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4.24. The substance of that which is written touching Britaine in a panegyrike oration ascribed to Mamertinus, which he set foorth in praise of the emperors Dioclesian and Maximian: it is intituled onelie to Maximian, whereas neuer|thelesse both the emperors are praised; and likewise (as ye may perceiue) Constantius who was father to Constantine the great is here spoken of, being chosen by the two foresaid emperors, to assist them by the name of Caesar in rule of the empire: of whom hereafter more shall be said. The xxiiij. Chapter.

The substance of that which is written touching Britaine in a panegyrike oration ascribed to Mamertinus, which he set foorth in praise of the emperors Dioclesian and Maximian: it is intituled onelie to Maximian, whereas neuer|thelesse both the emperors are praised; and likewise (as ye may perceiue) Constantius who was father to Constantine the great is here spoken of, being chosen by the two foresaid emperors, to assist them by the name of Caesar in rule of the empire: of whom hereafter more shall be said. The xxiiij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _ALl the compasse of the earth (most victorious emperor) being now re|couered through your noble prowesse, not one|lie so farre as the limits of the Romane empire had before extended, but also the enimies borders beeing sub|dued, when Almaine had beene so often vanquished, and Sarmatia so often re|streined & brought vnder, the people called Vitungi, Quadi, Carpi so often put to flight,Vitungi, Qua|di, Carpi, and people of Ger|manie and Polome. the Goth submitting himselfe, the king of Persia by offering gifts suing for peace: one despitefull reproch of so mightie an empire and gouernement ouer the whole greeued vs to the heart, as now at length we will not sticke to confesse, and to vs it seemed the more intollerable, bicause it on|lie remained to the accomplishing of your perfect renowne and glorie. And verilie as there is but one name of Britaine, so was the losse to be esteemed smal to the common wealth of a land so plentifull of corne, so a|bundant with store of pastures, so flowing with veines of mettall, so gainfull with re|uenues rising of customs and tributes, so enuironed with hauens, so huge in circuit, the which when Cesar, the founder of this your honourable title, being the first that entered into it, writ that he had found an other world, supposing it to be so big, that it was not compassed with the sea, but that rather by resemblance the great O|cean was compassed with it. Now at that time Britaine was nothing furnished with ships of warre; so that the Romans, soone after the warres of Carthage and Asia, had latelie beene exercised by sea a|gainst pirats, and afterwards by reason of the warres against Mithridates, were practised as well to fight by sea as land: be|sides this,Picts and Irishmen. the British nation then alone was accustomed but onelie to the Picts EEBO page image 58 and Irishmen, enimies halfe naked as yet & not vsed to weare armor, so that the Bri|tains for lacke of skill, easilie gaue place to the Romane puissance, insomuch that Ce|sar might by that voiage onelie glorie in this, that he had sailed and passed ouer the Ocean sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But in this wicked rebellious robberie, first the nauie that in times pat defended the coasts of Gallia, was led away by the pirat when he fled his waies: and beside this, a great number of other ships were built after the mould of ours, the legion of Romane souldiers was woon, and brought to take part with the enimie, and diuers bands of strangers that were also souldi|ers were shut vp in the ships to serue also against vs. The merchants of the parties of Gallia were assembled and brought to|gither to the musters, and no small num|bers of barbarous nations procured to come in aid of the rebels, trusting to inrich themselues by the spoile of the prouinces: and all these were trained in the wars by sea, through the instruction of the first at|temptors of this mischieuous practise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And although our armies were inuin|cible in force and manhood, yet were they raw and not accustomed to the seas, so that the fame of a greeuous and great trouble by warre that was toward by this shame|full rebellious robberie was blowne and sounded in ech mans eare, although we ho|ped well of the end. Unto the enimies for|ces was added a long sufferance of their wicked practises without punishment,Long suffe|rance of euill increaseth boldnesse in the authors. which had puffed vp the presumptuous boldnesse of desperate people, that they bragged of our stay, as it had bene for feare of them, whereas the disaduantage which we had by sea, seemed as it were by a fatall necessitie to deferre our victorie: neither did they beleeue that the warre was put off for a time by aduise and counsell, but ra|ther to be omitted through despaire of doo|ing anie good against them, insomuch that now the feare of common punishment be|ing laid aside,Caransius slaine one of the mates slue the archpirat or capteine rouer as I may call him, hoping in reward of so great an ex|ploit, to obteine the whole gouernement into his hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This warre then being both so necessa|rie, so hard to enter vpon, so growne in time to be stubborne stiffenesse, and so well prouided for of the enimies part, you noble emperour did so take it in hand, that so soone as you bent the thundering force of your imperiall maiestie against that eni|mie, ech man made account that the enter|prise was alreadie atchiued. For first of all, to the end that your diuine power being absent, the barbarous nations should not attempt anie new trouble (a thing chieflie to be foreseene) it was proui|ded for aforehand by intercession made vn|to your maiestie: for you your selfe, you (I say) mightie lord Maximian eternall em|perour, vouchedsafe to aduance the com|ming of your diuine excellencie by the nee|rest way that might be, which to you was not vnknowne. You therefore suddenlie came to the Rhine, and not with anie ar|mie of horssemen or footmen, but with the terrour of your presence did preserue and defend all that frontire: for Maximian once being there vpon the riuage, counter|uailed anie the greatest armies that were to be found. For you (most inuincible empe|rour) furnishing and arming diuers na|uies, made the enimie to vncerteine of his owne dooing and void of counsell, that then at length he might perceiue that he was not defended, but rather inclosed with the Ocean sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here commeth to mind how pleasant and easefull the good lucke of those princes in gouerning the commong wealth with praise was, which sitting still in Rome had triumphs and surnames appointed them of such nations as their capteins did van|quish. Fronto therefore, not the second, but match with the first honor of the Romane eloquence,Fronto coun|ted Ciceros match. when he yeelded vnto the empe|ror Antoninus the renowne of the warre brought to end in Britaine, although he sitting at home in his palace within the citie, had committed the conduct and suc|cesse of that warre ouer vnto the same Fronto, it was confessed by him, that the emperour sittings as it were at the helme of the ship, deserued the praise, by giuing of perfect order to the full accomplishing of the enterprise. But you (most inuincible emperour) haue bene not onlie the appoin|ter foorth how all this voiage by sea, and prosecuting the warre by land should bee demeaned, as apperteined to you by ver|tue of your imperiall rule and dignitie, but also you haue beene an exhorter and setter forward in the things themselues, and through example of your assured constan|cie, the victorie was atchiued. For you ta|king the sea at Sluice, did put an irreuo|cable desire into their hearts that were readie to take ship at the same time in the mouth of the riuer of Saine, insomuch that when the capteins of that armie did linger out the time, by reason the seas and aire was troubled, they cried to haue the sailes hoised vp, and signe giuen to lanch foorth, that they might passe forward on their iournie, despising certeine tokens which threatened their wrecke, and so set forward on a rainie and tempestuous day, sailing with a crosse wind, for no forewind might serue their turne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But what was he that durst not com|mit himselfe vnto the sea, were the same neuer so vnquiet, when you were once vn|der saile, and set forward? One voice and exhortation was among them all (as re|port hath gone thereof) when they heard that you were once got forth vpon the wa|ter, What doo we dout? what mean we to staie? He is now loosed from land, he is for|ward on his waie, and peraduenture is al|readie got ouer: Let vs put all things in EEBO page image 59 proofe, let vs venter through anie dangers of sea whatsoeuer. What is there that we may stand in feare of? we follow the empe|rour. Neither did the opinion of your good hap deceiue them: for as by report of them selues we doo vnderstand, at that selfe time there fell such a mist and thicke fog vpon the seas, that the enimies nauie laid at the Ile of wight watching for their aduersa|ries, and lurking as it were in await, these your ships passed by, and were not once perceiued, neither did the enimie then staie although he could not resist.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now as concerning that the same vnuanquishable army fighting vnder your ensignes aud name, streightwaies after it came to land, set fire on their ships; what mooued them so to doo, except the admoni|tions of yoru diuine motion? Or what o|ther reason persuaded them to reserue no furtherance for their flight, if need were, nor to feare the doubtfull chances of war, nor (as the prouerbe saith) to thinke the hazard of martiall dealings to be common, but that by contemplation of your prospe|rous hap, it was verie certeine that there needed no doubt to be cast for victorie to be obteined? There were no sufficient forces at that present among them, no mightie or puissant strength of the Romans, but they had onelie consideration of your vnspeak|able fortunate successe comming from the heauens aboue. For whatsoeuer battell dooth chance to be offered, to make full ac|count of victorie, resteth not so much in the assurance of the souldiers,The good lucke in a cap|teine. as in the good lucke and felicitie of the capteine generall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 That same ringleader of the vngratious faction, what ment he to depart from that shore which he possessed? Why did he for|sake both his nauie and the hauen? But that (most inuincible emperour) he stood in feare of your comming, whose sailes he beheld readie to approch towards him, how soeuer the matter should fall out, he chose rather to trie his fortune with your capteins, than to abide the present force of your highnes. Ah mad man! that vnderstood not, that whither soeuer he fled, the pow|er of your diuine maiestie to be present in all places where your countenance & ban|ners are had in reuerence. But he fleeing from your presence, fell into the hands of your people, of you was he ouercome, of your armies was he oppressed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To be short, he was brought into such feare, and as it were still looking behind him, for doubt of your comming after hun, that as one out of his wits and amazed, he wist not what to doo, he hasted forward to his death, so that he neither set his men in order of battell, nor marshalled such power as he had about him, but onlie with the old authors of that conspiracie, and the hired bands of the barbarous nations, as one forgetfull of so great preparation which he had made, ran headlong forwards to his destruction, insomuch (noble emperour) your felicitie yeeldeth this good hap to the common wealth, that the victorie being at|chiued in the behalfe of the Romane em|pire, there almost died not one Romane: for as I heare, all those fields and hills lay couered with none but onelie with the bo|dies of most wicked enimies, the same be|ing of he barbarous nations, or at the least-wise apparelled in the counterfet shapes of barbarous garments, glistering with their long yellow haires, but now with gashes of wounds and bloud all de|formed, and lieng in sundrie manners, as the pangs of death occasioned by their wounds had caused them to stretch foorth or draw in their maimed lims and mangled parts of their dieng bodies. And among these,Aiectus found dead. the chiefe ringleader of the theeues was found, who had put off those robes which in his life time he had vsurped and dishonoured, so as scarse was he couered with one peece of apparell whereby he might be knowne,He had despoi|led himselfe of the imperiall robes, bicause he would not be knowne if he chanced to be slaine. so neere were his words true, vttered at the houre of his death, which he saw at hand, that he would not haue it vnderstood how he was slaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus verelie (most inuincible empe|rour) so great a victorie was appointed to you by consent of the immortall gods ouer all the enimies whome you assailed, but namelie the slaughter of the Frankeners and those your souldiers also,Francones siue Franci. which (as be|fore I haue said) through missing their course by reason of the mist that lay on the seas, were now come to the citie of Lon|don,London in danger to be spoiled. where they slue downe right in ech part of the same citie, what multitude soe|uer remained of those hired barbarous people, which escaping from the battell, ment (after they had spoiled the citie) to haue got awaie by flight. But now being thus slaine by your souldiers, the subiects of your prouince were both preserued from further danger, and tooke pleasure to be|hold the slaughter of such cruell enimies. O what a manifold victorie was this, wor|thie vndoubtedlie of innumerable trium|phes! by which victorie Britaine is resto|red to the empire, by which victorie the na|tion of the Frankeners is vtterlie destroi|ed, & by which manie other nations found accessaries in the conspiracie of that wic|ked practise, are compelled to obedience. To conclude, the seas are purged and brought to perpetuall quietnesse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Glorie you therefore, inuincible empe|rour, for that you haue as it were got an other world, & in restoring to the Romane puissance the glory of conquest by sea, haue added to the Romane empire an element greater than all the compasse of the earth, that is, the mightie maine ocean. You haue made an end of the warre (inuincible em|perour) that seemed as present to threaten all prouinces, and might haue spred abroad and burst out in a flame, euen so largelie as the ocean seas stretch, and the mediter|rane gulfs doo reach. Neither are we igno|rant, although through feare of you that infection did fester within the bowels of EEBO page image 60 Britaine onelie, and proceeded no further, with what furie it would haue aduanced it selfe else where, if it might haue beene assu|red of means to haue ranged abroad so far as it wished. For it was bounded in with no border of mounteine, nor riuer, which garrisons appointed were garded and de|fended but euen so as the ships, although we had your martiall prowes and prospe|rous fortune redie to releeue vs, & was still at our elbowes to put vs in feare, so farre as either sea reacheth or wind bloweth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For that incredible boldnesse and vn|woorthie good hap of a few sillie captiues of the Frankeners in time of the empe|rour Probus came to our remembrance,The piracie of the Franke|ners called Franci or Fran|cones. which Frankeners in that season, conuei|eng awaie certeine vessels from the coasts of Pontus, wasted both Grecia and Asia, and not without great hurt and damage, ariuing vpon diuers parts of the shore of Libia, at length tooke the citie of Sara|gose in Sicile (an hauen towne in times past highlie renowmed for victories got|ten by sea:) & after this passing thorough the streicts of Giberalterra, came into the Ocean, and so with the fortunate suc|cesse of their rash presumptuous attempt, shewed how nothing is shut vp in safetie from the desperate boldnesse of pirats, where ships maie come and haue accesse. And so therefore by this your victorie, not Britaine alone is deliuered from bon|dage, but vnto all nations is safetie resto|red, which might by the vse of the seas come to as great perils in time of warre, as to gaine of commodities in time of peace.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now Spaine (to let passe the coasts of Gallia) with hir shores almost in sight is in suertie: now Italie, now Afrike, now all nations euen vnto the fens of Meotis are void of perpetuall cares. Neither are they lesse ioifull, the feare of danger being taken awaie, which to feele as yet the necessitie had not brought them: but they reioise to so much the more for this, that both in the guiding of your prouidence, and also furtherance of fortune, so great a force of rebellion by seamen is calmed, vp|on the entring into their borders, and Britaine it selfe which had giuen harbour to so long a mischiefe, is euidentlie knowne to haue tasted of your victorie, with hir onelie restitution to quietnesse.Britains re|stored to qui|etnes. Not with|out good cause therfore immediatlie, when you hir long wished reuenger and deliue|rer were once arriued, your maiestie was met with great triumph, & the Britains replenished with all inward gladnesse,The Bri|tains receiue Maximian with great ioy and hum|blenesse. came foorth and offered themselues to your presence, with thier wiues and children, reuerencing not onlie your selfe (on whom they set their eies, as on one descended downe to them from heauen) but also euen the sailes and tackling of that ship which had brought your diuine presence vnto their coasts: and when you should set foot on land, they were readie to lie downe at your feet, that you might (as it were) march ouer them, so desirous were they of you.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Neither was it anie maruell if they shewed them selues so ioifull, sith after their miserable captiuitie so manie yeeres contiuued, after so long abusing of their wiues, and filthie bondage of their chil|dren, at length yet were they now restored to libertie, at length made Romans, at length refreshed with the true light of the imperiall rule and gouernement: for be|side the fame of your clemencie and pitie, which was set forth by the report of all na|tions, in your countenance (Cesar) they perceiued the tokens of all vertues, in your face grauitie, in your eies mildnesse, in your ruddie cheekes bashfulnesse, in your words iustice: all which things as by re|gard they acknowledged, so with voices of gladnesse they signified on high. To you they bound themselues by vow, to you they bound their children: yea and to your chil|dren they vowed all the posteritie of their race and ofspring.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 We trulie (O perpetuall parents andDioclesian and Maximi|an. lords of mankind) require this of the im|mortall gods with most earnest supplica|tion and heartie praier, that our children and their children, and such other as shall come of them for euer hereafter, may be dedicated vnto you, and to those whom you now bring vp, or shall bring vp hereafter. For what better hap can we wish to them that shall succeed vs, than to be enioiers of that felicitie which now we our selues en|ioy? The Romane common wealth dooth now comprehend in one coniunction of peace, all whatsoeuer at sundrie times haue belonged to the Romans, and that huge power which with too great a bur|den was shroonke downe, and riuen in sun|der, is now brought to ioine againe in the assured ioints of the imperiall gouern|ment. For there is no part of the earth nor region vnder heauen, but that either it re|maineth quiet through feare, or subdued by force of armies, or at the lestwise bound by clemencie. And is there anie other thing else on other parts, which if will and reason should mooue men thereto, that might be obteined? Beyond the Ocean, what is there more than Britaine, which is so recouered by you, that those nations which are nere adioinign to the bounds of that Ile,Nations néere to Bri|taine obeie the emperours. are obedient to your commande|ments? There is no occasion that may mooue you to passe further, except the ends of the Ocean sea, which nature forbiddeth should be sought for. All is yours (most in|uincible princes) which are accounted woorthie of you, and thereof commeth it, that you may equallie prouide for euerie one, sith you haue the whole in our ma|iesties hands. And therefore as heretofore (most excellent emperour Dioclesian) by your commandement Asia did supplie the desert places of Thracia with inhabi|tants transported thither, as afterward EEBO page image 61 (most excellent emperour Maximian) by your appointment, the Frankeners at length brought to a pleasant subiection, and admitted to liue vnder lawes, hath peopled and manured the vacant fields of the Neruians,The printed booke hath [...], but I take the H, to be thrust in for N. and those about the citie of Trier. And so now by your victories (in|uincible Constantius Cesar) whatsoeuer did lie vacant about Amiens, Beauois. Trois, and Langres, beginneth to florish with inhabitants of sundrie nations: yea and more ouer that your most obedient ci|tie of Autun, for whose sake I haue a pecu|liar cause to reioise, by meanes of this tri|umphant victorie in Britaine, it hath re|ceiued manie & diuerse artificers, of whom those prouinces were ful, and now by their workemanship the same citie riseth vp by repairing of ancient houses,Artificers foorth of Bri|taine. and restoring of publike buildings and temples, so that now it accounteth that the old name of brotherlie incorporation to Rome, is a|gaine to hir restored, when she hath you eftsoones for hir founder. I haue said (in|uincible emperour) almost more than I haue beene able, & not so much as I ought, that I may haue most iust cause by your clemencies licence, both now to end, & of|ten hereafter to speake: and thus I ceasse.

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5.55. Aſclepiodotus duke of Cornewall.

Aſclepiodotus duke of Cornewall.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Aſcle|piodotus Galfr. Mon. Mat. VVest. [figure appears here on page 82] ASclepiodo|tus, Duke of Cornewall, began his reign ouer the Bri|tons in ye yeare of oure Lorde 232.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After he had vanquiſhed the Romaynes in battayle, as before is recited, he layd his ſiege a|bout the citie of London, and finally by knight|ly force entred the ſame, and ſlew the fornamed Liuius Gallus neere vnto a brooke, whiche in thoſe dayes ranne through the citie, and threwe him into the ſame brooke: By reaſon whereof long after it was called Gallus or Wallus brooke. And at this preſente the ſtreet where the ſame brooke did runne, is called Walbrooke.VValb [...]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Then after that Aſclepiodotus had ouercome all his enimyes, hee helde this lande a certayne ſpace in good reſt and quiet, and miniſtred iuſtice vprightly, in rewarding the good, and puniſhing the euyll. Till at lengthe through ſlaunderous toungs of malicious perſons, diſcorde was rey|ſed betwixte the king and one Coyll or Coylus, that was gouernoure of Colcheſter: the occa|ſion wherof appeareth not by writers.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But whatſoeuer the matter was, there en|ſued ſuch hatred betwixt thẽ, that on both partes great armies were rayſed, [...] Mat. VVeſt. [...] and meetyng in the fielde, they fought a fore and myghtie battayle, in the whiche Aſclepiodotus was ſlayn, after he had reigned .xxx. yeares.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus hath Geffrey of Monmouth, and our common Chroniclers written of Carauſſius, [...]. Alectus, and Aſclepiodotus, whyche gouerned her in Britayne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But Eutropius that famous writer of the Romayne hiſtories, in the Actes of Diocletian hath in effecte theſe wordes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About the ſame tyme Carauſſius, the whiche being borne of moſte baſe ofſpring, atteyned to highe honour and dignitie by order of renow|med Chiualrie and ſeruice in the warres, receiued charge at Bolein, to kepe the ſeas quiet alongſt ye coaſts of Britain, Frãce, and Flaunders, & other EEBO page image 83 countreys thereaboutes, bycauſe the Frenche|men, whiche yet inhabited within the boundes of Germanye) and the Saxons ſore troubled thoſe ſeas. Carauſſius taking oftentymes ma|ny of the enimies, [...]he couetous [...]ctiſing of [...]. neyther reſtored the goddes to them of the countreye from whom the enimies had bereft the ſame, nor yet ſent any parte ther|of to the Emperours, but kept the whole to his owne vſe. Whervpon when ſuſpition roſe, that he ſhoulde of purpoſe ſuffer the enimies to paſſe by hym, tyll they had taken ſome pryſes, that [...] their returne with the ſame, he myght encounter with them, and take that from them whyche they hadde gotten, (by whiche ſubtile practiſe he was thought greatly to haue enriched himſelfe) Maximianus that was fellowe in gouernement of the Empire with Diocleſianus, remayning then in Gallia,Maximianus [...]rpoſeth to [...] Carauſsius. and aduertiſed of theſe doinges, commaunded that Carauſſius ſhoulde be ſlayn, but he hauing warning thereof rebelled, and v|ſurping the imperiall ornamentes and title, got poſſeſſion of Britayne, againſt whom (being a man of greate experience in all warlyke know|ledge) when warres had ben attempted and folo|wed in vayn,Polydore. at lengthe a peace was concluded with him, and ſo he enioyed the poſſeſſion of Bri|tayn by the ſpace of .vij. yeares,Eutropius. and then was ſlaine by his companion Alectus, the whiche af|ter him ruled Britayn for the ſpace of .iij. yeares, and was in the end oppreſſed by the guyle of Aſ|clepiodotus gouernour of the Pretorie, (or as I may call him) lord Lieutenant of ſome precinct and iuriſdiction perteyning to the Romayne em|pire. And ſo was Britayn recouered by the fore|ſaid Aſclepiodotus about .x. yeres after that Ca|rauſſius had firſt vſurped the gouernment there, and about the yere of our Lord .300.300. as Polydor iudgeth, wherin he varieth muche from Fabian and others.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But to ſhew what we fynde further written of the ſubduing of Alectus, I think it not amiſſe to ſette downe what Mamertinus in his Ora|tion written in prayſe of Maximianus doth re|port of this matter:Mamertinus After he hath reckened vp di|uers noble victories by the ſayde Maximianus atchieued, & ſundry nations by his force ſubdued, he beginneth with Britayn in this wyſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Now then all the compaſſe of the earth being recouered through your noble prowes, not one|ly ſo farre as the limittes of the Romayne em|pire hadde before extended, but alſo the enimyes bordures being ſubdewed, when Almayne had ben ſo often vanquiſhed, and Sarmatia ſo often reſtreyned and broughte vnder,Vitungi, Qua|di, Carpi, and people of Ger|manie & Po|lona. the people called Vitungi, Qua|di, Carpi, ſo often put to flighte, the Gothe ſubmitting himſelfe, ye king of Perſia by offering giftes, ſuing for peace, one deſpiteful reproche of ſo myghtie an Empire and gouern|ment ouer the whole, [...] vs to the [...], as nowe at length wee will [...] to confeſſe, and to vs it ſeemed the more [...], by|cauſe it onely remayned to the accompliſhing of your perfecte renomne and glorie: and verily not lyke as there is but one name of Britayne, ſo was the loſſe to be eſteemed ſmall to the comon wealth of a lande ſo plentyfull of corne, ſo abun|dant with ſtore of paſtures, ſo ſlowing wyth vaynes of mettall, ſo gaynefull with reuenues, riſing of cuſtomes and tributes, ſo [...]nuironned with hauens, ſo huge in circuite, the which when Ceſar, the founder of this your honourable title, being the firſt that entred into it, writte that he had founde an other worlde, ſuppoſing it to bee ſo bigge, that it was not compaſſed with the ſea, but that rather by reſemblaunce, the greate Ocean was compaſſed with it: and at that time Britayn was nothyng furniſhed with ſhippes of warre, and the Romains nowe after the warres of Carthage and Aſia, had lately bene exerciſed by ſea agaynſt Pyrates, and afterwardes by rea|ſon of the warres agaynſte Mithridates, were practiſed as well to fighte by ſea as lande: be|ſyde thys the Britiſhe nation then alone was accuſtomed but onely to the Pictes and Iriſh|men, enimies halfe naked as yet,Picts and Irish men. and not vſed to weare armour, ſo that the Britons for lacke of ſkill, eaſylye gaue place to the Romayne puiſſaunce, in ſo muche that Ceſar myght by that voyage onely glorye in this, that he had ſayled and paſſed ouer the Ocean ſea. But in thys wycked rebellious robberie, firſte the na|uie that in tymes paſte defended the coaſtes of Gallia was ledde awaye by the Pyrate, when he fled his wayes: and beſide this, a great num|ber of other ſhyppes were buylt after the mould of oures, the Legion of Romayne Souldiours was wonne, and broughte to take parte with the ennimie, and dyuers bandes of ſtraungers that were alſo Souldioures, were ſhutte vp in the Shippes to ſerue alſo agaynſt vs. The mer|chauntes of the parties of Gallia were aſſem|bled and broughte togyther to the muſters, and no ſmall numbers of barbarous nations, procu|red to come in ayde of the Rebelles, truſtyng to enryche themſelues by the ſpoyle of the pro|uinces: and all theſe were trayned in the war|res by ſea, thorough the inſtruction of the firſte attemptours of this miſchieuous practiſe. And althoughe oure armyes were inuincible in force and manhoode, yet were they rawe and not ac|ſtomed to the ſeas, ſo that the fame of a gree|uous and greate trouble by warre that was to|warde by this ſhamefull rebellyous robberye, was blowen and ſounded in eche mans eare, al|though we hoped well of the end. Vnto the eni|mies forces was added a long ſuffrance of theyr, EEBO page image 84 wicked practiſes without puniſhement whyche had puffed vp the preſumptuous boldneſſe of de|ſperate people,Long ſufferãce of euill, increa|ſeth boldneſſe in the authors. that they bragged of our ſtay, as if it had bin for feare of them, where the diſad|uauntage whiche wee hadde by ſea, ſeemed as it were by a fatall neceſſitie to deferre our victorie: neyther dydde they beleeue that the warre was put off for a tyme by aduyſe and counſell, but rather to be omitted through deſpayre to doe any good againſt them, in ſo much that now the feare of common puniſhment being layd aſide, one of the mates ſlew the archpyrate or capitayn rouer as I may call him,Carauſsius ſlayne. hoping in reward of ſo great an exployte to obteyne the whole gouernemente into his handes. This warre then being bothe ſo neceſſarie, ſo hard to enter vpon, ſo growne in tyme to a ſtubburne ſtiffneſſe, and ſo wel proui|ded for of the enimies part, you noble Emperor, did ſo take it in hand, that ſo ſoon as you bent the thũdring force of your imperiall maieſtie againſt that enimie, eche mã made accompt that the en|terpriſe was already atchieued: for firſt of al, to ye end yt your diuine power being abſent, the barba|rous nations ſhould not attempt any new trou|ble (a thing chiefly to be forſene) it was prouided for aforehand by interceſſiõ made vnto your ma|ieſtie: for you your ſelfe, you I ſay mightie lord Maximian eternall emperor, vouchedſafe to ad|uãce the cõming of your diuine excellẽcie by the nereſt way that might be, which to you was not vnknowne: you therefore ſodeynly came to the Rhine, and not with any armie of horſemen or footmen, but with the terrour of your preſence, did preſerue & defend al that frontier: for Maxi|mian once being there vpon the riuage, counter|uayled any the greateſt armies that were to bee founde. For you (moſt inuincible Emperor) fur|niſhing & arming diuers nauies, made the enimie ſo vncertain of his own doings and voyd of coũ|ſel, that then at length he might perceyue that he was not defended but encloſed with the Ocean ſea. Here cõmeth it to mynde how pleaſant and eaſefull the good lucke of thoſe princes in gouer|ning the cõmon wealth with praiſe was, whiche ſitting ſtil in Rome had triumphs and ſurnames appointed them of ſuch nations as their captains did vanquiſhe.Fronto comp|ted Ciceros [...]atche. Fronto therefore, not the ſeconde, but matche with the firſt honour of the Romaine eloquence, when he yelded vnto the emperor An|toninus the renome of the warre brought to end in Britayn, although he ſitting at home in his palace within the citie, had cõmitted the cõduct & ſucceſſe of that war ouer vnto the ſame Fronto, it was cõfeſſed by him, yt the Emperor ſitting as it were at the helme of the ſhip, deſerued ye prayſe by giuing of perfect order to the full accõpliſhing of the enterpriſe. But you moſt inuincible Em|perour, haue bin not onely the appointer foorth howe all this voyage by ſea, and proſecuting the warre by lande ſhoulde be demeaned, as apper|tayned to you by vertue of your Imperiall rule and dignitie, but alſo you haue bene an [...] and ſetter forward in the things themſelues, and through example of your aſſured conſtancie, the victorie was atchieued. For you taking the Sea at Sluyce, didde put an irreuocable deſire into their heartes that were readye to take ſhippe the ſame tyme in the mouth of the ryuer of Sayne, in ſo muche that when the Capitaynes of that armie were about to linger tyme, by reaſon the ſeas and ayre was troubled, they cryed to haue the ſayles hoyſed vp, and ſigne giuen to launche foorth that they myght paſſe forwarde on theyr iourney, deſpiſing certayne tokens which threat|ned theyr wrecke, and ſo ſet forward on a raynie and tempeſtuous daye, ſaylyng wyth a croſſe|wynde, for no forewynde myghte ſerue theyr tourne. But what was hee that durſt not com|mitte him ſelfe vnto the ſea were the ſame neuer ſo vnquiet, when you were once vnder ſayle, and ſette forwarde? One voyce and exhorta|tion was amonge them all (as reporte hathe gone thereof) when they hearde that you were once got foorth vppon the water, what doe wee doubte? what meane we to ſtaye? hee is nowe lewſed from lande, he is forwarde on his way, and peraduenture is alreadie got ouer: let vs put all thyngs in proofe, lette vs venture thorough anye daungers of ſea whatſoeuer, what is there that we may ſtand in fear of? we folow the em|perour: neyther didde the opinion of your good happe deceyue them: for as by reporte of them|ſelues, wee doe vnderſtande, at that ſelfe tyme there fell ſuche a myſte and thycke fogge vpon the Seas, that the enimyes Nauie layde at the Iſle of Wyghte, watchyng for theyr aduer|ſaries and lurkyng as it were in awayte, theſe your ſhippes paſſed by, and were not once per|ceyued, neyther did the enimie then ſtaye, al|though he coulde not reſiſte. But nowe as con|cerning that the ſame armye vnvanquiſhable fyghting vnder your enſignes and name ſtreight wayes after it came to lande, ſet fyre on theyr ſhippes: what moued them ſo to doe, excepte the admonitions of your diuine motion? or what other reaſon perſwaded them to reſerue no fur|theraunce for theyr flight if neede were, nor to feare the doubtfull chaunces of warre, nor as the Prouerbe ſayeth, to thinke the hazarde of mar|tiall dealyngs to be common, but that by con|templation of your proſperous happe, it was verie certayne that there needed no doubte to bee caſte, for victorie to be obteined? There were no ſufficiẽt forces at that preſent amõg them, no mighty puiſſant ſtrength of Romains but they had only conſideration of your vnſpeakable for|tunate EEBO page image 85 ſucceſſe commyng from the heauens aboue, for what ſo euer battalle doth chaunce to be offered, to make ful accompt of victorie, reſteth not ſo muche in the aſſuraunce of the ſouldiours, as in the good lucke and felicitie of the Capitaine generall. [...]he good [...]cke in a [...]aptayne. That ſame ring|leader of the vngratious faction, what mente he to depart frõ that ſhore whiche he poſſeſſed? Why did he forſake bothe his nauie and the hauen? but that (moſte inuincible Emperour) hee ſtoode in feare of your commyng, whoſe ſayles hee behelde readie to approche towards him, howeſoeuer the matter ſhoulde fall out, he choſe rather to trye his fortune wyth your capitaynes than to abyde the preſent force of your maieſtie: a madde man that vnderſtoode not, that whether ſo euer he fled, the power of your diuine maieſtie to be preſent, in all places where your countenance and banners are had in reuerence. But hee fleeing from your pre|ſence, fell into the handes of youre people, of you was he ouercome, of youre armies was he oppreſſed. To be ſhort, he was brought in|to ſuche feare, and as it were ſtill looking be|hynde him, for doubte of your comming after him, that as one out of his remembrance ama|zed what to do, he haſted forward to his death, ſo that he neyther ſette his men in order of bat|tayle, nor marſhalled ſuche power as hee had about him, but onely with the olde authors of that conſpiracie, & the hired bands of the barba|rous nations, as one forgetful of ſo great pre|paration which he had made, ran hedlong for|wards to his deſtruction, inſomuch (noble em|peror) your felicitie yeldeth this good hap to the cõmon welth, that the victorie being atchieued in the behalfe of the Romain empire, there al|moſt died not one Romain: for as I heare, all thoſe fields and hilles laye couered with none but only with the bodies of moſte wicked eni|mies, the ſame beeing of the barbarous na|tions, or at the leſt wiſe apparelled in the coũ|terfait ſhapes of barbarous garments, gliſte|ring with their long yealow heares, but nowe with gaſhes of wounds & bloud all deformed, and lying in ſundry maners, as the pangs of death occaſioned by their wounds,Alectus founde dead. had cauſed them to ſtretch foorth or draw in their maymed limmes and mangled parts of their dying bo|dies. And among theſe, the chiefe ringleader of the theeues was founde, who had put off thoſe robes which in his life time he had vſurped & diſhonored,He had diſpoy| [...]ed himſelfe of the imperiall [...]obes bycauſe he vvould not be knovven if [...]e chanced to be ſlayne. ſo as vneth was he couered wyth one piece of apparell wherby he might be kno|wen, ſo neare were his wordes true vttered at the houre of his death, whiche he ſaw at hand, that he would not haue it vnderſtoode howe he was ſlayn. Thus verily (moſt inuincible em|perour) ſo greate a victorie was appointed to you by conſent of the immortall gods ouer al the enemies whom you aſſayled,Francones ſiue Franci. but namely the ſlaughter of the Frankeners & thoſe youre ſouldiours alſo, which as before I haue ſayd, through miſſyng their courſe by reaſon of the myſt that lay on the ſeas, were nowe come to the citie of London, where they ſlewe downe right in eche parte of the ſame citie,London in danger to be ſpoyled. what mul|titude ſoeuer remayned of thoſe hyred barba|rous people, which eſcaping from the bataile, mente after they had ſpoyled the citie to haue got away by flight. But now being thus ſlain by your ſouldiours, the ſubiects of your pro|uince were both preſerued from further daun|ger, and tooke pleaſure to beholde the ſlaughter of ſuche cruell enimies. O what a manyfolde victorie was this? worthie vndoubtedly of in|numerable triumphes, by which victorie Bri|tayne is reſtored to the Empire, by which vic|torie the nation of the Frankeners is vtterlye deſtroyed, and by whiche many other nations found acceſſaries in the cõſpiracie of that wic|ked practiſe, are compelled to obedience. To conclude, the ſeas are purged and broughte to perpetuall quietnes. Glorie you therfore, in|uincible Emperor, for that you haue, as it were gote an other worlde, and in reſtoring to the Romain puiſſaunce the glorie of conqueſt by ſea, haue added to the Romain empire an ele|ment greater than al the compaſſe of the earth, that is, the mightie mayne Ocean. You haue made an ende of the warre, inuincible Empe|rour, that ſeemed as preſent to threaten all pro|uinces, and might haue ſpreade abroade, and burſt out in flame, euen ſo largely, as ye Ocean Seas ſtretche, and the Mediterrane gulfes do reache: neither are we ignorant althoughe thorough feare of you that infection did feſtee within the bowels of Britayn only, and pro|ceeded no further, wt what furie it would haue auanced it ſelfe elſe where if it might haue bin aſſured of meane to haue raunged abroade ſo farre as it wiſhed. For it was bounded in with no bordure of mountayne, nor ryuer, whych garniſons appoynted, were garded and de|fended but euen ſo as the ſhippes although we had your martiall prowes and proſperous for|tune readye to relieue vs, was ſtill at oure el|bowes to put vs in feare, ſo farre as eyther ſeas reache or wynde bloweth: for that in|credible boldeneſſe and vnwoorthy good happe of a few captiues of the Frankeners in time of ye Emperour Probus came to our remẽbrance whiche Frankeners in that ſeaſon;The piracy of the Frankey|ners called Franci or Frã|cones. conueying away certayn veſſels from the coaſtes of Pon|tus, waſted doth Grecia & Aſia, and not with|out great hurt & damage ariuing vpon diuers EEBO page image 86 partes of the ſhore of Libya, at length tooke the Citye of Saragoſe in Sicile (an hauen towne in tymes paſte hyghely renowmed for victories gotten by ſea:) and after this, paſſyng tho|rough the ſtreytes of Gibralterra, came into the Ocean, & ſo with the fortunate ſucceſſe of their raſhe preſumptuous attempte, ſhewed how no|thing is ſhut vp in ſafety from the deſperate bold|neſſe of pyrates, where ſhips may come and haue acceſſe. And ſo therfore by this your victorie, not Britain alone is deliuered from bondage, but vn|to all nations is ſafetie reſtored, which might by the vſe of the ſeas come to as great perils in time of warre, as to gayne of commodities in tyme of peace. Now Spayne (to let paſſe the coaſtes of Gallia) with hir ſhores almoſt in ſight is in ſure|tie: now Italy, now Afrike, nowe all nations e|uen vnto the fennes of Meotis are voyde of per|petuall cares. Neyther therfore are they leſſe ioy|ful, the feare of danger being taken away, which to feele as yet, the neceſſitie had not brought thẽ: but they reioyce ſo muche the more for this, that both in the guiding of your good prouidence, and alſo furtheraunce of fortune, ſo great a force of rebellion by ſea men, is calmed vpon the entring into their bordures, and Britayne it ſelfe whiche had giuen harburgh to ſo long a miſchief, is eui|dently knowne to haue taſted of your victorie, with hir only reſtitutiõ to quietneſſe.Britayne re|ſtored to qui|etneſſe. Not with|out good cauſe therefore immediatly, when you hir long wiſhed reuenger and deliuerer were once arriued, your Maieſtie was met with greate tri|umph, and the Britayns repleniſhed with all in|warde gladneſſe,The Britaynes receyue Max|imian vvith great ioy and humbleneſſe. came foorth and offered them|ſelues to youre preſence, with their wyues and children, reuerencing not onely youre ſelfe (on whome they ſette their eyes, as on one deſcen|ded downe them to from heauen) but alſo euen the ſayles and tagle of that ſhippe whiche hadde brought your diuine preſence vnto their coaſtes: and when you ſhould ſette foote on lande, they were readie to lye downe at your feete, that you might (as it were) march ouer them, ſo deſirous were they of you. Neither was it any meruaile if they ſhewed them ſelues ſo ioyfull, ſithe af|ter their miſerable captiuitie ſo many yeres con|tinued after ſo long abuſing of their wiues, and filthie bondage of their children, at lengthe yet were they nowe reſtored to libertie, at lengthe made Romaynes, at lengthe refreſhed with the true lighte of the Imperiall rule and gouerne|ment: for beſide the fame of your clemencie and pitie whiche was ſet forth by the report of all na|tions, in your countenaunce (Ceſar) they percei|ued the tokens of all vertues, in your face graui|tie, in your eyes myldeneſſe, in your ruddie chee|kes baſhfulnes, in your words iuſtice: All which thinges as by regarde they acknowledged, ſo with voyces of gladneſſe they ſignifyed on high. To you they bounde them ſelues by vowe, to you they bounde their children: yea and to your children they vowed all the poſteritie of theyr race and ofſpring.Diocleſi [...] Maxi [...] We truely (O perpetuall pa|rentes and lordes of mankinde) require this of the immortall gods with moſt earneſt ſupplication and heartie prayer, that our children and theyr children, and ſuche other as ſhall come of them for euer hereafter, may be dedicate vnto you and to thoſe whome you now bring vp, or ſhal bring vp hereafter. For what better hap can wee wiſhe to them that ſhall ſucceede vs, than to bee enioy|ers of that felicitiie which now we our ſelues en|ioy? The Romaine common wealth doth now comprehende in one coniunction of peace, al that whatſoeuer at ſundry times hath belonged to the Romaines, and that huge power whyche wyth to great a burdeyn was ſhroonke downe, and ri|uen in ſunder, is nowe broughte to ioyne agayn in the aſſured ioyntes of the imperiall gouerne|ment. For there is no parte of the earth nor re|gion vnder heauen, but that eyther it remayneth quiet through feare, or ſubdued by force of ar|mes, or elſe at the leaſt wyſe bounde by clemen|cie. And is there any other thing elſe in other par|tes, whych if wyll and reaſon ſhould moue men therto, that might bee obteyned? beyond the O|cean, what is there more than Brytaine, which is ſo recouered by you,Nations [...] to Britaine obey the [...]|perour. that thoſe nations which are neare adioyning to the boundes of that Iſle, are obedient to your commaundementes? There is no occaſion that maye moue you to paſſe fur|ther, excepte the endes of the Ocean ſea (which nature forbiddeth) ſhoulde bee ſought for. All is yours (moſte inuincible Princes) whiche are ac|compted worthie of you, and thereof commeth it, that you may equally prouide for euery one, ſithe you haue the whole in your hands: and ther|fore as heretofore (moſte excellent Emperoure) Diocleſian, by thy commaundemente Aſia dyd ſupplye the deſerte places of Thracia with in|habitauntes tranſported thyther, as afterwarde moſte excellente Emperour Maximian, by your appoyntementement, the Frankeners at length brought to a pleaſant ſubiection, and admitted to lyue vnder lawes,The [...] hath [...] I take the [...] be [...] for a. hath peopled and manured the vacante fieldes of the Neruians, and thoſe a|bout the citie of Trier: And ſo nowe by youre victories (inuincible Conſtantius Ceſar) what ſoeuer did lye vacant aboute Amiens, Bean|voys, Troys, and Langres, beginneth to flou|riſhe with inhabitauntes of ſundrye nations: yea and moreouer that your moſt obedient Ci|tie of Autun, for whoſe ſake I haue a pecu|liar cauſe to reioyce, by meanes of thys try|umphaunt victorie in Brytayne, if hathe re|ceyued manye and diuers Artificers, of whome EEBO page image 87 thoſe prouinces were full, [...]tificers forth Britayne. and nowe by theyr workmanſhip the ſame Citie reiſeth vp: by re|pairing of auncient houſes and reſtoryng of publique buyldings and temples, ſo that now it accompteth that the olde name of brother-like incorporation to Rome, is again to hir re|ſtored, when ſhe hath you eftſones for hir foun|der. I haue ſayd (inuincible Emperor) almoſt more than I haue bin able, and not ſo muche as I ought, that I may haue moſte i [...]ſt cauſe by your clemencies licence, both now to end, and often heereafter to ſpeake: & thus I cea [...]e.

Here haue you the ſubſtance of that whiche is written touching Britayn in that H [...]ege|rike oration aſcribed to Mamertinus, whiche he ſet forth in prayſe of the emperors Diocleſian and Maximian: it is entitled only to Maxi|mianus, wheras neuertheleſe both the Empe|rours are praiſed. And lykewyſe as ye maye perceiue, Coſtantius that was father vnto the great Conſtantine, is here ſpokẽ of, being cho|ſen by the two foreſayde Emperours to aſſiſte them by the name of Ceſar in rule of the Em|pire: of whome hereafter more ſhall be ſayde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 But now to conſider what is to bee noted foorth of this part of the ſame oration. It ſhuld ſeeme that when the emperor Maximian was ſent into Gallia by appoyntemente taken be|twixt him and Diocletian after he had qu [...]ted things there, he ſet his mynde forthwith to re|duce Britayn vnder the obedience of the Em|pire, the which was at that preſent kept vnder ſubiection of ſuch princes as maynteyned their ſtate, by the mightie forces of ſuche number of ſhips, as the [...] had got togither, furniſhed with al things neceſſarie, & namely of able ſeamẽ, as well Britons as ſtrangers, among whom the Frankeners wer as chief,Franci, or Frankeners, people of Ger|manie. a nation of Germa|nie, as then hyghly renoumed for their puiſ|ſance by ſea, nere to the which they inhabited, ſo that there were no rouers comparable to them. And bycauſe none durſte fliere on theſe our ſeas for feare of the Britiſhe fleet that paſ|ſed to and fro at pleaſure, to the greate anoy|ance of the Romayne ſubiectes inhabiting a|longeſt the coaſtes of Gallia, Maximian both to recouer agayne ſo wealthy and profitable a land vnto the obeyſance of the empire, as Bri|tayne then was, & alſo to deliuer the people of Gallia ſubiects to ye Romains, frõ danger of being dayly ſpoyled by thoſe rouers that were maynteined here in Britayn he prouided with all diligence ſuche numbers of ſhips as were thought requiſite for ſo great an entepriſe, and rigging them in ſundry places, tooke order for their ſetting forward to the moſt adua [...]ntage for the eaſy atcheuing of his enterpriſe: He ap|pointed to paſſe himſelfe frõ the coaſte of Flã|ders, at what time other of his captains with their fleetes from other parts, ſhould likewyſe made ſayle towards Britayn. By this meane Ale [...]a [...] that had vſ [...]rped the [...] and dignitie of king or rather emperor ouer the Britains, knew not where to take heede, but yet vnder|ſtanding of the nauie that was made ready in the mouth of Sayn, he ment by ye which may be coniectured, to intercept that fleet as it ſhuld come foorth and make ſayle forewardes: and ſo for that purpoſe he lay with a great number of ſhips about the Iſle of Wight. But now A [...]|clepiodotus came ouer with that nauie which was rigged on the coaſts of Flanders, or with ſome other, I will not preſume to affirme ey|ther to or frõ, bicauſe in deed Mamertinus [...] expreſſe mention either of Alectus, or Aſclepiodotus: but notwithſtanding it is eui|dent by that which is cõteined in his oration, that [...] Maximian, but ſome other of his ca| [...]it [...]ng gouerned ye armie, whiche ſlewe Alec| [...]us, [...] we may ſuppoſe that Aſclepiodotus was [...] [...]ain ouer ſome number of ſhips dire|cted to Maximinians appointment to paſſe o|uer into this yle againſt the ſame Alectus: and ſo may this which Ma [...]rtinus writeth, agree with the truth of that whiche we fynd in Eu|tropius. Here is to be remẽbred,Eutropius. yt after Maxi|mianus had thus recouered Britain out of ther [...] rule therof frõ the Ro|mans, it ſhuld ſeem yt not only great numbers of artificers & other people were conueyed ouer into Gallia, there to inhabite and furniſh ſuch cities as were run into decay, but alſo a power of warlike youthes was tranſported thither to defend the countrey from the inuaſion of bar|barous nations. For we fynd that in the dayes of this Maximian, the Britons expulſing the Neruiãs out of the citie of Mons in Henand, held a caſtell there, whiche was called Bretai| [...]ns after them, wherevpon the citie was af|terwarde called Mons, reteyning the laſt ſil|lable only, as in ſuch caſes it hath oftẽ hapned.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Moreouer this is not to be forgotten, yt as Homf. Llhuyd hath very wel noted in his book intitled Fragmentae hiſtoriae Britannicae, Mamer|tinus in this parcell of his panegerike oration doth make firſt mẽtion of the nation of Picts. of al other the ancient Roman writers: ſo that not one before his tyme, once nameth eyther Picts or Scots. But now to returne wher we left. After that Britain was thus recouered by the Romains, Diocletian & Maximiã caling the Empire, the Ile taſted of the crueltie, that Diorcleſian exerciſed agaynſte the Chriſtians, in perſecutyng them wyth all extremityes, EEBO page image 88 continually for the ſpace of ten yeeres.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Amongſt other, one Alban a citizen of Wer|lamcheſter, a town now bearing his name, was the firſt that ſuffred here in Britayn, in this per|ſecution, being conuerted to the faith of Chriſte by the zealous chriſtian Amphibalus, whome he hadde receyued into his houſe: in ſo muche that when there came Sergeants or officers to ſeeke for the ſame Amphibalus,Beda & Gildas. the aforeſayd Albane to preſerue Amphibalus out of daunger, preſen|ted hymſelfe in the apparell of the ſayde Amphi|balus, and ſo being apprehended in his ſtead, was brought before the iudge, and examined: and for that he refuſed to doe ſacrifice to the falſe goddes, he was beheaded on the toppe of an hill ouer a|gaynſt [figure appears here on page 88] the towne of Werlamcheſter aforeſayd, where afterwardes was buylded a churche and monaſterie in the remembrãce of his martirdom, inſomuch that the towne there reſtored after that Werlamcheſter was deſtroyed, tooke name of him, and ſo is vnto this day called ſaint Albons. It is reported by writers, that diuers miracles were wroughte at the tyme of his death, in ſo muche that one whiche was appointed to do the execution, was cõuerted, and refuſing to do that office, ſuffered alſo with him: but he that tooke vpon him to doe it, Bede. See the booke of acts and mo|numents ſette forth by maſter Foxe. reioyced nothing thereat, for his eyes fel out of his head, downe to the ground together with the head of that holy man whiche he had then cut off. There were alſo martyred about the ſame tyme two conſtant witneſſes of Chriſt his Religion, Aaron and Iulius, citizens of Caerleon arwiſk.Io. Roſſus VVarwicenſ. in li. de VVi|gornienſ. E|piſcopis. Lichfielde vvherof it toke name.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer a great nũber of Chriſtians which were aſſembled togither to heare the word of lyfe preached by that vertuous manne Amphibalus, were ſlayn by the wicked Pagans at Lychfield, wherof that towne toke name, as you wold ſay, The field of dead corpſes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To be briefe, this perſecution was ſo greate & greuous,Gildas. and therto ſo vniuerſall, that in maner the Chriſtiã religion was therby deſtroyed. The faithfull people were ſlayne, their bookes br [...]t, [...] & churches ouerthrown. It is recorded, that [...] in one monethes ſpace in dyuers places of the worlde there were .xvij.M. godlye menne and women put to death for profeſſing the chriſtian faith in the dayes of that tyrant Diocleſian and his fellowe Maximian.