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Compare 1587 edition: 1 A Sinode kept at Edenburgh.There was aboute the ſame time a Synode holden in the blacke Friers of Edenbourgh, by the whole Cleargie of the Realme, as Biſhops, Ab|bots, Priors and other Prelates, where there was a Legate of the Popes, who cauſed all the chur|ches that were aboue .xl. pound to be taxed. This was called Bagimunts taſke,Benefices were taxed. whereby the Pope and the king might knowe the value of the bene|fices, and to haue taxes of the ſame accordingly, as the Pope for his annates and Bulles, and the king when he ſtoode in neede. This was conſen|ted and agreed vnto by the Cleargie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Shortly after came the Biſhop of Murrey home, hauing bene at Rome, in Fraunce,The Biſhop of Murrey came home. and England, bringing with him from the Pope, and the kings of Fraunce and Englande, many good and pleaſant letters: and with him came a cleark of Spaine in Ambaſſade vnto the king.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This yeare the .xj. day of Aprill,A yong Prince borne in Scot|lande. the Queene was deliuered of a yong Prince in the Palace of Luithgo, who was ſhortly after baptiſed, and na|med Iames the fift Prince of Scotlande and of the Iles, that after ſucceeded his father in the Kingdome.

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1.4. Iames the fift, king of Scotland, to Immanuell the woorthie king of Portingale.

Iames the fift, king of Scotland, to Immanuell the woorthie king of Portingale.

_Woorthie king, friend, and deere coo|sine, certeine yeares past, a Sco|tish ship laden with merchandize, & loosing from the port of Sluis in Flanders, was inuaded by two armed ships, gouerned by Portingals; whereof, the one was called Iohn Uasque, and the other Iohn Pret. Which ship (after cer|teine of hir merchants slaine, manie wounded, manie taken prisoners, and the rest cast into a fisher-bote to be set on land at the next shore) was by them caried into Portingale: all which was doone in the sight of the rest of the Lusitan ships, which at the same time did also loose out of that hauen to passe into Portingale. The full trueth whereof, Charles the duke of Bur|gognie, and earle of Flanders, vnderstan|ding (and mooued not so much for the singu|lar iniurie doone to the Scots, as by the breach of the priuilege, & right of his har|borows) did signifie the same (knowne, and found by order of iudgement) to the king of Portingale, admonishing him, that vn|lesse he tooke order for such wicked deeds, and for the restitution of the hurt and losse: that he would indeuor, that all the Por|tingals (which frequented the marts of Flanders) should by sentence of iudge|ment, satisfie all the damages which the Scots had susteined. But the vntimelie death (of that iust and valiant man) did frustrat all his determination.

The king also our grandfather (when he had by his letters complained of that iniurie to the king of Portingale, and had not much profited) gaue foorth letters of marque, that is, he gaue authoritie to Iohn & Robert Barton, brothers & heires to that Iohn, which was maister of that ship so caried away, to recouer so much of the Lusitans. Before the execution wher|of, my grandfather died: after which (my father being yet verie yoong) the whole state of the realme did suppose it best to al|ter nothing in forren causes, vntill he came to full age. At time (being of suffici|ent yeares) he did forbeare to grant the vse of the said letter of marque, till he had first consulted with the king of Portingale thereabouts. Wherevpon (dispatching an ambassador vnto him) our father also died (before we could againe heare anie answer from thence) leauing me a child not past three yeeres old. For which cause, the gouernor of the kingdome iudged it best (during our minoritie) to defer these letters of marque, vntill we came to riper yeares; which was doone, not without great griefe and complaint of those mise|rable and poore men.

Wherevpon, we also for these last two yeares (being now growen to riper age) are mooued aswell to prouide, that other merchants which in that ship of Iulian, haue lost their goods and kinred, as also to permit the heirs of the said Iohn Barton (by way of letter of marque before gran|ted) to haue power giuen them, onelie to take so much recompense of the Portin|gals. Whereof yet, we thought it meet, that they should not vse any of them, vntill we had first (by this Snadone our esquier) laid before your maiestie the whole order of the matter, which is the iudiciall know|ledge of the pirasie, the value of the losse, and the cause of our long silence, assuredlie hoping that you will not doo anie thing, in respect of your humanitie and vprightnes, but that which shall be good and iust. The which, if you deeme is yet to be deferred; we require your woorthinesse to consider, that we cannot forsake our subiects, afflic|ted with so great iniuries, whome here|after we refer to the law of all nations, for recouerie of their goods taken away, which thing ought not to seeme to anie man (by anie meanes) to be the violating of friendship, league, or consanguinitie, wherewith we haue beene linked. Where|fore, when that same shall happen, we de|sire your excellencie to take the same in good part (most woorthie coosine and confe|derat king) to whom I wish long and hap|pie life. From Edenburgh, the day before the Ides of Aprill, in the yeare, 1540.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The king about this time gaue liberall posses|sions Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 353. to Robert Borthwike, a notable artificer for making of field péeces and other guns; for the which liberalitie, he should make certeine great peeces in the castell of Edenburgh, whereof there are manie yet to be séene in Scotland, with this superscription:

Machina sum Scoto Borthuik fabricata Roberto.)
This summer the king went in pilgrimage vnto The king went on pil|grimage. saint Duthois in Rosse, and the quéene remaining at Holie rood house, was brought to bed of a prince, the twentie day of October, the which the third day after was baptised and named Arthur. Two great A ship with munition. ships came foorth of France to the king, fraught 1510. with guns, speares, and all other kind of munition for warre. Alexander, bastard sonne to the king, The archbi|shop of saint Andrews. newlie made archbishop of saint Andrews, who had béene long in Germanie student there in the schooles with that famous clearke Erasmus Roterodamus, and had profited verie well, came from Flanders by sea into Scotland, and was ioifullie receiued, be|cause he had bestowed his time so well in vertues and learning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The lord of Fast castell came ouer with him; who The lord of Fast castell went into Turkie. had trauelled through a great part of christendome: and moreouer passing into Turkie, came to the em|perour EEBO page image 294 of Turkie at the citie of Caire, who reteined him in seruice, and gaue him good interteinement, so that he remained with him, till he heard that the li|uing of Fast castell was fallen to him by lawfull succession; notwithstanding that when he departed out of Scotland, th [...] were eight seuer all persons before him to succeed one after another, which in the meane time were all deceassed. The 14 of Iulie, Prince Ar|thur decessed. Arthur prince of Scotland and the Iles, departed this life in the castell of Edenburgh. Two scorpions were found, the one quicke, and the other dead, in the Two scorpi|ons found in Scotland. orchard of the castell of Cragmiller, which thing was reputed for a maruellous great woonder, that anie should be séene within the Ile of Britaine. In the moneth of September, an vniuersall sickenesse Stoope gal|lant a sicknes. reigned through all Scotland, whereof manie died. It was verie contagious, and they called it Stoope gallant.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There came also a passing faire woman into Scotland about the same time, naming hir selfe Ka|tharine Gordon, wife to Perkin Warbecke, that had named himselfe duke of Yorke, but at length being brought to the king, she confessed what shée w [...], and so auoided the realme. In which meane while, the ladie Katharine Gordon hir selfe re|mained in England, and had right good mainte|nance, Katharine Gordon. so that she liued there verie well and hono|rablie manie yéeres after. Furthermore, the king vpon the eighth day of Nouember comming The Trum|brls with o|ther are taken by the king. from Edenburgh to the water of Rule, tooke diuers misgouerned persons, & brought them to Iedworth, where the principall of the Trumbtls, with naked swords in their hands, and withs about their necks met him, putting themselues in the kings mer|cie, which were sent to sundrie places to be kept in ward, with diuers other of those countrimen, where|by the marches were more quiet afterwards: and from thence the king passed to saint Iohns towne, where iustice were holden the residue of the winter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The next yéere in the beginning of Maie, the quéene went from Dunfermling toward saint Du|thois 1 [...]11. in Rosse, and was all the way right honorablie vsed and interteined. About the tenth of Iulie, she re|turned An ambassage from the king of England. to Edenburgh, where she found the lord Da|cres, and sir Robert Drurie knight come thither as ambassadors from the king of England hir brother, who were honorablie receiued. In the yéere next in|suing, in Iune, Andrew Barton being on the seas to 1511. Lesle. 1512. meet the Portingals (against whom he had a letter of marque) sir Edmund Haward lord admerall of England, and the lord Thomas Haward, sonne and heire vnto the earle of Surrey, were appointed by the king of England to go likewise to sea with cer|teine ships, and met with the said Andrew as he returned homewards néere to the Downes, hauing with him onelie one ship and one barke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Englishmen at the first made signe vnto the Scots as though they ment none euill, saue onelie to salute them as friends; but getting within them, they set vpon them right fiercelie, and the Scots for a while did as valiantlie defend themselues, so that Two ships taken by the Englishmen. manie were slaine on both sides: but in the end the Englishmen got the vpper hand, wounded Andrew Barton the chiefe capteine of the Scots, that he died of the hurts that he there receiued, and the ship called the Unicorne, and the barke called Iennie Peruine, were both taken, with all the Scotishmen that remained aliue in the same, which were had to London, and staied as prisoners in the bishop of Yorke his house for a time, and after sent home into Scotland. King Iames was sore offended with this matter, and therevpon sent an herald with letters, requiring redresse for the slaughter of his people, and restitution of his ships, sith otherwise it might séeme to giue occasion of breach of the peace. But the king of England denied, that the slaughter of a pirat (as he tooke Andrew Barton to be) ought to breake anie bond of peace, yet neuerthelesse he promised to send commissioners to the borders, that should intreat of that matter, and other enormities chanced betweene the two realmes.

Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 12. About this time was Alexander Hume the on|lie gouernor of all the marches of Scotland (which before were accustomed to be diuided into thrée parts) deerelie beloued to king Iames, being a man of a fiercer disposition than was conuensent for the profit of the common-wealth. This man promised to the king (troubled with the cares of warre, and care|full to wipe awaie the reproch of late receiued by the English) that shortlie he and his folowers with their kindred and aliances, would so bring the matter a|bout, that the English should as greatlie lament for their losses, as they had now conceiued ioies of their victories. To the performance whereof, he gathered thrée thousand souldiers, wherewith he entered Eng|land, and there spoiled seuen townes before anie suc|cour might come to rescue them: but as he returned backe laden with booties of all kinds, his men (being accustomed to pilfries and robberies) impatient of delaie, presentlie diuided the preie in the host, euerie one departing home to his owne as it was néerest vnto him. Yet Alexander did not disperse such as he might kéepe togither: but assembling as manie of them as would tarie, with a small companie abode the end of all things, alwaies hauing an eie to sée if anie pursute were made after them. But when he perceiued no bodie to follow, and that there was no doubt of danger (passing the time more careles than before) he fell vnwares into the hands of thrée hun|dred English laid in wait for him, who (taking the opportunitie of the time) did set vpon him and his, and (driuing them into extreme feare) they killed and put to flight all such as they incountered. In which tumult diuers of the Scots were slaine, and two hundred taken, of whome George Hume, brother of the said Alexander (exchanged for Comarch, Heron, and Foord, taken prisoners, and long reteined in Scotland for reuenge of the death of Robert Car) was one, and the chiefest, whereby he departed quiet|lie into Scotland.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The French king and the duke of Gelderland, The king of France requi|red aid against England. perceiuing that the king of England was minded through procurement of the pope & others, to make them wartes, either of them sent ambassadors into Scotland vnto king Iames, requiring his assistance against England: but king Iames minding to King Iames persuadeth to peace. mainteine peace and concord betwixt the parties, sent an ambassador vnto the king of England, desi|ring him in brotherlie and most louing wise to liue in peace and quietnesse, and not to make anie wars against his confederat friends, offering himselfe to agrée and compound anie difference that was fallen betwixt the king of England and the said princes. The king of England, who had alreadie sent aid vn|to the ladie regent of the low countries against the duke of Gelderland, made such faire answer here|vnto as he thought stood with reason, and so dispat|ched the ambassadour backe againe to his maister, without anie more adoo in that matter, about the which he came for that time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 8. pag. 356. Much about these daies, there was called a pro|uinciall synod of bishops, abbats, and other religious persons at Edenburgh, in the monasterie of the Do|minicke friers, Baiomanie the popes legat being present. In which by the common voice of them all (although against the will of manie of them) it was ordeined that benefices or priests liuings (whose reue|nues did yéerly excéed the value of 40 pounds) should EEBO page image 295 pay a pension of the tenth to the pope; and should giue to the king (when he required) such summes as he liked to demand: which vnto this day is called the Baiomane monie or tax.] Iohn lord Gordon, sonne and heire to Alexander Gordon erle of Huntleie, re|turned The kings bastard maried. out of France, and was maried vnto the kings bastard daughter, in Nouember following, in this present were 1512, of whome the house of Huntleie is descended.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shortlie after came the bishop of Murrey home, hauing béene at Rome, in France, and England, The bishop of Murrey came home. bringing with him from the pope, and the kings of France and England, manie good and pleasant let|ters: and with him came a clearke of Spaine in am|bassage vnto the king. This yéere the eleuenth day of Aprill, the quéene was deliuered of a yoong prince A yong prince borne in Scotland. in the palace of L [...]thgo, who was shortlie after baptised, and named Iames the fift prince of Scot|land, and of the Iles, that after succéeded his father in the kingdome. The lord Dacres, and doctor West came in ambassage from the king of England, and Monsieur de la Mot came with letters also from the French king, to persuade king Iames to make The French king sent to persuade the king of Scots to warre. warre against England, promising him monie, mu|nition, and all other necessarie prouisions of warre. In his waie as he passed the seas towards Scot|land, he had drowned thrée English ships, & brought seuen awaie with him vnto Lieth for prises, in the which were but thrée Englishmen left aliue. Shortlie after, maister Iames Ogiluie abbat of Driburgh came foorth of France with letters of the like effect. After this Robert Barton went to the sea, and in Iulie brought into Scotland 14 prises of English Fourtéene prises of Englishmen taken. men which he had taken.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 About this season, the lord of Drumweidie was slaine in Edenburgh by two persons, which tooke san|ctuarie in Holie rood house, and so escaped. Iohn erle of Atholl deceassed the ninetéenth of September, & Lion Harold king of armes deceassed the first of O|ctober. Great misrule was exercised on the borders Misrule exer|cised. in this season, and therefore the king assembled the lords in Edenburgh for reformation thereof; and while they were there, the quéene was brought to bed The quéene brought to bed of a child. 1513. Lesle. The league renewed with France. of a child, which died shortlie after it was christened. There came a great ship into Scotland, which the king of France had sent vnto the king, laden with artillerie, powder, and wines, & then was the league and band renewed betwixt Scotland and France. The same ship landed at Blacknesse the ninetéenth of Nouember. King Iames sent a purseuant called Purseuants sent into England and France. Unicorne into France, and another into England called Ilaie, which Ilaie required a safe conduct for an ambassador to be sent from the king his maister vnto the king of England: but this would not be granted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Upon the said Ilaies returne, Monsieur de la Mot was sent backe into France, and with him sir Walter Ogiluie, and a messenger whome the pope had sent into Scotland. On the sixtéenth of March 1513. Lesle. Doctor West sent into Scotland ambassador. next insuing, doctor West came as ambassador into Scotland from the king of England, appointing that certeine commissioners should meet on the bor|ders for redresse of all quarrels betwixt the two realmes, in the moneth of Iune next insuing. And this appointment was kept, but no good could be doone, as after shall appeere. The king sent Fornian bishop of Murrey into France, to signifie vnto the 1513 French king the message of the said doctor West, and other things. In the moneth of Maie, there came certeine ships out of Denmarke laden with guns, Munition for warre sent out of Denmarke. powder, armor, & other kind of munition. Also Mon|sieur de la Mot landed in the west part of Scotland the sixtéenth of Maie, with foure ships fraught with wine and flower, and returned againe the nineteenth Prouision sent out of France. of the same moneth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The great Odonell of Ireland came to king Odonell pro|fred friendship vnto king Iames. Iames at Edenburgh, the first of Iune, offering his friendship and seruice to him before all other prin|ces, and speciallie against the king of England; wher|vpon he was thankfullie receiued, honorablie inter|teined, & richlie rewarded. And so the band of friend|ship being with him concluded, he returned into his countrie. The king prepared a great nauie of ships, the principall whereof were the Michaell, Margaret, and Iames. They made saile towards the sea the twentie seuenth of Iulie; and the king sailed in the A nauie sent. Michaell himselfe, till they were past the Iland of Maie, Iames Gordon son to George earle of Hunt|leie being one of the capteins of the same ship.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The commissioners met on the borders in Iune, Commissio|ners met at the borders. according to the appointment: but because the Eng|lishmen would not consent to make anie redresse or restitution, till the fiftéenth of October next, thin|king by that delaie and continuance of time, they The English men protract the time. should vnderstand the state of their kings procée|dings in France, and in the meane time reteine in their hands the Scotishmens goods which they had ta|ken both by sea and land (as the Scotish writers af|firme) the king of Scots being thereof aduertised, sent Lion king of armes vnto king Henrie then li|eng at siege before Terwine, with letters of com|plaint, A king of armes sent vnto K. Hen|rie of Eng|land. commanding him that if king Henrie refu|sed to accomplish the contents of his said letters, he should denounce warre vnto him. Wherevpon Lion arriuing in the English armie with his cote of arms on his backe, about the middest of August, desired to speake with the king, and was within a short space by Garter chiefe king at arms of England brought to the kings presence, hauing his nobles and coun|cellors about him, where, with due reuerence, & some good woords first vttered, he deliuered his letters, the tenor whereof insueth.

1.5. The tenor of the king of Scots letters.

The tenor of the king of Scots letters.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _RIght excellent, right high, and mightie prince, our deerest bro|ther and coosine, we commaund vs vnto you in our maist hartie manner, and receiued fra Raff Heraulde your letters, quhar vntill ye approue and allow the doings of your commissiouners latelie being with ours at the borders of bathe the realmes, for making of redresse quhilk is thought to you and your councell should be continuet and delaet to the fif|teenth day of October. Als ye write slaars by see aught not compeere personallie, but by their attourneys. And in your letters with our herauld Ilaie, ye ascertaine vs ye will naught enter in the treux taken be|twixt the maist christian king and your fa|ther of Aragoun, because ye and others of the hale liege nether should nor may take peace, treux, nor abstinence of warre with your common enimie, without consent of all the confederats. And that the emperor, king of Aragoun, yea and euery of you be bounded to make actuall warre this in|stant sommer against your common enimy. And that so to do is concluded and openlie sworne in Paules kirke at London, vpon S. Markes day last by past. And farther haue denied safe conduct vpon our requests that a seruitor of ours might haue resorted EEBO page image 296 to your presence (as our herauld Ilaie re|ports.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Right excellent, right high, and mightie prince, our deerest brother and cousing, the said meeting of our and your commissiou|ners at the borders, was peremptorily ap|pointed betwixt you and vs after diuerse diets, for reformatioun before continuet to the commissiouners meeting, to effect that due redresse suld haue beene made at the said meeting, like as for our part our com|missioners offred to haue made that time. And for your part, no male factor was then arrestet to the said diet. And to glose the same, ye now write that fiaars by see need not compeere personallie, but by their at|tourneis, quhilk is again law of God and man. And get in criminall action all flaars suld naught compeere personallie, na pu|nitioun suld follow for slaughter, and then vane it were to seke farther meetings or redresse. And hereby apperes (as the deed shewes) that ye will nouther keepe god waies of iustice and equitie nor kindnes with vs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The great wrongs and vnkindnes done before to vs and our leiges we ponderate, quhilk we haue suffred this long time in vpbearing, mainswering, noundressing of attemptates, so as the bill of the taken of inhalding of bastard Heron and his com|plices in your contrie, quha slue our war|dan vnder trust of daies of meeting for iu|stice, & thereof was filat & ordeint to be de|liuerd, in slaing our liege noblemen, vnder color by your folks, in taking of vthers out of our realme prisonet and chanet by the crags in your cuntrie, withhalding of our wiues legacie promist in your diuerse let|ters for despite of vs, slaughter of Androw Barton by your awn commaund, quha than had naught offended to you nor your lieges vnredrest, and breaking of the amity in that behalfe by your deed, and withhal|ding of our ships and artillarie to your vse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Quharvpon, eft our diuerse requisitions at your wardens, commissiouners, ambas|sadors, & your selfe, ye wrate and als shew by vthers vnto vs, that full redresse suld be made at the said meeting of commissiou|ners, and sa were in hope of reformatioun, or at the lest ye for our sake wald haue des [...]|sted fra inuasioun of our friendes and cou|sings within their awne countries that haue naught offended at you, as we first required you, in fauour of our tender cou|sing the duke of Gelder, quham to destroy and disinherit ye sent your folks, and dud what was in them. And right sa we lately desired for our brother & cousing the maist christen king of France, quham ye haue caused to t [...]e his countrie of Millaine, and now inuades his selfe, quha is with vs in second degree of blude, and hase bene vn|to you kind without offense, and more kin|dar than to vs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Notwithstanding, in defense of his per|son we mon take part, and thereto ye be|cause of vthers, haue giuen occasion to vs and to our lieges in time by past, nouther doing iustlie nor kindlie toward vs, procee|ding alwaies to the vtter destructioun of our neerest friendes, quha mon doo for vs quhan it shall be necessarie; in euill exam|ple that ye will hereafter be better vnto vs, quham ye lightlie fauour, manifestlie wranged your sister for our sake incontra|rie our writs: and saieng to our herauld that we giue you faire wordes, and thinke the cõtrarie. Indeed such it is, we gaue you words as ye dud vs, trusting that ye suld haue emended to vs, or worthin kinder to our frends for our sakes, and suld naugh|tight haue stopped our seruitors passage to labour peax, that they mought as the papes halines exhorted vs by his breuites to do. And therevpon we were contented to haue ouerseene our harmes, and to haue remitted the same, though vther informa|tioun was made to our halie father pape Iulie, by the cardinall of Yorke, your am|bassador.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And sen you haue now put vs fra our gude beleue through the premisses, and speciallie in denieng of safe conduct to our seruants, to resort to your presence, as your ambassador doctor West instantlie desired we suld sende one of our councell vnto you vpon great matters, and appoin|ting of differences debatable betwixt you and vs, furthering of peax if we might, be|twixt the most christén king & you, we ne|uer hard to this purpose safe conduct deni|ed betwixt Infidels. Herefore we write to you this time at length plainesse of our mind, that we require and desire you to de|sist fra farther inuasioun and vtter destruc|tioun of our brother and cousing the maist christen king, to quham by all confederati|oun, blude and alie, and also by new band quhilk you haue compelled vs latelie to take through your iniuries & harmes with out remedie done dailie vnto vs, our lieges and subiects, we are bounden and oblist for mutuall defense ilk of vthers, like as ye & your confederates be oblist for mutuall in|uasiouns and actuall warre.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certifieng you, we will take part in de|fense of our brother and cousing the maist christen king, and will do what thing we truist may cause you to desist fra pursute of him, and for deuit and postponit iustice to our lieges we mon giue letters of marque according to the amitie betwixt you and vs, quharto ye haue had little regard in time by past, as we haue ordaint our he|rauld the bearer heereof to say, gif it like you to heare him and gif him credence. Right excellent, right hie & mightie prince our deerest brother and cousing, the Trini|tie haue you in keeping. Geuen vnder our lignet at Edenburgh the twentie sixt day of Iulie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 King Henrie hauing read the letter, and conside|red thereof with aduise of his councell, sent for the The hera [...]d is sent for. herald againe, and told him that he had read and well perceiued the contents of the letters which he had de|liuered to him, and would make him answer with EEBO page image 297 condition, that he would promise to declare the samé to his maister. Wherevnto Lion made this answer: The heralds [...]er.

Sir, I am his naturall subiect, and he is my natu|rall lord, and what he commandeth me to say, I may boldlie say with fauour; but the commandements of others I may not, nor dare say vnto my souereigne lord. But your letters sent by me, may declare your maisters pleasure, albeit your answer requireth doo|ings and not saiengs, that is, that you immediatlie should returne home. Then said the king: I will re|turne at my pleasure to your damage, and not at thy maisters summons.
And héerewith he caused an answer to be written to the king of Scots, in forme as followeth.

1.6. King Henrie his answer.

King Henrie his answer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 _RIght excellent, right high & migh|tie prince, &c. We haue receiued your writing dated at Edenburgh the twentie sixt day of Iulie, by your herald Lion this bearer, wherein af|ter rehearsall and accumulation of manie surmised iniuries, griefs and dangers doon by vs and our subiects to you and your lie|ges, the specialties whereof were super|fluous to rehearse, remembring that to them and euerie of them in effect reasona|ble answer founded vpon law and consci|ence, hath tofore béene made to you & your councell; ye not onelie require vs to desist from further inuasion and vtter destructi|on of your brother and coosine the French king, but also certifie vs that you will take part in defense of the said king, and that thing which ye trust may rather cause vs to desist from pursute of him, with manie contriued occasions and communications by you causelesse sought & imagined, soun|ding to the breach of the perpetuall peace passed, concluded, and sworne betwixt you and vs, of which your imagined quarrels causelesse deuised to breake to vs, contra|rie to your oth promised, all honor & kind|nesse, we can not maruell; considering the ancient accustomed manners of your pro|genitors, which neuer kept longer faith & promise than pleased them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Howbeit, if the loue and dread of God, nighnesse of bloud, honor of the world, law and reason had bound you, we suppose ye would neuer haue so farre proceeded, speci|allie in our absence. Wherin the pope and all princes christened may well note in you dishonorable demeanour, when ye lieng in wait, seeke the waies to doo that in our said absence, which ye would haue beene well aduised to attempt, we being within our realme and present. And for euident appro|bation héereof, we need none other proofes nor witnesses, but your owne writings heeretofore to vs sent, we being within our realme, wherein ye neuer made mention of taking part with our enimie the French king, but passed the time with vs till after our departure from our said realme. And now percase ye supposing vs so farre from our said realme, to be destitute of defense against your iniasions, haue vttered the old rancour of your mind, which in couert manner ye haue long kept secret.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Neuerthelesse, we remembring the brit|tlenes of your promise, & suspecting though not wholie beleeuing so much vnstedfast|nesse, thought it verie expedient and neces|sarie to put our said realme in a readines for resisting of your said enterprises, ha|uing firme trust in our Lord God, and the righteousnesse of our cause, with the assis|tance of our confederats & alies, we shall be able to resist the malice of schismatiks and their adherents, being by the generall councell expreslie excommunicate and in|terdicted; trusting also in time conuenient to remember our friends, and requite you and our enimies, which by such vnnaturall demeanor haue giuen sufficient cause to the disherison of you and your posteritie for euer, from the possibilitie that ye thinke to haue to the realme, which ye now attempt to inuade.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And if the example of the king of Na|uarre, being excluded from his realme for assistance giuen to the French king, can not restraine you from this vnnaturall dealing; we suppose ye shall haue like assis|tance of the French king, as the king of Nauarre hath now, who is a king with|out a realme, & so the French king peacea|blie suffereth him to continue, wherevnto good regard would be taken. And like as we heretofore touched in this our writing, we need not to make anie further answer to the manifold griefs by you surmised in your letter: forsomuch as if anie law or reason could haue remooued you from your sensuall opinions, ye haue beene manie and oftentimes sufficientlie answered to the same: except onelie to the pretended greefs touching the denieng of our safe conduct to your ambassador last sent vnto vs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whervnto we make this answer, that we had granted the said safe conduct; and if your herald would haue taken the same with him, like as he hath beene accustomed to solicit safe conducts for merchants and others heeretofore, ye might as soone haue had that, as anie other: for we neuer deni|ed safe conduct to anie your lieges to come vnto vs and no further to passe, but we see well, like as your said herald had hertofore made sinister report contrarie to truth, so hath he doone now in this case, as it is manifest and open. Finallie, as touching your requisition to desist from further at|tempting against our enimie the French king, we know you for no competent iudge of so high authoritie to requite vs in that behalfe. Wherfore (God willing) we pur|pose with the aid and assistance of our con|federats and alies to prosecute the same; and as ye doo to vs and our realme, so it shall be remembred and acquited heereaf|ter by the helpe of our Lord & our patrone saint George, who right excellent, right high and mightie prince, &c. Dated vnder our signet in our campe before Tirwine, the twelfth day of August.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 298 This letter being deliuered vnto the Scotish he|rald, he departed with the same into Flanders, there to haue taken ship: but for want of readie pas|sage he staied, and returned not into Scotland till Flodden field was fought, and the king slaine. For king Iames perceiuing all the Englishmens doo|ings to tend vnto war rather than to peace, hauing taken order for the assembling of his people, imme|diatlie after he had sent foorth his herald with com|mandement to denounce the warre, he determined to inuade the English confines, and first before his maine force was come togither, the lord Humes that Englishmen fetched a bootie in Scotland. was lord chamberlaine and warden of Scotland, the thirtéenth day of August, hearing that the English|men had fetched a bootie within the Scotish ground, assembled a power, & followed them into Northum|berland, but yer he could returne he was forelaid [in Broome house, or Broome field] by the Englishmen, which breaking out of their ambushes, put the Sco|tishmen to the woorse, and of them tooke and slue ma|nie.

Fr. Thin. These wars thus begun, the king determined to go to his armie (as it séemeth) not yet fullie assem|bled. Wherevpon comming to Limuch, he went to the church to heare euensong; as the maner was. To whome, after he had entered the chappell, there Buchan. lib. 13. came an old man, whose heare was somewhat yel|lowish red, hanging downe vpon his shoulders, his forehead high with baldnesse, bare headed, hauing his bodie couered with a blewish garment, girded with white, and verie reuerent in his countenance. This man séeking the king, passed through the com|panie standing there, and drew neere to the king. Who being now come vnto him (and with a certeine rude behauiour, leaning vpon the seat wherein the king was placed) in homelie sort saied vnto him:

King Iames sent vnto thée, to giue thee admonish|ment that thou hasten not forward to the place which thou hast determined: which warning if thou doost despise, it shall succeed ill with thée, and with all such as shall attend vpon thée. Further I am comman|ded to giue thée intelligence before hand, that thou es|chue the familiaritie, custome, or counsell of women, and if thou dooest otherwise, it shall succéed to thy hurt and reproch.
After which thus spoken, he ming|led himselfe with the other companie, neither could after be found (the euensong being ended) when he was sought for by the king: for he was neuer séene after that he had thus deliuered his message. Which séemed the more strange, because that manie which stood néere him (marking all his order, and desirous to haue heard more things from him) could not per|ceiue his departure; amongest which persons (of those that meant to haue asked him further questi|ons) Dauid Lindseie (a man of approoued credit and vertue, verie well learned, and whose life was far estranged from lieng and falshood) was one, who told this same to me (saith Buchanan) as a thing most certeine; or else I would haue ouerpassed it as a fa|ble caried about by common report.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time was the whole power of Scot|land King Iames approched néere vnto England with his power. assembled, with the which king Iames appro|ching to the borders, and nothing abashed with the euill lucke thus at the beginning chanced to his peo|ple, purposed with greater aduantage of victorie to recouer that detriment; and herevpon he made such hast, that he would not staie for the whole power of his realme, which was in preparing to come forward The king of Scots made too much hast. vnto him; but comming to the borders, he passed o|uer the water of Twéed the two and twentith of Au|gust, and entered into England, lodging that night at Wesilham néere to the riuer of Tuisell, and the next day laid siege vnto the castell of Norham, and within shortspace wan the Braies, ouerthrew the Norham. The Braies. Barnekine, & slue diuerse within the castell, so that Barnekine. the capteine and such as had charge within it, desired the king to delaie the siege, while they might send to the earle of Surreie alreadie come with an armie into the north parts, couenanting if they were not rescued by the ninetéenth day of that moneth, they should deliuer the castell vnto the king. This was granted: and because none came within the time to the rescue, the castell was deliuered at the appoin|ted day; a great part of it was ouerthrowne and beaten downe. After this he wan the castels of Fourd and Etell, & diuerse other places of strength, Fourd and Etell taken. of which, part were ouerthrowne. He also tooke ma|nie prisoners, and sent them away into Scotland, and diuerse he assured: and thus he abode an eigh|téene daies within England, till two parts of his armie were scaled & departed home from him, which they did vpon this occasion.

Fr. Thin. The king was determined & persuaded to haue besieged Berwike (beyond which he was now pas|sed) since the same alone was more honor (than all the other places besides) if they wan it; the taking Buchan. li. 13. whereof they supposed not to be verie hard, because they were sure that the towne and castell were vn|furnished of all things for the defense thereof. Wherevpon, the king (deeming nothing too hard for his armie, especiallie, since the English were set on woorke as much as they might in the French wars) being nourished in that vanitie (by his flattering courtiers) did leaue the same vndoone at this time, meaning in his returne easilie to haue obteined it. But as they were yet at Foord, a herald of the Eng|lish came vnto them, requiring that they would ap|point a day and place, where and when both the ar|mies might ioine in battell. Wherevpon, there was a councell called amongest the Scots, in which it was agréed by the greater part, that the Scots should returne home into their countrie, least with so small a companie they might hazard the state of the whole countrie; especiallie, since that they had al|readie sufficientlie obteined fame, glorie and riches, and to the vttermost satisfied the band of amitie with the French; for there was no iust cause, why they for number (so few) and for trauell (in ouerthrowing so manie forts) so much weakened, should now againe be laid open to so great a multitude of the English dailie increasing with succors. For it was said at that time; that Thomas Haward brought into the field (besides the rest of his armie) 6000 of chosen and valiant souldiers from the English campe (in France) before Turweine.

To which persuasion (to make the matter more strange) it was further added, that if the king did depart; the English host of necessitie must be dissol|ued, and could not that yeare againe be repared, be|cause their souldiers were fet from the furthest parts of the realme; and that if the king would needs fight, that he then should doo it in his owne realme, kée|ping the time & place in his power alwaies to be ap|pointed. But when the French ambassador (and cer|teine other, fed with the French pensions) labored to the contrarie; the king being by nature fierce, and gréedie of warre, was easilie persuaded to abide his enimie in that place. In the meane time, when the English came not foorth (at the day appointed to them by the herald, which before had béene with the Scots) the noblemen of Scotland, taking occasion thereof, did afresh go to the king, declaring that their not comming to battell was onelie a traine and deceipt, deferring the matter from day to day, to the end that their force might be increased, and the Scots diminished.

Wherefore said they, we should vse the like policie against them. For since they haue not attended the EEBO page image 299 time prescribed vnto them, it is no shame to the Scots to returne into their countrie without bat|tell, or to fight within their owne limits. Of both which, the surer counsell were to follow the first; which if it be not liked, the [...] is there good occasion offered to execute the other. For [...]ce the riuer of [...] (ha|uing hi [...] banks) is not passable, but at certei [...] mi [...]es hence (excep [...] be by a bridge) some few may there resist a great multitude. Besides which, when a part of the English armie is passed the bridge, the same bridge maie easilie (by engins placed therefore) be cut in sunder; so that there shall not be passage for anie more: by means whereof, the one part of them shall be subdued on the one side of this riuer, before that anie aid can come vnto them from the other banke. The king liked neither of these deuises and persua|sions; but answered, that he would not suffer the English to depart (vnfoughten with) although there were an 100000 against him. At which rash answer, the whole nobilitie was gréeuouslie offended.

Wherevpon Archembald Dowglas earle of An|gus (which farre excelled all the others both in yéeres and authoritie) laboured to turne the kings mind with all gentle persuasions, and began to make a more ample discourse vpon the two former coun|sels giuen by the nobilitie. For he shewed that the king had fullie sa [...]isfied the request of the French, in that he had now turned the greatest part of the Eng|lish armie before bent against the French, against himselfe and his owne people; and had so wrought, that those great armies should neither hurt France nor doo anie iniurie vnto the Scots, sith they were not able long to remaine in campe in those cold places, and in a barren countrie vnfurnished of all things (by the calamities of the last warres) and in which there was no corne; and if there were, it could not be ripened (the winter comming on so fast) in those northerne parts of the realme.

And where the French ambassador dooth so much vrge vs vnto the battell, I suppose that the same should not seeme either new or strange vnto vs, that a strange man (which dooth not respect the common euill of the realme, but the priuat commoditie of his owne nation) be ouer lauish in powring out the bloud of other men. Besides which, his request is o|uer impudent, to demand of the Scots that which the French king (a man of singular experience and wisedome) dooth not iudge conuenient for his owne kingdome or dignitie, if we be ouerthrowne. Nei|ther should the losse of his host séeme more light vn|to him (although we are few in number) bicause that all they of Scotland (which excell in force, authoritie or counsell) are assembled here togither, who being slaine, the rest of the realme would soone be a preie to the victor. What? Is it more safe for vs, and more profitable to the eschewing of all danger, for him to fight at this present? No trulie. For if Lewes doo suppose, that the English (by imagined meanes) may be either made needie of monie, or else weried by de|laie; what can be doone more necessarie for the pre|sent state of things, than to compell the enimie to diuide his armie, to the end that we may ease the weight of warre against the French by one part of the host to be sent against vs, and still to hold them plaie as it were alwaies to kéepe them readie to set vpon vs, & by remoouing to giue them cause to folow vs? For so I suppose shall the glorie and shew (which these men I feare rather valiant in words than déeds, doo with their rashnesse so much pretend) be ful|lie answered. For what can happen more honorable to the king, than that we (by the ouerthrow of so ma|nie castels, by the spoile of so manie countries with sword and fire, and by the driuing home of so great booties and preies) haue doone that iniurie to them, as that their countrie shall not by the peace of ma|nie yéeres recouer hir former estate? What greater profit may we looke for by warre, than in so great tumult of warres, with great praise and honor to vs, and with shame and reproch to our enimies, to ob|teine quiet, ioined with gaine and glorie for the re|freshing of our selues? Which kind of victorie (that is gotten more by words than by swords) ch [...]e belongeth to men, and of men speciallie to the lea|ders and capteins, as such a glorie whereof the com|mon souldiers may not challenge anie part.

Which being thus spoken by earle Dowglas, although all they which were present séemed (by their countenance) to giue consent thereto: yet the king (who had with other bound himselfe to [...]ight with the English) receiued these counsels with contrarie eares; and in heat commanded Dowglas to de|part home, if he were afraid of the enimie. Where|vpon he (conceiuing some vnkindnesse, and inward|lie beholding wherevnto all these things would come by the kings rashnesse) foorthwith burst out in teares. After which (as soone as he could settle him|selfe thereto) he spake these few words.

If (said he) my former life did not cleare me from the reproch of a coward, I know not with what reason or persua|sion I might cleare or defend my selfe. For trulie so long as this my bodie was able to susteine anie la|bor, I neuer spared to spend the same in the defense of my countries helpe, and my souereignes honor. But since I sée their eares to exclude my counsell (which is the onelie thing wherewith I can now be profitable) I here leaue my two sonnes (who next vnto my countrie are most deare to me) and the rest of my kinred (of whom I greatlie account) as a cer|teine pledge of the truth and loue of my mind to|wards thée, and the common helpe of my countrie. And I pray God that he make this feare of mine to be false, and that I may rather be counted a lieng prophet, than behold those things which I feare will happen vnto vs.
Which words when the Dowglas had said to the king, he departed thence with his companie. The rest of the nobilitie (bicause they saw they could not draw the king to their mind) tooke that place for battell which was next vnto them, to the end (séeing they were much inferior in number to their enimies, for there were 26000 fighting men in the English armie, as it was knowne by the scouts) to defend themselues with the benefit of the place, and therevpon got the hill next vnto their campe.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In which meane time, the earle of Surrie, lieu|tenant The power of the north coun trie raised. to the king of England, hauing raised all the power of the north parts of England, came with the same towards the place where he heard that king Iames was incamped, and approching within thrée The English campe in si [...]ht of the Scotish campe. miles of the Scotish campe in full sight of the Sco|tishmen, pitcht downe his tents, and incamped with his whole armie. Although king Iames had great desire to fight with his enimies thus lodged in full view of his campe; yet bicause he was incamped in a place of great aduantage, so as the enimies could not approch to fight with him, but with great losse and danger to cast themselues away, he thought good to kéepe his ground, speciallie bicause all those of King Iames was minded to kéepe his ground. the nobilitie, who were knowne to be of experience, did not hold with their aduise that counselled him to giue battell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At what time the earle of Surrie had sent an of|ficer Paulus Iouius. at armes vnto him, requiring him to come foorth of his strength vnto some indifferent ground, where he would be readie to incounter him, & name|lie The earle of Huntleie his counsell. the earle of Huntleie, a man for his high valian|cie ioined with wisedome and policie, had in most re|putation of all the residue, affirmed in plaine words [besides that which Dowglasse had before said] that F [...]. T [...]in. EEBO page image 300 nothing could be either more fond or foolish, than to fight at pleasure of the enimie, and to set all on a maine chance at his will and appointment, and ther|fore it should be good for them to remaine there in place of aduantage, and with prolonging the time to trifle with the enimie, in whose campe there was al|readie His persua|sions. great scarsitie of vittels, neither was it possi|ble that they should be vittelled from the inner parts of the realme, by reason of the cumbersome waies for cariage to passe now after such abundance of continuall raine as of late was fallen, and not l [...]e as yet to ceasse, so that in sitting still and attemp|ting nothing rashlie without aduisement, the king should haue his enimies at his pleasure, as vanqui|shed without stroke striken through disaduantage of the place, and lacke of vittels to susteine their lan|guishing bodies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And suerlie beside the want of vittels, the foule and euill weather sore annoied both parties; for there Foule wea|ther. had not beene one faire day, no scarse one houre of faire weather of all the time the Scotish armie had lien within England, but great cold, wind & raine, which had not onelie caused manie of the Scots to returne home, but also sore vexed the Englishmen, as well in their iournie thitherwards, as also while they lay in campe against the Scotish armie. There was sending of messengers betwixt them to and fro, and the king had sent his quarell in writing vn|the earle of Surrie by his herald Ilaie the night be|fore the battell, conteining as followeth.