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Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After that the earle of Richmond was departed from the communication of his fréends (as you haue heard before) he began to be of a better stomach, and of a more valiant courage, and with all diligence pit|ched his field iust by the campe of his enimies, and there he lodged that night. In the morning betimes, he caused his men to put on their armour, and appa|rell themselues readie to fight and giue battell; and sent vnto the lord Stanleie (which was now come with his band into a place indifferent betwéene both the armies) requiring him with his men to approch néere to his armie, and to helpe to set the souldiers in arraie. But he answered that the earle should set his owne men in good order of battell,The lord Stanleie re|fuseth to set the earles men in bat|tell raie. while he would arraie his companie, and come to him in time conue|nient. Which answer made otherwise than the earle thought or would haue iudged, considering the o|portunitie of the time & the weight of the businesse. And although he was therwithall a little vexed, & be|gan somewhat to hang the head; yet he without anie time delaieng, compelled of necessitie, after this ma|ner instructed and ordered his men.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 He made his fore-ward somewhat single and slen|der, according to the small number of his people.The earle set|teth his men in order and appointeth chéefteins. In the front he placed the archers, of whome he made capteine Iohn earle of Oxenford. To the right wing of the battell he appointed sir Gilbert Talbot to be the leader. To the left wing, he assigned sir Iohn Sauage, who had brought thither with him a crue of right able personages, clad in white coats and hoods, which mustered in the eies of their aduersaries right brimlie. The earle of Richmond himselfe, with aid of the lord Stanleie, gouerned the battell, accompanied with the earle of Penbroke, hauing a good companie of horssemen, and a small number of footmen. For all his whole number excéeded not fiue thousand men, beside the power of the Stanleies, wherof three thou|sand were in the field, vnder the standard of sir Wil|liam Stanleie. The kings number was double so much and more. When both these armies were thus ordered, and all men readie to set forward, king Richard called his chiefteins togither, and to them said as followeth.

18.1. The oration of king Richard the third to the chiefteins of his armie.

The oration of king Richard the third to the chiefteins of his armie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _MY most faithfull and assured fel|lowes, most trustie & welbelo|ued freends, & elected capteins, by whose wisedome and policie I haue obteined the crowne, EEBO page image 756 and type of this famous realme, and noble region: by whose puissance & valiantnesse I haue inioid and possessed the state roiall & dignitie of the same, maugre the ill will and seditious attempts of all my cankered enimies, and insidious aduersaries: by whose prudent & politike counsell I haue so gouerned my realme,King Richard iustifieth him|selfe and his gouernement. people, & subiects, that I haue omitted nothing appertei|ning to the office of a iust prince; nor you haue pretermitted nothing belonging to the dutie of wise and sage councellors. So that I maie saie, and trulie affirme, that your approoued fidelitie & tried constancie, maketh me to beleeue firmelie, and thinke that I am an vndoubted king, and an indu|bitate prince.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And although in the adeption and obtei|ning of the garland, I being seduced, and prouoked by sinister counsell, and diaboli|call temptation, did commit a wicked and detestable act: yet I haue with streict pe|nance and salt tears (as I trust) expiated & cleerelie purged the same offense: which abhominable crime I require you of frend|ship as cleerelie to forget, as I dailie re|member to deplore and lament the same. If ye will euen now diligentlie call to re|membrance in what case and perplexitie we doo stand; and in what doubtfull perill we be all intrapped; I doubt not but you in heart will thinke, and with mouth con|fesse, that if euer amitie and faith preuailed betweene prince and subiects, or betweene subiect and subiect; or if euer bond of alegi|ance obliged the vassall to loue and serue his naturall souereigne lord; or if anie obli|gation of dutie bound anie prince to aid & defend his subiects; all these loues, bonds, and duties of necessitie are now this day to be tried, shewed, and put in experience.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For if wise men saie true (as they doo not lie) there is some policie in getting, but much more in keeping; the one being but fortunes chance, & the other high wit and policie. For which cause, I with you, and you with me, must needs this day take labour and paine, to keepe and defend with force, that preheminence and possession, which by your prudent deuises I haue got|ten & obteined.He speaketh opprobriouslie of the earle of Richmond. I doubt not but you know how the diuell (continuall enimie to hu|mane nature, disturber of concord, & sower of sedition) hath entered into the heart of an vnknowne Welshman (whose father I neuer knew, nor him personallie saw) exci|ting him to aspire and couet our realme, crowne, and dignitie, and thereof cleerelie to depriue and spoile vs and our posteritie. Ye see further, how a companie of traitors, theeues, outlawes, and runnagates of our owne nation, be aiders and partakers of his feat and enterprise, readie at hand to ouercome and oppresse vs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 You see also, what a number of beggerlie Britans and faint-hearted Frenchmen be with him arriued to destroie vs, our wiues and children. Which imminent mischeefs and apparant inconueniences, if we will withstand & refell, we must liue togither as brethren, fight togither like lions, & feare not to die togither like men. And obser|uing and keeping this rule and precept, be|leeue me, the fearefull hare neuer fled fa|ster before the greedie greihound, nor the sillie larke before the sparrowhawke, nor yet the simple sheepe before the rauenous woolfe; than your proud bragging aduersa|ries, astonied and amazed with the onelie sight of your manlie visages, will flee, run, and skir out of the field. For if you consider and wiselie ponder all things in your mind, you shall perceiue, that we haue manifest causes, and apparant tokens of triumph and victorie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And to begin with the erle of Richmond capteine of this rebellion,The K. wou [...] persuade his capteins that the earle of Richmond is no warrior. he is a Welsh milkesop, a man of small courage, and of lesse experience in martiall acts and feats of warre, brought vp by my moothers meanes, and mine, like a captiue in a close cage in the court of Francis duke of Bri|taine; and neuer saw armie, nor was exer|cised in martiall affaires: by reason wher|of he neither can, nor is able by his owne will or experience to guide or rule an hoast. For in the wit and policie of the capteine consisteth the cheefe adeption of the victo|rie, and ouerthrow of the enimies. Secon|darilie feare not, but put awaie all doubts; for when the traitors and runnagates of our realme, shall see vs with banner dis|plaied come against them, remembring their oth, promise, and fidelitie made vnto vs, as to their souereigne lord and annoin|ted king; they shall be so pricked and stoong in the bottome of their scrupulous consci|ences, that they for verie remorse and dread of the diuine plague, will either shameful|lie flee, or humblie submit themselues to our grace and mercie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And as for the Frenchmen and Britans,Frenchmen [...] Britans great [...] small [...]. their valiantnesse is such, that our noble progenitors, and your valiant parts haue them oftener vanquished and ouercome in one moneth, than they in the beginning i|magined possiblie to compasse and finish in a whole yeare. What will you make of them? braggers without audacitie, drunc|kards without discretion, ribalds without reason, cowards without resisting, and in conclusion, the most effeminate and lasci|uious people that euer shewed themselues in front of battell; ten times more coura|gious to flee & escape, than once to assault the breast of our strong & populous armie. Wherefore considering all these aduanta|ges, expell out of your thoughts all douts, auoid out of your minds all feare; and like valiant champions aduance foorth your standards, & assaie whether your enimies can decide and trie the title of battell by dint of sword. Aduance (I say againe) for|ward my capteins, in whome lacketh nei|ther policie, wisedome, nor yet puissance. Euerie one giue but one sure stripe, & suer|lie the iournie is ours. What preuaileth a handfull to a whole realme?

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 757Desiring you (for the loue that you beare to me) and the affection that you haue to your natiue and naturall countrie, and to the safegard of your prince & your selues, that you will this daie take to you your ac|customed courage and couragious spirits, for the defense and safeguard of vs all. [...] Richards [...] confi|dence and but [...]esse cou|rage. And as for me, I assure you, this daie I will triumph by glorious victorie, or suffer death for immortall fame. For they be mai|med and out of the palace of fame disgra|ded, dieng without renowme, which doo not asmuch prefer and exalt the perpetu|all honour of their natiue countrie, as their owne mortall and transitorie life. Now saint George to borow, let vs set forward, and remember well, that I am he which shall with high aduancements re|ward and preferre the valiant and hardie champions, and punish and torment the shamefull cowards, and dreadfull da|stards.

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