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2.6. Of Vniuerſities. Cap. 6.

Of Vniuerſities. Cap. 6.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 THere are within the realme of England two noble & famous Vniuerſities, wher|in are not onely diuers goodly houſes builded foure ſquare for the moſt part of harde frée|ſtone, with great numbers of lodginges and chambers in the ſame for Students after a ſumptuous maner, thorow the excéeding li|beralitie of Kings, Quéenes, Biſhops, No|ble men, and Ladies, of the lande: but alſo large liuinges and great reuenues beſtowed vpon them (the lyke wherof is not to be ſéene in any other region as Peter Martyr dyd oft affirme) to the maintenaunce onely of ſuch cõuenient numbers of poore mens ſonnes as the ſeuerall ſtipendes beſtowed vpõ the ſaide houſes are able to ſupport. Of theſe two that of Oxforde (which lyeth weſt and by North from London) ſtandeth moſt pleaſauntly of both, being enuironned in maner rounde a|bout with pleaſaunt wooddes on the hilles a|loft and goodly riuers in the medowes be|neath, whoſe courſes woulde bréede no ſmall commoditie to that Citie, yf ſuch impedi|ments were remooued, as greatly annoy the ſame. That of Cambridge is diſtaunt from London about fourtie and ſixe myles north & by eaſt, and ſtandeth very well, ſauing that it is ſomewhat low & néere vnto the Fennes, whereby the holſomneſſe of the ayre there, is not a little corrupted. It is excellently well ſerued with all kindes of prouiſion, but eſpe|cially of freſh water fiſhe and wildefowle, by reaſon of the Iſle of Ely, which is ſo néere at hande. Onely woodde is one of the chiefe wants to ſuch as ſtuddie there, wherfore this kind of prouiſiõ is brought them either from Eſſex, & other places thereabouts, as is alſo their cole, or otherwiſe the neceſſity therof is ſupplyed with gall, and ſea coole, wherof they haue great plenty lead thither by the Grant. Moreouer it hath no ſuch ſtoore of medowe grounde as may ſuffice for the ordinarie ex|penſes of the towne, and Vniuerſitie, wher|fore they are inforced in lyke ſort to prouide, their haye from other villages about which miniſter the ſame vnto them in verye great abundaunce. Oxforde is ſuppoſed to con|taine EEBO page image 79 in Longitude eyghtéene degrées and eyght and twentie mynutes, and in Lati|tude one and fiftie degrées and fiftie minuts, whereas that of Cambridge ſtanding more northerly, hath twentie degrées and twentie minutes in Longitude, and therevnto fiftie & two degrées and fiftéene minuts in Latitude as by exact ſupputacion is eaſie to be founde. The Colledges of Oxford for curious work|manſhip and priuate commodities, are much more ſtately, magnificent, and commodious then thoſe of Cambridge: and therevnto the ſtréetes of the towne for the moſt part more large and comedy. But for vniformitie of buylding, orderly compactiõ and regiment, ye towne of Cambridge excéedeth that of Ox|ford (which otherwiſe is & hath béen the grea|ter of the twoo) by many a folde, although I know diuers yt are of the contrarie opinion Caſtels alſo they haue both, and in my iudg|ment is harde to be ſayde, whither of them woulde be the ſtronger, if both were accor|dingly repaired: howbeit that of Cambridge is the higher both for maner of buylding & ſcituation of grounde, ſith Oxforde caſtell, ſtandeth low and is not ſo apparant in ſight. The commõ ſchooles of Cambridge alſo are farre more beautifull then thoſe of Oxforde onely the diuinitie ſchoole at Oxforde excep|ted, which for fine and excellent workeman|ſhip commeth next the mowlde of the Kings chappell in Chambridge, then the which two with ye chappell that king Henry the ſeuenth dyd buylde at Weſtminſter, there are not in my opinion made of lime & ſtone thrée more notable pyles within the cõpaſſe of Europe. In all other thinges there is ſo great equali|tie betwéene theſe twoo Vniuerſities as no man cã imagine how to ſet down any grea|ter, ſo that they ſéeme to be the bodye of one well ordered common wealth, onely deuided by diſtaunce of place and not in friendly con|ſent. In ſpeaking therefore of the one I can not but deſcribe the other: and in commẽda|tion of the firſt I can not but extolle the lat|ter, and ſo much the rather for that they are both ſo déere vnto me, as that I can not re|dily tell, vnto whyther of them I owe the moſt good wyll. Woulde to God my know|ledge were ſuch as that neither of thẽ might haue cauſe to be aſhamed of their pupill, or my power ſo great that I might woorthily requite them both for thoſe manifolde kinde|neſſes that I haue receyued of them. But to leaue theſe things & procéed with other more conuenient for my purpoſe. The maner to liue in theſe Vniuerſities is not as in ſome o|ther of forren countries we ſée dayly to hap|pen, where the Studentes are inforced for wa [...]te of ſuch houſes, to dwell in common Innes, and T [...]ernes, wythout all order or diſcipline: but in theſe our Colledges we liue in ſuch exact order and vnder ſo preciſe rules of gouernmẽt, that the famous learned man Eraſmus of Roterodam being here amongeſt vs fiftie yeares paſſed, dyd not let to com|pare the trades of liuing of ſtudents of theſe twoo places, euen with the very rules and or|ders of the auncient Monkes: affirming moreouer in flatte wordes, our orders to be ſuch as not onely came neare vnto, but ra|ther farre excéeded all the Monaſticall inſti|tutions that euer were deuiſed. In moſt of our Colledges there are alſo great numbers of ſtudentes, of which many are founde by the reuenues of the houſes, and other by the purueighances & helpe of their riche friẽds, wherby in ſome one Colledge you ſhall haue two hundred ſchollers, in others an hundred and fiftie, in diuers a hundred and fourtie, & in dyuers leſſe numbers as the capacitie of the ſayde houſes is able to receyue: ſo that at this preſent of one ſort and other there are about thrée thouſande ſtudentes nouriſhed in them both as by a late ſuruey it manifeſtly appeared.Readers in priuate houſes. Euery one of theſe colledges haue in lyke maner their profeſſours or readers of the tongues and ſeuerall ſciences, as they call thẽ, which daily trade vp the youth there abiding, priuately in their halles, to the ende they may be able afterward whẽ their turne commeth about, to ſhewe themſelues abrode by going frõ thence into the commõ ſchooles, and publicke diſputations (as it were into the playne battaile) there to trie their ſkilles, and declare howe they haue profited ſithence their comming thither. Morouer in the pub|licke ſchooles of both the Vniuerſities,Publicke readers maintay|ned by the Prince. there are founde at the Princes charge (and that very largely) fiue profeſſours and readers, that is to ſay, of diuinitie, of the ciuile lawe, Phiſicke, the Hebrue & the Gréeke tongues: and for the other publicke lectures as of Phi|loſophie, Logicke, Rethoricke, & the Quadri|uials.Study of the Qua|driuialles & perſpec|tiues neg|lected. (Although the later I meane Arithme|ticke, Muſicke, Geometrie, and Aſtronomie, and with them all ſkill in the perfectiues are now ſmally regarded in eyther of them) the Vniuerſityes themſelues doe allowe compe|tent ſtipendes to ſuch as reade the ſame, whereby they are ſufficiently prouided for, touching the maintenaunce of their eſtates, and no leſſe incouraged to be diligent in their functions. Theſe profeſſours in like ſort haue all the rule of diſputations and other ſchoole exerciſes, which are dayly vſed in common ſchooles ſeuerally aſſigned to eache of them, and ſuch of their hearers as by their ſkil ſhe|wed EEBO page image 89 in the ſayde diſputacions, are thought to haue attayned any conuenient ry [...]eneſſe of knowledge, (according to the cuſtome of o|ther Vniuerſities although not in like order) are permitted ſolemly to take their deſerued degrées of ſchoole in the ſame ſcience, and fa|cultie, wherin they haue ſpent their trauaile. From that tyme forwarde alſo, they vſe ſuch difference in apparell as becommeth their callings, tendeth vnto grauitie, & ma|keth them knowne to be called to ſome coun|tenance. The firſt degrée of all, is that of the general [...] Sophiſters,Sophi|ſters. frõ whence when they haue learned more ſufficiently the rules of Logicke, Rethoricke, and obtayned thereto competent ſkill in Philoſophie, and in the Mathematicalles, they aſcende hygher to the eſtate of Batchelers of arte.Batche|lers of Art Frõ thence alſo giuing their minds to more perfit know|ledge in ſome or all ye other liberal ſciences, and the tongues, they ryſe at the laſt to be called Maiſters of art,Maſters of Arte. eche of them being at that time reputed for a Doctor in his facul|tie if he profeſſe, but one of ye ſaid ſciẽces, (be|ſide philoſophie) or for his general ſkill, if he be exerciſed in them all. After this they are permitted to choſe what other of the higher ſtodyes them lyketh to follow, whether it be Diuinity, Law, or Phiſicke, ſo that beyng once Maiſters of Arte, ye next degrée if they follow Phiſick, is the Doctorſhip belonging to that profeſſion, and lykewyſe in the ſtudy of the Law, if they bende their mynds to the knowledge of the ſame. But if they meane to go forward with Diuinitie, this is the or|der, vſed in that profeſſion. Firſt after they haue neceſſarily procéeded maiſters of Arte, they preach one ſermon to the people in En|gliſhe, and another to the Vniuerſitie in La|tin. They aunſwere a [...]l comers alſo in theyr owne perſons vnto twoo ſeuerall queſtions of Diuinity in the opẽ Scholes (at one time) for the ſpace of two houres, & afterwarde re|ply twiſe againſt ſome other man, vpõ a like number, and on two ſeuerall dayes in the ſame place: which beyng done wyth comen|dation, he receyueth the fourth degrée, that is Bacheler of Diuinitie, but not before he hath beene mayſter of Arte,Batcheler of Diuini|tie. by the ſpace of ſeauen yeares, according to theyr ſtatutes. The next & laſt degrée of all, is the Doctor|ſhip after other thrée yeares,Doctor. for the which he muſt once againe performe all ſuch exer|ciſes & actes as are afore remembred, and then is he reputed able to gouerne and teach other, and lykewyſe taken for a Doctor. Thus we ſée that from our enteraunce into the Vniuerſity, vnto the laſt degrée receiued is commonly eyghtéene or twentie yeares, in which tyme if a Student hath not obtey|ned ſufficient learning, thereby to ſerue h [...] owne turne, & benefite hys common wealth, let him neuer looke by [...]arying longer to come by any more.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A man maye if he will beginne his studye with the Lawe, or Phisicke, so soone as hee commeth to the Vniuersity, if his knowledg in the tongues: and rypenesse of iudgement serue therefore: which if he doe, then his first degree is Bacheler of Law, or Phisicke, and for the same he must perfourme such Actes in his own science, as the Bachelers or Doctors of Diuinitie, do for their partes, ye onely sermons except, which belongeth not to his calling: but as these are not matters of such importance as may deserue any further tractation, I so will leaue them & go in hande with the rest.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There is moreouer, in euery houſe a Ma [...]|ſter, who hath vnder him a preſident, and certeine Cenſors or Deanes, appointed to looke to the behauiour, & maner of the Stu|dentes there, whom they puniſh very ſeuer [...]|ly if they make any default, according to the quantitye & qualitye of their treſpaſſes. [...]|uer eche Vniuerſitie alſo, there is a ſeuerall Chauncelour, whoſe Offices are perpetual, howbeit their ſubſtitutes, whome wée call Vicechauncelors, are chaunged euery yere, as are alſo the Proctors, Taſkers, Maiſter [...] of the ſtreates & other officers, for the better maintenãce of their policie & eſtate. And [...] much at this time of both our Vniuerſities.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 To theſe two alſo we maye in lyke ſorte adde the thirde, [...] which is at London (ſeruyng onelye for ſuch as ſtudye the Lawes of the Realme,) where there are ſundrye fa|mous houſes, of which thrée are called by the name of Iunes of the Court, the reaſt of the Chauncery, and all buylded before time for the furtheraunce and commoditie of ſuch as applye their minds vnto the cõmon Lawes. Out of theſe alſo come Schollers of great [...] fame, whereof the moſt part haue heretofore béene brought vp in one of ye aforeſaide Vni|uerſities, & prooue ſuch commonly as in pro|ceſſe of time, riſe vp (only thorow their pro|found ſkil) to great honor in the cõmon welth of England. They haue alſo degrées of lear|ning among thẽſelues, & rules of diſcipline, vnder which they lyue moſt ciuilye in their houſes, albeit that the younger ſort of them abroade in the ſtréetes, are ſcarce able to be brydled by any good order at all. Certes this errour was woont alſo greatly to raigne in Cãbridge & Oxforde, but as it is well left in theſe two places, ſo in forreine Countryes it cannot yet be ſuppreſſed. Beſides theſe Vni|uerſities, EEBO page image 80 alſo there are great number of Grammer ſcholes thorowe out the Realme, and thoſe very lyberally indued, for the bet|ter reliefe of poore ſchollers, ſo that there are not many corporate townes now vnder the Quéenes dominion, yt hath not one Gramer|ſchoole at the leaſt, with a ſufficient liuing for a Mayſter and Vſher, appointed to ye ſame. There are in lyke maner dyuers collegiate churches, [...]indſor. [...]incheſter [...]aton. [...]eſtmin| [...]r. as Windſor, Winceſter, Eaton, Weſtminſter, and in the later thrée of thoſe a great number of poore Schollers, dailye maintayned by the liberalitie of the foun|ders, with meate, bookes, and apparrel, from whence after they haue béene well entered in the knowledge of the Lattin and Gréeke tongues, and rules of verſifiyng, they are ſent to certeine eſpeciall houſes in eche Vni|uerſitye, where they are receyued and tray|ned vp, in the pointes of higher knowledge in their priuate halles, till they be adiudged méete to ſhewe their faces in the Schooles, as I haue ſaid already. And thus much haue I thought good to note of our Vniuerſities, & lykewyſe of Colledges in the ſame, whoſe names I wyl alſo ſet downe here, with thoſe alſo of their founders, to the ende the zeale which they bare vnto learning may apeare, and their remembraunce neuer periſh from among the wyſe and learned.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

Table 1. Of the Colledges in Cambridge.
Yeares of the foundations. Colledges. Founders.
1546. 1 Trinity Colledge. K. Henry. 8.
1441. 2 The Kinges Colledge. K. Henry. 6. Edward. 4. Henry. 7. and Henry. 8,
1511. 3 S. Iohns. L. Margaret grandmother to Henry. 8.
1505. 4 Chriſtes Colledge. K. Henry. 6. and the L. Margaret aforeſaide.
1446. 5 The Queens Colledge. L. Margaret wife to K. Henry. 6.
1496. 6 Ieſus Colledge. Iohn Alcocke Byſhop of Ely.
1342. 7 Bennet Colledge. The Brethren of a Popiſh guild called Corporis Chriſt.
1343. 8 Pembroke hall. Maria de Valentia, Counteſſe of Pembroke.
1256. 9 Peter Colledge. Hugh Balſham Byſhop of Ely.
1348. 10 Gundeuill and Caius Colledge. Edmund Gundeuill, Parſon of Terrington, and Iohn Ca|ius. D. of Phiſicke.
1354. 11 Trinity hall. William Bateman Byſhop of Norwiche.
1326. 12 Clare hall. Richarde Badow Chauncelour of Cambridge.
1459. 13 Catherin hall. Robert woodlarke. D. of Diuinity.
1519. 14 Magdalen Colledge. Edward Duke of Buckinghã, & Thomas Lord Awdley.
Table 2. Of Colledges in Oxforde.
Yeres. Colledges. Founders.
1539. 1 Chriſtes Church. King Henry. 8.
1459. 2 Magdalen Colledge. William wainflet B. of wincheſter.
1375. 3 New colledge. William wickham B. of wincheſter.
1276. 4 Merton Colledge. Walter Merton B. of Rocheſter.
1437. 5 All ſoules Colledge. Henry Chicheley Archbiſhop of Caunterbury.
1516 6 Corpus chriſti Colledge. Richarde foxe Biſhop of Wincheſter.
1430. 7 Lincolne Colledge. Richarde Fleming B. of Lincolne.
1323. 8 Auriell Colledge. Adam Browne almoner to Edward. 2.
1340. 9 The Queenes Colledge. R. Eglesfeld chaplen to Philip Queene of England, wife to Ed. 3.
1263. 10 Balioll Colledge. Iohn Ballioll King of Scotland.
1557. 11 S. Iohns. Sir Thomas white Knight.
1556. 12 Trinity Colledge. Sir Thomas Pope Knight.
1316. 13 Exceſter Colledge. Walter Stapleton Biſhop of Exceſter.
1513 14 Braſen noſe. William Smith Biſhop of Lincolne.
873. 15 Vniuerſity Colledge. William Archdeacon of Dureſme.
  16 Gloceſter Colledge.  
  17 S. Mary Colledge.  
  18 Ieſus Colledge nowe in hande.  

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There are alſo in Oxforde certayne Hoſ|telles or Halles, which may rightwel be cal|led b the names of Colledges, if it were not that there is more lyberty in thoſe then is to be ſéene in the other. In myne opinion the Studentes of theſe are verye lyke to thoſe that are of the Innes of the chauncery.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Brodegates.
  • Hart hall.
  • Magdalen hall.
  • Alburne hall.
  • Poſtminſter hall.
  • S. Mary hall.
  • White hall.
  • New Inne.
  • Edmond hall.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beſides which there is mention & recorde of diuers other Halles or hoſtelles, that haue béene ther in times paſt, as Béefe hal, Muttõ hal. &c. whoſe ruines yet appeare: ſo that if an|tiquitie be to be iudged by ye ſhew of auncient buyldinges, which is very plentifull in Ox|forde to be ſéene, it ſhoulde be an eaſie mat|ter to conclude that Oxford is the elder Vni|uerſitye. Therein are alſo manye dwelling houſes of ſtone yet ſtanding,Erection of Colle|ges in Oxforde the ouer|throwe of Halles. that haue béene Halles for ſtudents of verye antique worke|manſhip, beſide the olde walles of ſundrie o|ther, whoſe plots haue béene conuerted in|to gardens, ſithence Colledges were erected.

In London alſo the houſes of studentes at the Common law are theſe.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Sergeaunts Inne.
  • Gra [...]es Inne.
  • The Temple.
  • Lincolnes Inne.
  • Dauids Inne.
  • Staple Inne.
  • Furniualles Inne.
  • Clyffordes Inne.
  • Clements Inne.
  • Lions Inne.
  • Barnardes Inne.
  • New Inne.

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