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TO THE RIGHT VVORSHIPFVL Maiſter Thomas Secford Eſquier and Maiſter of the Requeſtes, William Hariſon vvisheth all knovvledge of God, with dayly increaſe of his giftes at this preſent, and in the worlde to come life euerlaſting.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 _HAuing by your ſingular curteſie receyued great helpe in my deſcription of the riuers and ſtreames of Britain, and by conference of my trauaile vvith the platformes of thoſe fevv ſhires of England vvhich are by your infi|nite charges alreadie finiſhed (as the reſt ſhall be in time by Gods helpe, for the ineſtimable benefite of ſuche as inhabite this Ilande) not a little pulliſhed thoſe rough courſes of diuerſe vvaters not exactly before time de|ſcribed by Leland our Countreyman, or any auncient vvriter, I coulde not deuiſe anye thing more agreable vvith mine abilitie & your good nature (vvhich great|ly fauoureth anye thing that is done for a commoditie vnto many) than to ſhevv ſome token of my thankefulneſſe for theſe your manifold kindneſſes, by the dedication of my ſimple tranſlation of the deſcription of Scotland at this tyme vnto your vvorſhip. In deede the trauaile taken herein is not great, by|cauſe I tie not my tranſlation vnto his letter, neither the treatiſe of it ſelfe ſuch, as ta|keth vp any huge rovvme in the volume of this Chronicle. But ſuch as it is, & vvhat ſoeuer it is, I yeeld it vvholy vnto you, as a teſtimonie of my good vvill, vvhich de|teſteth vtterly to receyue any benefit though it be neuer ſo ſmal, and not to be thank|full for it. Certes my vocation is ſuch, as calleth me to a farre other kind of ſtudie, ſo that I exerciſe theſe things onely for recreation ſake: and to ſay the truth, it is muche vnſitting for him that profeſſeth Diuinitie, to applie his time any other vviſe vnto contemplation of ciuill Hiſtories. And this is the cauſe vvherfore I haue choſen ra|ther, onely vvith the loſſe of three or foure dayes to tranſlate Hector out of the Scot|tiſh (a tongue verie like vnto ours) than vvith more expence of time to diuiſe a nevve, or follovv the Latin copie, vvhich is farre more large and copious. Hovv excellently if you conſider the arte, Boethus hath penned it and the reſt of his Hiſtorie in the La|tin, the skilfull are not ignorant: but hovv profitably and compendiouſly Iohn Bel|lendon Archdeacon of Murrey his interpretour hath turned him from the Latin into the Scottiſh tongue, there are verie fevve Engliſh men that knovv, bycauſe vve want the bookes. VVherefore ſith the learned reade him in his ovvne ſtile, and his Coun|treymen in their naturall language, vvhy ſhould not vve borovv his deſcription and read the ſame in Engliſh likevviſe, ſith the knovvledge thereof may redounde to the great benefit of ſo many as heare or read the ſame. Accept therefore (right vvorſhip|full) this my ſimple offer, and although I aſſure my ſelfe, your naturall inclination to be ſuch, as that it vvill take nothing in ill part that is vvell meant tovvard you, hovve rudely ſoeuer it bee handled in the doing, yet I vvill not let to craue pardon for my preſumption, in that I dare be ſo bold as to offer ſuch a trifle vnto you, whom more vveightie affayres doe dayly call from things of ſo ſmall impor|taunce. Almightie God keepe your vvorſhip from time to time in his feare, and bleſſe you and my good Ladie your vvife, vvith ſuch increaſe of his benefites, as may moſt redounde to his glorie, and your ovvne ad|uauntage.

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1.1. ¶The boundes of Albion with the ſundry commodities thereof, and of the great infirmities that fall vnto the people there for their intemperancy, and finally of the Religion vſed there in old tyme. Chap. 1.

¶The boundes of Albion with the ſundry commodities thereof, and of the great infirmities that fall vnto the people there for their intemperancy, and finally of the Religion vſed there in old tyme. Chap. 1.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 _THe Ile of Albion contayneth in the whole circũference two thouſande myles, hauing in length 700. and in breadth 300. as appeareth well by the coaſt therof that lieth ouer a|gaynſt Fraunce where it is broadeſt, and from whence it gathereth narrower and narrower, till it come to the vtter Marches & laſt boundes of England and Scotland. For betwixte the M [...]le of Galloway that is on the weſt ſide ouer againſt the Iriſh ſeas, and Saint Ebbes head, that lieth vpon the Germaine Ocean towarde the eaſt, are ſcarcely 130. myles, and thenceforth it groweth ſmaller and ſmaller till it touch vpõ the North ſeas, where it is not aboue 30. miles, as I noted before in the deſcriptiõ of Brytaine. This Ile is repleniſhed with people, horſes, and all other kindes of cattell and corne in moſte aboundant maner, except it be in ſuche places where as God of his ſingular goodneſſe [...] otherwiſe indued the ſoyle with ritche mynes of Gold, Siluer, Tinne, Braſſe, Copper, & quick|ſiluer, whiche for the moſt parte are ſo plentiful, that they ſuffiſe not onely for the neceſſaries of the whole Iland, but alſo of ſundry regiõs that are ſituate round aboute it, if the inhabitauntes were ſkilfull and painefull to deale withall ac|cordingly. But the abundaunce of all other things requiſite for the vſe of man, that is found generally in our Iland, maketh the people leſſe carefull of theſe commodities, and more gyuen to idleneſſe. For beſide the great plenty of thoſe things whiche heauen and earth do miniſter, as graſſe, corne, and cattell, and foules of ſundry kindes, there is ſuche ſtore of fiſhe in all parties of our ſeas, eſpecially towarde the North, that the ſame would ſuffiſe to feede and ſuſtayne all the people of the Iland, if there were none other commodities to be found within the ſame. For the inhabitants of all countries that border vpõ vs, as Fraunce, Flaunders, Zealande, Hol|lande, and a great part of Germany (eſpecially thoſe whiche lie neare vnto the coaſt) do ſayle hither with great numbers of veſſels dayly to fiſhe vpon our coaſts, and buie ſuch as we haue already caught, not only for their owne vſe, but alſo for the Lenton prouiſion of ſuch nations as lie vpon the Leuant ſeas, where they ſell the ſame at theyr owne willes, with very ſpeedy vtterance. Many other riche and precious cõ|modities are to be gotten in the ſayd Ile, wher|of the aforenamed nations do make no ſmall accompte; beſide theſe common things. What ſhall I ſay of our wolles, Dionyſius A|lexanotinus ſaith that the wool of Bri|taine is often ſponne ſo fine that it is in manner com|parable to the ſpyders draught. whiche are in ſo high eſtimation in all landes, bicauſe of their neceſ|ſary vſes, and wherof a great part is ſo fine, and ſofte, that of it are made, the coſtly ſkarlettes, pliaunt gloues, and many other grayned and delicate clothes, of whiche I thought good to make this mention, bycauſe the reporte thereof is not yet made common and generally knowẽ to all men.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Certes this I dare boldly affirme, that if the kingdomes of Brytaine had ſuche grace giuen them from aboue as they they might once liue in vnitie, or by any meanes be brought vnder the ſubiectiõ of one Prince, they ſhould ere long feele ſuch a ſauour in this amity, that they wold not onely liue frankly of their owne, without a|ny forain purchaſe of things, but alſo reſiſt all outward inuaſion, with ſmal trauayle and leſſe dammage. For as touching their perſons, and likewiſe theyr notable wittes, apt bothe for the attayning of learnyng and knowledge of han|dycraftes, they are inferiour to no other nation.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 Therevnto we finde them to be couragious and hardy, offering themſelues often vnto the vttermoſt perils with great aſſurance, ſo that a man may pronounce nothing to be ouer harde or paſt their power to performe, if they woulde giue themſelues to liue temperately, and follow their predeceſſors in moderation of diet. Ther|fore it (is as I thinke) that almighty God in his prouidente diſpoſition of al things, hath ordey|ned their groundes (otherwiſe plentifully indued with all kindes of commodities) to be deſtitute and voyde of wine, as forſeeing that the ſayde liquor whiche bringeth greateſt benefite vnto o|ther countries, woulde come in the ende to be moſt pernicious and noyſome vnto them. For they are giuen to ſuch vnnatural rauening and greedy deſire of forraine thinges (whileſt they contempne or not regarde their owne) that they cannot refrayne the immoderate vſe of Wine, and exceſſe vſed in drinking of the ſame: In ſo much that we may ſee diuers to be ouertaken & haũted, not only with ſundry kinds of grituous maladies common to vs & them of the mayne, but alſo many other whiche they haue not, ney|ther be any thing at all acquainted, with as ex|periẽce dayly teacheth. Some by long ſickneſſe and languiſhing greefes do grow into ſuche de|formitie only thorow exceſſiue feeding, & greedy abuſe of wine, that if you knew them whẽ they were children and young men, you ſhall hardly remember them when they be old and aged: and that which more is in compariſon of other that EEBO page image 2 liue more ſoberly, you will hardly thinke thẽ to be borne in the Ile, but rather ſuppoſe them to be chaungelings and monſters, brought out of other countries to gaze & looke vpon: diuerſe of them thorow the cõtinuall vſe of wine, are mo|leſted in their age, with phreneticall pangs and paſſions? ſeldome alſo ſhal you ſee thoſe that are giuen much vnto wine and ſuch welfare, to be|come parents of many children, ſith their natu|rall moyſture and generatiue force, is much a|bated, if not altogither extinguiſhed by ſuch im|moderate diet. But to returne to our purpoſe, the Albanes or Brytons, as Ceſar in his Com|mentaries, & Tacitus in his Annales do report, were very religious, after the maner of religion vſed in old time. For in thoſe dayes the Prieſts of Brytaine named Druides, were very expert both in naturall and Morall Philoſophy, and from thence came the firſt profeſſors of that ſect and opinion into Fraunce. The principall ſeat alſo of their Prieſtes was in the Ile of Man, whiche was reputed at that ſeaſon, for the wel-ſpring and foũtayne of all learning and know|ledge, and after that their Prieſtes were ones conuerted to the Catholike fayth, they perſe|uered in the ſame with great conſtancie, with|out any note of Hereſie.

1.2. The deſcription of the Eaſt weſt and middle bor|ders of Scotland, with the moſt notable townes and flouds therof. Chap. 2.

The deſcription of the Eaſt weſt and middle bor|ders of Scotland, with the moſt notable townes and flouds therof. Chap. 2.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THe Pictes had ſometimes the principall & moſt fertile parte of that countrey, whiche now is vnder the regiment of the Scottes, and after they had cõtinued in the ſame by the ſpace of .1171. yeares, ioyned in maner in perpetuall league with the Scots, & mainteining mutual|ly the warres ſometimes with the Brytaines & Romaines, & ſometimes alſo iarring with their Scottiſh neighbours, at the laſt they fel into ex|treme hatred one wt another, till it was brought to paſſe by the diuine prouidence, that the ſayde Pictes were ouerthrowen, their name extin|guiſhed, & the kingdome vnited vnto that other of the Scots for euermore. After this time fur|thermore, although the Scottes haue bene very oftentimes aſſayled with moſt daungerous and terrible warres & oftẽtimes inuaded by enimies from diuers regions, yet ſuch hath bene the fa|uour of almighty God towards them, that ſtill they flouriſh & retaine theyr eſtate inuiolate.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Whatſoeuer wee haue generally ſpoken of Albion, that is chiefly to be vnderſtanded of the Scottes, & farre greater, eſpecially among the Scottes, as they call them in the high lande, as people that haue leſſe to do with forraine Mer|chants, & therfore are leſſe delicate, & not ſomuch corrupted with ſtrange bloud and alliaunce. Hereby in like ſorte it cõmeth to paſſe, that they are more harde of conſtitution of body, to beare off the colde blaſtes, to watche better, & abſteyne long, wherevnto alſo it appeareth that they are bolde, nimble, and thereto more ſkilfull in the warres. As for their faith & promiſe, they holde it with greateſt conſtancie, as Hector hath ſet downe. Towardes the Almaine ſea, I find, that Scotland hath the Mers, ſometime the moſte plenteous region of the Pictes for their marche, which ſo long as the ſayd people did inhabite it, was called Deera, or Dere, but after their ex|pulſion it was named Mers, that is to ſay, the Merches or limites of their coũtrey. In proceſſe of time alſo the Scottes extended their boundes euen vnto ye Twede, which now diuideth Nor|thumberlande from the Mers. On the other ſide of the countrey towarde the Weſt, ſundry ſmall bournes deſcend from the Cheriot hilles, & other mountaynes lying thereabout into the Solue, diuiding Cumberlãd from Annandale, & ſo being brought into one chanel, they fall togi|ther into the Iriſhe Ocean, and ſtande for the bounds of Scotland vpõ that halfe of the coun|trey. The Cheriot hilles are in like ſorte taken for the middle Marches of the region, whiche with certaine ſmal brokes that fall frõ theſame, do ſeparate both the countries, whereby their li|mites art knowen. The Mers hath vnder mar|ches at ſeueral places (whether it is extended) as ſometime the Germayne ſea, ſometime Eaſt Lowthian, ſomtime the Twede, & ſomtime the Forth, & among many ſtrong holds & Caſtels, that ſtand vpon the borders, is the towne & Ca|ſtell of Barwijck in time paſte called Ordolu|cium, as the inhabitantes are called Ordoluci (if Hector be not deceiued.) The Twede ſpringeth out from a meane head, and after his augmẽta|tion, with other ſmall waters that fall into the ſame, it deſcendeth with a large courſe into the Almayne ſea. Beyond ye Twede, to the middle March vnder the Cheriot hilles lieth Teuidale, that is to ſay, the vale of Tiffe: Beyond it is Eſkedale, or the vale of Eſke, of a riuer ſo cal|led that runneth thorow the ſame: ouer againſt Eſkedale on the other ſide lieth Euſdale, ſo na|med of the riuer Eus that paſſeth thereby, & fal|leth into the water of Annande: But Tif and Eſke do runne into the Twede: furthermore on the weſt ſide ouer againſt ye Iriſh ſea, lieth An|nandale, wherevnto the Annand water giueth denomination, which marcheth ſomtimes with out the boũdes of Niddeſdale, where al the three riuers aforeſayd, that is to ſay, Eus, Annand & Sulway deſcende togither in one bottome into the Iriſh ſeas.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In Annãdale is a Loch or lake named Loch|maben .5. miles in lẽgth & 4. in breadth, not only EEBO page image 3 very ful of fiſh, but of ſuch kinde as few men are ac|quainted with. Beſide this lake alſo there is a ca|ſtell of ye ſame name builded of purpoſe to reſtraine the furious dealing of theeues whiche do great hurt in thoſe quarters. For not only in Anandale, but in all the Dales or Vales afore rehearſed, are many ſtrong theeues, which often ſpoile the countrey, and exerciſe much cruel ſlaughter vpon ſuch as inhabite there in any troublous time. Theſe robbers (bicauſe the Engliſh do border vpõ their dry marches, & are their perpetual enimies) do oftẽ make forcible rodes into the Engliſh boundes, for their better mainte|naunce & ſuſtẽtation, or els they pilfer priuily from them, as men leading in the meane ſeaſon a poore beggerly & very miſerable life. In the time of peace alſo, they are ſo inured to theft and rapine, that they cãnot leaue off to ſteale at home: & notwithſtãding that they be often very ſore handled therefore, yet they thinke it prayſe worthy to moleſt their aduer|ſaries, as they cal the truer ſorte, whereby it cõmeth to paſſe, yt many riche & fertile places of Scotlãd lie waſt & voyde of culture for feare of their inuaſion.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Not far from the Sulway (a water where great plenty of fiſh is to be had) are many quicke ſandes, & thoſe ſo perillous that no man may well go ouer the ſame, but with great difficultie & daunger of his life. This vale of Annand was ſomtime called Or|douitia, & the people thereof Ordouices, whoſe aun|cient barbarouſneſſe is reported to be ſuche, that in times paſt they refuſed not to kill and eate ſuch pri|ſoners as had yeelded themſelues vnto them. The very womẽ in like ſort would ſlea their huſbands, if at any time they fled frõ the field, and returned to their houſes, only to giue occaſion vnto other mẽ to ſtand to their tacklings at euery ſuch aduenture.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 On the Weſt borders & toward the North lieth Niddeſdale, ſo called of the water of Nidde. It be|ginneth with a very narrow courſe, and increaſing broder in the middle marches of Scotland, it final|ly reſtrayneth it ſelf againe, till it cõmeth at the ſea, whether it runneth with a ſwift courſe, as ye Scot|tiſh writers do report. In this vale ſtãdeth a towne named Dunfriſe, wherein many fine clothes eſpe|cially whites are made, which are brought vp & ca|ried into England, Fraunce, Flaũders & Germany where they are had in great price and eſtimation.

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Compare 1577 edition: 1 Indeed the trauell taken heerein is not great, bicause I tie not my translation vnto his letter, neither the treatise of it selfe such, as ta|keth vp any huge roome in the volume of this chronicle. But such as it is, and whatsoeuer it is, I yeeld it wholie vnto you, as a testimonie of my good will, which detesteth vtterlie to receiue a|ny benefit, though it be neuer so small, and not to be thankfull for it Certes my vocation is such, as calleth me to a farre other kind of studie, so that I exercise these things onlie for recreation sake, & to saie the truth, it is much vnsitting for him that professeth Diui|nitie, to applie his time any otherwise vnto contemplation of ciuill histories. And this is the cause wherfore I haue chosen rather, on|lie EEBO page image 4 with the losse of three or foure daies to translate Hector out of the Scotish (a toong verie like vnto ours) than with more ex|pense of time to deuise a new, or follow the Latine copie, which is far more large and copious. How excellentlie if you consider the art, Boetius hath penned it, and the rest of his historie in Latine, the skilfull are not ignorant: but how profitablie and compendi|ouslie Iohn Bellenden archdeacon of Murrey his interpretor hath turned him from the Latine into the Scotish toong, there are ve|rie few Englishmen that know, bicause we want the books.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherefore sith the learned read him in his owne stile, and his countrimen in their naturall language, why should not we borow his description, and read the same in English likewise, sith the kno|ledge therof may redound to the great benefit of so manie as read or heare the same? Accept therefore (right worshipfull) this my simple offer, and although I assure my selfe, your naturall inclina|tion to be such, as that it will take nothing in ill part that is well meant toward you, how rudelie soeuer it be handled in the doing, yet I will not let to craue pardon for my presumption, in that I dare be so bold as to offer such a trifle to you, whom more weigh|tie affaires doo dailie call from things of so small importance. Almightie God keepe your worship from time to time in his feare, and blesse you and my good ladie your wife with such increase of his benefits, as may most redound to his glorie, & your own ad|uantage.

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The contents of the chapters conteined in this booke.

    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • 1 _OF the bounds of Albion, with the sundrie commodities thereof, and of the great infirmities that fall vnto the people there for their intemperan|cie: and finallie of the religion vsed there in old time.
  • 2 The description of the east, west, and middle borders of Scotland, with the most notable townes and flouds thereof.
  • 3 The description of Gallowaie, Kile, Carricke, and Cunningham, with the nota|ble townes, lakes, and riuers in the same.
  • 4 The situation of Renfrew, Cliddesdale, Lennox, Lowmund, Argile, Loughqua|ber, Lorne and Kentire, with all the notable things conteined in the same.
  • 5 Of Rosse, Stranauerne, and Murrey land, with such lakes and riuers as are to bee touched there.
  • 6 Of Boene, Anze, Buquhane, Mar, Mernes, Fiffe & Angus, with the lakes, flouds, abbeis, townes, and other notable commodities there to be seene and found.
  • 7 Of Louthian, Striuelin, Menteith, Calidon wood, Bowgewall, Gareoth, with the notable cities, castels and flouds thereof.
  • 8 Of the great plentie of hares, harts, and other wild beasts in Scotland, also of the strange nature of sundrie Scotish dogs, and of the nature of salmon.
  • 9 Of sundrie kinds of muskles and cockles in Scotland, and pearles gotten in the same. Of vncouth and strange fish there to be seene, and of the nature of the herbe Citisus, commonlie called Hadder.
  • 10 Of the Iles of Scotland, and such notable things as are to be found in them.
  • 11 Of the nature of their Claike geese, and diuerse maner of their procreation, and of the Ile of Thule.
  • 12 The description of Orkeney, and Shetland, with other sundrie small Iles, and of the maners and conditions of the people dwelling in the same.
  • 13 Of the maners of the Scots in these daies, and their comparison with the beha|uiour of the old and such as liued long since within this Iland.
  • 14 The description of an ancient Pict, and such as dwelled beyond the wall of Hadrian.
  • 15 Of bishoprikes, vniuersities, and counties in Scotland.