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2.16. Of Wooddes and marriſes. Cap. 16.Great a|bundance of wood ſometime in Eng|land.

Of Wooddes and marriſes. Cap. 16.Great a|bundance of wood ſometime in Eng|land.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 IT ſhoulde ſéeme by auncient recordes, and the teſtimony of ſundrie authors, that the whole countries of Lhoegres and Cambria now England and Wales, haue ſometimes béen very well repleniſhed with great woods and groues, although at this tyme the ſayde commoditie be not a little decayed in both, and in ſuch wyſe that a man ſhall oft ryde tenne or twentie myles in eache of them and finde very little or rather none at all, except it be neare vnto townes, gentlemens houſes and villages where the inhabitauntes haue planted a few Elmes, Okes, Haſelles, or A|ſhes about their dwellings for their defence from the rough windes, and kéeping of the ſtormie weather frõ anoyaunce of the ſame. This ſcarfitie at ye firſt grew as it is thought eyther by the induſtrie of man, for main|taynaunce of tillage (as we vnderſtand the lyke to be done of late by the Spaniards in the Weſt Indes, where they fiered whole wooddes of very great compaſſe thereby to come by groũd wheron to ſow their graines) or elſe thorowe the couetouſneſſe of ſuch as in preferring of paſture for their ſhéepe and greater cattell, doe make ſmall account of firebote and tymber: or finally by the cruel|tie of the enemies, whereof we haue ſundrie examples declared in our hyſtories. Howbe|it where the rockes and quarry grounds are I take the ſwart of the earth to be ſo thinne, that no trée of anye greatneſſe other then ſhrubbes & buſhes is able to grow or proſpe [...] long therein for want of ſufficient moyſture wherwith to féede them with freſh humour, or at the leaſt wyſe of mould, to ſhrowd ſtay vpright, and cheariſh the ſame in the bluſte|ring winters weather, till they may growe vnto any greatneſſe, and ſpread or yeld their rootes down right into the ſoyle about them: and this either is or may be one other cauſe, wherefore ſome places are naturally voyde of woodde. But to procéede, although I muſt néedes cõfeſſe that there is good ſtore of great wood or tymber here and there, euen nowe in ſome places of England, yet in our dayes it is farre vnlike to that plentie, which our aunceſters haue ſéene hertofore, when ſtate|ly buylding was leſſe in vſe. For albeit that there were then greater nũber of meſuages & manſions almoſt in euery place, yet were their frames ſo ſlite and ſlender, that one meane dwelling houſe in our time is able to counteruayle very many of them, if you con|ſider the preſent charge with the plentie of timber that we beſtow vpon them. In times paſt men were contented to dwell in houſes, buylded of Sallow, Willow, Plummetrée, Hardebeame, and Elme, ſo that the vſe of Oke was in maner dedicated wholy vnto churches, religious houſes, Princes palaces EEBO page image 91 Noblemens lodgings and nauigation, but now all theſe are reiected and nothing but oke any whit regarded: & yet ſée the chaũge, for when our houſes were buylded of Wil|lowe then had we Oken men, but nowe that our houſes are come to be made of Oke, [...]eſire of [...]uch wea [...] and [...], aba| [...]th man| [...]d, and o| [...]rthrow| [...]h a man| [...] courage. our mẽ are not only become willow, but a great many altogither of ſtraw, which is a ſore al|teratiõ. In thoſe the courage of ye owner was a ſufficient defence to kepe the houſe in ſafe|tie, but now the aſſurance of the timber muſt defende the man from robbing. Nowe haue we manye chimnyes and yet our tender|linges complaine of rewmes, catarres and poſes, then had we none but reredoſſes, and our heades did neuer ake. For as the ſmoke in thoſe dayes was ſuppoſed to be a ſuffi|cient hardning for the timber of the houſe, ſo it was reputed a farre better medicine to kéepe the goodman and his family from the quacke or poſe, wherewith as then very few were acquainted.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 We haue manye wooddes, forreſtres and parkes which chéeriſh trées abundantly, al|though in the woodlande countries there is almoſt no hedge that hath not ſome ſtore of the greateſt ſort, beſide infinite numbers of hedgerowes, groues, and ſpringes, that are maintayned of purpoſe for the buylding and prouiſion of ſuch owners as doe poſſeſſe the ſame. Howbeit as euery ſoile doth not beare all kindes of wood, ſo there is not any wood, park, hedgerow, groue, or forreſt, that is not mixed with many, as Oke, Aſhe, Haſell, Hawthorne, Byrche, Béeche, Hardbeame, Hull, Sorfe, wilde Chéerie, and ſuch lyke, wherof Oke hath alwayes the preheminẽce as moſt méete for buylding wherevnto it is reſerued. This trée bringeth foorth alſo a pro|fitable kinde of maſt, whereby ſuch as dwell neare vnto the aforeſayde places do cheriſhe and bring vp innumerable herdes of ſwine. In tyme of plentie of this maſt, our redde and fallowe déere will not let to participate with our hogges, more then our other nete, yea our common poultrie alſo if they may come vnto them: but as this abundance doth prooue very pernicious vnto the firſt, ſo the egges which theſe latter doe bring foorth be|ſide blackeneſſe in color & bitterneſſe of taſte haue not ſeldome béene founde to bréede dy|uers diſeaſes vnto ſuch perſons as haue ea|ten of the ſame.The lyke [...]aue I [...]éene wher [...]ennes do [...]ade vpon [...]he tender [...]lades of [...]arlike. I might adde in lyke ſort the profite inſuing by the barke of this woodde, wherof our tanners haue great vſe in dreſ|ſing of leather, and which they buy yearly in May by the fadame, as I haue oft ſene, but it ſhall not néede at this time to enter into any ſuch diſcourſe, only this I wiſh that our ſoole & vpper lethering, may haue their due time and not be haſted on by extraordinarie ſligh|tes, as with Aſhe barcke. &c. Whereby as I graunt that it ſéemeth outwardly to be very thicke and wel done, ſo if you reſpect the ſad|neſſe thereof, it doth prooue in the ende to be very hollow and not able to holde out water. Of Elme I haue not ſéene any great ſtore togither in wooddes or forreſtes, but where they haue béene firſt planted and then ſuffe|red to ſpreade at their owne willes. Yet haue I knowen great wooddes of Béeche & Haſell in many places, eſpecially in Barckeſhyre, Oxfordſhyre and Buckinghamſhyre, where they are greatlye cheriſhed, and conuerted vnto ſundry vſes by ſuch as dwell about thẽ. Aſh commeth vp euery where of it ſelfe, and with euery kinde of woodde, and as we haue very great plenty and no leſſe vſe of theſe in our huſbandrie, ſo are we not wythout the plane, the Vghe, the ſorfe, the cheſtnutte, the line, the blacke chéerie, and ſuch like. And al|though that we enioye them not in ſo great plentie now in moſt places, as in times paſt or the other afore remembred, yet haue we ſufficient of thẽ all for our neceſſarie turnes and vſes, eſpecially of Vghe as may be ſéene betwixt Rotheram and Sheffilde, and ſome ſtéedes of Kent alſo as I haue béene infor|med. The Firre, Frankencence, and Pine, we doe not altogither want, eſpecially the firre, wherof we haue ſome ſtore in Chatley more in Darbyſhyre, Shropſhyre, Ander|neſſe, and a moſſe néere Mancheſter. As for the Franckencenſe & Pine, they haue béene planted in Colledges, and Cloyſters, by the the cleargie and religious in tymes paſt, wherefore in my opinion we may rather ſay that we want thẽ altogither, for except they dyd growe naturally & not by force, I ſée no cauſe why they ſhoulde be accounted for par+cell of our cõmodities. I might here take oc|caſion to ſpeke of the great ſales yerly made of wood, wherby an infinite deale hath béene deſtroyed within theſe few yeres, but I giue ouer to deale in this behalfe, howbeit thys I dare affirme that if wooddes doe go ſo faſt to decay in the next hundred yeare of grace as they haue done & are like to doe in this (ſome|tymes for increaſe of ſhepe walkes, & ſome maintaynaunce of prodigalitie & pompe, for I haue known a This gẽ|tleman caught ſuch an heate with this ſore loade yt he was faine to go to Rome for phiſicke, yet it could not ſaue his life, but he muſt néedes die home-wardes. gentlemã that hath borne thrée ſcore at once in one paire of galigaſcõs to ſhew his ſtrẽgth & brauery) it is to be fea|red that brome, turfe, gal, heth, firze, brakes, whinnes, ling, dies, haſſocks, flags, ſtraw, ledge, réede, ruſh, & ſeacole will be good mar|chãdize euen in the citie of Londõ, whervnto ſome of them alreadie haue gotten readie EEBO page image 101 paſſage & taken vp their Innes in the grea|teſt marchauntes parlers. A man woulde thincke that our lawes were able ynough to make ſufficiẽt prouiſion for ye redreſſe of this error, and enormitie likely to inſue: but ſuch is the nature of our country men, yt as many lawes are made, ſo they wil kepe none, or if they be vrged to make aunſwere, they wyll rather ſéeke ſome crooked conſtruction ther|of to the encreaſe of their priuate gaine, then yelde themſelfes willing to be guided by the ſame, for a common wealth and profite: ſo that in the ende, whatſoeuer the lawe ſayeth we will haue our willes, whereby the whole|ſome ordinances of ye prince are contemned, the trauaile of the nobilitie and counſellours as it were derided, the common wealth im|poueriſhed, and a tewe only inriched by this peruerſe dealing: whereas many thouſande perſons doe suner hinderance, by this their crooked behauior, whereby the wholeſome lawes of the Prince are oft defrauded, the good meaning maieſtrate in conſultation a|bout the common wealth ſeduced. I woulde wiſhe that I might liue no longer then to ſée foure thinges in thys lande reformed. That is, the want of diſcipline in the church. The couetous dealing of moſt of our marchants, in the preferment of other countries, & hin|derance of their owne. The holding of faires & markets vpon the ſondaie, to be aboliſhed and referred to the wedneſdayes. And that euery man wyth in what ſoeuer ſoile enioy|eth foure Acres of lande (and vpwards after that rate) either by frée déede, or copple hold, or fee farme, might plant one Acre of wood, or ſow the ſame with maſt, beſide that which re|mayneth already to be cheriſhed & kept. But I feare me that I ſhould then liue to long, & ſo long that I ſhould eyther be weary of the worlde, or the world of me, & yet they are not ſuch things, but they may eaſily be brought to paſſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Certes euery ſmall occaſion in my time is inough to cut downe a great woode, & euery trifle ſuffiſeth to laye infinite Acres of corne ground vnto paſture. As for ye taking downe of houſes, a ſmall fine will beare out a great manye. Woulde to God we might once take example of the Romaines, who in reſtreint of ſuperfluous graſinge made an exact limi|tation, how many head of Cattel eche eſtate myght kéepe, and what numbers of Acres ſhoulde ſuffiſe, for that and other purpoſes, neyther was woode euer better cheriſhed or mancion houſes maintained, then by their lawes and ſtatutes. But what doe I meane to ſpeake of theſe ſith my purpoſe is onely to talke of woods well take this then for a final concluſion in woodes, that within this fortie yeares, we ſhall haue little newe Timber, growing aboue two and fortie yeares olde, for it is cõmonly ſéene that thoſe yong ſtad|dles which we leaue ſtanding, at one and twenty yeres fal, are vſually at the next ſale cut downe, without any daunger of the ſta|tute, & ſerue for fire bote, if it pleaſe the ow|ner, to burne them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Mariſes and Fenny Bogges we haue ma|ny in England, but more in Wales, [...] if you haue reſpect vnto the ſeuerall quantities of ye countries, howbeit as they are very profi|table, in ſõmer half of the yere, ſo are a num|ber of them to ſmall commoditie in the win|ter part, as common experience doth teach, yet this I find of many of theſe moores, that in times paſt they haue béene harder groũd, and ſundrye of them well repleniſhed wyth great woodes, that now are voyde of buſhes: and for example hereof, we maye ſée the try|all (beſides the rootes that are daily found in the depes of Monemouth, where turfe is dig|ged, alſo in Wales, Abergeyny, and Merio|neth) in ſundry parts of Lancaſſhyre, where the people go vnto this daye into their Fen|nes, and Mariſes with long ſpittes, which they daſhe here and there, vp to the verye cronge into the grounde, in which practiſe, (a thinge commonly done in winter) if they happen to ſmite vpon a trée or blocke, they note the place, and about harueſt time, when the ground is at the drieſt, they come againe and get it vppe, and afterwarde carrying it home, applye it to their vſes. The lyke doe they in Shroppeſhyre with fire woode, which hath béene felled in olde time, wyth|in ſeauen miles of Salop, ſo me of them foo|liſhlye ſuppoſe the ſame to haue lyen there ſith Notes floud: and other more fonde then the reſt, imagine them to growe, euen in the places where they finde them, without all conſideration, that in times paſt, the moſt parte, if not all Lhoegres and Cambria was generally repleniſhed with woode, which be|ing felled or ouerthrowne, vpon ſundry oc|caſions, was left lying in ſome places ſtill on the grounde, and in procéeſſe of time, be|came to be quite ouergrowen with earth and mouldes, which mouldes, wanting their due ſadneſſe, are nowe turned into moory plots, whereby it commeth to paſſe alſo, that great plentye of water commeth betwéene the new looſe ſwart and the olde hard earth, that being drawne awaie, might ſoone leaue a drie ſoyle to the great lucre and aduantage of the owner. We find in our hiſtories, that Lincolne, was ſometime buylded by Lud, brother to Caſſibillane, who called it Cair EEBO page image 92 Ludcotte of the great ſtore of woodes, that enuironed the ſame, but now the comodity is vtterly decayed there, ſo that if ad were a|liue againe in our time, he woulde not call it his Citie in ye woode, but rather his towne in ye plaines: for the wood I ſay, is waſted alto|gither about ye ſame, the hils called ye Peke, were in lyke ſort named Men [...]ith C [...]it, that is, the wooddy hiles, but howe much woode is now to bee ſéene in thoſe places, let him that hath béene there teſtifie, if he liſte, for I h [...] of none by ſuch as trauayle that waye, and & thus much of woodes and mariſes, and ſo farre as I can deale with the ſame.

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