of Winchester Chaplaine of the garter, hath eyght and twentie timber of mineuer pure, nyneteen timber of gr. three timber and a halfe of the best and foure and twentie yardes of woollen cloth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Chauncellour of the Order 5. yardes of woolle cloth, three timber of mineuer pure.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The register of the Order fiue yardes of woollen cloth, three timber of mineuer pure, and this order to be holden generally amo(n)g the knights of this companie, which are sixe and twentie in number, and whose patrone in time of superstition was supposed to be S. George, of whome they were also called S. Georges knightes as I haue hearde reported.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Furthermore at his installation, he is solemnely sworne, the maner whereof I haue thought good also to annexe, in this maner. You being chosen to be one of the honorable companie of the order of the Garter, shall promise and sweare vpon the holly Euangelies by you bodily, touched to be faithful and true to the kings magestie, and to obserue & keepe all the poyntes of the statutes of the sayde order, and euery article in them contayned, the same being agreeable and not repugnant to the kings highnesse other godly proceedings, so farre as to you belongeth and appertaineth, as God you helpe, &c. And thus much haue I thought good to note concerning the premises. As touching the estatutes belonging to this order they are many, and therefore not to be touched here. Howbeit yf any doubt doe aryse aboue the interpretation of them, the king who is the perpetuall Soueraine of that order hath to determine and resolue ye same. Neither are any chosen therunto vnder the degree of a Knight, and that is not a gentleman of bloud and of sounde estimation. And for the better vnderstanding what is meant by a gentill man of bloude, he is defined to descend of three descentes, of noblenesse, yt is to say, of name & of armes both by father and mother. There are also foure degrees of reproch, which may inhibit from the entraunce into this order: of which ye first is heresie lawfully prooued, the second high treason, the thirde is flight from the battaill, the fourth ryot and prodigall excesse of expences, wherby he is not likely to holde out, and maintayne the port of knight of this order, according to the dignitie thereof. Moreouer touching the wearing of their aforesaid apparell it is their custome to weare ye same when EEBO page image 114 when they enter the Chappell of Saint George, or be in the chapter house of their order, or finally doe go about any thing appertainyng to that company. In lyke sort they weare also theyr mantelles vpon the euen of S. George, & go with the Souereine, or his deputie in the same in maner of procession from the kings great chamber vnto the chapel, or vnto the Colledge and likewyſe back againe vnto the aforeſayde place, not put|ting it from them, vntill ſuppe [...] be ended, & the auoyde done. The next daye they reſorte vnto the chappell alſo in the lyke order, and from thence vnto diner, wearing afterward theyr ſayde apparell vnto euening prayer, & lykewyſe all the ſupper tyme, vntill the avoyd be finiſhed. In the ſolemnity likewiſe of theſe feaſtes, the thirtéene chanons there, & ſixe and twentie poore knightes, haue man|telles of the order, whereof thoſe for the cha|nons are of Murrey with a roundell of the armes of S. George,Sicke or abſent. the other of redde, with a ſcocheon onely of the ſayde armes. If a|nye Knyght of thys order bée abſent from thys ſolemnety vpon the euen and daye of S. George, and be inforced not to be preſent eyther through bodily ſickeneſſe, or hys ab|ſence out of the land: he doth in the Church Chappell, or Chamber where he is remay|ning, prouide an honorable ſtall for ye kings maieſtie in the ryght hande of the place with a cloth of eſtate, and cuſhions, & ſco|chion of the Garter, and therein the armes of the order. Alſo his owne ſtal of which ſide ſoeuer it be diſtaunt from the kinges or the Emperours in his owne place, appoynted ſo nyghe as he can, after the maner & ſcituation of his ſtall at Windſore, there to remaine, ye firſt euening prayer on ye euen of S. George, or thrée of the clocke, & likewiſe the next day duryng the time of the diuine ſeruice, vntyll the Morning prayer, and reſt of the ſeruyce be ended: and to weare in the meane time his mantell onely, wyth the George and the the lace, without eyther whoodde, collor or ſurcote. Or if he be ſo ſicke that he doe kéepe his bedde, he doth vſe to haue that habite laid vpon him during the times of diuine ſeruice aforeſaide. At the ſeruice time alſo vpon the morrow after S. George, two of the chyefe knights (ſauing the deputy of the ſouereigne if he himſelfe be abſent) ſhall offer the kings banner of armes, then other two the ſworde with the hyltes forwardes, which being done the firſt two ſhall returne againe and offer the helme and creſt, hauing at eache time two Harraldes of armes going before, ac|cording to the ſtatutes. The Lorde Deputy or Leeftenaunt vnto the kings Grace, for the tym [...] [...] to offer for himſelfe, whoſe [...] beyng made, euery knight according to their [...], wyth [...] H [...]rald before him procéedeth to the [...].

Compare 1587 edition: 1 What ſolemnitie is vſed at ye [...] of any knight of ye [...], [...] it is but in vain to declare wherefore I will ſhewe generally what is done at ye diſgrading of one of theſe knights, if thorowe any grieuous offence he be ſepa|rated from this companye. Whereas other|wyſe the ſigne of the order is neuer taken from him vntill death doe ende and finiſhe vp his dayes. Therfore when any ſuch thing is to be done, promulgation is made ther|of much after thys maner inſuing. [...]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Be it knowne vnto all men that. N. N. knyght of the moſt noble order of the Gar|ter, is founde gylty of the abhominable and deteſtable cryme of high treaſon, for he hath moſt trayterouſly cõſpired againſt our moſt high and mightie Prince ſouereigne of the ſayde order contrary to all ryght, his duety, and the faithful othe, which he hath ſworne & taken. For which cauſes therfore he hath de|ſerued to be depoſed from thys noble order, & felowſhip of the Garter. For it may not be ſuffred that ſuch a traytour & diſloyall mem|ber remayne among the faithfull knights of noble ſtomacke and bountifull proweſſe, or that hys armes ſhould be myngled wyth thoſe of noble chiualry. Wheerfore our moſt excellent Prince and ſupreame of this noble order, by the aduyſe and counſell of his Col|leges, wylleth and commaundeth that hys armes which he before time had deſerued ſhall be from hencefoorth taken awaye and throwne downe: and he himſelfe cleane cut of from the ſociety of this renowmed order, and neuer from this day reputed any more for a member of the ſame, that all other by hys example may hereafter beware howe they committe the lyke treſpaſſe, or fall in|to ſuch notorious ſhame and rebuke. Thys notice beyng gyuen, there reſorteth vnto the party to be deſgraded certaine officers with diuers of his late fellows appointed, which take frõ him his George, & other inueſtiture, after a ſolemne maner. And thus much of this moſt honorable order, hoping yt no man wil be offẽded wt me, for vttering thus much. For ſith the noble order of the Toyſon D [...]r or Golden fléeſ, with the ceremonies apper|teyning EEBO page image 105 vnto the creation and inueſtiture of the ſixe and thirtie knightes thereof: [...]ome [...]ink that [...]is was [...]e aun| [...]er of the Queene, [...]hen the [...]ng aſked [...]hat men [...] think [...]her, in [...]ing the [...]rter af| [...] ſuche a [...]aner. And lykewyſe that of S. Michaell and hys one & thirtie knights, are diſcourſed vpon at large by the hyſtoryographers of thoſe countreys, wtout reprehenſion or checke, I truſt I haue not gyuen any cauſe of diſpleaſure, briefely to ſet foorth thoſe things that appertaine vn|to our renoumed order of the Garter, in whoſe compaſſe is written commonly, Honi ſoit qui mal y penſe. which is ſo much to ſay, as euill come to him that euill thinketh: a very ſharpe imprecation; and yet ſuch as is not contrary to the worde, which promyſeth lyke meaſure to the meater, as he doth meat to others.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There is yet an other order of Knights in Englande called Knightes Bannerets,Bãnerets. who are made in the fielde with the ceremony of cutting of the point of his pennant of armes, and making it as it were a Banner. He be|ing before a Bacheler Knight, is nowe of an higher degrée & alowed to diſplay his armes in a banner as Barrons doe. Howbeit theſe Knights are neuer made but in the warres, the kinges Standard being vnfolded.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]ſquire.Eſquire (which we call commonly Squire) is a Frenche word, and ſo much in latine as Scutiger vel armiger, and ſuch are all thoſe which beare Armes, or Armoires, teſtimo|nies of their race from whence they be diſ|cended. They were at the firſt Coſterelles or the bearers of the Armes of Barrons, or knightes, and therby being inſtructed in Ar|mes, had that name for a dignitie giuen to di|ſtinguiſhe them from common ſouldiours, when they were togither in the fielde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 [...]entlemẽ.Gentlemen be thoſe whome their race and bloode doth make noble and knowne. The la|tines call them Nobiles & generoſos, as the Frenche doe Nobles. The Etimologie of the name expoundeth the efficacie of the worde & for as Gens in latin betokeneth the race and ſurname. So the Romaines had Cornelios, Sergios, Appios, Fabios, Aemilios, Iulios, Bru|tos. &c. of which, who were agnati and ther|fore kept the name, were alſo called Gentiles, gentlemen of that or that houſe and race. As the king or Quéene doth dubbe knights, and createth the Barons and higher degrées, ſo gentlemẽ whoſe aunceſtours are not knowẽ to come in with Williã Duke of Norman|die, do take their beginning in Englãd, after this maner in our tymes. [...]yers [...]ents Vni| [...]ſities. [...]iſitiõs [...]pteines Whoſoeuer ſtu|dieth ye lawes of the realme, who ſo ſtudieth in the Vniuerſitie, or profeſſeth Phiſicke and the liberall Sciences, or beſide his ſeruice in the rowme of a capitaine in the warres, can liue ydlely and without man [...]ell labour, and therto is able and wil beare the port, charge and countenaunce of a gentleman, he ſhall be called Maſter (which is the title that men giue to Eſquires and Gentlemenne) and reputed for a Gentleman, which is ſo much the leſſe to be diſalowed, as for that ye Prince doth loſe nothing by it, ye gentlemã being ſo much ſubiect to taxes and publicke paymẽts as is the Yeoman or huſbandman, which he alſo doth beare the gladlyer for the ſauing of his reputation. Being called in the warres, whatſoeuer it coſt him, he will both arraye and arme himſelfe accordinglye, and ſhewe ye more manly courage and all the tokens of ye perſon which he repreſenteth: No mã hath hurt by it but himſelf, who peraduenture wil now and then heare a bigger ſayle then hys boate is able to ſuſtaine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Citizens and Burgeſes haue next place to gentlemen,Citizens. who be thoſe that are frée with|in the cities, and are of ſome ſubſtaunce to beare. Office in ye [...]au [...]e. But theſe citizens or Burgeſes are to ſerue the cõmon wealth in their cities and Borowghes, or in corporate towne [...] where they dwell. And in the com|mon aſſembly of the realme to make lawes (called the Parliament,) the ancie [...]t Ei [...]e [...] appoint foure, and the borowghe tw [...] Bur|geſes to haue voy [...]es in it, and to giue their conſent or diſſent vnto ſuch thinges as paſſe or ſtay there in the name of the citie or Bo|rowe, for which they are appointed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In thys place alſo are our Marchauntes to be enſ [...]alled as amõg the Citizens,Marchãts whoſe number is ſo increaſed in theſe our dayes, that theyr onely maintenaunce is the cauſe of the excéeding prices of forreine wares, which otherwyſe when eache nation was permitted to bring in hir owne commodi|tyes, were farre better cheape and more plentifully to be had. Among the Lacedemo|nians it was founde out that great num|bers of Merchauntes were nothing to the furtheraunce of the ſtate of the common wealth [...]: wherefore it is to be wyſhed that the heape of them were ſomewhat reſtreig|ned, ſo ſhould the reſt lyue more eaſily vpon theyr owne, & few honeſt chapmẽ be brought to decaye, by breaking of the bankcrupt. I doe not denie but that the nauie of the lande is in part maintained by their [...]a [...]c [...] and ſo are the highe prices of thinges kept vp now they haue gotten the only ſale of things into their handes: whereas in times paſt when the ſtrange bottomes were ſuffered to come in, we had Suger for foure pence the pounde, that nowe is worth halfe a crowne, Ra [...]ſons EEBO page image 115 of Corinth for a peny that now are holden at ſix pence, and ſometime at eight pence & ten pence the pounde: nutmegges at two pence halfe peny the mince: Gynger at a penny an ounce, Proynes at halfe penye fardyng: Great reyſons thrée pounde for a peny, Ci|namon at foure pence the ounce, Cloues at two pence, and Pepper at twelue, and ſixe|tene pence the pounde. Whereby we maye ſée the ſequele of thinges not alwayes to be ſuch as is pretended in the beginning. The wares that they carry out of the Realme, are for the moſt part brode clothes & carſies of all coulours, lykewyſe cottons, fréeſes rugges, tinne, wooll, leade, felles. &c. which being ſhipped at ſundry ports of our coaſts, are borne from thence into all quarters of the worlde, and there eyther exchaunged for other wares, or ready money: to the great game and commoditie of our Merchauntes. And whereas in times paſt our chiefe trade was into Spaine, Portingall, Fraunce, Flaunders, Danſke, Norway, Scotlande, and Iſeland onely: ſo in theſe dayes, as men not contented wyth thoſe iourneyes, they haue ſought out the eaſt and weſt Indies, & made voyages not only vnto the Canaries, and newe Spaine, but likewyſe into Catha|ia,Not ſéene in a bate|ment of price of thinges. Moſcouia, Tartaria, & the regions there|about, from whence as they pretende they bring home great commodities.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Our Yeomen, are thoſe which by our Law+yers are called Legales hommes, fre mẽ born Engliſh, and maye diſpende of theyr owne frée lande in yerely reuenewe, to the ſumme of 40. s. ſterling. This ſorte of people haue a certaine preheminence and more eſtimation then labourers and artificers, and commõ|ly lyue welthely, kéepe good houſes, & trauei|leth to get ryches. They are alſo for the moſt part fermers to gentlemen, & with grazing frequenting of markets and kéeping of ſer|uants ( [...]ot ydle ſeruaunts as the gentlemen doth, but ſuch as get both their owne & part of theyr Ma [...]ſters lyuing) doe come to great wealth, inſomuch that many of them are a|ble and doe buy the landes of vnthrifty gen|tlemen, & often ſetting theyr ſonnes to the Scholes, to the Vniuerſities, and to ye Innes of the Court or otherwiſe leauing them ſuf|ficient landes wherevpon they maye lyue without labour, doe make their ſayde ſonnes by that meanes to become gentlemẽ. Theſe were they yt in times paſt made al Fraunce afrayd. And the kings of England in fough|ten battailes, were woont to remaine among theſe Yeomen who were their footemen, as the French Kings did amongſt theyr horſe|men: the Prince thereby ſhewing where his chiefe ſtrength did conſiſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The fourth and laſt ſort of people in Eng|lande are day labourers, poore huſbandmẽ, and ſome retaylers (which haue no frée lande) copy holders, & al artificers, as Tay|lours, Shoomakers, Carpenters: Bricke|makers, Maſons. [...] &c. As for ſlaues & [...] we haue none. Theſe therfore haue neither voice nor authoritie in ye common welth, but are to be ruled, & not to rule other: yet they are not altogither neglected, for in cities and corporalte Townes, for default of Yeomen they are fayne to make vp their enqueſtes [...] of ſuch maner of people. And in Villages they are commonly made Church wardens Sidemen, Aleconners, Conſtables, & many tymes enioye the name of hedborowghes. Thys furthermore amonge other thynges I haue to ſaye of our huſbandmen and ar|tificers, that they were neuer ſo excellent in theyr trades as at this preſent. But as the workemanſhippe of the later ſort was neuer more fine and curious to the eye, ſo was it neuer leſſe ſtrong and ſubſtanciall for conti|nuance and benefite of the buyers. Certes there is nothing that hurteth our artificers more then haſt, and a barbarous or ſlauiſhe deſire, by ridding their work to make ſpéedy vtteraunce of theyr wares: which inforceth thẽ to bũgle vp & diſpatch many things they care not howe ſo they be out of theyr hands, whereby the buyer is often ſore defraude [...], and findeth to hys coſt, that haſt maketh waſt; accordyng to the prouerbe. But to leaue, theſe thinges and procéede wyth [...] purpoſe, and herein (as occaſion ſerueth) generally to ſpeake of the common wealth of Englande, I find that it is gouerned and maintained by thrée ſortes of perſons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 1 The Prince Monarch and heade gouer|nour which is called the king, or (if ye crown fall to the Woman) the Quéene: in whoſe name and by whoſe authoritie, all thynges are adminiſtred.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The Gentlemen, which be deuided into two parts, as ye Barony or eſtates of Lord [...], (which conteyneth Barons and all aboue that degrée) and alſo thoſe that be no Lords, as Knightes, Eſquiers, and ſimple Gentle|men. &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 3 The third and laſt ſort is named the Yeo|manrye, of whome and their ſequele, the la|bourers and Artificers, I haue ſayde ſome|what euen nowe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of theſe alſo ſomeare by the Prince, choſe & called to great offices, in the cõmon welth, of which offices diuers concerne the whole realme, ſome be more pryuate and peculyar to the kinges houſe. And they haue their pla|ces EEBO page image 106 and degrées, preſcribed by an Act of par|liament made Ann [...]. 3 [...]. H [...]octaui, after this maner inſuing.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theſe foure the Lorde Chauncelour, the Lorde Treaſorour, the Lord preſident of the Counſell, and the Lorde Pri [...]e Seale bée|yng perſons of the degrée of a Ba [...]on or a|boue, are in the ſame act appointed to ſit in ye Parliament and in all aſſemblies or counſel aboue all Dukes, not being of the bloud roy|all, Videlicet the kinges Brother, Vncle or Nephewe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And theſe ſixe, the L. great Chamberlein of Englande: the L. high Conſtable of Eng|lande: the Lorde Marſhall of Englande: the Lorde Admirall of Englande: the Lorde great Maiſter, or Kings Stewarde of the Kings houſe: and the Lorde Chamberleyne: by that acte are to be placed in all aſſemblies of Counſell, after the Lorde Priuie Seale, according to their degrées & eſtates: ſo that if he be a Barron, then to ſitte aboue all Ba|rons: or an Earle, aboue all Earles.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And ſo likewyſe the kynges Secretarye beyng a Barron of the Parliament, hath place aboue all Barons, and if he be a man of higher degrée, hée ſhall [...]tte and be placed according therevnto.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 The Temporall Nobilitie of England ac|cording to the auncientie of theyr creations or firſt calling to their degrées.

  • [...] Duke [...] Eng| [...]de.The Marquiſe of Wincheſter.
  • The Earle of Arondell.
  • The Earle of Oxforde.
  • The Earle of Northumberlande.
  • The Earle of Shreweſbury.
  • The Earle of Kent.
  • The Earle of Derby.
  • The Earle of Worceſter.
  • The Earle of Rutlande.
  • The Earle of Cumberlande.
  • The Earle of Suſſex.
  • The Earle of Huntingdon.
  • The Earle of Bath.
  • The Earle of Warwicke.
  • The Earle of Southampton.
  • The Earle of Bedforde.
  • The Earle of Penbrooke.
  • The Earle of Hertforde.
  • The Earle of Leyceſter.
  • The Earle of Eſſex.
  • The Earle of Lincolne.
  • The Viſcont Montague.
  • The Viſcont Byndon.
  • The Lorde of Abergeuenny.
  • The Lorde Awdeley.
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...] of the [...].
  • The Lorde Cobham.
  • The Lorde Talbot.
  • The Lorde Stafforde.
  • The Lorde Grey of Wilton.
  • The Lorde Scrope.
  • The Lorde Dudley.
  • The Lorde La [...]ymer.
  • The Lorde St [...]urton.
  • The Lorde Lumley.
  • The Lorde Moun [...]y.
  • The Lorde Ogle.
  • The Lorde Darcy of the North.
  • The Lorde Mountegie.
  • The Lorde Sandes.
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde Wind [...]ore.
  • The Lorde Wen [...]woorth.
  • The Lorde Borough.
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde Cromwell.
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde Riche.
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde [...].
  • The Lorde Paget.
  • The Lorde D [...]rcy of [...].
  • The Lord H [...]warde of Oſſingham.
  • The Lord North.
  • The Lord Chaundes.
  • The Lord of Hunſdon.
  • The Lord Saint Iohn of Bleſſo.
  • The Lorde of Buckhirſt.
  • The Lord Delaware.
  • The Lorde Burghley.
  • The Lorde Compton.
  • The Lorde Cheyney.
  • The Lorde Norreys.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

Byshoppes in their aunciencie, as they [...] in Parliament in the fift of the Queenes Maieſties the reigne.

  • The Arch Byſhop of Caunterbury.
  • The Arch Byſhop of Yorke.
  • London.
  • Durham.
  • Wincheſter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The reſt had theyr places in Seniority of Conſecration.

  • Chicheſter.
  • Landaphe.
  • Hereforde.
  • Ely.
  • Worceter.
  • Bangor.
  • EEBO page image 116Lincolne.
  • Saliſbury.
  • S. Dauids.
  • Rocheſter.
  • Bathe & Welle [...].
  • Couentre and Lich|fielde.
  • Exceter.
  • Norwiche.
  • Peterborough.
  • Carleile.
  • Cheſter.
  • S. [...]e.
  • Gloceſter.

Previous | Next