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6.9. Egbert reigneth ouer the Westsaxons, his practise or exercise in the time of his exile, his martiall exploits against the Cornish|men and Welshmen, Bernulfe king of Mercia ta|keth indignation at Egbert for the inlarging of his roiall authoritie, they fight a sore battell, Egbert ouercom|meth, great ods betweene their souldiers, bishop Alstan a war|riour; Kent, Essex, Southerie, Sussex, and Eastangles subiect to Egbert; he killeth Bernulfe K. of Mercia, and conquereth the whole kingdome, Whitlafe the king thereof becommeth his tributarie, the Northumbers submit themselues to Egbert, he conquereth Northwales and the citie of Chester, he is crow|ned supreme gouernour of the whole land, when this Ile was called England, the Danes inuade the land, they discomfit Egberts host, the Welshmen ioine with the Danes against Egbert, they are both vanquished, Egbert dieth. The ninth Chapter.

EEBO page image 138

Egbert reigneth ouer the Westsaxons, his practise or exercise in the time of his exile, his martiall exploits against the Cornish|men and Welshmen, Bernulfe king of Mercia ta|keth indignation at Egbert for the inlarging of his roiall authoritie, they fight a sore battell, Egbert ouercom|meth, great ods betweene their souldiers, bishop Alstan a war|riour; Kent, Essex, Southerie, Sussex, and Eastangles subiect to Egbert; he killeth Bernulfe K. of Mercia, and conquereth the whole kingdome, Whitlafe the king thereof becommeth his tributarie, the Northumbers submit themselues to Egbert, he conquereth Northwales and the citie of Chester, he is crow|ned supreme gouernour of the whole land, when this Ile was called England, the Danes inuade the land, they discomfit Egberts host, the Welshmen ioine with the Danes against Egbert, they are both vanquished, Egbert dieth. The ninth Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 _THis Egbert began his reigne in the yeare of our Lord 800, which was the 4 yeare almost ended,Egbert. 802 as Simon Dunel. and M. W. hath noted but 801. after that the emperour Eirine began the second time to rule the expire, and in the 24 yeare of the reigne of Charles the great king of. France, which also was in the same yeare after he was made emperour of the west, and about the second yeare of Conwall king of Scots. Whilest this Egbert remained in exile, he turned his aduersaries into an occasion of his valiancie, as it had béene a grindstone to grind awaie and remoue the r [...]st of sluggish slouthfulnes, in so much that hawnting the wars in France, in seruice of Charles the great, he atteined to great knowledge and experience, both in matters apper|teining to the wars, and likwise to the well orde|ring of the common wealth in time of peace. The first wars that he tooke in hand, after he had attei|ned to the kingdome, was against the Cornishmen, a remnant of the old Britains, whome he shortlie ouercame and subdued. Then he thought good to tame the vnquiet Welshmen, the which still were readie to moue rebellion against the Englishmen,Simon Dun. Hen. Hunt. as they that being vanquished, would not yet seeme to be subdued, wherefore about the 14 yeare of his reigne, he inuaded the countrie of Wales, and went through the same from cast to west, not finding a|nie person that durst resist him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 King Egbert hauing ouercome his enimies of Wales and Cornewall, began to grow in authori|tie aboue all the other rulers within this land,Bernulf king of Mercia. in so|much that euerie of them began to feare their owne estate, but namelie Bernulfe king of Mercia sore stomached the matter, as he that was wise, and of a loftie courage, and yet doubted to haue to doo with Egbert, who was knowen also to be a man both skilfull and valiant. At length yet considering with himselfe, that if his chance should be to speed well, so much the more should his praise be increa|sed, he determined to attempt the fortune of warre, and therevpon intimated the same vnto Egbert, who supposing it should be a dishonor vnto him to giue place,A battell fought at El|lendon. boldlie prepared to méete Bernulfe in the field. Herevpon they incountred togither at Ellen|don, & fought a sore battell, in the which a huge num|ber of men were slaine, what on the one part, and on the other,Egbert wan the victorie. but in the end the victorie remained with Egbert, although he had not the like host for num|ber vnto Bernulfe, but he was a politike prince, and of great experience, hauing chosen his souldiers of nimble, leane, and hartie men; where Bernulfs souldiers (through long ease) were cowardlie per|sons, and ouercharged with flesh.Wil. Malm. 826 The battell was fought in the yeare of our Lord 826.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 King Egbert hauing got this victorie, was ad|uanced into such hope, that he persuaded himselfe to be able without great adoo to ouercome the resi|due of his neighbours, whose estates he saw plaine|lie sore weakened and fallen into great decaie. Herevpon before all other, he determined to assaile Edelvulfe king of Kent, whome he knew to be a man in no estimation amongest his subiects. A competent armie therefore being leuied, he appoin|ted his sonne Ethelwulfe & Alstan bishop of Shire|borne,Alstan [...]; of Shireborn a warrior. with earle Walhard to haue the conduct ther|of, and sent them with the same into Kent, where they wrought such maisteries, that they chased both the king and all other that would not submit them|selues, out of the countrie, constreining them to passe ouer the Thames.The cõquests of the West|saxons. And herewith the West|saxons following the victorie, brought vnder subiec|tion of king Egbert the countries of Kent, Essex, Southerie, and Sussex. The Eastangles also about the same time receiued king Egbert for their soue|reigne Lord,Hent. Hunt. and comforted by his setting on against Bernulfe king of Mercia, inuaded the confines of his kingdome, in reuenge of displeasures which he had doone to them latelie before, by inuading their countrie, and as it came to passe, incountring with the said Bernulfe which came against them to defend his countrie,Bernulfe king of Mercia slaine. they slue him in the field.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus their minds on both parts being kindled into further wrath, the Eastangles estsoones in the yeare following fought with them of Mercia, and ouercame them againe, and slue their king Ludi|cenus, who succéeded Bernulfe in that kingdome, with 5 of his earles. The state of the kingdome of Mercia being weakened, Egbert conceiued an as|sured hope of good successe, & in the 27 yeare of his reigne, made an open inuasion into the countrie, and chasing Whitlafe king of Mercia (that succee|ded Ludicenus) out of his estate, conquered the whole kingdome of the Mercies. But yet in the yéere next following, or in the third yeare after, he restored it againe to Whitlafe, with condition, that he should inioy the same as tributarie to him, and acknow|ledge him for his supreme gouernour.Simon Dun. The same yeare that Bernulfe king of Mercia was slaine by the Eastangles,These men the Cornish men as is to be supposed. there was a sore battell foughten at Gauelford, betwixt them of Deuonshire, and the Britains, in the which manie thousand died on both parts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 King Egbert hauing conquered all the English people inhabiting on the south side of Humber, led foorth his armie against them of Northumberland: but the Northumbers being not onelie vexed with ciuill sedition, but also with the often inuasion of Danes, perceiued not how they should be able to re|sist the power of king Egbert:King Egbert inuadeth Northumber|land. The Nor|thumbers such mit them|selues to king Egbert. and therefore vpon good aduisement taken in the matter, they resolued to submit themselues, and therevpon sent ambassa|dors to him to offer their submission, committing themselues wholie vnto his protection. King Egbert gladlie receiued them, and promised to defend them from all forren enimies. Thus the kingdome of Nor|thumberland was brought vnder subiection to the kings of the Westsaxons, after the state had béen sore weakened with contention and ciuill discord that had continued amongst the nobles of the countrie, for the space of manie yeeres, beside the inuasion made by outward enimies, to the gréeuous damage of the people.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After that king Egbert had finished his businesse in Northumberland, he turned his power towards the countrie of Northwales, and subdued the same, EEBO page image 139 with the citie of Chester, which till those daies, [...] Northwales and the citie of Chester conquered by Egbert. the Britains or Welshmen had kept in their possession. When king Egbert had obteined these victories, and made such conquests as before is mentioned, of the people héere in this land, he caused a councell to be as|sembled at Winchester, and there by aduise of the high estates, he was crowned king, as [...]ouereigne gouernour and supreame lord of the whole land. It is also recorded, that he caused a commission to be direc|ted foorth into all parts of the realme, to giue com|mandement, that from thence forward all the people inhabiting within this land, should be called English men, and not Saxons, and likewise the land should be called England by one generall name,The name of this [...] when [...] chan|ged. though it should appéere (as before is mentioned) that it was so called shortlie after the first time that the Angles and Saxons got possession thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now was king Egbert setled in good quiet, and his dominions reduced out of the troubles of warre, when suddenlie newes came,The Danes. that the Danes with a nauie of 35 ships, were arriued on the English coasts, and began to make sore warre in the land. K. Egbert being thereof aduertised, with all conueni|ent spéed got togither an armie, and went foorth to giue battell to the enimies. Heerevpon incountring with them, there was a sore foughten field betwixt them, which continued with great slaughter on both sides, till the night came on, and then by chance of warre the Englishmen, which before were at point to haue gone awaie with victorie, were vanquished and put to flight,The English|men discomfi|ted by Danes. Simon Dun. H. Hunt. Matth. West. 834 yet king Egbert by couert of the night escaped his enimies hands: but two of his chiefe capteins Dudda and Osmond, with two bi|shops, to wit, Herferd of Winchester, and Uigferd of Shireborne, were slaine in that battell, which was foughten at Carrum, about the 834 of Christ, and 34 yéere of king Egberts reigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeere following,Danes and Welshmen vanquished. the Danes with their na|uie came into Westwales, and there the Welshmen ioining with them, rose against king Egbert, but he with prosperous fortune vanquished and slue both the Danes and Welshmen, and that in great num|ber, at a place called Hengistenton. The next yéere after also, which was 836, he ouerthrew another ar|mie of Danes which came against him,836 Matth. West. as one autor writeth. Finallie, when king Egbert had reigned the tearme of 36 yéeres and seuen moneths with great glorie for the inlarging of his kingdome with wide bounds, which when he receiued was but of small compasse, he departed this life,Egbert de|parteth this life. leauing to his issue matter of woorthie praise to mainteine that with order which he with painefull diligence had ioined to|gither. His bodie was buried at Winchester,837 and he left behind him two sonnes Ethelwuffe,Matth. West. otherwise named Athaulfe and Adelstan. The first he appointed to succéed him in the kingdome of Westsaxons, and Adelstan he ordeined to haue the gouernment of Kent, Sussex, and Essex.

¶Héere we sée the paterne of a fortunate prines in all his affaires, as well forren as domesticall, wherein is first to be obserued the order of his edu|cation in his tender yéeres, which agréeing well with a princes nature, could not but in the progresse of his age bring great matters to passe, his manifold victories are an argument that as he lacked no poli|cie, so he had prowesse inough to incounter with his enimies, to whome he gaue manie a f [...]wle discomfi|ture. But among all other notes of his skill and hope of happie successe in his martiall affaires, was the good choise that he made of seruiceable souldiers, being such as knew how to get the victorie, and ha|uing gotten it, were not vntaught to vse it to their benefit, by their warinesse and héed taking; for

Saepiùs incautae nocuit victoria turb [...].

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5.87. Brightrichus.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 199] AFter Kene|wulfe,


Hen. Hunt. Mat. VVeſt. hath .787. Simon Dun. hath .786.

one Bricrichus, or Brightri [...] was ordeyned King of Weſt Sax|ons, and began his raign in the yeare of oure lord .787. which was aboute the viij. yeare of the gouernment of the Empreſſe Eirene with hir ſonne Conſtantinus, and about the ſecond yeare of the raigne of Achaius king of Scottes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Brightrike was procreate of the [...]ue of Cerdicius the firſt king of Weſt Saxons, and xvj. in number from him. He was a man of na|ture quiet and temperate, more deſirous of peace than of warre, and therefore he ſtoode in doubt of ye noble valiancie of one Egbert, which after ſuc|ceeded him in the kingdome. The linage of Cer|dicius was in that ſeaſon ſo cõfoũded and ming|led, that euerie one as he grew to greateſt power, ſtroue to be king and ſupreme gouernor. But ſpe|cially Egbertus was knowne to be one that co|ueted the place, as hee that was of the blou [...] royall, and a man of greate power and luſti [...] courage.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Brightrike therefore to liue in more ſuretie, baniſhed him the l [...]nde,Egbert bani|ſhed. and appoynted EEBO page image 200 him to goe into Fraunce.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Egbert vnderſtanding for certaine that this his departure into a forraine Countrey ſhoulde turne to his aduauncement in time to come, o|beyed the kings pleaſure.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About the thirde yeare of Brightrykes raigne, there fell vpon mens garmentes as they walked abrode,A ſtraunge wonder. Croſſes of bloudie colour, and bloud fell from heauen as drops of raigne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Mat. VVeſt. VVil. Malm. Hen. Hunt. Danes. Some tooke this wonder for a ſignification of the perſecution that followed by the Danes: for ſhortly after in the yeare enſuing, there arryued three Daniſh ſhippes vpon the Engliſh coaſtes, againſt whome the Lieutenant of the parties ad|ioyning made forth to apprehend thoſe that were come a lande, howbeeit aduenturing himſelfe o|uer raſhly amongeſt them, he was ſlaine: but afterwardes when the Danes perceyued that the people of the Countreyes aboute beganne to aſ|ſemble, and were comming agaynſt them, they fled to theyr ſhippes, and left their pray and ſpoile behinde them for that time.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theſe were the fyrſt Danes that arryued here in this lande, beeing onely ſente (as was perceyued after) to viewe the Countrey, and coaſtes of the ſame, to vnderſtande howe with a greater power they myght bee able to inuade it, as ſhortly after they did, and warred ſo wyth the Engliſhe men, that they got a greate part [...] of the lande, and helde it in theyr owne poſſeſſion.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the tenth yeare of King Brightrykes raigne, there were ſeene in the ayre fyrie Dra|gons flying, whiche betokened (as was thought) two grieuous plagues that followed. Fyrſt a greate dearth and famine: and ſecondly the cruell warre of Danes,Famine and warre ſignified which ſhortly followed, as yee ſhall heare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Finally, after that Brightrike had raigned the ſpace of .xvj. yeares, he departed this life, and was buried at Warham.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Some wryte that hee was poyſoned by hys wife Ethelburga, Ran. Ceſtren. li. 5. cap. 25. Brightrike de|parted thiſ life whom he maryed in the fourth yeare of his raigne. Shee was daughter vnto Offa King of Mercia (as before yee haue heard.) Shee is noted by wryters to haue beene a verye euill woman, proude, and high mynded as Lu|cifer,Ethelburga hir conditions and wicked nature. and therewyth diſdaynfull. Shee bare hir the more ſtately by reaſon of hir fathers greate fame and magnificence: whome ſhee hated ſhee woulde accuſe to hir huſbande, and ſo put them in daunger of theyr lyues. And if ſhe might not ſo wreake hir rancour, ſhee woulde not ſticke to poyſon them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And ſo it happened one daye, as ſhee ment to haue poyſoned a yong Gentleman, agaynſte whome ſhee hadde a quarell, the King chaun|ced to taſte of that Cuppe, and dyed therof (as be|fore ye haue heard.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Hir purpoſe indeede was not to haue poyſoned the King, but onely the yong Gentleman, the which drinking after the King died alſo, the poy|ſon was ſo ſtrong and vehement.A [...] of the kings of the Weſt Saxons agaynſt their wiues.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 For hir heynous cryme it is ſayde that the Kings of Weſt Saxons woulde not ſuffer their wyues to be called Queenes, nor permitte them to ſit with them in open places (where their Ma|ieſtie ſhoulde bee ſhewed) of manye yeares after.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Ethelburga fearing puniſhment, fledde into Fraunce with greate ryches and treaſure, and was wel cheriſhed in the Court of King Charles at the firſt, but after ſhe was thruſt into an Ab|bey, and demeaned hirſelf ſo lewdly there,The ende of Ethelburga. Simon Dan. in kee|ping companie with one of hir owne Countrey men, that ſhee was baniſhed the houſe, and after died in great miſerie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Egbert king of Mercia departing this lyfe, after he had raigned foure Monethes,VVil. Mal. Kenulf. ordeyned his couſin Kenulfe to ſucceede in his place, which Kenulfe was come of the lyne of Penda king of Mercia, as rightly decended from hys brother Kenwalke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Kenulfe for his noble courage, wiſe|dome, and vpryght dealing, was worthie to be cõpared with the beſt Princes that haue raigned. His vertues paſſed hys fame: nothing hee dyd that enuye coulde with iuſte cauſe reproue. At home hee ſhewed hymſelfe godlye and [...]ligi|ous, in warre hee became victorious,The Archbi|ſhops ſea re|ſtored to Can|terburie. hee reſto|red the Archbiſhoppes Sea agayne to Canter|burie, wherein hys humbleneſſe was to be pray|ſed, that made no accounte of any worldly ho|nour in hys Prouince, ſo that the order of the auncient Canons might be obſerued. Hee had warres left him as it were by ſucceſſion from his Predeceſſour Offa agaynſte them of Kent, and therevppon entering that Countrey wyth a mightie armie, waſted and ſpoyled the ſame, and encountering in battayle wyth King Ed|bert, or Ethelbert, otherwiſe called alſo Pre [...],The king of Kent take [...] priſoner. ouerthrewe his armie, and tooke him pryſoner in the fielde, but afterwardes he releaſed, him to his great prayſe and commendation. For where as hee buylded a Churche at Winchcombe vp|on the day of the dedication thereof, hee ledde the Kentiſhe King as then hys pryſoner vp to the highe Aulter, and there ſette him at libertye, declaring thereby a greate proufe of hys good nature.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There was preſent at that ſight, Cuthred whõ he had made king of Kent in place of Ethelbert, or Edbert, with .xiij. Biſhoppes and ten Dukes. The noyſe that was made of the people in reioy|ſing at the kings bounteous liberalitie was mer|ueylous. For not only he thus reſtored ye Kentiſh EEBO page image 201 King to libertie,Kenulfes libe|rality-towards Churchmen, which was not forgotten by them in their hiſtories. but alſo he beſtowed greate re|wards vpon all the Prelates and noble men that were come to the feaſt, euery Prieſt had a peece of golde, and euery monke a ſhilling. Alſo hee gaue away great giftes amongſt the people, and foun|ded in that place an Abbey, endowing the ſame with great poſſeſſions. Finally, after he had raig|ned .24. yeares, he departed this life, and appoyn|ted his buriall to be in ye ſame Abbey of Winch|come, leauing behind him a ſon named Kenelme, who ſucceeded his father in the Kingdome, but was ſoone murthered by hys vnnaturall ſiſter Quenbred the ſeuenteenth of Iuly, as hereafter ſhall be ſhewed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 AFter that Aſwald King of Northumberland was made away,Oſred. 788 VV. Mal. Mat. VVeſt. H. Hunton. Sim. Dunel. his brother Oſred the ſonne of Alred tooke vppon him the rule of that Kyng|dome anno .788. and within one yere was expul|ſed, and lefte the Kingdome to Ethelbert or E|delred as then reuoked out of exile, in whiche hee had remayned for the ſpace of .12. yeres, and nowe beeing reſtored, he continued in gouernemente of the Northumbers four yeares, or as ſome ſay .7. yeres.Duke Eardulf taken and wounded. In the ſecond yere whereof Duke Eardulfe was taken and led to Ripon, & there without the gate of the monaſterie wounded, as was thought to death by the ſaid K. but the Monks taking his body, and laying it in a tent without the Church, after midnight he was found aliue in ye Churche. Moreouer, about the ſame time, ye ſonnes of king Alfwald wer by force drawen out of the Citie of Yorke, but firſte by a wile they were trayned out of the head Church where they had taken Sanc|tuary, & ſo at length miſerably ſlain by K. Ethel|bert in Wonwaldremere, the one of them highte Alfus, and the other Alfwine. In the yeare of oure Lord .792.792 Oſred vpon truſt of the othes and pro|miſes of dyuers noble men, ſecretly returned into Northumberland, but his own ſouldiers forſooke him, and ſo was he taken and by king Ethelberts commaundement put to death at Cunburg on ye fourtenth day of September. The ſame yere K. Ethelbert married ye Lady Alfled the daughter of Offa King of Mercia, forſaking his former wife which he had, hauing no iuſt cauſe of diuorſe gi|uen on hir part, whereby his people tooke ſuch diſ|pleaſure againſte him, that finally after he hadde raigned now this ſecond time four yeres, or (as o|ther haue) ſeuen yeres, he could not auoyde the de|ſteny of his predeceſſors, but was miſerably kil|led by his owne ſubiects at Cobre, the eightenth day of April. After whome, one Oſwald a noble man, was ordeyned K. and within a .27. or .28. dayes after, was expulſed, & cõſtreined to flee firſt into the Iſle of Lindeſferne,Holy ilande. Ardulf. & frõ thence vnto the K. of Pictes. Then Ardulfe yt was a Duke, & ſon to one Arnulfe, was reuoked out of exile, & made K. & cõſecrated at Yorke by ye Archb. Cumbalde, & three other Biſhops, the .25. of Iune, in the yere 796. About a two yeres after, to witte,796 in the yere 798. one Duke Wade, and other conſpirators whiche had bin alſo partakers in ye murthering of K. Ethelbert, reyſed war againſte. K. Ardulf, and fought a battell with him at Walley,Walalege. but K. Ar|dulf got ye vpper hand, & chaſed Wade & other his enimies out of the field. In the yeare .799.799 Duke Aldred that had murthered Ethelbert or Athelred K. of Northumberlande, was ſlaine by another Duke called Chorthmond, in reu [...]ge of the death of his maſter ye ſaide Ethelbert. Shortly after, a|bout ye ſame time yt Brightrike K. of Weſt Sa|xons departed this life, there was a ſore battell foughten in Northumberlãd at Wellehare, in ye which Alrick ye ſon of Herbert, and many other wt [figure appears here on page 201] him were ſlain: but to reherſe all the battels with their ſucceſſes and iſſues,The Engliſh|men afflicted each other with ciuill warre. it ſhoulde be too tedious & irkſome to ye readers, for the Engliſh people be|ing naturally hard and high minded, continually ſcourged each other with inteſtine warres. About ſixe or ſeuẽ yeres after this battel, K. Ardulf was expulſed out of ye eſtate. And thus may ye conſider in what plight things ſtoode in Northumberlãd, by the often ſeditious tumultes and chaungings of gouernors, ſo that there be which haue writtẽ, EEBO page image 202 how after the death of King Ethelbert otherwiſe called Edelred, diuers Biſhops and other of the chiefeſt nobles of the countrey diſdeyning ſuche trayterous prince quellings, ciuill ſedition, and in|iurious dealings, as it were put in dayly practiſe amongſt the Northumbers, departed out of their natiue bordures into voluntary exile, and that frõ thencefoorth there was not any of the nobilitie, that durſt take vpon him the kingly gouernement amongſt them, fearing the prerogatiue deſtiny thereof, as if it had bin Se [...]anes horſe, whoſe rider came euer to ſome euil end. But yet by that whi|che is heeretofore ſhewed out of Simon Dunel|menſis, it is euident, that there raigned Kings o|uer the Northumbers, but in what authority and power to command, it may be doubted: Howbeit this is certaine, that the ſundry murderings and baniſhmentes of their kings and Dukes giue vs greatly to geſſe, that there was but ſory obediẽce vſed in the countrey, wherby for no ſmall ſpace of time that kingdome remayned without an head gouernor, beeing ſet open to the pray and iniurie of them that were bordurers vnto it, and likewiſe vnto ſtraungers: for the Danes whiche in thoſe dayes were great rouers, had landed before in the North partes,This chanced in the vere of our Lorde 793. as Simon Dunel. hath. & ſpoyled the Abbey of Lindeſ [...]e [...]ne otherwiſe called holy iland, & perceiuing ye fruite|fulneſſe of the countrey, & eaſineſſe for their people to inuade it (bycauſe that through their priuate quarelling, there was little publike reſiſtance to be loked for) at their comming home, entiſed their countreymen to make viages into England, and ſo landing in Northumberlande,The Danes inuade Nor|thumberland. did much hurt, and obteined a great part of ye countrey in maner without reſiſtance, bycauſe there was no Ruler there able to reyſe any power of men by publike authoritie to encounter with the common eni|mies, by reaſon whereof, ye countrey was brought into great miſerie, what through war of Danes, & the ciuil diſſention amongſt the nobles and peo|ple themſelues, no man being of authority (I ſay) able to reforme ſuch miſorders. Yet we finde, that the nobles and Captaines of the countrey, aſſem|bling togither at one time againſte the Danes yt were landed about Tinemouth,The Danes vanquiſhed. conſtreined them by ſharp fight to flee back to their Shippes, & toke certain of thẽ in the field, whoſe heads they ſtroke off there vpon the ſhore.This was anno [...]94. as Simon Dunel. hath. The other that gote to their Shippes, ſuffered greate loſſe of men, & like|wiſe of their veſſels by tempeſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After that Alrike (the laſt of K. Witchtredes ſonnes which raigned in Kent ſucceſſiuely after their father) was dead, the noble ofſpring of the kings there ſore decayed, and begã to fade away, ſo yt euery one which eyther by flattering had gote riches togither, or by ſeditious pertaking was had in eſtimation, ſought to haue the gouernmẽt and to vſurp ye title of King, abuſing by vnwor|thy meanes the honor and dignitie of ſo high an office. Amongſt other,Edbrig [...]. one Edbert or Edelberte ſurnamed alſo Prenne, gouerned the Kentiſhmen for the ſpace of two yeres, & was in the ende van|quiſhed by them of Mercia, and taken priſoner as before is ſaid, ſo that for a time he liued in capti|uitie, & although afterwardes he was ſet at liber|tie, yet was he not receyued againe to the Kyng|dome, ſo that it is vncertaine what end he made. Cuthred that was appointed by Kinevulfe ye K. of Mercia, to raigne in place of the ſaide Edberte or Edelbert, continued in the gouernement eyght yeres as king, rather by name than by acte, inhe|riting his predeceſſors euill happe and calamitie, through factions and ciuill diſcord.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After that Iambrith or Lambert the Archbi|ſhop of Canterburie was departed this life,Lambert. one Edelred was ordeined in his place, vnto whome the primacie was reſtored, which in his predeceſ|ſors time was taken away by Offa K. of Mer|cia, as before is recited. Alſo after ye deathe of Eu|balde Archbiſhop of Yorke, another of the ſame name called Eubald the ſecond, was admitted to ſucceede in that ſee.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After that Brightrike ye K. of Weſt Saxons was departed this life, meſſengers were ſent with all ſpeede into Fraunce, to giue knowledge there|of vnto Egberte, which as before is ſhewed, was conſtreined by the ſaide Brightrike to departe the countrey. At the firſt, he withdrew vnto Offa K. of Mercia, with whom hee remained for a tyme, til at length, through ſuite made by Brightrike, he perceiued hee mighte not longer continue there withoute danger to be deliuered into his enimies hands, and ſo Offa winking at the matter) he de|parted out of his countrey, and gote him ouer in|to Fraunce, but being now aduertiſed of Bright|rikes death, and required by earneſt letters ſente from his friends to come and receiue the gouern|ment of the Kingdome, he returned with al con|uenient ſpeede into his countrey, and was recey|ued immediately for King,Egbert recey|ued King of Weſt Saxons. His lignage. by the generall con|ſent of the Weſt Saxons, as well in reſpect of ye good hope which they had conceiued of his wor|thy qualities and aptneſſe to haue gouernement, as of his royall lignage, beeing lineally diſcended from Inegild the brother of K. Inas, as ſonne to Alkemounde, that was the ſonne of one Eaffa, which Eaffa was ſonne to Ope the ſonne of the foreſayd Inegild.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THis Egbert began his raigne in the yeare of our Lord .8 [...]. Egbert. 802. as Simon Dunel. and M. W. hath [...] but 801. as William Har|riſon [...] it our of Mal. whiche was the fourth yeare al|moſt ended, after that the Emperour Eirine be|gan the ſeconde time to rule the Empire, and in the . [...]4. yere of the raigne of Charles the great K. of France, whiche alſo was in the ſame yere after he was made Emperour of the Weſt, and about the ſecond yere of Conwall King of Scottes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 EEBO page image 203Whileſt this Egbert remayned in exile, he tur|ned his aduerſaries into occaſion of valiancie, as it had bin a grindelſtone to grind away & remoue the ruſt of ſluggiſh ſlouthfulnes, in ſo much, that haunting ye wars in France, in ſeruice of Charles the Great, he atteined to great knowledge & expe|rience, both in matters apperteyning to the wars, & likewiſe to ye well ordering of a common welth in time of peace. The firſt warres that he tooke in hand, after he had atteyned to ye kingdom, was a|gainſt the Corniſhmẽ, a remeinãt of the old Bri|taines, whome he ſhortly ouercame and ſubdued. Thẽ he thought good to tame ye vnquiet Welch|men, yt which ſtil were ready to moue Rebellion againſt the Engliſhmen, as they that being van|quiſhed,Sim. Dunel. H. Hunton. woulde not yet ſeeme to bee ſubdued, wherefore about the .14. yere of his raigne, he in|uaded the countrey of Wales, and went through the ſame frõ Eaſt to Weſt, not finding any per|ſon ye durſt reſiſt him. Thus K. Egbert hauing ouercome his enimies of Wales and Cornewall began to growe in authoritie aboue all the other rulers within this lande, in ſo much, that euery of thẽ began to feare their owne eſtate,Bernulf K. of Mercia but namely Bernevulf K. of Mercia ſore ſtomaked the mat|ter, as he that was wiſe, & of a iolly loftie courage, and yet doubted to haue to do with Egbert, who was knowen alſo to be a man both ſkilfull & va|liant. At length yet cõſidering with himſelfe, that if his chance ſhould be to ſpeede well, ſo much the more ſhuld his praiſe he increaſed. He determined to attempt the fortune of war, & thervpõ intima|ted the ſame vnto Egbert, ye whiche ſuppoſing it ſhoulde be a diſhonor to him to giue place, boldly prepared to meete Bernulfe in the field. Heere vp|pon they encountred togither at Ellendone,A batel fo [...] at Ellendone. and fought a ſore battell, in ye which an huge [...] of men were ſlaine, what on the one part,Egbert wa [...] the victory [...]. & on ye other, but in the ende the victory remained with Egbert, although he had not yt like hoſt for m [...]m|ber [figure appears here on page 203] vnto Bernullfe, but he was a politike prince, & of great experience, hauing choſen his Souldiers of nimble, leane, and deliuer mẽ, wher Bernulfes Souldiers through long eaſe, were cowardly per|ſons,VV. Mal. 826 & ouercharged with fleſh. This battell was fought in the yere of our Lord .826. King Egbert hauing got this victory, was aduanced into ſuch hope that he perſwaded himſelf to be able without greate adoe to ouercome the reſidue of his neigh|bours, whoſe eſtates he ſaw playnely ſore weake|ned & fallen in great decay. Her vpon before all o|ther, he determined to aſſaile Edelvulf K. of Kẽt, whome he knew to be a [...] in no eſtimation a|mongſt his ſubiects. A competent army therefore being leuied,Alſtan Biſhop of Shireborne a warrioure. he apointed his ſon Ethelvulf & Al|ſtane Biſhop of Shireborne, with erle Walhard to haue the conduit thereof, & ſente them with the ſame into Kent, where they wrought ſuche mai|ſteries, that they chaſed both the K. & al other that would not ſubmit thẽſelues out of the countrey, cõſtreining them to paſſe ouer the Thames.The conqueſts of the Weſt Saxons. And herewith the Weſt Saxõs follwowing the vic|tory brought vnder ſubiection or king Egbert the countreys of Kẽt, Eſſex, Southrey, and Suſſex. The Eaſt Angles alſo about the ſame time recei|ued K. Egbert for their ſoueraigne Lord,Hen. Hu [...] & com|forted by his ſetting on againſte Bernulfe king of Mercia, inuaded ye confines of his Kingdome, in reuenge of diſpleaſures whiche he had done to thẽ lately before, by inuading their countrey: & as it came to paſſe, encountring with the ſaid Bernulf which came againſt them to defend his countrey,Bernulfe K Mercia ſlay they ſlew him in the field. And thus their myndes on both parts being kindled into further wrath, ye Eaſt Angles eftſones in ye yere following, fought with thẽ of Mercia, & ouercame them againe, and ſlew their K. Ludicenus that ſucceeded Bernulfe in that kingdome, with .5. of his Erles. Thus the ſtate of the kingdome of Mercia being weakened, Egbert conceiued an aſſured hope of good ſucceſſe in the .17. yere of his raigne, made an open inuatiõ into yt countrey, & chaſing Whitlafe K. of Mer|cia (yt ſucceeded Ludicenus) out of his eſtate, con|quered ye whole kingdom of the Mercies. But yet EEBO page image 204 in the yere next following, or in the third yere af|ter (as ſaith Harriſon,) he reſtored it againe vnto Wightlafe, with condition, that he ſhould enioy the ſame as tributary to him, and acknowledge him for his ſupreme gouernour. [...] Dunel. The ſame yeare that Bernvulf K. of Mercia was ſlain by ye Eaſt Angles, [...] were [...]orniſh| [...]s is to [...]ppoſed. there was a ſore battell foughten at Ga|uelforde, betwixte them of Deuonſhire, and the Britaynes, in the whiche many thouſands dyed on both parts. King Egbert hauing conquered al the Engliſh people, inhabiting on the South ſide of Humber, led foorth his army againſte them of Northumberland: but the Northumbers beeyng not only vexed with ciuil ſedition, but alſo with ye often inuaſion of Danes, perceiued not how they ſhould be able to reſiſt the power of K, Egbert:King Egbert inuadeth Northũberlãd The Northũbers ſubmit them to Kyng Egbert. & therfore vpon good aduiſement taken in the mat|ter, they reſolued to ſubmit themſelues, & therevpõ ſent Ambaſſadors to him to offer their ſubmiſſiõ, cõmitting themſelues wholly vnto his protectiõ. [figure appears here on page 204] King Egbert gladly receiued them, & promiſed to defend them from all forraine enimies. And thus the kingdome of Northumberland was brought vnder ſubiectiõ to the kings of the Weſt Saxõs, after the ſtate had bin ſore weakened with contẽ|tion and ciuill diſcord that had continued amõgſt the nobles of the countrey, for the ſpace of many yeres, beſide the inuaſion made by outwarde eni|mies, to ye greenous domage of the people. After ye K. Egbert had finiſhed his buſineſſe in Northũ|berlãd, he turned his power towards the countrey of Northwales, [...]. Higd. Northw [...]les [...] the Citie [...] Cheſter [...]quered by [...]bert. & ſubdued ye ſame with the Citie of Cheſter, which till thoſe dayes, the Britaynes or Welchmen had kept in their poſſeſſion. Whẽ K. Egbert had obteined theſe victories, and made ſuch conqueſts as before is mentioned, of the peo|ple here in this lande [...]he cauſed a counſell to be aſ|ſembled at Wincheſter, and there by aduice of the high eſtates, hee was Crowned K. as ſoueraigne gouernour, and ſupreme Lord of the whole land. It is alſo recorded, that hee cauſed commiſſion to be directed forth into all partes of ye Realme, to giue commandement, that frõ thence forwarde al the people inhabiting within this land, ſhould bee called Engliſhmẽ, [...]he name of [...] Ile when [...] was chãged. & not Saxõs, & likewiſe ye lãd ſhould be called England by one generall name, though it ſhould appeare (as before is mentioned) that it was ſo called ſhortly after the firſte time yt the Angles & Saxons gote poſſeſſiõ therof. Now was K. Egberte ſetled in good quiet, and his do|minions reduced out of ye troubles of warre, when ſuddaynely newes came,The Danes. that the Danes with a nauie of .xxxv. ſhips, were arriued on ye Engliſhe coaſtes, & began to make ſore war in the land. K. Egbert being thereof aduertiſed, with all conue|nient ſpeede gote togither an army, & went foorth to giue battell to the enimies. Herevpon encoun|tring with them, there was a ſore foughten fielde betwixt them, and continued with great ſlaugh|ter on both ſides, till the night came on, and then by chance of warre the Engliſhmen which before were at pointe to haue gone away with victory;The Engliſh|men diſco [...]i|ted by Danes. Sim. Dunel. were vanquiſhed and put to flight, yet K. Egbert by court of the night eſcaped his enimies hands, but two of his chiefe Captaines Dudda and Oſ|mond, with two Biſhops, to witte,H. Hunton. Hereferde of Wincheſter, and Vigferd of Shireborne,Math. VVeſt. were ſlayne in that battel, which was foughtẽ at Car|rum, about the .834. of Chriſt,834 Danes and Welchmen vanquiſhed. Here begin|neth [...] to [...] the [...] of the Danes. Hengeſt [...]. 836 Math. [...]. Egbert [...]. and .34. yeare of K. Egberts raigne. In ye yere following, the Danes with their name came into Weſt Wales, and there the Welchmen ioyning with them, roſe a|gainſt K. Egbert, but he with proſperous fortune vanquiſhed and ſlew, both ye Danes & Welchmẽ, & that in great nũber, at a place called Hengiſten|tõ. The next yere after alſo, which was .836. he o|uerthrew another army of Danes which came a|gainſt him, as on author writeth. Finally, whẽ K. EEBO page image 205 Egbert had raigned the tearme of .36. yeres, [...] .7. monethes with greate glory for the enlarging of his kingdome with ſo wide boundes, which when he receiued, 837 Mat. VVest. was of ſo ſmall a compaſſe, he depar|ted this life, leauing to his iſſue matter of worthy praiſe to mainteyne that with good order whiche he with painefull diligence had ioyned togither. His body was buried at Wincheſter, and he lefte behind him two ſonnes Ethelvoulfe, otherwiſe named Athaulfe and Adelſtan. The firſte he ap|poynted to ſucceede him in the kingdom of Weſt Saxons, and Athelſtan hee ordeined to haue the gouernement of Kent, Suſſex, and Eſſex.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 VVil. Mal.After that Cuthred K. of Kent had raigned .8. yeres, as before is mentioned, he was conſtreyned to giue place vnto one Baldred, that tooke vppon him the gouernment, and raigned the ſpace of .18. yeres, without any greate authoritie, for his ſub|iects regarded him but ſorily, ſo that in the ende, when his countrey was inuaded by the Weſt Saxons, he was eaſily conſtreyned to departe in|to exile. And thus was the kingdome of Kent an|nexed to the kingdome of the Weſt Saxons, af|ter the ſame kingdome had continued in gouern|mente of kings created of the ſame nation for the ſpace of .382. yeres,The ende of the kingdome of Kent. 827 yeres, that is to ſay, from the yeare of our Lord .464. vnto the yere .827.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Suithred or Suthred K. of Eſſex was van|quiſhed and expulſed out of his kingdom by Eg|bert K.The end of the Kingdome of Eaſtſex. of Weſt Saxons (as before ye may reade) in the ſame yere that the kentiſhmen were ſubdu|ed by the ſaid Egbert, or elſe very ſhortly after.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Kingdome continued .281. yeres, from the yere .614. vnto the yere .795. as by the table of the Heptarchie ſet foorth by Alexander Neuill it appeareth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 After the deceſſe of Kenvulfe K. of Mercia, his ſonne Kenelme a child of the age of .7. yeares was admitted K. Mat. VVeſt. 821 The wicked|neſſe of Quẽ|dred. about the yere of our Lord .821. Hee had two ſiſters, Quendred, and Burgenild, of the which the one (that is to ſay) Quendrede, of a ma|litious minde, moued through ambition, enuyed hir brothers aduauncemente, and ſought to make him away, ſo that in the ende, ſhe corrupted ye go|uernor of his perſon one Aſhberte, with greate re|wardes and high promiſes, perſwading him to diſpatch hir innocent brother out of life, that ſhee might raigne in his place. Aſhbert one day vnder a colour to haue the yong king foorthe on hun|ting,King Ke|nelme mur|thered. led him into a thicke wood, and there cut off the head frõ his body, an Impe by reaſon of his tẽder yeres & innocent age, vnto the world voyde of gilt, & yet thus trayterouſly murthered with|out cauſe or crime: he was afterward reputed for a Martir. There hath gone a tale that his death ſhould be ſignified at Rome, and the place where the murther was committed, by a ſtraunge man|ner: for (as they ſay) a white Doue came and a|light vpon the Aulter of Saint Peter, bearyng a ſcroll in hir [...], which ſhe let fall on the ſame Aul|ter, in which ſcroll among other things this was contreyned, in Cle [...]c Ko [...] Bath, Keneline Ken|barne lieth vnder thorne, heaued betraned that is, at Clenc in a Cow paſture, Keneline the Kyngs Child lieth beheaded vnder a thorne. This tale I reherſe [...] for any credite I thinke it [...] of, but only for yt it ſeemeth the place where the yong Prince innocently loſt his life.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After that Keneline was thus made away,Ceolwolf K. of Mercia. 823 his Vncle Ceolwolfe the Brother of King Kenulfe was [...]rea [...]ed King of Mercia, and in the ſeconde yeare of his raigne, was expulſed by Bernwolfe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Bernwolfe in the thirde yeare (or ſeconde as Harriſon hath) of his raigne, was vanquiſhed and put to flight in battell by Egbert King of Weſt Saxons, and ſhortly after [...] of the Eaſt an|gles as before ye haue heard.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Then one Ludi [...]nus or Ludicanus was cre|ated King of Mercia, and within two yeres after came to the like ende that hap [...]es to his predeceſ|ſor before him, as he [...] about to reuenge hys death, ſo that the Kingdome of Britayne began now to rec [...]e from their owne eſtate, and leane to an alteration, which grew in the end to the erectiõ of a per [...]t Monarchie, and finall ſubuerſion of their perticular eſtates and regiments.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After Ludicenus, ſucceeded Wightlafe,Mat. VVeſt 728 who firſt being vanquiſhed by Egbert, King of Weſt Saxons, was afterwardes reſtored to the King|dome by the ſame Egbert, and raigned thirtene yeres, whereof twelue at the leaſt were vnder tri|bute which he payed to the ſaid Egbert and to his ſonne, as to his Soueraignes and ſupreme go|uernoures.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Kingdome of Northumberlande was brought in ſubiection to the Kings of Weſt Sa|xons, as before is mentioned, in the yeare of oure Lord .828.828 and in ye yeare of the raigne of K. Eg|bert .28. but yet here it tooke not ende as after ſhall appeare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 EThelwoulfus otherwiſe called by ſome wri|ters Athaulfus,Ethel|wolfus. began his raigne ouer ye Weſt Saxons in the yeare .837. which was in the .24. yere of the Emperour Ludouicus Pius that was alſo K. of France, in the .10. yeare of Theophilus ye Emperour of the Eaſt, & about the third yere of Kenneth the ſeconde of that name K. of Scottes. This Ethelvoulf minding in his youth to haue bin a Prieſt, entred into the orders of Subdeacõ,Hen. Hunt. Math. VVeſt. and as ſome write, he was Biſhop of Winche|ſter: but howſoeuer the matter ſtoode, or whether he was or not, ſure it is, that ſhortly after he was aſſoyled of his vowes by authoritie of Pope Leo, and then maried a proper Gentlewoman named Oſburga, which was his butlers daughter. Hee was of nature curteous, and rather deſirous to EEBO page image 206 liue in quiet reſt, than to be troubled with the go|uernement of many countreys, [...]V. Mal. ſo that cõtenting himſelfe with the kingdome of Weſt Saxons, he permitted his brother Athelſtan to enioy the reſi|due of the countreys, which his father had ſubdu|ed, as Kent, and Eſſex, with other. He ayded the K. of Mercia Burthred againſt the Welchmen, and greatly aduanced his eſtimation, by gyuyng vnto him his daughter in marriage. But now the fourth deſtruction which chanced to this lande by forraine enimies, [...]our eſpeciall [...]ſtructions [...] this land. was at hande, for the people of Denmarke, Norway, and other of thoſe North|eaſt regions, which in that ſeaſon were greate ro|uers by Sea, had taſted the wealth of this land by ſuch ſpoiles and prayes as they hadde taken in the ſame, ſo that perceiuing they coulde not purchaſe more profit any where elſe, they ſet their myndes to inuade the ſame on each ſide, as they had part|ly begun in the days of the late kings Brightrike and Egbert.Hen. Hunt. Simon Dun. The perſecutiõ vſed by theſe Danes ſeemed more greeuous, than any of the other per|ſecutions, either before or ſithence that time: for ye Romanes hauing quickly ſubdued the land, go|uerned it nobly withoute ſeeking the ſubuerſion thereof. The Scottes and Pictes only inuaded ye North partes. And the Saxons ſeeking the con|queſt of the land, when they had once gote it, they kept it, and did what they could, to better and ad|uance it to a floriſhing eſtate. And likewiſe the Normans hauing made a conqueſt, graunted both life, libertie, and auntient lawes to the for|mer inhabitants: But the Danes long time and often aſſayling the land on euery ſide, now inua|ding it in this place, and now in that, did not at ye firſt ſo much couete to conquere it, as to ſpoyle it, nor to beare rule in it, as to waſt & deſtroy it: who if they were at anye time ouercome, the victorers were nothing the more in quiet: for a new nauie, and a greter army was ready to make ſome new inuaſiõ neither did they enter all at one place,The Danes ſought the [...]eſtruction of this lande. nor at once, but one company on the Eaſt ſide, & an other in the Weſt, or in the Northe and Southe coaſtes, in ſuche ſorte, that the Engliſhmenne knew not whether they ſhoulde firſte goe to make reſiſtance againſt them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 This miſchiefe beganne chiefly in the days of this K. Ethelwoulf, but it continued aboute the ſpace of two hundred yeares,How long the per [...]ecution of the Danes laſted. as by the ſequele of this Booke it ſhall appeare. King. Ethelwoulf was not ſo muche giuen to eaſe, but that vpõ oc|caſion for defence of his countrey and ſubiectes, he was ready to take order for the beating backe of the enimies, as occaſion ſerued, and ſpecially, hee choſe ſuch to be of his coũſel,VVil. Malm. as were mẽ of great experience & wiſdome. Amongſt other, there were two notable Prelates,Two notable Biſhops in E|thel wolfes dayes. Suithune Biſhoppe of Wincheſter, & Adelſtan Biſhop of Shireborne, whiche were readie euer to giue him good aduice. Suithune was not ſo muche experte in worldly matters as Adelſtan was, & therefore chiefly coũ|ſelled the K. in things apperteining to his ſoules health: But Adelſtan tooke in hand to order mat|ters apperteining to the ſtate of the cõmon welth, as prouiding of money, and furniſhing foorthe of men to withſtand the Danes, ſo that by him ma|ny things were both boldly begun, & happily at|chieued, as by writers hath bin recorded. He go|uerned the ſee of Shireborne, ye ſpace of .50. yeres, by the good counſell and faithfull aduice of thoſe two Prelates. K. Ethelwoulf gouerned his ſub|iects right politikely, & by himſelfe and his Cap|taines oftẽtimes put the Danes to flight, though as chance of warre falleth out, he alſo receyued at their hands great loſſes, & ſundry ſore detriments. In ye firſt yere of his raigne,Simon Dun. Hen. Hunt. the Danes arriued at Hampton, with .33. ſhips, againſte whom he ſente Erle Wulhard with part of his army, the whiche giuing battell to the enimies, made great ſlaugh|ter of them, and obteyned a noble victory.Danes diſcom|fited. Math. VVeſt. He ſent alſo Erle Adelhelme with the Dorſetſhire men, againſt an other number of Danes, whiche were landed at Porteſmouth, but after long fighte,Engliſhmen put to fight. the ſayde Adelhelme was ſlaine, and the Danes ob|teyned the victory. In the yeare following, Earle Herbert fought againſte ye Danes at Merſeware, and was there ſlaine, and his men chaſed.They are eftſones van|quiſhed. The ſame yere, a great army of Danes paſſing by the Eaſt parts of the land, as through Lindſey, Eaſt Angle, and Kent, they flew & murthered an huge number of people. The next yere after this, they entred further into the lande, and about Canter|bury, Rocheſter, and Londõ, did much miſchiefe. In the fifth yere of his raigne, K. Ethelwoulfe wt a parte of his army encountred with the Danes at Carrum,Carrum. the whiche were arriued in thoſe par|ties with .30. Ships, hauing their full fraughte of men, ſo that for ſo ſmall a number of veſſels, there was a great power of men of warre, in ſo muche, that they obteined the victory at that time,The Danes wan [...]e the victory in battell. Danes are vanquiſhed. Simon Dun. 851 and put the K. to the woorſe. About the tenth yeare of K. Ethelwoulfes raigne, one of his Captaynes called Ernwoulfe, & Biſhop Athelſtan, with the Sommerſetſhire men, and an other Captayne called Oſred, with the Dorſetſhire men, foughte againſte the Danes, at a place called Pedredeſ|muth, and vanquiſhed them with great triumph. In the ſixtenth yere of his raigne, K. Ethelwoulf and his ſonne Edelbald hauing aſſembled al their powers togither, gaue battell at Ocley,Ocley. to an huge oſte of Danes, the which with four hundred and fiftie Ships had arriued at Thaimes mouth,Two hundred and fiftie Ships hath Hen. Hunt. and deſtroyed the famous Cities of London, and Canterbury, & alſo had chaſed in battell Bright|woulf K. of Mercia, and being nowe entred into Southrey, were encountred by K. Ethelwoulfe at Ocley aforeſaid, and after fore fight and incre|dible EEBO page image 207 ſlaughter made on both ſides, in the end the victory by the power of God was giuen to thoſe that beleeued on him, and ye loſſe reſted with great confuſion to the miſtreantes.The Danes eftſoones vanquiſhed. Thus K. Ethel|wolfe obteined a glorious victory in ſo mightie a battell, as the greater had not bin lightly hard of to chance within the Engliſh dominions. The ſame yeere alſo Athelſtan K. of Kent and Duke Ealher [...] fought by Sea with the Danes,Danes ouer|come by Sea. & tooke time of their Ships, and chaſed the reſidue. More|ouer, one Earle Ceorle hauing with hym the po|wer of Deuonſhire, foughte with the Danes, at Winleſhore,The D [...]uon|ſhire men vã|quiſhe the Danes. and gote the victory. This yere was very luckie to the Engliſh nation, but yet the [...]|mie of the Danes lodged al the Winter ſeaſon in the Iſle of Tanet. And this was the firſt tyme yt they remayned heere all the Winter, vſing afore time but to come and make an inuaſion in one place or other, and immediately to returne home with the pray.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Sim. Dun. 852 In the .18. yere of King Ethelwoulfes raigne, he aided Burthred King of Mercia, agaynſte the Welchmen as before is mentioned,) and gaue to him his daughter in marriage, the ſolemnization whereof was kept at Chip [...]ham. The ſame yere King Ethelwoulfe ſent his ſonne Alvred as then but fiue yeres of age vnto Rome, where hee was ſacred K. by Pope Leo the fourth, & was receiued of him as if he had bin his owne ſonne. Duke E|alhere or Eachere with the Kentiſhmen, and one Huda or rather Wada, with the men of Sou|threy, fought againſt the army of Danes at Te|net,Great ſlaugh|ter of Danes a [...] Tenet. where greate ſlaughter was made on bothe ſides, the Engliſhmen preuailing in the begyn|ning, but in the ende both their foreſaid Dukes or leaders dyed in that battel, beſide many other that were ſlaine and drowned. In the nineteenth yere of his raigne, K. Ethelwoulfe ordeined, that the tenthes or tithes of all landes due to bee payed to the Church, ſhould be free from all tribute duties, or ſeruices regall. And afterwards, with great de|uotion he went to Rome, where he was receyued with great honor, and taried there one whole yere: hee tooke with him his ſon Alvred, who had bene there before as yee haue heard. He repared the Saxons ſchoole,The Saxons ſcoole. whiche Offa K. of Mercia had ſometime founded in that Citie, and lately hadde bin ſore decayed by fire. He confirmed the graunt of Peter Pence, to the intent that no Engliſhmẽ from thencefoorth ſhould doe penance in boundes as he ſawe ſome there to do before his face.King Ethel|wolfes libera|litie to Chur|ches. VVil. Mal. Sim. Dunel. It is alſo written, that he ſhoulde acquit all the Chur|ches of his Realme of paying tribute to his cof|fers (as before ye haue heard) and moreouer coue|naunted to ſend vnto Rome euery yere three hũ|dred Markes, that is to wit, one hundred Markes to S. Peters Churche,Mancuſa. an other hundred Markes to S. Paules light, and the third hundred markes to the Pope: In his returne through Fraunce, he married the Lady Iudith,The Lady Iudith. daughter to Charles yt Bald, then K. of France; and [...] hir with him into his coũtrey, placed hir by him in a chai [...]e of eſtate, with which doing he [...] ſo yt minds of his ſubiects, bicauſe it was againſt the order t [...]|kẽ before time, for the offence of [...] the [...], that his ſonne Ethelbalde and [...]o [...]lſ [...]an Biſhoppe of Shireborne,VVil. Mal [...] with Enwoulf Earle of Sommer|ſet, conſpired to depoſe [...] his [...] [...]|thoritie, but by mediation of friendes, the [...] was taken vp, and ſo ordrod, that the kingdome was deuided betwixte the father and the ſon with ſuch parcialitie, that the ſonne had the better parte lying Weſtward, and the father was [...] to conte [...]ite himſelfe with the Eaſt parte and the worſt. Of this trouble of Ethelwoulf, Harriſon writeth ſomewhat otherwiſe, and after this man|ner word for word .857. Ethelwoulf K. of ye weſt Saxons beeing returned from Rome and ye par|ties beyond the Seas, is prohibited the entraunce into his Realme, by Alſtone [...] Shereborne, & Ethelbald his eldeſt ſonne, pretending outward|ly his coronation of Alfride ye marriage of Iudith the French kings daughter and open eating with hir at the Table, to be the only cauſe of this theyr manifeſt Rebelliõ. Hitherto Harriſon: wherby he ſeemeth to inferre, that this reuolting of Alſtane and his ſon, ſhould proceede of the ambitious de|ſire of Ethelbald to raigne, and likely ynough, or elſe this vnequall partition ſhould neuer haue bin made. But howſoeuer ye matter ſtoode, K. Ethel|woulf liued not long after his returne frõ Rome, but departed this life after he hadde gouerned the kingdome of the Weſt Saxons the ſpace of . [...]0. yeres and odde monethes. His body was buryed at Wincheſter. He left behind him . [...]. ſonnes, E|thelbald, Ethelbert, or Ethelbright, Ethelred and Alfred or Alvred, which were begotten of his firſt wife Oſburga.Only Weſtſe [...] hath Mat. W. and Simon Dunel. ſayth that Ethel|bright land Suſſex alſo, and ſo doth Hen. Hunt. A little before his death hee made his Teſtament & laſt will appointing his ſon E|thelbald to ſucceede him in the whele regiment of his kingdomes of Weſtſex and Suſſex, which he held by inheritance: but the kingdomes of Kente & Eſſex he aſſigned to his ſon Ethelbright. About the ſame time alſo the Danes ſoiourned all the Winter ſeaſon in the Iſle of Skeepey.Bertwolf King of Mercia.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After Wightlafe K. of Mercia, one Bertwolf raigned as tributary to ye Weſt Saxons yt ſpace of .12. yeres about ye ende of which tearme he was chaſed out of yt countrey by the Danes, & thẽ one Burthred was made K. of that kingdome,Math Weſt. ſaith t [...]e daughter. Ran. Ceſtren. Iohn Cap. which married Ethelſwida ye ſiſter of Ethelwoulf K. of Weſt Saxons. In this ſeaſon, one Modwine a virgin in Ireland was greatly renowmed in the world, vnto whom the forenamed K. Ethelwolf ſent his ſon Alvred to be cured of a ſore diſeaſe, yt was thoughte incurable: but by hir meanes her EEBO page image 208 recouered healthe, and therefore when hir Mona|ſterie was deſtroyed in Ireland, Modwen came ouer into England, vnto whome K. Ethelwolfe gaue land to build two Abbeyes, and alſo deliue|red vnto hir his ſiſter Edith to bee profeſſed a Nunne. Modwen herevpon built two Monaſte|ries, one at Poule ſworth, ioyning to the boundes of Arderne, wherin ſhe placed the foreſaid Edith, with Oſyth and Athea: the other, whether it was a Monaſterie or cell, ſhe founded in Stren [...]ſhall or Trentſall, where ſhe hir ſelfe remained ſolitary a certain time in praier, and other vertuous exer|ciſes. And as it is reported, ſhee went thrice to Rome, & finally dyed, being .130. yeres of age. Hir body was firſte buried in an iland compaſſed a|bout with the Riuer of Trent called Andreſey, taking that name of a Church or Chappell of S. Androw, which ſhe had builte in the ſame Iland, and dwelled therein for the ſpace of ſeuen yeares. Many Monaſteries ſhe built, both in Englande, (as partly aboue is mentioned) and alſo in Scot|land, as at Striuelius, Edenbrough, and in Ire|land, at Celleſtl [...]ne, and elſe where.