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2.14. Of Bathes and hote welles. Cap. 14.

Of Bathes and hote welles. Cap. 14.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AS Almightie God hath in moſt plenty|full maner beſtowed infinite and thoſe very notable benefits vpon this Iſle of Bri|taine, whereby it is not a little enriched, ſo in hote and naturall Bathes, (whereof we haue diuers in ſundrie places) it manifeſtly appeareth that he hath not forgotten Eng|lande. There are foure Bathes therefore to be found in this realme, of which the firſt is called [...]. Vincentes, the ſecond Hally Well, both being places in my opinion more ob|ſcure then the other twoo, & yet not ſeldome ſought vnto by ſuch as ſtande in néede. For albeit the fame of their forces be not ſo gene|rallye ſpreade, yet in ſome caſes they are thought to be nothing inferiour to the other, as diuers haue often affirmed by their owne experience and triall. The third place wher|in EEBO page image 88 hote Bathes are to be founde is neare vn|to Bu [...]ſtone (a towne in Darbyſhyre, ſci|tuate in the high Peke not paſſing ſixetéene myles from Mancheſter or Marketcheſter|forde, & twenty from Darby) where aboute eight or nine ſeuerall Welles are to be ſéene of which thrée are counted to be moſt excel|lent. But of al the greteſt is the hotteſt, void of corruption and compared as Iones ſayth, wyth thoſe of Somerſett ſhyre ſo colde in|déede, as a quarte of boyling water woulde be made, if fiue quartes of running water were added thervnto: whereas on the other-ſide, thoſe of Bathe likened vnto theſe, haue ſuch heate appropriated vnto them, as a gal|lon of hote water hath when a quart of colde is mixed with the ſame. Herevpon the effecte of thys Bath worketh more temperatelye and pleaſantlye (as he writeth) then the o|ther. And albeit that it maketh not ſo great ſpéede in cure of ſuch as reſort vnto it for helpe, yet it dealeth more effectuallye and cõ|modiouſly then thoſe in Somerſet ſhyre, and inferre withall leſſe grieuous accidentes, in ye reſtreyning of natural iſſues, ſtrẽgthening the affebeled members, aſſiſting the lyuelye forces, diſperſing annoious appilations, and qualifiyng of ſundry griefes, as experience hath oft conffirmed. The like vertues haue the other two, but not in ſuch meaſure and degrée, and therefore their operation is not ſo ſpéedily perceyued.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The fourth and laſt place of our Bathes, is a Citie in Sommerſet ſhire, which taketh his name of ye hote waters thereto be ſéene & vſed. At the firſt it was called Cairbledud & not Cair Bledune, as ſome woulde haue it, for that is the olde name of ye auncient caſtel at Malmeſbury, which the Saxons named Yngleburne. Ptolomy afterwa [...]de called it Therme, other Aquae ſolis, but nowe it hight generally Bathe in Engliſhe, & vnder that name it is likely to cõtinue. The city of it ſelf is a very aunciẽt thing, no doubt as may yet appeare by dyuers notable antiquities in|graued in ſtone, to be ſéene in the walles thereof. And firſt of all betwéene the ſouth gate and the weſt, and betwixt the weſt gate and the north.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The firſt is the antique heade of a man, made all flatte, with great lockes of heire, much like to the coine that I haue ſéene of Antius the Romaine. The ſeconde betwéene the ſouth & the north gate is an ymage, as I take it of Hercules, for he helde in each hand a ſerpent, & ſo doth this. Thirdely there ſtan|deth a man on foote with a ſworde in his one hand, & a buckler ſtretched out in the other. There is also a braunch that lyeth foulded & wrethed into circles, like to the wreath of Alcimedon. There are more ouer two naked Images, wherof the one imbraceth the other, beside sundrye antique heades, with ruffeled heire, a greye hounde running, and at hys tayle certeine Romaine letters, but so defaced that no man liuing can reade them at this present. There is moreouer the ymage of Lacoon, inuironed with two serpents, & an other inscription, and all these betweene the south and the west gates, as I haue sayd before.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Now betwéene the weſt & north gate are two inſcriptions, of which ſome [...] are euident to be red, the reſidue are [...] def [...]|ced. There is alſo ye ymage of a naked man, & a ſtone in like ſort, which hath cup [...]dines et labruſcas intercurrentes, & a table hauing at eche hand an ymage v [...]ned & [...] floriſhed both aboue & beneath. Finally (ſauing [...] I ſawe afterwarde the ymage of a naked man graſping a ſerpent in eache hand) there was an inſcription of a tombe or buriall, wherein theſe wordes did plainely appeare vixit an|nos, xxx. but ſo defuſedly written, that let|ters ſtoode for who [...]e wordes, and two or thrée letters combined into one. Certes I will not ſaye whether theſe were ſet into the places where they nowe ſtande by the Gen|tiles or, brought thither from other [...] of the towne it ſelfe, & placed afterwarde in thoſe walles, in their neceſſary rep [...]ations. But howſoeuer ye matter ſtandeth this is to be gathered by our hyſtories, that Bladud firſt buylded that citie there, and peraduen|uenture might alſo kindle the [...] vaines of purpoſe to burne continuallye, [...]n the honour of Minerua: by which [...] ye ſprings thereabout did in proceſſe of [...] become hote & not vnprofitable, for ſundry kinds of diſeaſes. Indéede the later Paga [...]s dreamed that M [...]nerua [...] ye chiefe goddes and gouerneſſe of theſe waters, becauſe of the néereneſſe of hir temple vnto the ſame. Solinus addeth furthermore,Cap. 25. howe [...] h [...]r ſayde temple, the fire which was conti|nuallye kept, did neuer conſume into [...] ſparcles, but [...] as the embers the roof were colde, they [...]gealed into clots of hard ſtone, all which I take to be nothing elſe thẽ the effecte of the aforeſayde fyre, of the Sul|phurous vaine kindled in the earth, from whence the waters doe come. That theſe ba|ches or waters are deriued from ſuch, the Marchaſites & ſtones mixed with ſome cop|per, and daily founde vpon the mountaynes thereabout will beare ſufficient witneſſe, though I would write the contrary. Doctor Turner alſo the father of Engliſh Phiſicke, EEBO page image 98 and an excellent Diuine, ſuppoſeth that theſe ſprings doe drawe theyr forces from Sul|phur, or if their be any other thing mingled withall, he geſſeth that it ſhoulde be ſalt pe|ter, becauſe he founde an obſcure likelyhoode of ye ſame, euen in the croſſe Bath. But that they participate wt any allume at al, he could neuer til his dying day, be induced to beleue. I myght here if I thought it neceſſary, in|treat of ye notable ſcituation of Bath it ſelf, which ſtandeth in a pleaſant botome, enui|roned on euery ſide wyth great hylles, out of the which come ſo many ſprings of pure wa|ter by ſundrye wayes vnto the Citye, and in ſuch abundance as that euery houſe is ſer|ued with the ſame by pypes of leade, the ſaid metall being the plentious and leſſe of value vnto them, becauſe it is had not far of from theſe quarters. It ſhould not be amyſſe alſo to ſpeake of ye foure gates, number of pariſh churches, bridges, religious houſes diſſolued, and their founders, if place doe ſerue there|fore: but for ſo much as my purpoſe is not to deale in this behalfe, I will omit the menti|on of theſe thinges, and go in hand wyth the Bathes themſelues, whereof in thys cha|piter I proteſted to intreate.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Croſſe Bath.There are two ſpringes of water as Le|lande ſayth, in the weſt ſouth weſt part of the towne whereof the biggeſt is called the croſſe Bath, of a certeine croſſe that was e|rected ſometime in the middeſt thereof. This Bath is much frequented by ſuch as are diſ|eaſed with leapry, pockes, ſcabbes, & great aches: yet of it ſelfe it is very temperate, & pleaſaunt, hauing a leuen or twelue arches of ſtone in the ſydes thereof, for men to ſtand vnder, when rayne doth oughts annoy them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Common Bathe.The common Bathe, or as ſome call it, the hote Bathe, is two hundreth foote, or ther about from the croſſe Bathe, leſſe in cõpaſſe within the wall then the other, and with on|ly ſeauen arches, wrought out of the mayne incloſure. It is worthily called ye hote Bath, for at the firſt comming into it, men thinke that it would ſcald their fleſh, and loſe it frõ the bone: but after a ſeaſon, and that the bodyes of the commers thereto be warmed thorowlye in the ſame, it is more tollera|ble & eaſie to be borne. Bothe theſe Bathes be in the middle of a little ſtreate, and ioyne to S. Thomas Hoſpitall, ſo that it maye bée thought that Reginalde Byſhop of Bathe, made his houſe néere to theſe comon Baths, onely to ſuccour ſuch poore people as ſhoulde reſort vnto them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Kinges Bathe.The Kings Bathe is very faire and large, ſtanding almoſt in the middle of the towne, at the weſt ende of the Cathedrall Church. It is compaſſed about with a very high ſtone wall, and the brimmes thereof are mure [...] rounde about, where in be two an thirtie ar|ches for men and women to ſtande in ſepe|rately, who beyng of ye gentry for the moſt part, doe reſort thither indifferently, but not in ſuch laſciuious ſort, [...] as vnto other Bathes & hote houſes of ye maine, wherof ſome writ [...] more a greate deale, then modeſty ſhould [...]|ueale, and honeſty performe. There went a fluſe out of this Bath, which ſerued in times paſt the Priory with water, which was de|riued out of it vnto twoo places, and com|monlye vſed for Bathes, but nowe I d [...] not thinke that they remaine in vſage.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 As for the colour of the water of all the Ba|thes, it is moſt like to a déepe blewe, [...] and r [...]|keth much after the manner of a ſée thing potte, commonly yéelding ſomewhat a ſul|pherus taſte, and very vnpleaſant ſauour. The water that runneth from the two ſmall Bathes, goeth by a dyke into the Auon by Weſt, and beneath the Bridge, but the ſame that goeth from the Kings Bathe tur|neth a myl, [...] and after goeth into Auon abou [...] Bath bridg, where it loſeth both force & taſ [...], & is like vnto the reſt. In all the thrée Bath [...] a man may euidently ſée how the water bub|beleth vp from the ſpringes. [...] This is alſo to be noted that at certaine times all entraun|ces into them is vtterly prohibited, that is to ſay, at highe noone and midnight, for at thoſe two ſeaſons & a while before and after, they boyle very feruently, and become ſo hote, that no man is able to indure their heate, or any whtie ſuſtaine their force and vehement working. They purge themſelues further more from all ſuch filth as the dyſeaſed doe leaue in eache of them, wherefore wée doe forbeare the raſhe entraunce into them, at that time, & ſo much the rather for that we wolde not by contractiõ of any new diſeaſ [...] departe more grieuouſlye affected them an came vnto the citie, which is indéede a thing that eche one ſhould regard. [...] For theſe cauſes they are commonlye ſhut vp from halfe [...] houre after ten of the clocke in the foren [...] to halfe an houre after one in the afternoone, & likewiſe at midnight: at which tymes the kéeper of them reſorteth to his charge, ope|neth the gates, and leaueth frée paſſage vnto ſuch as come vnto them, hytherto Lelande [...] what coſt hath of late béene beſtowed vpon theſe Bathes, by diuers of the Nobility, ge [...]|try, cõmonalty and clergy, it lieth not in [...] to declare, yet as I here they are not onely verye much repaired and garniſhed, wyth ſundry curious péeces of workemanſhip [...] EEBO page image 89 partely touchyng their commendation, and partely for the eaſe and benefite of ſuch as reſorte vnto them: but alſo better ordered, cle [...]ier kept, and more friendely prouiſion made for ſuch pouerty as daily repaire the|ther. But notwythſtanding all this, ſuch is the general eſtate of things in Bath, that the rich men may ſpend while they will & the poore be [...]ge wh [...]eſt they liſ [...], for their main|tenaunce and dyet ſo long as they remaine there. And yet I deny not but ythere is very good order there for all degrées, but where ſhall a man find any equal regard of poore & rich, though god do giue theſe h [...] gifts fréely vnto both alyke. I woulde here intreate fur|ther of ye cuſtomes vſed in theſe bath [...], what nũber of Phiſitions daily attend vpon thoſe (eſpecially ſuch as be able to enterteine them) doth enter into theſe Ba|thes before he conſult with the Phiſition: al|ſo, what diet is to be obſerued, what particu|lar diſeaſes are healed there, & to what ende the comers thither doe drinke oft times of that medicinable liquor, but thẽ I ſhould ex|céede the lymittes of a deſcription, wherfore I paſſe it ouer vnto other, hoping that ſome man ere long wyll vouchſafe to performe that at large, which the famous clarke Doc|ter Turner hath brefely yet happily begun, touching the effects and working of the ſame, for hitherto I doe not knowe of manye that haue trauayled in the natures of thoſe Ba|thes of our countrey, wyth any great com|mendation, much leſſe of any that hath re|uealed them at the full for the benefite of our nation, or commoditie of ſtraungers.

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