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2.8. Of Caſtelles and holdes. Cap. 8.

Of Caſtelles and holdes. Cap. 8.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THere haue béene in tymes paſt great ſtore of Caſtelles and places of defence within the realme of Englande, of which ſome were buylded by the Brytons, many by the Romaynes, Saxons, and Danes, but moſt of all by the Barons of the realme, in & about the tyme of king Stephen, who licen|ſed eache of them to buylde ſo many as they would vpon their owne demeaſnes, hoping therby that they would haue employed their EEBO page image 83 vſe to his aduauntage and commoditie, but finally when he ſawe that they were rather fortified againſt hymſelfe in the ende, then vſed in his defence, [...]ry the [...] alſo [...]. he repented all to la [...]e of his inconſiderate dealing, ſith now there was no remedie but by force for to ſubdue them. After his deceaſe king Henry the ſeconde came no ſooner to the crowne, but he called to minde the inconuenience which his pre|deſſour had ſuffred and he himſelfe might in time ſuſtaine by thoſe fortifications. There|fore one of the firſt things he dyd was an at|tempt to race and deface the moſt parte of theſe holdes. Certes he thought it better to hazarde the méeting of the enimie nowe and then in the playne field, then to liue in perpe|tuall feare of thoſe houſes, and the rebellion of his Lordes vpon euery light occaſion con|ceyued, who then were full ſo ſtrong as he, if not more ſtrong, and that made them the re|dier to withſtande & gaineſay many of thoſe procéedinges, which he and his ſucceſſours from time to tyme intended. Hereupon ther|fore he cauſed more then aleauen hundred of their caſtelles to be raced and ouerthrowne, whereby the power of his nobilitie was not a litle reſtrained. Sithence that time alſo not a few of thoſe which remained, haue decayed of themſelues: ſo that at this preſent, there are very few or no caſtels at all maintayned within England, ſauing only vpõ the coaſts and marches of the countrie for the better kéeping backe of the forrein enemie, when|ſoeuer he ſhall attempt to enter and annoye vs.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The moſte prouident Prince that euer reigned in this lande for the fortificatiõ ther|of agaynſt all outwarde enemies, was the late Prince of famous memory king Henry the eyght: ſith beſide that he repaired moſt of ſuch as were alreadie ſtanding, he buylded ſundrie out of the grounde. For hauing ſha|ken of the more then ſeruile yoke of the Po|piſh tyrannie, and eſpying that the Empe|rour was offended for hys dyuorce from Quéene Catherine his aunt: and therto that the Frenche king had coupled the Dolphin his ſonne with the Popes nece: and maryed his daughter to the king of Scottes, (where|by he had cauſe more iuſtly to ſuſpect then ſafely to truſt any one of the all as Lambert ſaith) he determined to ſtand vpon his owne defence, [...] theſe [...]es the [...] of [...]rfolke [...]e wea [...] as [...]ye ap| [...]re by [...]burne [...] [...]e and [...]er pla [...] of the [...]e. and therefore with no ſmall ſpéede, and like charge, he buylded ſundrie Blocke|houſes, Caſtelles, and Platformes vpon dy|uers frontiers of his realme, but chiefely the eaſt and ſoutheaſt partes of England, wher|by no doubt he dyd very much qualifie the conceyued grudges of his aduerſaries and vtterly put of their haſty purpoſe of [...]. And thuſmuch briefly for my purpoſe at this preſent. For I néede not to make any [...] diſcourſe of caſtels, ſith it is not the nature of a good Engliſhman to regarde to be caged vp in a c [...]pe, & hedged in with ſtone walles, but rather to méete wyth hys enemie in the playne field [...] at handſtrokes, where he may trauaiſe his grounde, chooſe his plot, and vſe the benefite of ſunne ſhine, winde & wether, to his beſt aduauntage and commoditie. As for thoſe tales that go of B [...]ſton caſtell, how it ſhall ſaue all England on a day, & likewiſe the brag of a rebellious Barron in olde time that ſayde in contempt (of king Henry the thirde, as I geſſe)

If I were in my Castell of Bungey
Vpon the water of Waueney,
I woulde not ſet a button by the king of Cockney.
I repute them but as toyes, the firſt méere vaine, the ſeconde fo [...]dly vttered if any ſuch thing were ſayde, as many other wordes are and haue béene ſpoken of lyke holdes, (as Wallingforde. &c.) but nowe growen out of memorie, and with ſmall loſſe not hearde of among the common ſort.

2.9. Of Pallaces belonging to the prince, and court of Englande. Cap. 9.

Of Pallaces belonging to the prince, and court of Englande. Cap. 9.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 IT lyeth not in me to ſet downe exactly the number and names of the palaces, belong|ing to the Prince, nor to make any deſcrip|tion of hir Graces Court, ſith my callyng is and hath béene ſuch, as that I haue ſcareely preſumed to péepe in at hir gates, much leſſe then haue I aduentured to ſerch out & know the eſtate of thoſe houſes, and what magnifi|cent behauiour is to to ſéene wythin them. Yet thus much will I ſaye generallye of all the houſes and honours appertaining vnto hir grace, that they are buylded, eyther of ſquare ſtone or bricke, or elſe of both, & ther|vnto although their capacity and hugeneſſe be not ſo monſtrous, as the lyke of dyuer [...] Forren Princes, are to be ſéene in ye maine, yet are they ſo curious, nete, and commodi|ous as any of them, both for conueighaunce of offices and lodginges, and excellencye of ſcituation, which is not the leaſt thing to bée conſidered of. Thoſe that were buylded be|fore the tyme of King Henry the eyght, re|taine to theſe daies the ſhew & Image of the auncient kinde of workmanſhip vſed in this lande, but ſuch as he erected doe repreſent a|nother maner of paterne, which as they are ſuppoſed to excell all the reſt that he founde ſtanding in thys Realme, ſo they are & ſhal|be EEBO page image 93 be a perpetuall preſident, vnto thoſe that doe come after, to followe in their workes, and buyldinges of importaunce. Certes Maſon|ry did neuer better flouriſh in England then in hys tyme, and albeit that in theſe dayes there be manye goodly houſes erected in the ſundry quarters of thys Iſland, yet they are rather curious to the eye, then ſubſtaunciall for continuaunce, where as ſuch as hée did ſet vp excel in both, and therefore may iuſt|ly be preferred aboue al the reſt. The names of thoſe which come now to my rẽmebrance, are theſe.White hall. Firſt of al White hall at the weſt ende of London (which is taken for the moſt large and principall of all the reſt) was be|gun by Cardinall wolſey, and enlarged and finiſhed by king Henry ye eyght. Néere vnto yt is.S. Iames S. Iames, ſometime a Nonry, builded likewiſe by the ſame prince. Hir grace hath alſo Otelande, Aſheridge, Hatfelde, Haue|ring,Oteland. Aſheridge. Hatfelde. Enuelde. Richemõd. Hampton. Woodſtocke Enuéeld, Richemond, Hampton court, (begonne ſometime by Cardinall Wolſey, and finiſhed by hir Father) and therevnto Woodſtocke, erected by king Henry the ſeconde, in which the Quéenes maieſty de|lighteth greatly to ſoiourne, notwythſtan|ding that in time paſt it was the place of hir captiuity, when it pleaſed God to try hir by affliction and calamity.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Windſor.For ſtrength Windleſor or Winſore, is ſuppoſed to be the chiefe, a caſtell buylded in tyme paſt by king Arthur, as it is thought, & repayred by Edwarde the third, who erec|ted alſo a notable Colledge there. After him diuers of his ſucceſſours, haue beſtowed ex|céeding charges vpon the ſame, which not|withſtanding are farre ſurmounted, by the Quéenes maieſty nowe lyuing, who hath appointed huge ſommes of money to be em|ployed vpon the ornature, and alteration of the mould, according to the fourme of buyl|ding vſed in our dayes. Such alſo hath béene the eſtimatiõ of this place, that diuers kings haue not onely béene enterred there but alſo made it the chiefe houſe of aſſemblye, and creation of the Knightes, of the honoura|ble order of the Garter, then the which there is nothing in this lande, more magnificent and ſtately.Gréene|wiche. Gréenewiche was firſt buylded, by Humfrey Duke of Gloceſter, vpon the Thames ſide 4. miles eaſt from London, in ye tyme of Henry the ſixt, & called Pleſance. Afterwards it was gretly inlarged by king Edwarde the fourth, garnyſhed by king Henry the ſeauenth, and finallye made per|fite by king Henry the eyght, the onely phe|nir of his time, for fine and cutious maſon|rye.Dartforde. Not farre from this is Dartforde, and not much diſtaunt alſo from the ſouth ſide of that ſayd ſtreame, ſometime a Nonnery, but now a very cõmodious Pallace, wherevnto it was alſo cõuerted by king Henry ye eight El [...]ham as I take it, was buylded by king Henry ye third if not before. [...] There are be [...] theſe moreouer dyuers other, but what ſhal I néede to take vpon me to repeate all, & tell what houſes the Quéenes maieſtie hath, ſith all is hirs, and when it pleaſeth hir in the ſõ|mer ſeaſon, to recreate hir ſelfe abroade, and viewe the eſtate of the countrey, euery no|ble mans houſe is hir Pallace, where ſh [...] continueth d [...]ring pleaſure, and till ſhée re|turne againe to ſome of hir owne, in which ſhe remaineth ſo long as pleaſeth hir.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The court of England which neceſſarily is holden alwayes where the Prince lyeth, [...] is in theſe dayes one of the moſt renowmed and magnificent courtes, that are to be found in Europe. For whether you regard the ryche and infinite furniture of houſholde, order of Officers, or the interteinement of ſuch ſtrã|gers as dailye reſorte vnto the ſame, you ſhall not finde many equall thervnto, much leſſe one excelling it, in any maner of wiſe. I myght here if I woulde (or had ſufficient diſ|poſition of matter conceyued of the ſame) make a large diſcourſe, of the honourable ports of ſuch graue councellours, and noble perſonages, as giue their dailye attendance vpon the Quéenes maieſty there. I could in lyke ſorte ſet forth a ſingular commendati [...] of the vertuous beautie, or beautiful vertues of ſuch Ladies and Gentlewomen, as waite vpon hir perſon, betwéene whoſe amiable counntenaunces and coſtlineſſe of attyre, there ſéemeth to be ſuch a daily conflict and contention, as that it is verye difficulte for me to geſſe, wheter of the twaine, ſhal beare away the preheminence. [...] This farder is not to be omitted to the ſingular commendation of both ſorts & ſexes of our Courtyers here in Englande, that there are verye fewe of them, which haue not the vſe and ſkyll of ſundry ſpeaches, beſide an excellent vaine of wryting, before time not regarded. Truely it is a rare thing with vs nowe, to here of a courtier which hath but his own language, & to ſay how many Gentlewomen & Ladies there are that beſide ſound knowledge of the Gréeke & Latin tongues, are therto no leſſe ſkilful in ye Spaniſh Italian & French, or in ſome one of them, it reſteth not in me: ſith I am perſwaded, that as the noble men, & gen|tlemen, doe ſurmount in this behalf, ſo theſe come very litle or nothyng at all behind thẽ, for their parts, which induſtry go [...] continue.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beſide theſe thinges I coulde in like ſorte ſet downe the wayes and meanes whereby EEBO page image 84 our auncient Ladies of the Court doe ſhun & auoyde ydleneſſe, ſome of them exercyſing their fingers with the néedle, other in caule|worke, diuers in ſpinning of ſilke, ſome in continuall reading either of the holye ſcrip|tures, or hyſtories of our owne, or forren na|tions about vs, whileſt the yonger ſort in ye meane time, applie their Lutes, Citharnes, prickeſong, and all kindes of Muſick, which they vſe only for recreation and ſolace ſake, when they haue leyſure, and are frée from attendaunce vpon the Quéenes maieſtye, or ſuch as they belong vnto.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 I myght finally deſcribe the large allow|ances in offices, and yerely lyueries, & ther|vnto the great plentie of Golde and Syluer Plate, the ſeuerall péeces whereof, are cõ|monlye ſo great and maſſye, and the quan|ty therof ſo abundantly ſeruing all the houſ|holde, that if Midas were nowe liuing and once againe put to his choiſe, I thinke hée coulde aſke no more, or rather not halfe ſo much, as is there to be ſeene and vſed. But I paſſe ouer to make ſuch néedeleſſe diſcour|ſes, reſoluing my ſelfe, that euen in this alſo the excéeding mercy and louing kindeneſſe of God doth woonderfullye appeare towardes vs, in that he hath ſo largely indued vs with theſe his ſo ample benefites.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In ſome great Princes Courtes, it is a worlde to ſée what lewde behauiour is vſed among dyuers of thoſe that reſorte vnto the ſame, & what whoredõe, ſwearing, rybaldry atheiſme, dicing, carding, carowſing, drun|kenneſſe, Glotony, quareling, and ſuch lyke inconueniences, doe daily take holde, and ſometimes euen among thoſe, in whoſe e|ſtates ſuch behauiour is leaſt conuenient: all which inormities, are eyther vtterly ex|pelled out of the Court of Englande, or elſe ſo quallified by the diligent endeuour of the chiefe officers of hir graces houſholde, that ſeldome are any of theſe thinges apparantly ſéene there, with out due reprehenſion, & ſuch ſeuere correction, as belongeth to thoſe treſ|paſſes. Finally to auoyde ydleneſſe, and pre|uent ſundrye tranſgreſſions, otherwiſe like|lye to be commytted and done, ſuch order is taken, that euerye offyce hath eyther a Byble, or the bookes of the Actes and mo|numentes of the Church of Englande, or both, beſide ſome hyſtoryes and Chronicles lying therin, for the exerciſe of ſuch as come into the ſame: whereby the ſtraunger that entereth into the Court of Englande vpon the ſodeine, ſhall rather imagine himſelfe to come into ſome publicke ſchoole of ye vniuer|ſities, where many giue eare to one that rea|deth vnto thẽ, then into a Princes Pallace, if you conferre this with thoſe of other nati|ons. Would to god al honorable perſonages woulde take example of hir Graces Godly dealing in this behalfe, and ſhewe their con|formitie, vnto theſe hir ſo good beginninges: which if they woulde, then ſhoulde manye grieuous enormities (where with GOD is highelye diſpleaſed) be cut of and reſtreined, which nowe doe reigne excéedingly, in moſt Noble and Gentlemens houſes, wherof they ſée no paterne within hir Graces gates.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The firme peace alſo that is mainteyned within a certaine compaſſe of the Princes Pallace, is ſuch, as is nothing inferiour to that we ſée daily practized in the beſt gouer|ned holds, & fortreſſes. And ſuch is the ſeuere puniſhment of thoſe that ſtrike, wythin the limites prohibited, that without all hope of mercy, benefite of clergie, or ſanctuary, they are ſure to looſe their ryght handes, at a ſtroke, and that in very ſolemne maner, the fourme whereof I will ſet downe, and then make an ende of this Chapter, to deale with other matters.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At ſuch time therefore as the party tranſ|greſſing is conuicted by a ſufficent enqueſt impanelled for the ſame purpoſe, and the tyme come of thexecution of the ſentence, the Sergeaunt of the kings woodyarde pro|uydeth a ſquare blocke, which he bringeth to ſome appointed place, & therwith al a great béetle, ſtaple, and cordes, wherwith to faſten the hande of the offendor, vnto the ſayde blocke, vntill the whole circumſtance of his execution be perfourmed. The Yoman of the Scullary lykewyſe for the tyme beyng doth prouide a great fire of coales harde by the blocke, wherein the ſearing yrons are to be made readie againſt the chiefe Surgeon to the Prince or his Deputie ſhall occupie the ſame. Vpon him alſo [...]oth the ſergeaunt or chief farrour attend with thoſe yrons, whoſe office is to deliuer them to the ſayd Surgeõ when he ſhalbe readie by ſearing to vſe the ſame. The grome of the Salary for the time beyng or hys Deputie is furthermore ap|pointed to be readie with vineger and colde water, and not to depart from the place vn|till the ari [...]e of the offender be [...]ounde vp & fully dreſſed. And as theſe thinges are thus prouided ſo ye Sergeaunt Surgeon is bound from time to time to be readie to execute his charge, and ſeare the ſtump, when the hande is taken from it. The ſergeaunt of the ſellar is at hande alſo with a cup of red wine, and likewyſe the chiefe officer of the pantry with Manchet bread to giue vnto the ſayde partie, after the execution done, and the ſtomp ſea|red, as the ſergeaunt of the Ewery is with EEBO page image 94 clothes, wherein to winde and wrap vp the the arme, the yoman of the pultrie with a cocke to lay vnto it, the yoman of the Chaũ|drie with ſeared clothes, and finally the mai|ſter cooke or his Deputie with a ſharpe dreſ|ſing knyfe, which he delyuereth at the place of execution to the Sargeaunt of the Lar|der, who doth holde it vpright in hys hande, vntill thexecution be performed, by the pub|licke Officer appointed therevnto. And this is the maner of puniſhment ordayned for thoſe that ſtryke within the Princes pallace, or limites of the ſame. The lyke priuilege is almoſt giuen to churches and churchyardes, although in maner of puniſhment great dif|ference doe appeare. For he that bralleth or quarrelleth in eyther of them, is by and by ſuſpended ab ingreſſu eccleſiae, vntil he be ab|ſolued, as he is alſo that ſtriketh wyth ye fiſt, or layeth violent handes vpon any whome ſo euer. But yf he happen to ſmite wyth ſtaffe, dagger, or any maner of weapon, and the ſame be ſufficiently founde by the Verdict of twelue men at his arrainement, beſide ex|communication, he is ſure to loſe one of hys eares wythout all hope of recouerye. But if he be ſuch a one as hath béene twyſe con|demned and executed, whereby he hath now none eares, then is he marked with an hote yron vpon the chéeke, & by the letter F, which is ſeared into his fleſh, he is frõ thencefoorth noted as a common barratour, & fray ma|ker, and thereunto remayneth excommuni|cate, till by repentaunce he deſerue to be ab|ſolued.

2.10. Of the maner of Buylding and furniture of our houſes. Cap. 10.

Of the maner of Buylding and furniture of our houſes. Cap. 10.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 THe greateſt parte of our buylding in the cities and good townes of Englande conſiſteth onely of timber, for as yet fewe of the houſes of the comminalty (except here & there in the weſt country townes) are made of ſtone, although they may in my opinion in diuers other places be builded ſo good cheape of the one as of the other. In olde tyme the houſes of the Brytons were ſlitely ſet vppe with a few poſtes and many radles, the like whereof almoſt is to be ſéene in the fenny countries vnto this day, where for lacke of wood they are inforced to continue this aun|cient maner of buylding. It is not in vayne therefore in ſpeaking of buylding to make a diſtinction betweene the playne and wooddye countrie, for as in theſe, our houſes are com|monly ſtrong & wel timbered, ſo that in many places, there are not aboue 6. or nine ynches betwéene ſtudde and ſtudde, ſo in the open & champaine ſoyles they are inforced for want of ſtuffe to vſe no ſtuddes at all, but only ray|ſines, groundſelles, tranſomes, and vpright principalles, with here and there an ouer|thwart poſt in their walles, whereunto they faſten their Splintes or radles, and then caſt it all ouer wyth clay to kéepe out the winde, which otherwyſe woulde anoy them. In like ſort as euery country houſe is thus apparel|led on the out ſide, ſo is it inwardly deuided into ſundrie rowmes aboue and beneth, and where plentie of wood is, they couer thẽ with tyles, otherwyſe with ſtraw, ſedge, or réede, except ſome quarry of ſlate be neare hande, from whence they haue for theyr money, ſo much as may ſuffice them. The clay where|with our houſes are empanelled is eyther white, redde, or blewe, and of theſe the firſt doth participate very much with the nature of our chalke, the ſeconde is called lome, but the thirde eftſoones changeth coulour ſo ſoo [...]e as it is wrought, notwithſtanding that it looke blew when it is throwne out of the pit. Of chalke alſo we haue our excellent whyte lime made in moſt places, wherewith we ſtricke ouer our clay workes & ſtone walles, in Cities, good Townes, riche fermers, and gentlemens houſes: otherwyſe in ſtéede of chalke (where it wanteth for it is ſo ſcant that in ſome places it is ſolde by the pounde) they are compelled to burne a certaine kind of redde ſtone, as in Wales, and elſe where other ſtones, as I haue ſéene by experience. Within their doores alſo ſuch as are of abili|tie doe oft make their flowers, and parget of fine Alabaſter burned, which they cal plaſter of Paris, whereof in ſome places we haue great plentie, & that very profitable agaynſt the rage of fire. In plaſtering likewiſe of our fayreſt houſes ouer our heades, we vſe to lay firſt a Laire or two of white m [...]rter tempe|red with heire vpon Lathes, which are nay|led one by an other, (or ſometimes vpõ rede or wickers more daungerous for fyre and made faſt here and there with ſappelathes for falling downe) and finallye couer all with the aforeſayde plaſter, which beſide the delectable whiteneſſe of the ſtuffe it ſelfe, is layed on ſo euen and ſmouthly as nothing in my iudgement can be done with more exact|neſſe. This alſo hath bene cõmon in england, contrarie to the cuſtomes of all other Na|tions, and yet to be ſéene (for example in moſt ſtréetes of London) that many of our grea|teſt houſes haue outwardly béene very ſim|ple and plaine to ſight, which inwardly haue béene able to receyue a Duke with his whole trayne and lodge them at their eaſe. Hereby moreouer it is come to paſſe, that the frontes EEBO page image 85 of our ſtréetes haue not béene ſo vniforme & orderly buylded as thoſe of forrain cities, where to ſaye truth, the vtterſide of theyr manſions and dwellings, haue oft more coſt beſtowed vpon them, then all the reaſt of the houſe, which are often very ſimple and vn|eaſie within, as experience doth confirme. Of olde tyme our country houſes in ſtéede of glaſſe dyd vſe much lattis and that made ey|ther of wicker or fine riftes of oke in cheker|wyſe. I reade alſo that ſome of the better ſorte in and before the tymes of the Saxons did make panels of horne in ſtéede of glaſſe, and fixe them in woodden calmes, but as horne is quite layde downe in euery place, ſo our lattiſes are alſo growne into leſſe vſe, bycauſe glaſſe is come to be ſo plentifull, & within a very little ſo good cheape as the o|ther. Heretofore alſo the houſes of our prin|ces and noble men were often glaſed wyth Beril, (an example wherof is yet to be ſéene in Sudley caſtell) & in diuers other places, with fine chriſtall, but this eſpecially in the time of ye Romaines, wherof alſo ſome frag|mentes haue béene taken vp in olde ruines. But nowe theſe are not in vſe, ſo that onely the cleareſt glaſſe is moſt eſtéemed for we haue diuers ſortes ſome brought out of Bur|gundie, ſome out of Normandy, much out of Flaunders, beſide that which is made in Englande ſo good as the beſt, and eache one that may, will haue it for his building. More|ouer the manſion houſes of our country tow|nes & villages, (which in champaine groũde ſtande altogither by ſtréetes, and ioyning one to an other, but in woodelande ſoyles diſperſed here and there, eache one vpon the ſeuerall groundes of their owners) are buil|ded in ſuche ſort generally, as that they haue neither dairy, ſtable, nor bruehouſe, annexed vnto them vnder the ſame rooſe (as in many places beyonde the ſea) but all ſeparate from the firſt, and one of them from an other. And yet for all this, they are not ſo farre diſtant in ſunder, but that the goodman lying in his bed may lightly heare what is done in eache of them with eaſe, and call quickly vnto his meney if any daunger ſhoulde attache hym. The auncient maners & houſes of our gen|tlemen are yet & for the moſt part of ſtrong tymber. Howbeit ſuch as be lately buylded, are commõly either of bricke or harde ſtone, their rowmes large and ſtately and houſes of office farder diſtaunt frõ their lodginges. Thoſe of the Nobility are likewiſe wrought with bricke and hard ſtone as prouiſion may beſt be made: but ſo magnificent and ſtately as the baſeſt houſe of a Barren doth often match with ſome honours of princes in olde tyme, ſo that if euer curious buylding dyd floriſh in Englande, it is in theſe our dayes, wherein our worckemen excell, and are in maner comparable in ſkill with olde Vitru|nius, and Serlo. The furniture of our houſes alſo excéedeth, and is growne in maner euen to paſſing delicacie: & herein I do not ſpeake of the Nobilitie and gentrie onely, but euen of the loweſt ſorte that haue any thing at all to take to. Certes in Noble mens houſes it is not rare to ſée abundance of Arras, riche hangings of Tapiſtry, ſiluer veſſell, and ſo much other plate, as may furniſh ſũdrie cup|bordes to the ſumme oftẽtimes of a thouſand or two thouſande pounde at the leaſt: wher|by the value of this and the reaſt of their ſtuffe doth grow to be ineſtimable. Likewiſe in the houſes of Knightes, Gentlemẽ, Mar|chauntmen, and ſome other wealthie Citi|zens, it is not geſon to beholde generallye their great prouiſion of Tapiſtrie, Turkye worke, Pewter, Braſſe, fine linen, and ther|to coſtly cupbords of plate woorth fiue or ſixe hundred pounde, to be demed by eſtimation. But as herein all theſe ſortes doe farre ex|céede their elders, and predeceſſours, ſo in time paſt, the coſtly furniture ſtayed there, whereas now it is deſcended yet lower, euen vnto the inferiour Artificers and moſt Fer|mers, who haue learned alſo to garniſh their cubbordes with plate, their beddes with ta|piſtrie, and ſilke hanginges, and their tables with fine naperie, whereby the wealth of our countrie doth infinitely appeare. Neyther do I ſpeake this in reproch of any man God is my Iudge, but to ſhew that I doe reioyce ra|ther to ſée how God hath bleſſed vs with hys good giftes, and to behold how that in a time wherein all thinges are growen to moſt ex|ceſſiue prices, we do yet finde the meanes to obtayne and atchieue ſuch furniture as here|tofore hath béene vnpoſſible.Thrée thinges greatly amended in Eng|lande. There are olde men yet dwelling in the village where I re|mayne, which haue noted thrée things to be marueylouſly altered in Englande within their ſound remembraunce. One is the mul|titude of chimnies lately erected,Chimnies wheras in their yoong dayes there were not aboue twoo or thrée if ſo many in moſt vplandiſh townes of the realme, (the religious houſes, & man|nour places, of their Lordes alwayes excep|ted, & peraduenture ſome great perſonages) but eache one made his fire againſt a rere|doſſe, in the hall where he dined and dreſſed his meate. The ſecond is ye great amende|ment of lodginge,Hardlodg|ing. for ſayde they our fathers & we our ſelues haue lyen full oft vpon ſtraw pallettes couered onely with a ſhéete vnder couerlettes made of dagſwain or hopharlots EEBO page image 95 (I vſe their owne termes) and a good round logge vnder their heades in ſteade of a boul|ſter. If it were ſo that our fathers or ye good man of the houſe, had a matteres or flockbed, and thereto a ſacke of chafe to reſt hys heade vpon, he thought himſelfe to be as well lod|ged as the Lorde of the towne, ſo well were they contented. Pillowes ſayde they were thought méete onely for women in childebed. As for ſeruants if they had any ſhéete aboue them, it was well, for ſeldome had they any vnder their bodies, to kéepe them from the pricking ſtrawes, that ranne oft thorow the canuas, and raced their hardened hides.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The thirde thinge they tell of,Furniture of houſ|hold. is the ex|change of tréene platters into pewter, and woodẽ ſpoones into ſiluer or tin. For ſo cõmon were al ſorts of tréene veſſelles in old time, ye a man ſhould hardly find four peces of pew|ter (of which one was peraduenture a ſalte) in a good Farmers houſe, and yet for al this frugaltie (if it may ſo be iuſtly called) they were ſcarſe able to lyue and paye their ren|tes,This was in the time of generall ydleneſſe. at their dayes without ſelling of a cow, or a horſe, or more, although they payde but foure pounds at the vttermoſt by the yeare. Such alſo was their pouerty, that if a Fer|mour or huſbundman had béene at the ale|houſe, a thing greatly vſed in thoſe dayes, amongſt ſixe or ſeauen of hys neyghbours, and there in a brauery to ſhewe what ſtore he had, did daſt downe his purſe, and therein a noble or ſixe ſhillings in ſiluer vnto them, it was very likely that all the reſt could not lay downe ſo much againſt it: wheras in my tyme although peraduenture foure pounde of olde rent be improued to fourty or fiftye pound, yet will the farmer thinke his gaines very ſmall toward the middeſt of his terme, if he haue not ſixe or ſeauen yeres rent lying by him, therewith to purchaſe a newe leaſe, beſide a faire garniſhe of pewter on his cow|borde, thrée or foure feather beddes, ſo many couerlettes and carpettes of Tapiſtry, a ſil|uer ſalte, a bowle for wine (if not an whole neaſt) and a duſſen of ſpoones, to furniſhe vp the ſute. Thys alſo he taketh to bée his owne cleare, for what ſtocke of money ſoe|uer he gathereth in all his yeares, it is often ſéene, that the landlorde will take ſuch order with him for the ſame, when he renueth his leaſe (which is commoly eight or ten yeares before it be expyred, ſith it is nowe growen almoſt to a cuſtome, that if he come not to his his lorde ſo long before, another ſhall ſtep in for a reuerſion, & ſo defeate him out right) that it ſhall neuer trouble him more then the heare of his bearde, when the barber hath waſhed and ſhauen it from his chinne.

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