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3.19. Of Parkes and Warrens. Chap. 19.

Of Parkes and Warrens. Chap. 19.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _IN euerie shire of England there is great plentie of parkes, whereof some here and there, to wit, welnere to the number of two hundred for hir daily prouision of that flesh apperteine to the prince, the rest to such of the nobili|tie and gentlemen as haue their lands and patrimo|nies lieng in or néere vnto the same. I would glad|lie haue set downe the iust number of these inclo|sures to be found in euerie countie: but sith I can|not so doo, it shall suffice to saie, that in Kent and Essex onelie are to the number of an hundred, and twentie in the bishoprike of Durham, wherein great plentie of fallow deere is cherished and kept. As for warrens of conies, I iudge them almost in|numerable, and dailie like to incerase, by reason that the blacke skins of those beasts are thought to counteruaile the prices of their naked carcases, and this is the onelie cause whie the graie are lesse estee|med. Neere vnto London their quickest merchan|dize is of the yong rabbets, wherfore the older conies are brought from further off, where there is no such speedie vtterance of rabbets and sucklings in their season, nor so great losse by their skins, sith they are suffered to growe vp to their full greatnesse with their owners. Our parkes are gene [...]llie inclosed with strong pale made of oke, of which kind of wood there is great store cherished in the woodland countries from time to time in ech of them, onelie for the maintenance of the said defense, and safe|keeping of the fallow déere from ranging about the countrie. Howbeit in times past diuerse haue been fensed in with stone walles (especiallie in the times of the Romans, who first brought fallow déere into this land (as some coniecture) albeit those inclosures were ouerthrowne againe by the Saxons & Danes, as Cauisham, Towner, and Woodstocke, beside o|ther in the west countrie, and one also at Bolton. Among other things also to be seene in that towne, there is one of the fairest clockes in Europe. Where in wood is, they are also inclosed with piles of state; and therto it is douted of manie whether our bucke or doe are to be reckoned in wild or tame beasts or not. Plinie deemeth them to be wild, Martial is al|so of the same opinion, where he saith, Imbelles damae quid nisi praeda sumus? And so in time past the like con|trouersie was about bées, which the lawiers call Fe|ras, tit. de acquirendo rerum dominio, & lib. 2. instit. But Plinie attempting to decide the quarell calleth them Medias interferas & placidas aues. But whither am I so suddenlie digressed? In returning therefore vnto our parks, I find also the circuit of these inclosures in like manner conteine often times a walke of foure or fiue miles, and sometimes more or lesse. Wherby it is to be séene what store of ground is em|ploied vpon that vaine commoditie, which bringeth no manner of gaine or profit to the owner, sith they commonlie giue awaie their flesh, neuer taking pe|nie for the same, except the ordinarie fée and parts of the déere giuen vnto the kéeper by a custome, who beside three shillings foure pence, or fiue shillings in monie, hath the skin, head, vmbles, chine, and shoulders: whereby he that hath the warrant for an whole bucke, hath in the end little more than halfe, which in my iudgement is scarselie equall dealing; for venison in England is neither bought nor sold, as in other countries, but mainteined onelie for the pleasure of the owner and his friends. Albeit I heard of late of one ancient ladie, which maketh a great gaine by selling yeerelie hir husbands venison to the cookes (as another of no lesse name will not sticke to ride to the market to sée hir butter sold) but not performed without infinite scoffes and mockes, euen of the poorest pezzants of the countrie, who thinke them as odious matters in ladies and wo|men of such countenance to sell their venison and their butter, as for an earle to feele his oxen, sheepe, and lambs, whether they be readie for the butcher or not, or to sell his wooll vnto the clothier, or to kéepe a tan-house, or deale with such like affaires as be|long not to men of honor, but rather to farmers, or grasiers; for which such, if there be anie may well be noted (and not vniustlie) to degenerate from true nobilitie, and betake themselues to husbandrie. And euen the same enormitie tooke place sometime a|mong the Romans, and entred so farre as into the verie senate, of whome some one had two or thrée ships going vpon the sea, pretending prouision for their houses; but in truth following the trades of merchandize, till a law was made which did inhi|bit and restraine them. Liuie also telleth of ano|ther EEBO page image 205 law which passed likewise against the senators by Claudius the tribune, and helpe onelie of C. Flaminius, that no senator, or he that had beene fa|ther to anie senator should possesse anie ship or ves|sell aboue the capacitie of thrée hundred amphoras, which was supposed sufficient for the cariage and re|cariage of such necessities as should apperteine vn|to his house: sith further trading with merchan|dizes and commodities dooth delcare but a base and couetous mind, not altogither void of enuie, that anie man should liue but he; or that if anie gaine were to be had, he onelie would haue it himselfe: which is a wonderfull dealing, and must néeds proue in time the confusion of that countrie wherein such enormities are exercised. Where in times part, ma|nie large and wealthie occupiers were dwelling within the compasse of some one parke, and thereby great plentie of corne and cattell séene,Tillage and mankind di|minished by parkes. and to be had among them, beside a more copious procreation of humane issue, whereby the realme was alwaies better furnished with able men to serue the prince in his affaires: now there is almost nothing kept but a sort of wild and sauage beasts, cherished for pleasure and delight; and yet some owners still de|sirous to inlarge those grounds, as either for the bréed and feeding of cattell, doo not let dailie to take in more, not sparing the verie commons whervpon manie towneships now and then doo liue, affirm|ing that we haue alreadie too great store of people in England; and that youth by marrieng too soone doo nothing profit the countrie, but fill it full of beg|gars, to the hurt and vtter vndooing (they saie) of the common wealth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes if it be not one curse of the Lord, to haue our countrie conuerted in such sort from the furni|ture of mankind,The decaie of the people is the destruc|tion of a king|dome. into the walks and shrowds of wild beasts, I know not what is anie. How manie families also these great and small games (for so most kéepers call them) haue eaten vp and are like|lie hereafter to deuoure, some men may coniecture, but manie more lament, sith there is no hope of re|straint to be looked for in this behalfe, because the corruption is so generall. But if a man may present|lie giue a ghesse at the vniuersalitie of this euill by contemplation of the circumstance, he shall saie at the last, that the twentith part of the realme is im|ploied vpon déere and conies alreadie, which séemeth verie much if it be not dulie considered of.

King Henrie the eight, one of the noblest prin|ces that euer reigned in this land, lamented oft that he was constreined to hire forren aid, for want of competent store of souldiors here at home, percei|uing (as it is indeed) that such supplies are oftentimes more hurtfull than profitable vnto those that inter|teine them, as may chéeflie be seene in Ualens the emperor, our Uortiger, and no small number of o|thers. He would oft maruell in priuate talke, how that when seauen or eight princes ruled here at once, one of them could lead thirtie or fortie thousand men to the field against another, or two of them 100000 against the third, and those taken out onelie of their owne dominions. But as he found the want, so he saw not the cause of this decaie, which grew beside this occasion now mentioned, also by laieng house to house, and land to land, whereby manie mens occu|piengs were conuerted into one, and the bréed of people not a little thereby diminished. The auarice of landlords by increasing of rents and fines also did so wearie the people, that they were readie to rebell with him that would arise, supposing a short end in the warres to be better than a long and miserable life in peace.

Priuileges and faculties also are another great cause of the ruine of a common wealth, and di|minution of mankind: for whereas law and na|ture dooth permit all men to liue in their best maner, and whatsoeuer trade they be exercised in, there commeth some priuiledge or other in the waie, which cutteth them off from this or that trade, wherby they must néeds shift soile, and séeke vnto other countries. By these also the greatest commodities are brought into the hands of few, who imbase, corrupt, and yet raise the prices of things at their owne pleasures. Example of this last I can giue also in bookes, which (after the first impression of anie one booke) are for the most part verie negligentlie handled: whereas if another might print it so well as the first, then would men striue which of them should doo it best; and so it falleth out in all other trades. It is an easie matter to prooue that England was neuer lesse furnished with people than at this present; for it the old records of euerie manour be sought, and search made to find what tenements are fallen, either downe, or into the lords hands, or brought and vnited togither by other men: it will soone appéere, that in some one manour seuentéen, eightéene, or twentie houses are shrunke. I know what I saie by mine owne experience: not|withstanding that some one cotage be here and there erected of late, which is to little purpose. Of cities and townes either vtterlie decaied, or more than a quarter or halfe diminished, though some one be a little increased here and there; of townes pulled downe for sheepe-walks, and no more but the lord|ships now standing in them, beside those that Wil|liam Rufus pulled downe in his time; I could saie somewhat: but then I should swarue yet further from my purpose, wherevnto I now returne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wée had no parkes left in England at the comming of the Normans, who added this calami|tie also to the seruitude of our nation, making men of the best sort furthermore to become kéepers of their game, whilest they liued in the meane time vp|on the spoile of their reuenues, and dailie ouerthrew townes, villages, and an infinit sort of families, for the maintenance of their venerie. Neither was a|nie parke supposed in these times to be statelie e|nough, that conteined not at the least eight or ten hidelands, that is, so manie hundred acres or fami|lies (or as they haue béene alwaies called in some places of the realme carrucats or cartwares) of which one was sufficient in old time to mainteine an honest yeoman.

King Iohn trauelling on a time northwards, to wit 1209 to warre vpon the king of Scots, be|cause he had married his daughter to the earle of Bullen without his consent: in his returne ouer|threw a great number of parkes and warrens, of which some belonged to his barons, but the greatest part to the abbats and prelats of the cleargie. For hearing (as he trauelled) by complaint of the coun|trie, how these inclosures were the chéefe decaie of men, and of tillage in the land, he sware with an oth that he would not suffer wild beasts to féed vpon the fat of his soile, and sée the people perish for want of abilitie to procure and buie them food that should defend the realme. Howbeit, this act of his was so ill taken by the religious and their adherents, that they inuerted his intent herein to another end; af|firming most slanderouslie how he did it rather of purpose to spoile the corne and grasse of the com|mons and catholikes that held against him of both estates, and by so doing to impouerish and bring the north part of the realme to destruction, because they refused to go with him into Scotland. If the said prince were aliue in these daies, wherein Andrew Boord saith there are more parks in England than in all Europe (ouer which he trauelled in his owne person) and saw how much ground they consume, EEBO page image 206 I thinke he would either double his othes, or laie the most of them open that tillage might be better looked vnto. But this I hope shall not néed in time, for the owners of a great fort of them begin now to smell out, that such parcels might be emploied to their more gaine, and therefore some of them doo grow to be disparked.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Next of all we haue the franke chase, which ta|keth something both of parke and forrest, and is giuen either by the kings grant or prescription. Certes it differeth not much from a parke; nay, it is in maner the selfe same thing that a parke is, sauing that a parke is inuironed with pale, wall, or such like: the chase alwaie open and nothing at all in|closed, as we see in Enuéeld & Maluerne chases. And as it is the cause of the seisure of the franchise of a parke not to kéepe the same inclosed, so it is the like in a chase if at anie time it be imparked. It is trespasse, and against the law also, for anie man to haue or make a chase, parke, or frée warren without good warrantie of the king by his charter or perfect title of prescription: for it is not lawfull for anie subiect either to carnilate, that is, build stone hou|ses, imbattell, haue the querke of the sea, or kéepe the assise of bread, ale, or wine, or set vp furels, tum|brell, thew, or pillorie, or inclose anie ground to the aforesaid purposes within his owne soile, with|out his warrant and grant. The beasts of the chase were commonlie the bucke, the roe, the fox, and the marterne. But those of venerie in old time were the hart, the hare, the bore and the woolfe; but as this held not in the time of Canutus, so in stéed of the woolfe the beare is now crept in, which is a beast cõ|monlie hunted in the east countries, and fed vpon as excellent venison, although with vs I know not anie that féed thereon or care for it at all. Certes it should seeme, that forrests and franke chases haue alwaies béene had, and religiouslie preserued in this Iland for the solace of the prince, and recrea|tion of his nobilitie: howbeit I read not that euer they were inclosed more than at this present, or o|therwise fensed than by vsuall notes of limitation, whereby their bounds were remembred from time to time, for the better preseruation of such venerie and vert of all sorts as were nourished in the same. Neither are anie of the ancient laws prescribed for their maintenance, before the daies of Canutus, now to be had; sith time hath so dealt with them that they are perished and lost. Canutus therefore seeing the dailie spoile that was made almost in all places of his game, did at the last make sundrie sanctions and decrées, whereby from thenceforth the red and fallow déere were better looked to through|out his whole dominions. We haue in these daies diuerse forrests in England and Wales, of which, some belong to the king, and some to his subiects, as Waltham forrest, Windlesor, Pickering, Feck|nam, Delamore, Gillingham, Kingswood, Wence|dale, Clun, Rath, Bredon Weire, Charlie, Leirces|ter, Lée, Rokingham, Selwood, New forrest Wich|wood, Hatfeeld, Sauernake, Westbirie, Blacamore Pcke, Deane, Penrise, & manie other now cleane out of my remembrance: and which although they are far greater in circuit than manie parkes and warrens, yet are they in this our time lesse deuou|rers of the people than these latter, sith beside much tillage, & manie townes ar found in each of them, wheras in parks and warrens we haue nothing else than either the keepers & wareners lodge, or at least the manor place of the chéef lord & owner of the soile. I find also by good record, that all Essex hath in time past wholie béene forrest ground, except one can|tred or hundred; but how long it is since it lost the said denomination in good sooth I doo not read. This neuerth [...]lesse remaineth yet in memorie, that the towne of Walden in Essex slan [...]ing in the limits of the aforesaid countie doth take hir name thereof. For in the C [...]ltike toong, w [...]erewith the Saxon or Scithian spéech dooth not a little participate, huge woods and forrests were called Walds, and likewise their Druides were named Walie or Waldie, bicause they frequented the woods, and there made sacrifice among the okes and thickets. So that if my coniec|ture in this behalfe be anie thing at all, the aforesaid towne taketh denomination of of Wald and end, as if I should say, The end of the wooddie soile; for being once out of that parish, the champaine is at hand. Or it may be that it is so called of Wald and dene: for I haue read it written in old euidences Wal|daene, with a diphthong. And to saie truth, Dene is the old Saxon word for a vale or lowe bottome, as Dune or Don is for an hill or hillie soile. Certes if it be so, then Walden taketh hir name of the woodie vale, in which it sometime stood. But the first deri|uation liketh me better, and the highest part of the towne is called also Chipping Walden, of the Sax|on word gipping, which signifieth Leaning or hang|ing,Gipping, of going vp to anie place. and may verie well be applied therevnto, sith the whole towne hangeth as it were vpon the sides of two hils, wherof the lesser runneth quite through the middest of the same. I might here for further con|firmation of these things bring in mention of the Wald of Kent: but this may suffice for the vse of the word Wald, which now differeth much from Wold. For as that signifieth a woodie soile, so this betoken|eth a soile without wood, or plaine champaine coun|trie, without anie store of trées, as may be seene in Cotswold, Porkewold, &c. Beside this I could saie more of our forrests, and the aforesaid inclosures al|so, & therein to prooue by the booke of forrest law, that the whole countie of Lancaster hath likewise beene forrest heretofore. Also how William the Bastard made a law, that whosoeuer did take anie wild beast within the kings forrest should lose an eare; as Hen|rie the first did punish them either by life or lim: which ordinance was confirmed by Henrie the se|cond and his péeres at Woodstocke, wherevpon great trouble insued vnder king Iohn and Henrie the third, as appeareth by the chronicles: but it shall suffice to haue said so much as is set downe alreadie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit, that I may restore one antiquitie to light, which hath hitherto lien as it were raked vp in the embers of obliuion, I will giue out those laws that Canutus made for his forrest: whereby manie things shall be disclosed concerning the same (wherof peraduenture some lawiers haue no know|lege) and diuerse other notes gathered touching the ancient estate of the realme not to be found in other. But before I deale with the great charter (which as you may perceiue, is in manie places vnperfect by reason of corruption, and want also of congruitie, crept in by length of time, not by me to be restored) I will not another breefe law, which he made in the first yeare of his reigne at Winchester, after|ward inserted into these his later constitutions, ca|non 32, & beginneth thus in his owne Saxon tong; Ic will that elc one, &c: I will and grant tha ech one shall be worthie of such venerie as he by hunting can take either in the plaines or in the woods, within his owne fée or dominion; but ech man shall abstaine from my venerie in euerie place, where I will that my beasts shall haue firme peace and quietnesse, vp|on paine to forfet so much as a man may forfet. Hi|therto the statute made by the aforesaid Canutus, which was afterward confirmed by king Edward surnamed the Confessor; & ratified by the Bastard in the fourth yeare of his reigne. Now followeth the great charter it selfe in such rude order and Latine EEBO page image 207 as I find it word for word, and which I would gladlie haue turned into English, if it might haue sounded to anie benefit of the vnskilfull and vnlearned.

3.19.1. Incipiunt constitutiones Canuti regis de foresta.

Incipiunt constitutiones Canuti regis de foresta.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _HAe sunt sanctiones de foresta, quas ego Canutus rex cum consilio primariorum hominum meorum condo & facio, vt cun|ctis regni nostri Angliae ecclesijs & pax & iustitia fiat, & vt omnis delinquens secundum modum de|licti, & delinquentis fortunam patiatur.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 1 Sint iam deinceps quatuor ex liberalioribus hominibus,Pegened. qui habent saluas suas debitas consue|tudines (quos Angli Pegened appellant) in quali|bet regni mei prouincia constituti, ad iustitiam di|stribuedam, vna cum poena merita & materijs for|nestae cuncto populo meo, tam Anglis quàm Danis per totum regnum meum Angliae, quos quatuor primarios forestae appellandos censemus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Sint sub quolibet horum, quatuor ex medio|cribus hominibus (quos Angli Lespegend Lespegend. Nunc sortè Tringald. nuncu|pant, Dani verò yoong men vocant) locati, qui [...]uram & onus tum viridis tum veneris suscipiant.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 3 In administranda autem iustitia nullatenus volo vt tales se intromittant: mediocrés tales post ferarum curam susceptam, pro liberalibus semper hadbeantur,Ealdermen. quos Dani Ealdermen appellant.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 4 Sub horum iterum quolibet sint duo minuto|rum hominum,Tineman. quos Tineman Angli dicunt, hi nocturnam curam & veneris & viridis tum ser|uilia opera subibunt.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 5 Si talis minutus seruus fuerit, tam citò quàm inforesta nostra locabitur, liber esto, omnés hos ex sumptibus nostris manutenebimus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 6 Habeat ettam quilibet primariorum quoli|bet anno de nostra warda, quam Michni Angli ap|pellant,Michni. duos equos, vnum cum sella, alterum sine sella, vnum gladium, quinque lanceas, vnum cu|spidem, vnum scutum, & ducentos solidos argenti.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 7 Mediocrium quilibet vnum equum, vnam lanceam, vnum scutum, & 60 solidos argenti.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 8 Minutorum quilibet, vnum lanceam, vnam arcubalistam, & 15 solidos argenti.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 9 Sint omnes tam primarij, quàm mediocres, & minuti, immunes, liberi, & quieti ab omnibus pro|uincialibus summonitionibus, & popularibus pla|citis, quae Hundred laghe Hundred law. Angli dicunt, & ab om|nibus armorum oneribus, quod Warscot Angli dicunt,Warscot. & forincesis querelis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 10 Sint mediocrium & minutorum causae, & carum correctiones, tam criminalium quàm ciui|lium per prouidam sapientiam & rationem prima|riorum iudicatae & decisae: primariorum verò e|normia si quae fuerint (ne scelus aliquod remaneat inultum) nosmet in ira nostra regali puniemus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 11 Habeant hi quatuor vnam regalem potesta|tem (salue semper nobis nostra praesentia) quatér in anno generales forestae demonstrationes & vi|ridis & veneris forisfactiones,Muchehunt. quas Muchehunt dicunt, vbi teneant omnes, calumniam de materia aliqua tangente forestam, eántque ad triplex iudi|cium, Ofgang|fordell. Purgatio ignis, triplex orda|li [...]. quod Angli Ofgangfordell dicunt. Ita au|tem acquiratur illued triplex iudicium, Accipiat se|cura quinque, & sit ipse sextus, & sic iurando ac|quirat triplex iudicium, aut triplex iuramentum. Sed purgatio ignis nullatenus admittatur, nisi vbi nuda veritas nequit aliter inuestigari.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 12 Liberalis autem homo.Pegen. 1. Pegen, modo cri|men suum non sit inter maiora, habeat fidelem ho|minem qui possit pro eo iurare iur amentum.Forathe. 1. Fo|rathe: si autem non habet, ipsemet iuret, nec par|donetur ei aliquod iuramentum.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 13 Si aduena vel peregrinus qui de longinquo venerit sit calumniatus de foresta, & talis est sua inopia vt no possit habere plegium ad primam ca|lumniam, qualem * nullus Anglus iudicare potest: tunc subeat captionem regis, & ibi expectet quo|usque vadat ad iudicium ferri & aquae: attamen si quis extraneo aut peregrino de longè venienti * * sibi ipsi nocet si aliquod iudicium iudicauerint.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 14 Quicún coram primarios homines meos forestae in falso testimonio steterit & victus fue|rit, non sit dignus imposterum stare aut portare te|stimonium, quia legalitatem suam perdidit, & pro culpa soluat regi decem solidos, quos Dani vocant Halfehang, aliàsHelfehang. Halsehang.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 15 Si quis vim aliquam primarijs forestae meae intulerit, si liberalis sit amittat libertatem & om|nia sua, si villanus abscindatur dextra.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 16 Si alteruter iterum peccauerit, reus sit mor|tis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 17 Si quis autem contra primarium pugnaue|rit, in plito emendet secundum pretium sui ipsius, quod Angli Pere & pite dicunt,Pere & Pite. dicunt, & soluat prima|rio quadraginta solidos.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 18 Si pacem quis fregerit ante mediocres fore|stae, quod dicunt Gethbrech, Gethbrech. emendet regi decem solidis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 19 Si quis mediocrium aliquem cum ira per|cusserit, emendetur prout interfectio ferae regalis mihi emendari solet.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 20 Si quis delinquens in foresta nostra capie|tur, poenas luet secundum modum & genus delicti.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 21 Poena & forisfactio non vna eadém erit liberalis (quem Dani Ealderman Ealderman. vocant) & illi|beralis: domini & serui: noti & ignoti: nec vna eadém erit causarum tum ciuilium tum crimi|nalium, ferarum forestae, & ferarum regalium: viridis & veneris tractatio: nam crimen veneris ab antiquo inter maiora & non immeritò numera|batur viridis verò (fractione chaceae nostrae rega|lis excepta) ita pusillum & exiguum est, quòd vix earespicit nostra constitutio: qui in hoc tamen de|liquerit, sit criminis forestae reus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 22 Si liber aliquis feram forestae ad cursum impulerit, siue casu, siue praehabita voluntate, ita vt cursu celeri cogatur fera anhelare, decem solidis regi emendet, si illiberalis dupliciter emendet, si seruus careat corio.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 23 Si vero harum aliquot interfecerit, soluat dupliciter & persoluat, sitque pretij sui reus con|tra regem.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 24 Sed si regalem feram,Staggon or Stagge. quam Angli Stag|gon appellant, alteruter coegerit anhelare, alter per vnum annum, alter per duos careat libertate naturali: si verò seruus, pro vtlegato habeatur, quem Angli Frendlesman vocant.Frendles|man.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 25 Si verò occiderit, amittat liber scutum li|bertatis, si sit illiberalis careat libertate, si seruus vita.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 26 Episcopi, abbates, & barones mei non ca|lumniabuntur pro venatione, si non regales feras occiderint: & siregales, restabunt rei regi pro li|bito suo, sine certa emendatione.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 27 Sunt aliae (praeter feras forestae) bestlae, quae EEBO page image 208 dum inter septa & sepes forestae continentur, e|mendationi fubiacent: quales sunt capreoli, lepo|res, & cuniculi. Sunt & alia quàm plurima ani|malia, quae quãquam infra septa forestae viuunt, & oneri & curae mediocrium subiacent forestae, tamen nequaquã censeri possunt,Bubali olim in Anglia. qualia sunt bubali, vac|cae, & similia. Vulpes & lupi, nec forestae nec vene|ris habentur, & proinde eorum interfectio nulli emendationi subiacet. Si tamen infra limites oc|ciduntur, fractio sit regalis chaceae, & mitiùs e|mendetur. Aper verò quanquam forestae sit, nulla|tenus tamen animal veneris haberi est assuetus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 28 Bosco nec subbosco nostro sine licentia pri|mariorum forestae nemo manum, apponat, quòd si quis fecerit reus sit fractionis regalis chaceae.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 29 Si quis verò ilicem aut arborẽ aliquam, quae victum feris suppeditat sciderit,Ilices aliquan|do in Britãnia nisi intelliga|tur de quercu. praeter fractionem regalis chaceae, emendet regi viginti solidis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 30 Volo vt monis liber homo pro libito suo ha|beat venerem siue viridem in planis suis super ter|ras suas, sine chacea tamen; & deuitent omnes me|am, vbicún eam habere voluero.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 31 Nullus mediocris habebit nec custodiet ca|nes,Greihounds. quos Angli Greihounds appellant. Liberali verò, dum genuiscissio eorum facta fuerit coram primario forestae licebit, aut sine genuiscissione dune remoti sunt à limitibus forestae per decem miliaria: quando verò propiùs venerint, emen|det quodlibet miliare vno solido. Siverò infra sep|ta forestae reperiatur, dominus canis forisfaciet & decem solidos regi.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 32 Velteres verò quos Langeran appellant, quia manifestè constat in ijs nihil esse periculi,Uelter Langeran. cuilibet licebit sine genuiscissione, eos custodire. Idem de canibus quos Ramhundt vocant.Ramhundt.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 33 Quòdsi casu inauspicato huiusmodi canes rabidi fiant & vbi vagãtur, negligentia domi|norum, redduntur illiciti,Pretium ho|minis medio|cris. emendetur regi pro illicitis, &c. Quòdsi intra septa forestae reperian|tur, talis exquiratur herus, & emendet secundum pretium hominis mediocris, quòd secundum legem Werinorum. 1. Churingorum, est ducentorum so|lidorum.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 34 Si canis rabidus momorderit feram, tunc emendet secundum pretiũ hominis liberalis, quod est duodecies solidis centum.Pretium libe|ri hominis. Si verò fera regalis morsa fuerit, reus sit maximi criminis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And these are the constitutions of Canutus con|cerning the forrest, verie barbarouslie translated by those that tooke the same in hand. Howbeit as I find it so I set it downe, without anie alteration of my copie in anie iot or tittle.

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2.15. ¶Of Parkes and Warrens. Cap. 15.

¶Of Parkes and Warrens. Cap. 15.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 IN euery ſhyre of Englande there is great plentye of Parkes, whereof ſome here and there appertaine vnto the Prince, the reſt to ſuch of the Nobilitye and Gentlemen, as haue their lands and patrimony lying néere vnto ye ſame. I would gladly haue ſet downe the iuſt number of theſe incloſures, to bée founde in euery countye, but ſith I can not ſo doe, it ſhall ſuffiſe to ſay, that in Kent and Eſſex only are to the number of an hundred, where in great plentie of fallowe Déere is cheriſhed and kept. As for Warrens of Co|nies, I iudge thẽ almoſt innumerable, & dai|ly like to increſe, by reaſõ that ye black ſkins of thoſe beaſts are thought to counteruaile, ye priſes of their naked carkaſes, & this is the onely cauſe why the gray are leſſe eſtéemed. Neere vnto London their quyckest marchaundise is of the yong rabets, wherefore ye older conies are brought fro(m) farder of, where there is no such speedy vttera(n)ce of Rabbets & sucklings in their seaso(n), nor so great losse by their skins, sith they are suffered to grow vp to their full greatnesse wt their owners. Our Parkes are generally inclosed wyth strong pale made of Oke, of which kinde of woode there is great store cherished from time to tyme in eache of them, onely for the maintenaunce of the sayde defence, and safe reering [sic] of the Deere from raunging about the countrey. The circuite of these inclosures in lyke maner containe oft times a walke of foure or fiue myles, and sometimes more or lesse, whereby it is to be seene what store of ground is employed vpon that vayne co(m)moditie which bringeth no maner of gaine or profit to the owner, sith they co(m)monlye giue awaye their fleshe, neuer taking penny for the same, because venission in england is neither bought nor soulde by the right owner, but maintained only for hys pleasure, to the no smal decay of husbandry, & diminution of mankinde. For where in times past, many large and welthy occupiers, were dwelling within the compasse of some one parke, and therby great plenty of corne & cattell seene and to be had amongst them, beside a more copious procreation of humaine issue, wherby the realme was alwaies better furnished with able men to serue the Prince in his affaires: now there is almost nothing kept but a sort of wilde & sauage beasts, cherished for pleasure and delite, and yet the owners styll desirous to enlarge those groundes, doe not let daily to take in more, affirming that we haue already to great store of people in england, and that youth by mariyng to soone doe nothing profite the countrey but fill it full of beggers.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Certes if it be not one curse of the Lorde, The de|caie of the people is the deſtruc+tion of a kingdome, neyther is any man borne to poſſeſſe the earth a|lone. to haue our countrey conuerted in such sorte from the furniture of mankinde, into the walkes and shrowdes of wylde beastes, I know not what is any. How many families also these great and small games (for so most keepers call them) haue eaten vp, & are likely hereafter to deuoure, some men may coniecture, but many more lame(n)t: sith there is no hope of restraint to be looked for in this behalf, but if a man may prese(n)tly giue a gesse at ye vniuersality of this euill by contemplation of the circumstances, he shall saye at ye last, that the twentieth parte of the realme is imployed vpon Deere and Conies already, which seemeth very much, if it be duely considered of. We had no Parkes in Englande before the comming of the Normanes, who added this calamity also to the seruitude of our EEBO page image 99 our nation, making men of the best sort furthermore to become keepers of their game whilest they lyued in the meane time vppon the spoyle of their reuenues, and daily ouerthrew townes villages, & an infinite sort of families for the maintenance of their Venery. Neyther was any park supposed in these times to be stately enough, that conteined not a the least eyght or tenne hidelandes, that is so many hundred acres, or families, or as they haue been alwaies called in some places of the Realme, carrucates or cartwares, of which one was sufficient in olde time to maintaine an honest Yeoman.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 It ſhould ſée me that forreſts haue alwaies béene had and religiouſly preſerued in thys Iſlande for the ſolace of the Prince, and re|creation of his nobilitie: howbeit I read not that euer they were incloſed more then at this preſent, or otherwiſe fenced then by vſu|al notes of limitacion, wherby their bounds were remembred from time to tyme for the better preſeruation of ſuch [...]e [...]ery and vert of all ſortes as were nouriſhed in the ſame. Neyther are any of the auncient lawes pre|ſcribed for their maintaynaunce before the dais of Canutus now to be had, ſith time hath ſo dealt with them, that they are periſhed & loſt. Canutus therfore ſéeing the daily ſpoyle that was made in all places of his game, dyd at the laſt make ſundrie Sanctions and De|crées, whereby from thenceforth the red and fallow déere, were better looked vnto thorow out his whole Dominiõs. We haue in theſe dayes diuers forreſtes in England & Wales as Waltham forreſt, Winſor, Pickering, Fecknam, Delamore, Deane, Penriſe, and many other nowe cleane out of my remem|braunce, and which although they are farre greater in circuit then many Parckes and Warrennes, yet are they in this our tyme leſſe deuourers of the people then theſe later, ſith beſide much tillage, many Townes are founde in eache of them, whereas in Parkes and Warrẽns we haue nothing elſe then ei|ther the kéepers lodge, or at the leſt wiſe the manour place of the chiefe Lorde, & owner of the ſoyle. I coulde ſay more of forreſtes and the aforeſayde incloſures, but it ſhall ſuffice at this time to haue ſayde ſo much as is ſet downe alreadie. Howbeit that I may reſtore one antiquitie to light, which hath hytherto lyen as it were raked vp in the embers of obliuion, I will gyue out the same Lawes that Canutus made for his forrest, whereby many thinges shall be disclosed concerning the same (wherof peradve(n)ture some lawiers haue no knowledge) & diuers other notes gathered touching the ancient estate of ye realm not to be founde in other. But before I deale with the great charter (which as you may perceyue is in many places imperfit by reason of corruption crept in by length of tyme not by me to be restored) I will note an other briefe law, which he made in the first yeare of his reigne at Winchester, and afterward inserted into these his latter constitutions Canone 32. and beginneth thus in his owne Saxon tongue. I will that elc one. &c. I will and graunt that eache one shalbe [sic] woorthy of such venery as he by hunting can take eyther in the playnes or in the woods, or within his owne fee or dominio(n) (out of the forrest) but eache man shall abstaine from my venerie in euery place, where I will that my beastes shall haue firme peace and quietnesse vpo(n) paine to forefaict so much as a man may forfaict. Hytherto the statute made by the aforesayde Canutus, which was afterwarde confirmed by king Edwarde surnamed the confessour in the fourth yeare of his reigne. Now followeth the great Charter it selfe in Latine, as I finde it worde for worde, & whiche I woulde gladly haue turned into English if it might haue sounded to any benefite of the vnskilfull and vnlearned.

2.15.1. Incipiunt constitutiones Canuti re|gis de Forreſta.

Incipiunt constitutiones Canuti re|gis de Forreſta.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 HAe ſunt ſanctiones de forreſta, quas ego Canutus rex cum confilio primariorum hominum meorum condo & facio, vt conctis regni noſtri Angliae eccleſijs & pax & Iuſtitia fiat, & vt omnis delinquens ſecundum mo|dum delicti, & delinquentis fortunam patia|tur.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 1. [...] Sint iam deinceps quatuor ex liberaliori|bus hominibus qui habent ſaluas ſuas debitas conſuetudines (quos Angli pegened appellãt) in qualibet regni mei prouincia conſt [...]euti, a [...]l Iuſtitiam diſtr [...]buendam vna cum pena merita & materijs forreſtae cuncto populo meo, [...] Anglis quam Danis per totum regnum me [...] Angliae, quos quatuor primarios forreſtae ap|pellandos cenſemus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2. Sint ſub quolibet horum, quatuor ex me|diocribus hominibus (quos Angli Leſpegen [...], [...] nuncupant, Dani vero young men vocant) [...]o|cati, qui curam & onus tum viridis tum ven [...]|ris ſuſcipiant.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 3. In adminiſtranda autem Iuſticia nuilla [...]| [...]rus volo vt tales ſe intromittant: mediocteſ tales poſt ferarum curam ſuſceptam, pro libe|ralibus ſemper habeantur, [...] quos Dani Ealder|men appellant.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 4. [...] Sub liorum iterum quolibet ſunt duo minutorũ hominũ quos Tineman Angli di|cunt EEBO page image 90 hi nocturnam curam & veneris & viridis tum ſeruilia opera ſubibunt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 5. Si talis minutus ſeruus fuerit, tam cito quam in forneſta noſtra locabitur, liber eſto, omneſ hos ex ſumptibus noſtris manutene|bimus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 6. Habeat etiam quilibet primariorũ quo|libet anno de noſtra warda quam Michni An|gli appellant, [...]hni. duos equos, vnum cum ſella, al|terum ſine ſella, vnũ gladium quin lanceas, vnum cuſpidẽ, vnum ſcutum & ducentos ſo|lidos argenti.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 7. Mediocrium quilibet vnum equum, vnã lanceam, vnum ſcutum & 60, ſolidos argenti.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 8. Minutorum quilibet, vna [...] lanceam, v|nam arcubaliſtam & 15. ſolidos argenti.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 9. Sint omnes tam primarij, quam medio|cres, & minuti, immunes, liberi, & quieti ab omnibus prouincialibus ſummonitionibus, & popularibus placitis, [...]dred [...] quae Hundred lagbe Angli dicunt, & ab omnibus armorũ oneribus quod Warſcot Angli dicunt & forinceſis querelis.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 10. Sint mediocrium & minutorum cauſae & earum correctiones tam criminalium quam ciuilium per prouidam ſapientiam & rationẽ primariorum Iudicate & deciſae: primariorum vero enormia ſi quaefuerint (ne ſcelus aliquod remaneat inultum) noſmet in ira noſtra regali puniemus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 11. Habeant hi quatuor vnam regalem po|teſtatem (ſalua nobis noſtra preſentia) qua|ter in anno generales foreſtae demonſtra|tiones & viridis & veneris forisfactiones quas Muchebunt dicunt, [...]che| [...]t. vbi teneant omnes calum|niam de materia aliqua tangente foreſtam, e|ant ad triplex Iudiciũ quod Angli Ofgang|fordell dicunt. [...]gang| [...]ell. [...]gatio [...]s, tri| [...] orda| [...] Ita autem acquiratur illud tri|plex Iudicium. Accipiat ſecum quinque & ſit ipſe ſextus, & ſic iurando acquirat triplex Iu|dicium, aut triplex iuramentum. Sed purga|tio ignis nullatenus admittatur niſi vbi nuda veritas nequit aliter inueſtigari.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]gen.12. Liberalis autem homo. 1. Pegen, modo cri|men ſuum non ſit inter mariora, habeat fide|lem hominem qui poſsit pro eo iurare iura|mentum. [...]athe. 1. Forathe: ſi autem non habet ipſemet iuret, nec pardonetur ei aliquod iuramentum.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 13. Si aduena vel peregrinus qui de longin|quo venerit ſit calumpniatus de foreſta, & ta|lis eſt ſua inopia vt nõ poſsit habere plegium ad primam calumniam, qualẽ * nullus Anglus iudicare poteſt: tunc ſubeat captionem regis & ibi expectet quouſque vadat ad iudicium ferri & aque: attamen ſi quis extraneo aut pe|regrino de longe venienti * [...] ſibi ipſi nocet ſi aliquod iudiciũ iudicauerint.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 14. Quicunque coram primarios homines meos foreſtae in falſo teſtimonio ſteterit & vi|ctus fuerit, non ſit dignus impoſterũ ſtare aut portare teſtimoniũ, quia legalitatẽ ſuam per|didit, & pro culpa ſoluat regi decem ſolidos quos Dani vocant Halfebange, alins halſhang. Halſhang.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 15. Si quis vim aliquã primarijs foreſte meae intulerit, ſi liberalis ſit amittat libertatem & omnia ſua, ſi villanus abſcindatur dextra.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 16. Si alteruter iterum pe [...]cauerit reus ſit mortis.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 17. Si quis cõtra autẽ cũ primario pugnaue|rit in plito, emendet ſecundũ praecium ſui ip|ſius quod Angli Pere & pite dicunt,Pere and Pite. & ſoluat primario quadraginta ſolidos.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 18. Si pacem quis fregerit ante mediocres foreſtae quod dicunt Gethbreche emendet regi decem ſolidis.Gethbrech

Compare 1587 edition: 1 19. Si quis mediocrium aliquem cum ira percuſſerit, emendetur prout interfectio ferae regalis mihi emendari ſolet.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 20. Si quis delinquens in foreſta noſtra ca|pietur, poenas luet ſecundũ modum & genus delicti.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 21. Pena & forisfactio non vna eademque e|rit liberalis (quem Dani Elderman vocant) & illiberalis: domini & ſeru: noti & ignoti:Ealdermã nec vna eadem erit cauſarum tum ciuilium tum criminaliũ, ferarũ foreſtae, & ferarumregalium: Viridis & veneris tractatio: nã crimen veneris ab antiquo inter maiora & non inmerito nu|merabatur: viridis vero (fractione chaceae no|ſtre regalis excepta) ita puſillum & exiguum eſt, quod vix ea reſpicit noſtra conſtitutio: qui in hoc tamen deliquerit, fit criminis foreſtae reus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 22. Si liber aliquis feram foreſtae fugerit, ſiue caſu, ſiue praehabita voluntate, ita vt curſu ce|leri cogatur fera anhelare, decem ſolidis regi emendet, ſi illiberalis dupliciter emendet, ſi ſeruus careat corio.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 23. Si vero horum aliquot interfecerit, ſoluat dupliciter & perſoluat, ſitque praecij ſui reus contra regem.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 24. Sed ſi regalem ferã quam Angli à ſtag|gon appellant alteruter coegerit anhelare,Staggon. al|ter per vnum annum, alter per duos careat li|bertate naturali: ſi vero ſeruus, pro vtlegato habeatur quem Angli Frendleſman vocant.Frendleſ|man.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 25. Si vero occiderit, amittat liber ſcutum libertatis, ſi ſit illiberalis careat libertate, ſi ſer|uus vita.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 26. Epiſcopi, Abbates & Barones mei non calumnibuntur pro venatione, ſi non regales feras occiderint: & ſi regales, reſtabunt rei re|gi pro libito ſuo, ſine certa emendatione.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 27. Sunt aliae (praeter feras foreſtae) beſtiae, que dum inter ſaepta & ſaepes foreſtae continentur, emendationi ſubiacent: quales ſunt capreoli, lepores, & cuniculi. Sunt & alia quam pluri|ma animalia quae quanquã infra ſep [...]a foreſtae viuunt, & oneri & curae mediocrium ſubiacẽt, EEBO page image 100 foreſte tamen nequaquã ce [...]iſeri poſſunt, qua|lia ſunt equi,Bubali o|lim in An|glia. Bubali, vaccae, & ſimilia. Vulpes & Lupi, nec foreſtae nec veneris habentur, & proinde eorum interfectio nulli emendationi ſubiacet. Si tamen infra limites occiduntur, fractio ſit regalis chaceae, & mitius emendetur. Aper vero quanquam foreſte ſit nullatenus tamen animal veneris haberi eſt aſſuetus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 28. Boſco nec Subboſco noſtro ſine licentia primariorum foreſtae nemo manum apponat, quod ſi quis fecerit reus ſit fractionis regalis chaceae.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 29. Si quis vero Ilicem aut arborem aliquam qui victum feris ſuppeditat ſciderit, praeter fractionem regalis chaceae, emendet regi vigin|ti ſolidis.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 30. Volo vt omnis liber homo pro libito ſuo habeat venerem ſiue viridem in planis ſuis ſuper terras ſuas, ſine chacea tamen. Et deui|tent omnes meam, vbicunque eam habere vo|luero.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 31. Nullus mediocris habebit nec cuſtodiet canes quos Angli Griehunds appellant.Greyhũds Liberali vero dum genuiſciſsio eorum facta fuerit eoram primario foreſtae licebit, aut ſine genu|iſciſsione dum remoti ſunt à limitibus foreſtae per decem milliaria: quando vero proprius venerint, emendet quodlibet miliare vno ſoli|do Si vero infra ſepta foreſtae reperiatur, do|minus canis forisfaciet & canem, & decem ſo|lidos regi.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Velter Langerã.32. Velteres vero quos Langeran appellant quia manifeſte conſtat in ijs nihil eſſe pericu|li, cuilibet licebit ſine gemiſciſsione eos cuſto|dire.Ram|hundt. Idem de canibus quos Rambundt vocant.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 33. Quod ſi caſu inauſpicato huiuſmodi ca|nes rabidi fiant & vbique vagantur negli|gentia dominorum, redduntur illiciti, & emẽ|detur regi pro illicitis. &c. Quod ſi intra ſepta foreſtae reperiantur, talis exquiratur herus, & emendet ſecundum precium hominis medio|cris, quod ſecundũ legem merimorum eſt du|centorum ſollidorum.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 34. Si Canis rabidus momorderit ferã, tunc emendet ſecundum precium hominis liberalis quod eſt duodecies ſolidis centũ. Si vero fera regalis morſa fuerit, reus ſit maximi criminis.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And theſe are the conſtitutions of Canutus concerning the forreſt very barbarouſly trã|ſlated by thoſe that tooke the ſame in hande. Howbeit as I finde it ſo I ſet it downe with out any alteration of my copie in any iote or tytle.