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2.7. Of Cities and townes, within the realme of Englande. Cap. 7.

Of Cities and townes, within the realme of Englande. Cap. 7.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AS in olde time we read that there were 28.26. Cities in Eng|lande. flamines and Archflamines in the ſouth part of this Iſle, and ſo many great ci|ties vnder their iuriſdiction, ſo in theſe our dayes there is but one or two fewer, & eache of them alſo vnder the Eccleſiaſticall regi|ment of ſome one Biſhop or Archbiſhop, who in ſpirituall caſes haue the charge, and ouer|ſight of ye ſame. So many cities therefore are there in Englande and Wales, as there be Biſhoprijcks and Archbiſhoprijcks: for not|withſtanding that Lichfielde and Couentry: and Bathe and Welles, doe ſéeme to extend the aforeſayde number vnto nyne and twen|tie, yet neyther of theſe coples are to be ac|compted, but as one intier citie, and Sie of the biſhop, ſith one Biſhoprijcke can haue re|lation but vnto one Sie, and the ſayd Sie be ſcituate but in one place, after which the bi|ſhop doth take his name. It apeareth by our olde and auncient hyſtories, that the cities of thys ſoutherly portion haue béene of excée|ding greatneſſe and beautie, whereof ſome were buylded in the time of the Samotheãs, and of which not a few in theſe our times are quite decayed, & the places where they ſtoode worne out of al remembrance. Such alſo for the moſt part as yet remayne are meruay|louſly altered, inſomuch that whereas at the firſt they were large & ample, nowe are they come eyther vnto a very fewe houſes, or ap|peare not to be much greater in compariſon then poore and ſimple villages.Sitomag [...] Nouio [...]|gus. Neoma [...] Nioma [...] Antoninus the moſt diligent writer of the thorow fares of Brytaine, noteth among other theſe aun|cient townes following, as Sitomagus (which he placeth in the way frõ Norwitch as Le|lande ſuppoſeth wherein they went by Col|cheſter to London) Nouiomagus that lyeth betwéene Carleill and Cantorbury, within tenne myles eaſt of London, and likewyſe Neomagus, and Niomagus which take their names of their firſt foũder Magus, the ſonne of Samothes, and ſecond king of the Celtes that reigned in this Iſlande. Of theſe more|ouer Sir Thomas Eliot ſuppoſeth Neoma|gus to haue ſtood ſomewhere about Cheſter, and George Lilly in his booke of the names of auncient places, iudgeth Niomagus to be the verye ſame that we doe nowe call Buc|kingham. And as theſe & ſundry other nowe periſhed tooke theyr denomination of thys prince, ſo their are dyuers cauſes, which mooue me to coniecture, that Saliſbury it ſelf doth rather take the firſt name Sarron the ſonne of the ſayde Magus, then of Caeſar, Saliſ [...]|ry of S [...]|ron. Cara|doc or Seuerus as ſome of our writers doe imagine. But ſith coniecturs are no verities & mine opinion is but one mans iudgement,Sar [...]|um. Sar [...]|bury. I will not ſtande now vpon the proofe of this matter, leaſt I ſhoulde ſéeme to take great paines in adding new coniectures vnto olde, in ſuch wyſe to deteyne the heades of my readers about theſe trifles, that otherwyſe peraduenture woulde be farre better occu|pyed. To procéede therfore, as ſoone after the firſt inhabitation of this Iſlande, our Cities began no doubt to be buylded, and increaſed, ſo they ceaſed not to multiplye from tyme to tyme, till the lande was thorowly furniſhed, with hir conuenient numbers, whereof ſome at this preſent with their auncient names, doe ſtill remaine in knowledge, though dy|uers be doubted of, & many moe peryſhed by continuance of time, and vyolence of the ene|mie. I doubt not alſo but the leaſt of theſe were comparable to the greateſt of thoſe which ſtand in our tyme, for ſith that in thoſe dayes the moſt part of the Iſlande, was re|ſerued vnto paſture,Great [...] cities [...] times [...] when h [...]|bands alſo [...] Citizens [...]cauſe [...] in| [...] of [...]ges. the townes and villages eyther were not at all (but all ſortes of peo|ple dwelled in the cities indifferentlye an I|mage, of which eſtate may yet be ſéene in Spaine) or at the leſt wiſe ſtoode not ſo thick, as they dyd afterward in the time of the Ro|maines, EEBO page image 81 but chiefely after the comming of the Saxons and Normans, whẽ euery Lord buylded a church neare vnto his owne man|ſion houſe, & are imputed the greateſt part of his lands vnto ſundrie tennants, wherby the number of townes and villages was not a little increaſed among vs. If any man be de|ſirous to know the names of thoſe auncient cities, that ſtoode in the time of the Romain [...] he ſhall haue them here at hand, in ſuch wiſe as I haue gathered them out of our writers obſeruing euen their maner of writing of thẽ ſo neare as to me is poſſible.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
1. London otherwiſe called
  • Trenouanton.
  • Cair Lud.
  • Londinum or Longidinium
  • Auguſta of the legion Auguſta that ſoiourned there, when the Romaines ruled here.
2 Yorke o|therwiſe called
  • Cairbranke.
  • Vrouicum or Yurewijc.
  • Eorwijc.
  • Yeworwijc.
  • Eboracum.
  • Victoria of the legion victrix that laye there ſometime.
3. Cantor|bury
  • Duroruerno alias Duraruenno.
  • Dorobernia.
  • Cantwarbyry.
4. Colche|ſter
  • Cair Colon.
  • Cair Colden.
  • Cair Colkin.
  • Cair Colun, of the riuer that runneth thereby.
  • Colonia, of the Colonia pl [...]|ted there.
  • Colonceſter.
  • Camulodunum.
5. Lincolne
  • Cair Lud Coit, of the woodes that ſtoode about it.
  • Cair loichoi [...], by Corruption.
  • Lindum.
  • Lindocollinum.
6. Warwijc
  • Cair Guteclin.
  • Cair Line.
  • Cair Gwair.
  • Cair vmber.
  • Cair Gwaerton.
7. Cheſter vppon Vske
  • Cair legion.
  • Carlheon.
  • Cairlium.
  • Legeceſter.
  • Ciuitas legionum.
8. Carleill
  • Cair Lueill.
  • Cair Leill.
  • Lugibalia.
9. S. Al|banes
  • Cair Maricipit.
  • Cair Municip.
  • Verolamium.
  • Verlamceſter.
  • Cair wattelin, of the ſtreete whereon it ſtoode.
10. Win|cheſter
  • Cair Gwent.
  • Cair Gwin.
  • Cair Wine.
  • Venta Simenorum.
11. Ciſce|ter.
  • Cair Chume.
  • Cair Kyrne.
  • Cair Ker [...].
  • Cair Cery.
  • Cirneceſter.
  • Churneceſter.
12. Silce|ſter.
  • Cair Segent.
  • Seleceſter.
13. Bathe
  • Cair Badon.
  • Thermae.
  • Aquae ſolis.
14. Shafteſ|byry.
  • Cair palado [...].
  • Septonia.
15. worceſter
  • Wigornia.
  • Cair Gworangon.
  • Brangonia.
  • Caer Frangon.
  • Woorkeceſter.
16. Chiche|ſter
  • Cair Key.
  • Cair Chic.
17. Briſtow
  • Cair Odern [...]nt Badon.
  • Oder.
  • Cair Br [...].
  • Venta Belgar [...].
  • Brightſtow.
18. Ro|cheſt.
  • Durobrenis co [...]ruptly
  • Roficeſter.
  • Roffa.
  • [...].
  • Dubobrus.
  • Du [...]ob [...]ius.
19. Fortche|ſter.
  • Cair Peris.
  • Cair pore [...]s.
20. Cair|marden
  • Cair Maridunum.
  • Cair Merdine.
  • Maridunum.
  • Cair Marlin.
  • Cair Fridhin.
21. Gloceſter
  • Cair Clowy.
  • Cair Glow.
  • Claudioceſtria.
EEBO page image 9122. Leir|ceſter.
  • Cair Leir.
  • Cair Lirion.
  • Wirall te [...]te math weſt. 895.
23. Cam|bridge.
Cair Graunt.
  • 24. Cair vrnach.
  • 25. Cair Cucurat.
  • 26. Cair Draiton.
  • 27. Cair Celennon.
  • 28. Cair Megwaid.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 As for Cair Dorme (another whereof I read likewſie) it ſtood ſomewhere vpon Nen in Huntingdon ſhire, but nowe vnknowen, ſith it was twiſe raced to the grounde, firſt by the Saxons, then by the Danes, ſo that the ruines therof are not extaunt to be ſéene. And in like ſort I am ignoraunt where they ſtood,When Albane was mar|tyred, Aſclepio|dotus was Legate in Britaine. that are noted the ſtar. It ſhould ſéeme when theſe auncient cities flouriſhed, that the ſame towne which we nowe call Saint Albons, did moſt of all excell: but chiefely in the Romaines time, and was nothing infe|riour to London if ſelf, but rather preferred before it, bycauſe it was newer, & a colony of the Romaines, wheras the other was old and ruinous, and inhabited only by the Bri|taines. Good notice hereof alſo is to be taken by Mathew paris, & other before him, out of whoſe wrytings, I haue thought good to note a fewe thinges whereby the maieſty of thys auncient citie, may appeare vnto poſterity, and the former eſtate of Verlamceſter not lie altogither, as it hath done hitherto raked vp in forgetfulneſſe, thorowe the negligence of ſuch as might haue deſerued better of theyr ſucceſſours, by leauing the deſcription thereof in a booke by it ſelfe, ſith many parti|culers thereof were written to their hands, that nowe are loſt and periſhed. Tacitus in the fouretéenth booke of hys hiſtorie, maketh mencion of it, ſhewyng that in the rebellion of the Brytons, the Romaines there were myſerablye diſtreſſed, Eadem clades (ſayth he) municipio Verolamio fuit, and herevpon Nennius in his Cataloge of cities, calleth it Cair Minucip, as I before haue noted. Ptolo|my ſpeaking of it, Sulomaca and Bar|net all one, or not far in ſunder. doth place it among the Catyeuchlanes, but Antoninus maketh it one and twentie Italyan myles from London, placing Sullomaca nyne myle from thence, wherby it is euident, that Sullomaca ſtood ve|ry néere to Barnet, if it were not the ſame. Of the cõpaſſe of the walles of Verolamium there is yet ſome mencyon by the ruines, but of ye beauty of the citye it ſelfe, you ſhal part|ly vnderſtand by yt which followeth at hand.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 In the time of King Edgar, it fell out that one Eldred was Abbot there, who being de|ſirous to enlarge that houſe, it came into his mynde, to ſearch about in the ruines of Ve|rolamium, (which nowe was ouerthrow [...] by the fury of the ſa [...]ons & Danes) to ſée if [...] might there come by any curious péeces [...] worke, wherewith to garniſhe hys buylding taken in hand. To be ſhort, he had no [...] begonne to digge among the r [...]bbis, but [...] founde an exceeding number of Pillers, p [...]ces of Antique worke, threſholdes, doore fra|mes, and ſundry other péeces of [...]ne maſ [...]|ry for windowes and ſuch lyke, very co [...]|mẽt for his purpoſe. Of theſe alſo ſome [...] of porphirite ſtone, ſome of dyuers kyndes of marble, touch, and Alablaſter, beſide ma|ny curious deuiſes of harde mettall, in fyn|ding whereof he thought himſelfe an happy man, and his ſucceſſe to be greatlye guyded by ſ. Albane: Beſides theſe alſo he found ſun|dry pyllers of Braſſe, and ſocketes of Lat|ton, al which he laide aſide by great heapes, determinyng in the ende, I ſay, to laye the foundation of a newe Abbaie, but God ſo preuented his determinatiõ, that death tooke him awaye, before his buylding was begon. After him ſuccéeded one Eadmerus, who proſequuted the dooinges of Eldrede to the vttermoſt: and therefore not onely peruſed what he had left with great diligence, but al|ſo cauſed his pioners to ſearche yet farder, with in ye olde walles of Verolamium, where they not onely found infinite péeces of excel|lent workemanſhip, but came at the laſt to certaine vaultes vnder the ground, in which ſtoode dyuers Idolles, and not a fewe aul|tars, very ſupperſtitiouſlye, & religiouſlye a|dourned, as the Paganes left thẽ (belike) in tyme of neceſſytie. Theſe Images were of ſũdry mettals, & ſome of pure gold: their aul|ters likewiſe were rychly couered, all which ornamentes, Edmerus tooke away, and not only conuerted them to other vſe in his buil|ding, but alſo deſtroyed an innumerable ſort of other ydols, whoſe eſtimation conſiſted in their formes: & ſubſtaunces could doe no ſer|uice. He tooke vp more [...]uer ſundrye curious pottes, Iugges, and cruſes of ſtone, & woode moſt artificially wrought, and carued, & that in ſuch quantitye beſides infinite ſtore of fine houſholde ſtuffe, as if the whole furniture of the city had béene brought thither of purpoſe to be hidden in thoſe vaultes. In procéeding further he tooke vp diuers pots of golde, ſyl|uer, braſſe & glaſſe, wherof ſome were fylled with the aſhes and bones of the Gentyles, & not a fewe with the coynes of the olde Bry|tons, and Romaine Emperours. All which veſſels the ſayde Abbot brake into péeces, and melting the mettalle, he reſerued it in lyke ſorte for the garnyſhing of hys church. EEBO page image 82 he founde lykewyſe in a ſtone wall two olde bookes, wherof one conteined the rytes of the gentiles, about the ſacrifices of their gods, the other as they now ſay, ye Martyrdome of S. Albane, [...]S ſoũ| [...] lyke a [...] both of thẽ written in old brittiſh letters, which eyther bycauſe no man then lyuing could read them, or for that they were not woorth the kéeping, were both conſu|med to aſhes, ſauing that a fewe notes were firſt taken out of this later, concerning the death of their Albane. Thus much haue I thought good to note of the former beautie of Verolamium, whereof infinite other tokens haue béene found, ſince that tyme, and diuers within the memory of man of paſſing work|manſhip, the lyke wherof hath no where elſe béene ſéene in anye ruynes wythin the com|paſſe of the Iſle, eyther for coſt or quanti|tye of ſtuffe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Furthermore where as dyuers are not a frayde to ſaye that the Thames came ſome|times by thys citie, in déede it is nothing ſo, but that the Verlume, (afterwarde called Vere and the Mure) did or doth ſo (whatſoe|euer Gildas talketh herof, whoſe bookes may be corrupted in that behalfe,) there is yet e|uident proofe to be confirmed by experience. But thus ſtandeth the caſe. As thoſe afore|ſayd workemen digged in thoſe ruines, they happened oftentimes vpon Lempet ſhelles, péeces of ruſty ancres, and Keles of great veſſelles, wherevpon ſome by & by gathered that either the Thames or ſome arme of the Sea, did beate vpon that towne, not vnder|ſtandyng that theſe thinges might aſwell happen in great lakes and meres, whereof there was one adioyning to the north ſide of the citie, which lay thẽ vnwalled. This mere at the firſt belonged to the king, and thereby Offa in hys time did reape no ſmall commo|ditie. It continued alſo vntill the time of Al|f [...]ijc the ſeauenth Abbot of that houſe, who bought it out ryght of the king then liuing, & by exceſſiue charges dreined it ſo narrowly, that within a whyle he left it [...]e, bycauſe there was alwaies contention betwéene the monkes & the kings ſeruaunts, which fiſhed on that water.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In theſe dayes there remayneth no ma|ner mencion of this poole, but onelye in one ſtreate, which yet is called fiſhpoole ſtreate, whereof this may ſuffiſe, for the reſolution of ſuch men, as ſéeke rather to yeeld to an in|conuenience, then that their Gildas ſhoulde ſéeme to miſtake thys ryuer.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hauing thus digreſſed to giue ſome remẽ|braunce of the olde eſtate of Verolamium, it is now time to returne againe vnto my for|mer purpoſe. Certes I woulde gladlye ſet downe with the names and number of the cities, all the townes & villages, in england and wales but as yet I cannot come by thẽ, in ſuch order as I woulde: howbeit the tale of our cities is ſoone founde by the Byſhop|rijckes, ſith euery Sie hath ſuch prerogatiue giuen vnto it, as to beare the name of a ci|tie, As

  • London.
  • Yorke.
  • Cauntorbury.
  • VVincheſter.
  • Cairleil.
  • Durham.
  • Ely.
  • Norwiche.
  • Lincolne.
  • VVorceſter.
  • Gloceſter.
  • Hereforde.
  • Salisbury.
  • Exceſter.
  • Bathe.
  • Lichefielde.
  • Briſtow.
  • Rocheſter.
  • Cheſter.
  • Chicheſter.
  • Oxforde.
  • Peterborow.
  • Landaffe.
  • S. Dauids.
  • Bangor.
  • S. Aſaph.
Whoſe particular plots & models with their deſcriptiõs ſhal inſue, if it may be brought to paſſe, that ye cutters can make diſpach of thẽ before this hyſtory be publiſhed. Of townes and villages likewiſe thus much will I ſay, that there were greater ſtore in olde tyme then at this preſent, & thys I note out of dy|uers recordes, charters, & donations (made in times paſt, vnto ſundry religious houſes, as Gleſſenburye, Abbandon, Ramſey, E|ly, and ſuch like) that there were many tow|nes and villages, whereof at this preſent I fynde not ſo much as the ruines. Lelande in ſundrye places complayneth likewiſe of the decaie of paryſhes in great cities and townes, miſſing in ſome ſixe, or eyght, or twelue churchs, of all which he giueth parti|culer notice. For albeit yt the Saxõs builded many townes & villages, and the Normans well mo: yet ſince the firſt hundred yeares, after the latter conqueſt, they haue gone a|gaine ſo faſt againe to decaye, that the aun|cyent number of them is very much abated. Ranulphe the Monke of Cheſter, telleth of a generall ſuruey, made in the fourth of the reign [...] of William Conquerour, ſurnamed the Baſtarde, wherein it was founde that (nowithſtanding ye Danes had ouerthrowne a great many) there were to the number of 52000. townes, 45002. pariſh churches, and 75000. Knightes fées, whereof the clergy helde 28015. He addeth moreouer that there were dyuers other buylded ſince that tyme, wythin the ſpace of an hun|dred yeares after the comming of the Ba|ſtarde, as it were in lieu or recompence of thoſe that William Rufus pulled downe for the erection of his newe Forreſt. Howbeit if EEBO page image 92 the aſſertions of ſuch as wryte in our tyme concerning this matter, eyther is or ought to be of any credite, in this behalfe, you ſhall not finde, aboue 17000. townes and villa|ges in the whole, which is little more then a fourth part, of the aforeſayd number, yf it be thorowly ſcanned. But to leaue this lamen|table diſcourſe of ſo notable an inconueniẽce (growing by incroching & ioyning of houſe to houſe, and lande to lande, whereby the in|habitaunts of any country are deuoured and eatẽ vp.) It is ſo that our ſoyle being deuided into Champaigne ground & woodlande, the houſes of the firſt lye vniformely buylded in euery towne togither with ſtréetes & lanes, whereas in the woodlande countries (except here and there in great market townes) they ſtande ſcattered abroad, eache one dwelling in the midſt of his owne occupying. And as in euery one of the firſt, there are comonly thrée hundred or foure hundred families or manſion houſes, and two thouſande commu|nicantes, or peraduenture moe: ſo in the o|ther we finde not often aboue fourtie or fiftie houſholdes, & two hundred communicantes, whereof the greateſt part neuertheleſſe are very poore folkes, oftentymes without all maner of occupying, ſith the grounde of the pariſhe is often gotten vp into a fewe mens handes, yea ſometimes into the tennure of two or three, wherby the reaſt are compelled eyther to be hyred ſeruaunts vnto the other, or elſe to begge their bread in miſery from doore to doore. A great number complayne of thincreaſe of pouertie, but few men do ſée the verye roote from whence it doeth procéede, yet the Romaines founde it out, when they floriſhed, and therefore preſcribed limites to euery mans tenure and occupying. Homere commendeth Achilles for ouerthrowing of fiue and twentie cities, but in myne opinion Ganges is much better preferred by Suidas for buylding of thrée ſcore in Inde, where he dyd plant himſelfe. I coulde if néede requy|red ſet downe in this place, the number of religious houſes and Monaſteries with the names of their founders that haue béene in this Iſland, but ſith it is a thing of ſmall im|portaunce, I paſſe it ouer as impertinent to my purpoſe. Yet herin I will commẽde ma|nye of the monaſticall votaries, eſpeciallye Monkes, for that they were authors of many goodly borowes and endwares, neare vnto their dwellinges, although otherwyſe they pretended to be men ſeparated from the world. But alas their couetous mindes one waye in enlarging their reuenues, & carnall intent an other appeared herein to to much, for being bolde from tyme to tyme to viſite their tennants, they wrought oft great wic|kedneſſe, & made thoſe end wares litle better thẽ bordelhouſes, eſpecially where Nonri [...] were farre of, or elſe no ſafe acceſſe vnto thẽ. But what doe I ſpende my tyme in the r [...]|hearſall of theſe filthineſſes, woulde to God the memorie of them might periſhe with the malefactours. My purpoſe was alſo at them of this chapter to haue ſet downe a table of the Pariſhe churches and market townes thorowout all England and Wales, but ſith I can not performe the ſame as I woulde, I am inforced to giue ouer my purpoſe, yet by theſe fewe that inſue you ſhall eaſily ſée what order I woulde haue vſed according to the ſhyres.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

Shyres. Market townes. Pariſhes.
Middleſex 3. 73.
London within the walles, and without. 120.
Surrey. 6. 140.
Suſſex. 18. 312.
Kent. 17. 398.
Cambridge. 4. 163.
Bedford. 9. 13.
Huntingdon. 5. 78.
Rutlande. 2. 47.
Barckeſhyre. 11. 150.
Northampton. 10. 3 [...]6.
Buckingham. 11. 196.
Oxforde. 10. 216.
Southampton. 18. 248.
Dorſet. 19. 279.
Norffolke. 26. 625.
Suffolke. 25. 575.
Eſſex. 18. 415.

And theſe I had of a friende of myne, by whoſe traueyle and hys maiſters exceſſiue charges I doubt not, but my country men eare long ſhall ſée all Englande ſet foorth in ſeuerall ſhyres after the ſame maner that Ortelius hath dealt wyth other countries [...] the mayne, to the great benefite of our na|tion and euerlaſting fame of the aforeſayde parties.

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