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2.15. ¶Of Parkes and Warrens. Cap. 15.

¶Of Parkes and Warrens. Cap. 15.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 IN euery ſhyre of Englande there is great plentye of Parkes, whereof ſome here and there appertaine vnto the Prince, the reſt to ſuch of the Nobilitye and Gentlemen, as haue their lands and patrimony lying néere vnto ye ſame. I would gladly haue ſet downe the iuſt number of theſe incloſures, to bée founde in euery countye, but ſith I can not ſo doe, it ſhall ſuffiſe to ſay, that in Kent and Eſſex only are to the number of an hundred, where in great plentie of fallowe Déere is cheriſhed and kept. As for Warrens of Co|nies, I iudge thẽ almoſt innumerable, & dai|ly like to increſe, by reaſõ that ye black ſkins of thoſe beaſts are thought to counteruaile, ye priſes of their naked carkaſes, & this is the onely cauſe why the gray are leſſe eſtéemed. Neere vnto London their quyckest marchaundise is of the yong rabets, wherefore ye older conies are brought fro(m) farder of, where there is no such speedy vttera(n)ce of Rabbets & sucklings in their seaso(n), nor so great losse by their skins, sith they are suffered to grow vp to their full greatnesse wt their owners. Our Parkes are generally inclosed wyth strong pale made of Oke, of which kinde of woode there is great store cherished from time to tyme in eache of them, onely for the maintenaunce of the sayde defence, and safe reering [sic] of the Deere from raunging about the countrey. The circuite of these inclosures in lyke maner containe oft times a walke of foure or fiue myles, and sometimes more or lesse, whereby it is to be seene what store of ground is employed vpon that vayne co(m)moditie which bringeth no maner of gaine or profit to the owner, sith they co(m)monlye giue awaye their fleshe, neuer taking penny for the same, because venission in england is neither bought nor soulde by the right owner, but maintained only for hys pleasure, to the no smal decay of husbandry, & diminution of mankinde. For where in times past, many large and welthy occupiers, were dwelling within the compasse of some one parke, and therby great plenty of corne & cattell seene and to be had amongst them, beside a more copious procreation of humaine issue, wherby the realme was alwaies better furnished with able men to serue the Prince in his affaires: now there is almost nothing kept but a sort of wilde & sauage beasts, cherished for pleasure and delite, and yet the owners styll desirous to enlarge those groundes, doe not let daily to take in more, affirming that we haue already to great store of people in england, and that youth by mariyng to soone doe nothing profite the countrey but fill it full of beggers.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Certes if it be not one curse of the Lorde, The de|caie of the people is the deſtruc+tion of a kingdome, neyther is any man borne to poſſeſſe the earth a|lone. to haue our countrey conuerted in such sorte from the furniture of mankinde, into the walkes and shrowdes of wylde beastes, I know not what is any. How many families also these great and small games (for so most keepers call them) haue eaten vp, & are likely hereafter to deuoure, some men may coniecture, but many more lame(n)t: sith there is no hope of restraint to be looked for in this behalf, but if a man may prese(n)tly giue a gesse at ye vniuersality of this euill by contemplation of the circumstances, he shall saye at ye last, that the twentieth parte of the realme is imployed vpon Deere and Conies already, which seemeth very much, if it be duely considered of. We had no Parkes in Englande before the comming of the Normanes, who added this calamity also to the seruitude of our EEBO page image 99 our nation, making men of the best sort furthermore to become keepers of their game whilest they lyued in the meane time vppon the spoyle of their reuenues, and daily ouerthrew townes villages, & an infinite sort of families for the maintenance of their Venery. Neyther was any park supposed in these times to be stately enough, that conteined not a the least eyght or tenne hidelandes, that is so many hundred acres, or families, or as they haue been alwaies called in some places of the Realme, carrucates or cartwares, of which one was sufficient in olde time to maintaine an honest Yeoman.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 It ſhould ſée me that forreſts haue alwaies béene had and religiouſly preſerued in thys Iſlande for the ſolace of the Prince, and re|creation of his nobilitie: howbeit I read not that euer they were incloſed more then at this preſent, or otherwiſe fenced then by vſu|al notes of limitacion, wherby their bounds were remembred from time to tyme for the better preſeruation of ſuch [...]e [...]ery and vert of all ſortes as were nouriſhed in the ſame. Neyther are any of the auncient lawes pre|ſcribed for their maintaynaunce before the dais of Canutus now to be had, ſith time hath ſo dealt with them, that they are periſhed & loſt. Canutus therfore ſéeing the daily ſpoyle that was made in all places of his game, dyd at the laſt make ſundrie Sanctions and De|crées, whereby from thenceforth the red and fallow déere, were better looked vnto thorow out his whole Dominiõs. We haue in theſe dayes diuers forreſtes in England & Wales as Waltham forreſt, Winſor, Pickering, Fecknam, Delamore, Deane, Penriſe, and many other nowe cleane out of my remem|braunce, and which although they are farre greater in circuit then many Parckes and Warrennes, yet are they in this our tyme leſſe deuourers of the people then theſe later, ſith beſide much tillage, many Townes are founde in eache of them, whereas in Parkes and Warrẽns we haue nothing elſe then ei|ther the kéepers lodge, or at the leſt wiſe the manour place of the chiefe Lorde, & owner of the ſoyle. I coulde ſay more of forreſtes and the aforeſayde incloſures, but it ſhall ſuffice at this time to haue ſayde ſo much as is ſet downe alreadie. Howbeit that I may reſtore one antiquitie to light, which hath hytherto lyen as it were raked vp in the embers of obliuion, I will gyue out the same Lawes that Canutus made for his forrest, whereby many thinges shall be disclosed concerning the same (wherof peradve(n)ture some lawiers haue no knowledge) & diuers other notes gathered touching the ancient estate of ye realm not to be founde in other. But before I deale with the great charter (which as you may perceyue is in many places imperfit by reason of corruption crept in by length of tyme not by me to be restored) I will note an other briefe law, which he made in the first yeare of his reigne at Winchester, and afterward inserted into these his latter constitutions Canone 32. and beginneth thus in his owne Saxon tongue. I will that elc one. &c. I will and graunt that eache one shalbe [sic] woorthy of such venery as he by hunting can take eyther in the playnes or in the woods, or within his owne fee or dominio(n) (out of the forrest) but eache man shall abstaine from my venerie in euery place, where I will that my beastes shall haue firme peace and quietnesse vpo(n) paine to forefaict so much as a man may forfaict. Hytherto the statute made by the aforesayde Canutus, which was afterwarde confirmed by king Edwarde surnamed the confessour in the fourth yeare of his reigne. Now followeth the great Charter it selfe in Latine, as I finde it worde for worde, & whiche I woulde gladly haue turned into English if it might haue sounded to any benefite of the vnskilfull and vnlearned.

2.15.1. Incipiunt constitutiones Canuti re|gis de Forreſta.

Incipiunt constitutiones Canuti re|gis de Forreſta.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 HAe ſunt ſanctiones de forreſta, quas ego Canutus rex cum confilio primariorum hominum meorum condo & facio, vt conctis regni noſtri Angliae eccleſijs & pax & Iuſtitia fiat, & vt omnis delinquens ſecundum mo|dum delicti, & delinquentis fortunam patia|tur.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 1. [...] Sint iam deinceps quatuor ex liberaliori|bus hominibus qui habent ſaluas ſuas debitas conſuetudines (quos Angli pegened appellãt) in qualibet regni mei prouincia conſt [...]euti, a [...]l Iuſtitiam diſtr [...]buendam vna cum pena merita & materijs forreſtae cuncto populo meo, [...] Anglis quam Danis per totum regnum me [...] Angliae, quos quatuor primarios forreſtae ap|pellandos cenſemus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2. Sint ſub quolibet horum, quatuor ex me|diocribus hominibus (quos Angli Leſpegen [...], [...] nuncupant, Dani vero young men vocant) [...]o|cati, qui curam & onus tum viridis tum ven [...]|ris ſuſcipiant.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 3. In adminiſtranda autem Iuſticia nuilla [...]| [...]rus volo vt tales ſe intromittant: mediocteſ tales poſt ferarum curam ſuſceptam, pro libe|ralibus ſemper habeantur, [...] quos Dani Ealder|men appellant.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 4. [...] Sub liorum iterum quolibet ſunt duo minutorũ hominũ quos Tineman Angli di|cunt EEBO page image 90 hi nocturnam curam & veneris & viridis tum ſeruilia opera ſubibunt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 5. Si talis minutus ſeruus fuerit, tam cito quam in forneſta noſtra locabitur, liber eſto, omneſ hos ex ſumptibus noſtris manutene|bimus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 6. Habeat etiam quilibet primariorũ quo|libet anno de noſtra warda quam Michni An|gli appellant, [...]hni. duos equos, vnum cum ſella, al|terum ſine ſella, vnũ gladium quin lanceas, vnum cuſpidẽ, vnum ſcutum & ducentos ſo|lidos argenti.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 7. Mediocrium quilibet vnum equum, vnã lanceam, vnum ſcutum & 60, ſolidos argenti.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 8. Minutorum quilibet, vna [...] lanceam, v|nam arcubaliſtam & 15. ſolidos argenti.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 9. Sint omnes tam primarij, quam medio|cres, & minuti, immunes, liberi, & quieti ab omnibus prouincialibus ſummonitionibus, & popularibus placitis, [...]dred [...] quae Hundred lagbe Angli dicunt, & ab omnibus armorũ oneribus quod Warſcot Angli dicunt & forinceſis querelis.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 10. Sint mediocrium & minutorum cauſae & earum correctiones tam criminalium quam ciuilium per prouidam ſapientiam & rationẽ primariorum Iudicate & deciſae: primariorum vero enormia ſi quaefuerint (ne ſcelus aliquod remaneat inultum) noſmet in ira noſtra regali puniemus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 11. Habeant hi quatuor vnam regalem po|teſtatem (ſalua nobis noſtra preſentia) qua|ter in anno generales foreſtae demonſtra|tiones & viridis & veneris forisfactiones quas Muchebunt dicunt, [...]che| [...]t. vbi teneant omnes calum|niam de materia aliqua tangente foreſtam, e|ant ad triplex Iudiciũ quod Angli Ofgang|fordell dicunt. [...]gang| [...]ell. [...]gatio [...]s, tri| [...] orda| [...] Ita autem acquiratur illud tri|plex Iudicium. Accipiat ſecum quinque & ſit ipſe ſextus, & ſic iurando acquirat triplex Iu|dicium, aut triplex iuramentum. Sed purga|tio ignis nullatenus admittatur niſi vbi nuda veritas nequit aliter inueſtigari.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]gen.12. Liberalis autem homo. 1. Pegen, modo cri|men ſuum non ſit inter mariora, habeat fide|lem hominem qui poſsit pro eo iurare iura|mentum. [...]athe. 1. Forathe: ſi autem non habet ipſemet iuret, nec pardonetur ei aliquod iuramentum.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 13. Si aduena vel peregrinus qui de longin|quo venerit ſit calumpniatus de foreſta, & ta|lis eſt ſua inopia vt nõ poſsit habere plegium ad primam calumniam, qualẽ * nullus Anglus iudicare poteſt: tunc ſubeat captionem regis & ibi expectet quouſque vadat ad iudicium ferri & aque: attamen ſi quis extraneo aut pe|regrino de longe venienti * [...] ſibi ipſi nocet ſi aliquod iudiciũ iudicauerint.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 14. Quicunque coram primarios homines meos foreſtae in falſo teſtimonio ſteterit & vi|ctus fuerit, non ſit dignus impoſterũ ſtare aut portare teſtimoniũ, quia legalitatẽ ſuam per|didit, & pro culpa ſoluat regi decem ſolidos quos Dani vocant Halfebange, alins halſhang. Halſhang.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 15. Si quis vim aliquã primarijs foreſte meae intulerit, ſi liberalis ſit amittat libertatem & omnia ſua, ſi villanus abſcindatur dextra.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 16. Si alteruter iterum pe [...]cauerit reus ſit mortis.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 17. Si quis cõtra autẽ cũ primario pugnaue|rit in plito, emendet ſecundũ praecium ſui ip|ſius quod Angli Pere & pite dicunt,Pere and Pite. & ſoluat primario quadraginta ſolidos.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 18. Si pacem quis fregerit ante mediocres foreſtae quod dicunt Gethbreche emendet regi decem ſolidis.Gethbrech

Compare 1587 edition: 1 19. Si quis mediocrium aliquem cum ira percuſſerit, emendetur prout interfectio ferae regalis mihi emendari ſolet.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 20. Si quis delinquens in foreſta noſtra ca|pietur, poenas luet ſecundũ modum & genus delicti.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 21. Pena & forisfactio non vna eademque e|rit liberalis (quem Dani Elderman vocant) & illiberalis: domini & ſeru: noti & ignoti:Ealdermã nec vna eadem erit cauſarum tum ciuilium tum criminaliũ, ferarũ foreſtae, & ferarumregalium: Viridis & veneris tractatio: nã crimen veneris ab antiquo inter maiora & non inmerito nu|merabatur: viridis vero (fractione chaceae no|ſtre regalis excepta) ita puſillum & exiguum eſt, quod vix ea reſpicit noſtra conſtitutio: qui in hoc tamen deliquerit, fit criminis foreſtae reus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 22. Si liber aliquis feram foreſtae fugerit, ſiue caſu, ſiue praehabita voluntate, ita vt curſu ce|leri cogatur fera anhelare, decem ſolidis regi emendet, ſi illiberalis dupliciter emendet, ſi ſeruus careat corio.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 23. Si vero horum aliquot interfecerit, ſoluat dupliciter & perſoluat, ſitque praecij ſui reus contra regem.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 24. Sed ſi regalem ferã quam Angli à ſtag|gon appellant alteruter coegerit anhelare,Staggon. al|ter per vnum annum, alter per duos careat li|bertate naturali: ſi vero ſeruus, pro vtlegato habeatur quem Angli Frendleſman vocant.Frendleſ|man.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 25. Si vero occiderit, amittat liber ſcutum libertatis, ſi ſit illiberalis careat libertate, ſi ſer|uus vita.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 26. Epiſcopi, Abbates & Barones mei non calumnibuntur pro venatione, ſi non regales feras occiderint: & ſi regales, reſtabunt rei re|gi pro libito ſuo, ſine certa emendatione.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 27. Sunt aliae (praeter feras foreſtae) beſtiae, que dum inter ſaepta & ſaepes foreſtae continentur, emendationi ſubiacent: quales ſunt capreoli, lepores, & cuniculi. Sunt & alia quam pluri|ma animalia quae quanquã infra ſep [...]a foreſtae viuunt, & oneri & curae mediocrium ſubiacẽt, EEBO page image 100 foreſte tamen nequaquã ce [...]iſeri poſſunt, qua|lia ſunt equi,Bubali o|lim in An|glia. Bubali, vaccae, & ſimilia. Vulpes & Lupi, nec foreſtae nec veneris habentur, & proinde eorum interfectio nulli emendationi ſubiacet. Si tamen infra limites occiduntur, fractio ſit regalis chaceae, & mitius emendetur. Aper vero quanquam foreſte ſit nullatenus tamen animal veneris haberi eſt aſſuetus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 28. Boſco nec Subboſco noſtro ſine licentia primariorum foreſtae nemo manum apponat, quod ſi quis fecerit reus ſit fractionis regalis chaceae.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 29. Si quis vero Ilicem aut arborem aliquam qui victum feris ſuppeditat ſciderit, praeter fractionem regalis chaceae, emendet regi vigin|ti ſolidis.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 30. Volo vt omnis liber homo pro libito ſuo habeat venerem ſiue viridem in planis ſuis ſuper terras ſuas, ſine chacea tamen. Et deui|tent omnes meam, vbicunque eam habere vo|luero.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 31. Nullus mediocris habebit nec cuſtodiet canes quos Angli Griehunds appellant.Greyhũds Liberali vero dum genuiſciſsio eorum facta fuerit eoram primario foreſtae licebit, aut ſine genu|iſciſsione dum remoti ſunt à limitibus foreſtae per decem milliaria: quando vero proprius venerint, emendet quodlibet miliare vno ſoli|do Si vero infra ſepta foreſtae reperiatur, do|minus canis forisfaciet & canem, & decem ſo|lidos regi.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Velter Langerã.32. Velteres vero quos Langeran appellant quia manifeſte conſtat in ijs nihil eſſe pericu|li, cuilibet licebit ſine gemiſciſsione eos cuſto|dire.Ram|hundt. Idem de canibus quos Rambundt vocant.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 33. Quod ſi caſu inauſpicato huiuſmodi ca|nes rabidi fiant & vbique vagantur negli|gentia dominorum, redduntur illiciti, & emẽ|detur regi pro illicitis. &c. Quod ſi intra ſepta foreſtae reperiantur, talis exquiratur herus, & emendet ſecundum precium hominis medio|cris, quod ſecundũ legem merimorum eſt du|centorum ſollidorum.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 34. Si Canis rabidus momorderit ferã, tunc emendet ſecundum precium hominis liberalis quod eſt duodecies ſolidis centũ. Si vero fera regalis morſa fuerit, reus ſit maximi criminis.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And theſe are the conſtitutions of Canutus concerning the forreſt very barbarouſly trã|ſlated by thoſe that tooke the ſame in hande. Howbeit as I finde it ſo I ſet it downe with out any alteration of my copie in any iote or tytle.

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