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5.104. Harolde.


[figure appears here on page 282]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Harold. King Edwarde departed this life An. chriſt. 1065. after the account of the church of Eng|land.KIng Ed|warde bee|ing thus de|parted this life the Peeres of the lande were in great doubt and perplexitie to whom they might beſt cõ|mit the royall gouernmẽt of the realm.Mat. VVeſt. Polidor. For ther was not any a|mong them that had iuſt title thereto, or able and apt to take the charge vpõ him: for although Ed|gar ſurnamed Edcling,Ede [...] the [...] [...]d hath one [...] [...] is come of the kings bloud. the ſonne of Edward the Outlaw, that was ſonne of Edmond Ironſide, was the ſame time lately come into Englande, with his mother and ſiſters oute of Hungarie where he was borne: yet for that hee was but a child, and not of ſufficient age to beare rule, they durſt not as then commit the gouernment of the realme vnto him, leaſt (as ſome haue thought) his tenderneſſe of age might firſt breed a contempt of his perſon, and therewith miniſter occaſion to ci|uil diſcord, wherby a ſhipwrak of the eſtate might to the great annoy and preſent ouerthrow of ſuch enſue, as then liued in the ſame. But what conſi|deration ſo euer they had in this behalf, they ought not to haue defranded the yong Gentleman of his lawfull right to the Crowne. For as we haue heard and ſeene, God whoſe prouidence & migh|tie power is ſhewed by ouerthrowing of high and mightie things now and then, by the weake and feeble hath gouerned ſtates and kingdoms often|times in as good quiet and princely policie by a childe, as by menne of rype age and greate diſ|cretion.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 But to the purpoſe, beſide the doubt whiche reſted among the Lordes, howe to beſtowe the Crowne, the manifold and ſtraunge wonders which were ſeene and heard in thoſe days, betoke|ning (as men thought) ſome chaunge to bee at hande in the eſtate of the realme, made the Lordes afrayde, and namely bycauſe they ſtode in great doubt of William duke of Normandie, who pre|tended a right to the crowne, as lawful heyre ap|poynted by king Edward, for that he was akinne to him in the ſecõd and third degree.Dukes of Nor|mandie. For Richard the firſt of that name duke of Normandie, begot Richard the ſeconde, and Emme, which Emme bare Edward by hir huſband Ethelred. Richarde the ſecond alſo had iſſue Richard the thirde, and Robert, which Robert by a Concubine had iſſue William, ſurnamed the baſtard, that was nowe Duke of Normandie, and after the death of hys coſin king Edwarde, made clayme (as is ſayde) to the crowne of Englande. Whileſt the Lordes were thus ſtudying and conſulting what ſhoulde be beſt for them to doe in theſe doubtes, Haralde (the ſonne of Goodwin Earle of Kent,Harold pro|claymed king of Englande. proclay|med himſelfe king of England.) The people be|ing not much offended therewith, bycauſe of the great cõfidence and opinion which they had late|ly conceyued of his valiancie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Some write, among which Edmerus is one,Edmerus. how king Edwarde ordeyned before his death, that Harold ſhoulde ſucceed him as heyre to the crowne, and that therevpon the Lordes immedi|ately after the ſayde Edwardes deceaſſe, crowned Harolde for their king, and ſo he was ſacred by Aldred Archb. of Yorke, according to the cuſtome EEBO page image 283 and maner of the former kings, or as other af|fyrme,Mat. VVeſt. he ſet the crowne on his owne head with|out any the accuſtomed ceremonies, in the yeare after the byrth of our ſauiour .1066. or in the yere of Chriſt .1065. after the account of the Church of Englãd (as before is noted.) But how and when|ſoeuer he came to the ſeate royall of this King|dome, certaine it is, that this Harolde in the be|ginning of his raigne, conſidering with him|ſelfe howe and in what ſort hee had taken vppon him the rule of the kingdome, rather by intruſion than by any lawfull right, he ſtudied by all mea|nes which way to winne the peoples fauour,Harold ſeketh to winne the peoples hartes. and omitted no occaſion whereby hee might ſhewe any token of bounteous liberalitie, gentleneſſe, & courteous behauiour towardes them. The grie|nous cuſtoms alſo and taxes which his predeceſ|ſors had rayſed,Sim. Dunel. he either aboliſhed or diminiſhed: the ordinarie wages of his ſeruauntes and men of warre he encreaſed, and further ſhewed hym|ſelfe very well bent to all vertue and godlineſſe, whereby he purchaſed no ſmall good will of ſuch as were his ſubiectes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 An Ambaſſade from Nor|mandie.Whyleſt Harolde went about thus to ſteale the peoples good willes, there came ouer vnloo|ked for ſundrie Ambaſſadours from William [figure appears here on page 283] the baſtarde Duke of Normandie, with com|miſſion to requyre hym to remember his othe ſometime made to the ſayde William in the tyme of his extremitie, whiche was, that hee the ſayde Haralde ſhoulde ayde him in the at|teyning of the Crowne of Englande, if King Edwarde ſhoulde happen to dye withoute iſſue.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 This couenaunt he made (as it is ſuppoſed) in king Edwards dayes, (when by lycence of the ſame Edwarde, or rather (as Edmerus wry|teth) agaynſt his will) he went ouer into Nor|mandie to viſite his brethren, which lay there as pledges:K. Harolds anſwere. howbeit at this preſent, Haroldes ann|ſwere to the ſayde Ambaſſadours was, that hee would be readie to gratifie the Duke in all that he coulde demaunde, ſo that he woulde not aſke the realme, which alredy he had in his full poſſeſſion.Edmerus. And further he declared vnto thẽ (as ſome write) that as for the othe which hee had made in tymes paſt vnto Duke William, the ſame was but a conſtrayned and no voluntarie oth, which in law is nothing,Mat. VVeſt. ſince thereby hee tooke vppon him to graunt that whiche was not in his power to giue, hee beeing but a ſubiect whileſt King Ed|warde was lyuing: for if a promiſed vowe or othe which a Mayde maketh concerning the be|ſtowing of hir bodie in hir fathers houſe without his conſent is made voyde, much more, an othe by him made that was a ſubiecte, and vnder the rule of a king without his ſoueraignes conſent, ought to be voyde and of no value.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He alledged moreouer, that as for him to take an othe to deliuer the inheritaunce of anye Realme withoute the generall conſent of the eſtates of the ſame, coulde not bee other than a greate peece of preſumption, yea althoughe hee might haue iuſt tytle therevnto, ſo it was an vn|reaſonable requeſt of the Duke at this preſent to will him to renounce the Kingdome, the gouer|nance whereof hee had alreadie taken vpon him, with ſo great fauor and good lyking of all men.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Duke William hauing receyued this anſwer,Duke Williã efſoones ſen|deth to king Harolde. and nothing lyking thereof, hee ſendeth once a|gaine to Harolde, requyring him then at the leaſt wiſe, that hee woulde take his daughter to wife, according to his former promiſe, in refuſal wher|of he could make no ſound allegation, bycauſe it was a thing of his owne motion, and in his ab|ſolute power, both to graunt and to perfourme. But Harolde beeing of a ſtoute courage, wyth prowde countenaunce, frowned vpon the Nor|man Ambaſſadors, and declared to them that his minde was nothing bent as then to yeelde there|vnto in any maner of wiſe. And ſo with other talke tending to the like effect he ſent them away without any other anſwere.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The daughter of Duke William which Ha|rold ſhould haue maried, was named Adeliza, as Gemeticenſis hath,Gemeticenſi and with hir (as the ſame au|thour writeth) it was couenanted by Duke Wil|liam that Harold ſhould enioy halfe the Realme in name of hir dower.VVil. Mal. Howbeit ſome write that this daughter of Duke William was departed this life before the cõming of theſe Ambaſſadors, and that Harold therevppon thought himſelf diſ|charged of the oth and couenants made to Duke William, and therefore ſent them away with an vntoward anſwere.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But howſoeuer it was, after the departure of theſe Ambaſſadors,Polidor. king King Harold (doubting what would enſue) cauſed his ſhippes to be new|ly rigged, his men of warre to be muſtred, & ſpee|dily put in a readineſſe, to the ende that if any ſo|daine EEBO page image 284 daine inuaſion ſhould be made and attempted by his enimie, he might be able to reſiſt them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About the ſame time alſo, and vpon the .xxiiij. of Aprill (whileſt Harold was making prouiſion to withſtande the Norman force) there appea|red a blaſing Starre,R. Houed. Sam. Dun. which was ſeene not onely here in Englande, but alſo in other partes of the worlde, which continued the ſpace of .vij. dayes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In this meane while, Toſtie the brother of king Harolde (who in the dayes of king Edward for his crueltie had beene chaſed out of the realme by the Northumbers)

Toſtie ſeeketh to diſquiet his brother.

Mat. VVeſt. hath but .xl.

returning out of Flanders aſſembled a Nauie of ſhippes from diuerſe partes to the number of .lx. with the which he arriued in the Ile of Wight, and there ſpoiled the Country, & afterward ſayling about, by the coaſts of Kent, he tooke ſundrie prayes there alſo,Polidor. Ran. Higd. Simon. Dun. and came at the laſt to Sandwich: So that Harolde was nowe conſtrayned to appoynt the Nauie whiche hee had prepared agaynſt the Normans, to goe a|gaynſt his brother Earle Toſtie: whereof the ſaid Toſtie being aduertiſed, drewe towardes Lynd|ſey in Linconlſhire, and there taking lande did muche hurt in the Countrey, both with ſworde and fire,VVil. Mal. till at length Edwyne Earle of Mer|cia, and Morkarus Earle of Northumberlande, ayded with the Kings nauie, Toſtie repul| [...]ed. Polidor. Ran. Higd. chaſed him from thence, and cauſed him to flee into Scotlande, not withoute ſome loſſe both of his menne and ſhippes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This trouble was vneth quited, when ſtreight wayes another came in the necke thereof, farre more daungerous than the firſt. For Toſtie perceyuing that he coulde get no ayde in Scot|lande to make any account of, he ſayled forth in|to Norway,Harold Har| [...]ager king of Norway. and there perſwaded Harold Harfa|ger king of that Realme, to ſayle with an armie into England, perſwading him, that by meanes of a ciuill diſſention lately kindled betwixt the king and his Lords, (which was not ſo) it ſhould be an eaſie matter for him to make a conqueſt of the whole Realme, and raigne ouer them as his predeceſſors had done before.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Some Authours affyrme, how Harolde king of Norway tooke this enterpriſe in hande of hys owne minde, and not by procurement of Toſtie, ſaying that Toſtie meeting with him in Scot|land,Ma [...]. VVeſt. [...] did perſwade him to go forward in his pur|poſed buſineſſe, and that the ſayde Harolde Har|fager with all conuenient ſpeede paſſed forth,500. [...] Simon Dun. and with a Nauie of three hundred ſayle, entred into the riuer of Tine, where after he had reſted a few dayes to refreſh his people, Erle Toſtie came alſo with his power (according to an appointmet which ſhould be made betwene them.The No [...]e|gians arriue in Humber.) They adde furthermore, that they ſayled forth alongeſt the coaſt, till they arriued in the mouth of Humber, and then drawing vp agaynſt the ſtreame of the riuer Owſe, they landed at length at a place cal|led Richehall, Richehall. H. Hunt. frõ whence they ſet forward to in|uade the Countrey, and neare vnto Yorke on the Northſide of the Citie, they fought with the po|wer of the Northumbers,The Engliſh men diſcom|fited. which was led by the Earles Edwyn and Marchar (two brethren) and there diſcomfited and chaſed them into the Citie, with great ſlaughter and bloudſhed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Harolde King of Englande beeing aduer|tiſed of this chaunce,This battaile was fought on the euen of S. Mathew the Apoſtle [...] hath Simon Dun. hee made the more haſte forwardes (for he was alreadie in the fielde with his armie, intending alſo to come towardes hys enimies) ſo that vpon the fifth day after he came to Stanforde Bridge, finding there the ſayde King Harfager and Toſtie readie embattayled, hee fyrſte aſſayled thoſe that kept the Bridge, where (as ſome Wryters affyrme) a Norwe|gian Souldier with his Axe defended the paſ|ſage,VVil. Mat. Hen Hunt. Mat. VVeſt. maugre the whole hoſt of the Engliſh men, and ſlue fortie of them or more with hys Axe, and might not bee ouercome, till an Engliſhe man went with a Boate vnder the Bridge, and through an hole thereof, thruſt him vppe into the bodie with his Speare: although Mat. Weſtm. noteth that hee was ſlaine with a Dart whiche one of King Harolde his ſeruauntes threwe at him, and ſo ended his life. Which Bridge being wonne, the whole hoſte of the Engliſh men paſ|ſed ouer, and ioyned with theyr enimies,The Norwe|gians diſ|comfited. and after a right great and ſore battayle, put them all to flight.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In this conflicte Harolde Harfager King of the Norwegians was ſlain,The king of Norway and Toſtie ſlaine and ſo likewiſe was Toſtie, the King of Englande hys Brother, [figure appears here on page 284] EEBO page image 285 beſides a great number of other, as well in the battaile as in the chaſe: neyther did the Engliſhe men eſcape all free, for the Norwegians fought it out a long time very ſtoutly,This battaile was fought the .xxv. of September as hath Simon Dun. beating downe and killing great numbers of ſuche as aſſayled them with great courage and aſſuraunce. The reſidue of the Norwegians that were left to kepe theyr ſhippes vnder the guiding of Olaut ſonne to the king of Norway, and Paule Earle of Orkney, after they vnderſtoode by theyr fellowes that eſcaped from the field, how the matter went with Harfagar and Toſtie,Mat. VVeſt. they hoyſed vp their ſayles and directed theyr courſe homewardes, bearing ſorrowfull newes with them into theyr Countrey, of the loſſe of theyr King, and ouer|throwe of all his people.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Some write, that the K. of England permitted them frankly to depart with .xx.Simon Dun. ſhippes, hauing firſt cauſed them to deliuer ſuche Hoſtages as they had receyued of the Citizens of Yorke. But howe ſo euer it was, Harolde, reioyſing in that he had atteyned ſo glorious a victorie, and be|ing nowe ſurpryſed with pryde and couetouſ|neſſe togyther, he deuided the ſpoyle of the fielde nothing equally, Mat. VVeſt. Vnequall de|uiding of the ſpoyle. but to ſuche as he fauoured, hee diſtributed liberally, and to other (though they had muche better deſerued) hee gaue nothing at all, reteyning ſtyll the beſt part of all to himſelfe, by reaſon whereof he loſt the fauor of many of his men, who for this his vncurteſie, did not a little alienate their good willes from him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This done, he repayred to Yorke, and there ſtayed for a time to reforme the diſordered ſtate of the Countrey,VVil. Malm. which by reaſon of theſe warres was greatly out of frame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the meane tyme, William Duke of Nor|mandie (hauing knowledge after what manner king Harolde was buſied in the North parties of his realme, and vnderſtanding that the fouth par|ties thereof remayned without prouiſion of neceſ|ſarie defence) haſted with all diligence to make his purueyance of men and ſhippes, that he might vpon ſuch a conuenient occaſion ſet forward ſo|denly to inuade his enimie. And amongſt other of his friends, vnto whom he laboured forſayde, his father in lawe Baldwine Earle of Flaunders, Ia. Meer. Baldwyn Erle of Flanders ayded Duke William to conquere Eng|lande. was one of the chiefe, who vpon promiſe of great ſummes of money and other large offers made, did ayde him with men, munition, ſhippes, and vittayles very freely.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The French king alſo did as much for hys part as lay in him to helpe forwarde thys ſo high an enterpriſe. Wherefore when all things were now in a readineſſe, hee came to the towne of Saint Valerie, VVil. Geme. The Chroni|cles of Nor|mandie haue 896. ſhippes. where he hadde aſſembles togy|ther an huge Nauie of Shippes (to the num|ber (as ſome Authours affyrme) of three hun|dred ſayle) and when he had taryed there a long time for a conuenable wind, at length it came a|bout euẽ as he himſelf deſired. Then ſhipping his armie which conſiſted of Normans, Flemings, French men, and Britonnes, with all expedi|tion he tooke the Sea, and directing his courſe to|wardes Englande, hee finally landed at a place in Suſſex, aunciently called Peueneſſey the .28.Now Pemſey. Duke William landed at Pemſey. day of September, where he did ſette his men a lande, and prouided all things neceſſarie to en|courage and refreſh them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At his going out of his ſhippe vnto the ſhore, one of his feete ſlipped as he ſtepped forward, but the other ſtacke faſt in the ſande, the whiche ſo ſoone as one of his knightes had eſpied, and ſeeing his hand wherevpon he ſtayed full of earth, when he roſe, he ſpake aloude and ſayde. Now ſir Duke thou haſt the ſoyle of Englande faſt in thy hand, and ſhalt of a duke ere long become a King. The Duke hearing his tale laughed merily thereat, and comming a lande, by and by hee made hys Proclamation, declaring vpon what occaſions he had thus entred the Realme.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The firſt and principall cauſe whiche hee al|ledged was for to chalenge his right,Hen. Hunt. meaning the Dominion of the lande that to him was gyuen and aſſigned (as hee ſayde) by hys Nephew king Edwarde late ruler of the ſame lande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſeconde was, to reuenge the death of hys Nephewe Alvred of Alfred the brother of the ſame King Edwarde, whome Goodwyn Earle of Kent, and his adherents had moſt wic|kedly murthered.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The thirde was, to be reuenged of the wrong done vnto Robert Archebiſhoppe of Canter|burie, who as hee was enfourmed, was exi|led by the meanes and labour of Harolde, in the dayes of King Edwarde. Wherein wee haue to note that whether it were for diſpleaſure that the Pope hadde ſometymes conceyued for the wrong done to the Archebiſhoppe, or at the one|ly ſuyte of Duke William, VVil. Malm. The Pope fa|uoured Duke Williams en|terpriſe. certaine it is that the Pope as then named Alexander the ſe|conde, fauoured thys enterpryſe of the Duke, and in token thereof ſent him a white Banner, whiche hee willed him to ſette vp in the deske of the Shippe, wherein hee hymſelfe ſhoulde ſayle.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In deede (as wryters report) the Pope wyth hys Cardinalles,Mat. VVeſt. and all the whole Courte of Rome, had King Harolde euer in greate hatred and diſdeyne, bycauſe that he had taken vppon hym the Crowne without theyr conſent or any Eccleſiaſticall ſolemnitie or a|greement of the Byſhoppes. And although the Pope, and his brethren the ſayde Ca [...]alles diſſembled the matter for the tyme, yet [...] beholding to what ende hys holde preſumpti|on was like to come, they wyth frowning-for|tune EEBO page image 286 ſhewed themſelues alſo open aduerſaryes, inclyning ſtreyght wayes to the ſtronger part, after the manner of couetous perſones, or ra|ther like to a Reede ſhaken with a ſodaine puft of winde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Gemeticenſis.At hys fyrſt landing at Peueneſſey or Pem|ſey (whether you will) hee fortifyed a peece of ground with ſtrong Trenches, and leauing ther|in a competent number of menne of warre to keepe the ſame, hee ſpeede him towardes Ha|ſtings, and comming thither, he buylt an other Fortreſſe there with all ſpeede poſſible withoute ſuffering his Souldiours to robbe or harry the Countrey adioyning, ſaying that it ſhoulde bee greate folly for him to ſpoyle that people, which ere many dayes to come were lyke to bee hys ſubiectes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 VVil. Mal.King Harolde beeing as yet in the North partes, and hearing that Duke William was thus landed in Englande, hee ſpedde him ſouth|warde, and gathering his people togither out of the Countreys as he went forwardes, at length he came neare to his enimies, and ſending eſpy|als into their Campe to vnderſtande of what ſtrength they were:Mat. VVest. the vnſkilfull meſſengers re|garding ſmally their charge, brought woorde a|gaine of nothing elſe but that all Duke Willi|ams Souldiers were Prieſtes. Normans beards ſhauen. VVil. Mal. Hen. Marle. For the Nor|mans had at that time theyr ouer lyps & cheekes ſhauen, whereas the Engliſhe menne vſed to ſuffer the heare of theyr ouer lyppes to growe at length: but Harolde aunſwered, that they were not Prieſtes, but ſtalwoorth and hardie Souldiours, and ſuche as were like to abide well by their Captaine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Gyrth woulde not haue hys brother king Harold fight himſelfe.In the meane ſeaſon, Girth one of Haroldes yonger brethren (conſidering that periurie is ne|uer left vnpuniſhed) aduyſed his brother not to aduenture himſelfe at this preſent in the battaile, forſomuch as he had beene ſometyme ſworne to Duke William,Gemeticenſis. but rather to ſuffer him and other of the Nobilitye to encounter wyth the ſayde Duke, that were not bounde to him by former othe or otherwiſe: but Harolde aun|ſwered that hee was free from anye ſuche othe, and that in defence of hys Countrey he woulde fight boldely wyth him as wyth hys greateſt enimie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 VV. Mal.Before they came to fight alſo, diuerſe of|fers were made on both partes for an vnitie to haue beene had betwixte the two Princes: but when no conditions of agreement coulde take place, they forthwith prepared themſelues to trye the matter by dynt of ſworde. And ſo on the .xiiij. day of October, beeing Saterdaye, both the Hoſtes mette in the fielde at a place in Suſ|ſex not farre from Haſtinges, where as the Abbay of Battaile was afterwards buylded.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Engliſhe menne were all brought in|to one entyre maine battaile a foote,The order of the Engliſh men. wyth huge Axes in theyr handes, and paled afront wyth Paueyſes, in ſuche wyfe that it was thoughte impoſſible for the enimye to breake theyr array.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 On the other ſyde the Normans were de|uided into ſeuerall battayles,Mat. VVe [...]. as fyrſt the foote|menne that were Archers,The array of the Normans. and alſo thoſe that bare Gleyues and Axes, were placed in the fore fronte, and the Horſemenne deuyded in|to Winges, ſtoode on the ſydes in verie good order.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 All the nyght before the battayle,Hon. Hunt. VVil. Mal. the Eng|liſhe menne made greate noyce and ſlept no [...], but ſang and fell to drinking and making of re|uell and paſtime, as thought there had beene no accounte to bee made of the nexte dayes tray|uayle. But the Normans behaued themſelues warily and ſoberly, ſpending all that night in prayer and confeſſing theyr ſinnes vnto God, and in the Morning earely they receyued the Communion before they wente foorth to the battayle.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Some wryte that when Duke William ſhoulde putte on hys armour to goe to the fielde, the backe halfe of his Curaſſes by chaunce was ſette on before by ſuche as holpe to arme hym, at whiche chaunce hee tooke occaſion of laugh|ter, ſaying merily to them that ſtood by, No force thys is good lucke, for the eſtate of my Duke|dome ſhall bee ere night chaunged into a King|dome.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beſide this, hee ſpake manye comfortable woordes vnto his menne, to encourage them to the battayle. Neither was Harolde forgetfull in that poynte on his part. And ſo at conueni|ent tyme when both partes were readie, they made forwarde eche to encounter wyth other, on the foreſayde fourtenth daye of October, with great force and aſſurance.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the beginning of the battayle, the Ar|rowes flewe abroade freſhly on both ſides, Polidor. The battaile betwixt king Harolde and Duke Willi|am in [...]. tyll they came to ioyne at hande ſtrokes, and then preaſſed eche ſyde vpon hys counterparte wyth Swordes, Axes, and other hand weapons right egrely.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Duke William commaunded his Horſe|menne to giue the charge on the breaſtes of hys ennimyes battayles: but the Engliſhe menne keeping themſelues cloſe togyther wythoute ſcattering, receyued theyr enimyes vppon the poyntes of theyr Weapons wyth ſuche fierce|neſſe and in ſuche ſlyffe order, that manye of the Norman horeſemen were ouerthrowne without recouerie, and ſlaine at the firſte brunte. When Duke William perceyued this inconuenience (as hee that well and throughlye vnderſtoode EEBO page image 287 the ſkilfull poyntes of warre as well as the beſt) he gaue a ſigne to his men, (according to an or|der appoynted before hande vpon any ſuch occa|ſion,) that they ſhoulde giue backe,

The policie of duke William to diſorder his enimies.

Hen. Hunt. VVil. Malm.

and make a countenaunce as though they did flee, which was quickly done by the Normans, and withall they embattayled theyr footemen in new order, ſo that their Horſemen ſhifted themſelues on the wings, readie to reſkue the footemen if their array ſhoulde happen to be diſturbed. By this wilie ſtratageme and pollicie of warre, the Engliſh men were de|ceyued: for they beholding the Normans ſome|what to ſhrinke backe to bring themſelues into the aboueſayde order, thought verily that they had fledde, and therevppon meaning to purſue them before they ſhoulde recouer theyr grounde, they brake theyr array, and beganne to followe the chaſe: wherevpon the Normans (perceyuing nowe that all things came to paſſe as they de|ſired) ſpeedily returned, and caſting themſel|ues togyther quickly into arraye, beganne to charge them againe of newe, and ſo hauing them at that aduauntage, they ſlue them downe on euerie ſyde.A ſore fough|ten battaile. King Harold ſlaine. The Engliſhe men on the other parte fought ſore, and thought theyr king were beaten downe among them and ſlayne, yet were [figure appears here on page 287] they lothe to flee or giue ouer, ſo ſharpe was the battaile, that Duke William himſelfe had three horſes ſlaine vnder him that day, and not with|out great daunger of his perſon.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 VVil. Mal. Mat. VVeſt.Some of the Engliſhe men got them to the height of an hill, and beate backe the Normans that forced themſelues to wynne the hill of them, ſo that it was long ere the Normans could pre|uaile, beeing oftentymes driuen downe into the bottom of the valley beneath.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At length the Engliſh men perceyuing them|ſelues to bee ouermatched and beaten downe on euerye ſide,The Engliſh men put to fight. and therevnto greatlye diſcouraged wyth ſlaughter of theyr King, beganne firſt to giue ground, and after to ſcatter and to runne a|way, ſo that well was him that might then e|ſcape by flight, after that they had fought the moſt part of all that Saterday.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Eron. de Bello. VVil. Geme. VVil. Malm. The Normãs fall into a ditch. The Normans followed the chafe, with ſuche egre raſhneſſe, that a great number of them fal|ling with theyr Horſes and armour into a blinde ditche ſhadowed with Reede and Sedges which grewe therein) were ſmouldred and preſſed to death, ere they coulde be ſuccoured or get any re|liefe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The next day the Normans fell to gathering in the ſpoyle of the fielde, burying alſo the deade bodies of their people that were ſlaine at the bat|taile, gyuing licence in ſemblable maner to the Engliſh men to doe the like.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of the death of Harolde diuerſe report diuerſ|ly,Giral. Camb. inſomuch that Girald. Cambren. ſayth, how after king Harold had receyued many woundes, and loſt his left eye, hee fledde from the fielde vn|to the Citie of Weſtcheſter, and liued there long after an holy life, as an Anker in the Cell of S. Iames, faſt by Saint Iohns Church, and there made a godly ende. But the ſaying of Girald, Cambren in that poynt is not to be credited, by|cauſe of the vnlikely hoode of the thing itſelfe,VVil. Mal. Hen. Hunt. Mat. VVest. and alſo generall conſent of other wryters, who af|fyrme vniuerſally that he was killed in the bat|tayle, firſt beeyng ſtryken through the left eye by the ſcull into the brayne with an arrow, where|vpon falling from his horſe to the grounde, hee was ſlaine in that place, after hee had reigned nine Monethes and nine dayes, as Floriacenſ [...]s doth report.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He was a man of a comely ſtature,Floriac. Simon Dun. and of a haute courage, and albeit that for his valy|ancie he was highly renowned and honoured of all men, yet through his pryde and Ambition he EEBO page image 288 loſt the hartes of many.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2

Hen. Hunt. Polidor.

The Chroni|cles of Nor|mandie haue of Engliſhmen ſlaine. 67974. and of Nor|mans. 6013.

There was ſlaine in this battaile beſides king Harolde and his two brethren, Gyrth and Leo|frike, what on the one ſide and on the other, a|boue twentie thouſande menne. And finally here|by the bloud of the Saxons ceaſſed to raigne in Englande after they had continued poſſeſſion of the ſame, from the fyrſt comming of Hengiſt, which was about the yeare of our Sauiour .450. alias .449. vntill that preſent yeare of King Ha|rolds death,1066 which chaunced in the yeare .1066. So that from the beginning of Hengiſt hys raigne,616 vnto Haroldes death, are reckened .616. yeares, or (after ſome) 617. as by ſupputation of the time will eaſily appeare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 By all the which time there raigned kings of the Saxons bloud within this lande, except that for the ſpace. of .xx. yeares and ſomewhat more the Danes had the dominion of the Realme in their poſſeſſion: for there are reckened from the begynning of King Suenois reigne, (which was the firſt Dane that gouerned England) vnto the laſt yeare of King Hardicnute, (the laſt Dane that ruled here) .xxviij. yeares, in whiche meane ſpace Egelred recouering the Kingdome reig|ned two yeares, and after him his ſonne Ed|monde Ironſide continued in the rule one yeare, ſo that the Danes had the whole poſſeſſion of the lande but .xxv. yeares in all.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The bodie of king Harold is buried at Waltham.The bodie of king Harolde being founde a|mong other ſlaine in the fielde, was buryed at Waltham, within the monaſterie of the holye Croſſe which her before had founded & endowed to the behoofe of futhe Canons as he had placed there, with fayre poſſeſſions.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Verily as ſome wryters haue) reported, there was nothing in this manne to bee in any wyſe diſprayſed, if his ambitious mynde coulde haue been ſtayed from coueting the Kingdome, and that hee could haue beene contented to haue liued as a ſubiect.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Ex. 6. libro Policraticon, ſiue de nugis tutialium [...]oh [...]n Sarisb.Among other manifeſt proufes of his highe valiancie, this is remembred of him, that beeing ſent agaynſt the Welchmen (as before is partly mentioned) hee knowing theyr readie nymble|neſſe in ſeruice, and howe with their light armed menne they were accuſtomed to annoy and di|ſtreſſe thoſe that ſhoulde aſſayle them, hee like|wiſe (to matche them) prouided light armed men for the purpoſe, and ſo being furniſhed with ſuche bandes of nymble men and light Souldiers, hee entered vpon the Mountaynes of Snowdone, and there remayned amongeſt the enimyes for the ſpace of two yeares. Hee ſore afflicted the Welche Nation, tooke their Kings, and ſent theyr heades vnto the King that ſent him a|boute this buſineſſe, and proceeding in ſuche ri|gorous manner as mighte moue the hearers to lament and pitie the caſe, hee cauſed all the maſle kinde that might be mette with, to be mi|ſerably ſlaine: and ſo with the edge of his ſworde he brought the Countrey to quiet, and wythall made this lawe, that if anye Welcheman from thencefoorth ſhoulde preſume to paſſe the limittes ouer Offes ditch with any weapon about him, he ſhould loſe his right hand.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To conclude, by the valiant conduct of this Chieftaine, the Welche men were then ſo ſore brought vnder, that in maner the whole Nation might ſeeme to faile, and to be almoſt vtterly de|ſtroyed. And therefore by permiſſion of the king of England, the women of Wales ioyned them|ſelues in mariage with Engliſh men. But to re|turne where we left.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Nowe forſomuch as it pleaſed God by hys hidde and ſecrete iudgemente ſo to diſpoſe the Realme of Englande, and in ſuche wiſe as that the gouernaunce thereof ſhoulde fall after thys maner into the handes of William duke of Nor|mandie, I haue thought good before I enter fur|ther into this Hiſtorie (beeing nowe come to the conqueſt of the Realme, made by the foreſayde Duke of Normandie) to ſet down his pedigrew, thereby to ſhewe howe he diſcended from the firſt Duke of that Countrey, who was named Rollo (and after by receyuing baptiſme cleped Robert.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſayde Rollo or Rou, was ſonne to a greate Lorde in Denmarke called Guyon, who hauing two ſonnes, the ſayde Ron, and Gourin, and being appoynted to depart the Countrey, as the lottes fell to him and other, according to the maner there vſed (in time when their people were encreaſed to a greater number than the Coun|trey was able to ſuſtaine) refuſed to obey that order, and made warre agaynſt the King there, who yet in the ende by practiſe founde meanes to ſlea the foreſayde Guyon, and his ſonne Gourin, ſo that Rou, or Rollo, hauing thus loſt his father and brother, was compelled to forſake the coun|trey, with all thoſe that had holpe his father to make warre agaynſt the king. And thus dryuen to ſeeke aduentures, at length he became a Chri|ſtian, and was created Duke of Normandie, by gift of Charles King of Fraunce, ſurnamed Le Simple, whoſe daughter the Ladie Gilla hee alſo maried: but ſhee departing this life withoute iſ|ſue, hee maryed Popce daughter to the Earle of Beſſin and Bayculx, whome hee had kept as his wyfe before hee was baptiſed, and had had by hir a ſonne named VVilliam Longue eſpee, and a daughter named Gerlota.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 William Long eſpee, or Longa Sp [...]ta had to wife the Ladie Sporta, daughter to Hubert Earle of Senlis, by whome he had iſſue Richard the ſecond of that name duke of Normandy, who maryed the Ladie Agnes, the daughter of Hugh EEBO page image 289 le Grande, Earle of Paris, of whome no iſſue proceeded: but after hir deceaſſe, he maryed to his ſeconde wife a Gentle woman named Gonnor, daughter to a knight of the Daniſhe line, by whõ hee had three ſonnes,Ye muſt note that there was one Richarde duke of Nor|mandie before Rollo. Richarde that was after Duke of Normandie the third of that name, Ro|bert, & Mauger. He had alſo by hir three daugh|ters. Agnes, otherwiſe called Emme, maried firſt to Egelred king of Englande, and after to King Cnute: Helloye, otherwiſe Alix, beſtowed vpon Geffrey Earle of Britaigne: and Mawde cow|pled in mariage with Euldes Earle of Char|ters and Blais. Richard the thirde of that name maried Iudith, ſiſter to Geoffray Earle of Bry|taigne, by whome he had iſſue three ſonnes, Ri|charde, Robert, and William, and as manye daughters: Alix, maried to Reignault Earle of Burgoyne: Alienor, maried to Baldwin Earle of Flaunders: and the thirde dyed yong, beeing affianced to Alfonſe King of Nauarre. Their mother deceaſed after ſhe had beene maried tenne yeares, and then Duke Richard maried ſecondly the Ladie Eſtric, ſiſter to Cnute king of Eng|lande and Denmarke, from whome hee pur|chaſed to be deuorced, and then maried a Gentle|woman called Pauie, by whom he had iſſue two ſonnes, William Earle of Arques, and Mauger Archbiſhop of Rouen.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Richarde the fourth of that name Duke of Normandie, eldeſt ſonne to Richarde the thirde, dyed withoute iſſue, and then his brother Robert ſucceeded in the eſtate, whiche Robert begatte vppon Arlete or Harleuina daughter to a Bur|geſſe of Felais, William ſurnamed the baſtard, afterwardes Duke of Normandie, and by con|queſt king of England.

Hitherto haue we continued the Hyſtorie of this land, wherein may appeare the variable chaunges of ſtates by courſe of times, and eſpecially foure notable Conqueſts: as firſt by the Romans, ſecondly by Saxons, thirdly by the Danes, and now laſtly by the Normans: in euerie of which alterations of the ſtate, what is chiefly to be conſidered (bycauſe wee haue partly touched the ſame in the Proheme) we here omit to make any further diſ|courſe, and ſo proceede to the ſecond Booke as followeth.

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8.8. The peeres are in doubt to whome the rule of the land should be committed, why they durst not that Edgar Edeling should vn|dertake it though he was interessed to the same, how William duke of Normandie pretended a right to the crowne, Harold the sonne of earle Goodwine crowned, proclaimed, and consecrated king; his subtill and adulatorie meanes to win the peoples fauour; duke William sendeth am|bassadors to Harold to put him in mind of a promise passed to the said duke for his furtherance to obteine the crowne; Ha|rolds negatiue answer to the said ambassage, as also to the ma|rieng of the dukes daughter which was Harolds owne voluntarie motion; he prouideth against the inua|sions of the enimie as one doubting after|claps, a blasing starre of seuen daies continuance. The eight Chapter.

The peeres are in doubt to whome the rule of the land should be committed, why they durst not that Edgar Edeling should vn|dertake it though he was interessed to the same, how William duke of Normandie pretended a right to the crowne, Harold the sonne of earle Goodwine crowned, proclaimed, and consecrated king; his subtill and adulatorie meanes to win the peoples fauour; duke William sendeth am|bassadors to Harold to put him in mind of a promise passed to the said duke for his furtherance to obteine the crowne; Ha|rolds negatiue answer to the said ambassage, as also to the ma|rieng of the dukes daughter which was Harolds owne voluntarie motion; he prouideth against the inua|sions of the enimie as one doubting after|claps, a blasing starre of seuen daies continuance. The eight Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _KIng Edward being thus departed this life,Harold. the péeres of the land were in great doubt & perplexitie to whome they might best commit the roiall gouernement of the realme.K. Edward departed this life An Christi 1065, after the account of the church of England. For there was not anie among them that had iust title thereto,Matth. West. Polydor. or able and apt to take the charge vpon him. For although Edgar surnamed Edeling, the sonne of Edward the outlaw,Edeling, that is, a noble man, and such one as is come of the kings bloud. that was sonne of Edmund Ironside, was at the same time latelie come into England, with his mother and sisters out of Hungarie where he was borne: yet for that he was but a child, & not of sufficient age to beare rule, they durst not as then commit the gouernement of the realme vnto him, least (as some haue thought) his tendernesse of age might first bréed a contempt of his person, and therewith minister occasion to ciuill discord, wherby a shipwracke of the estate might en|sue, to the great annoie and present ouerthrow of such as then liued in the same. But what conside|ration soeuer they had in this behalfe, they ought not to haue defrauded the yoong gentlemen of his law|full right to the crowne. For as we haue heard and séene, God, whose prouidence and mightie power is shewed by ouerthrowing of high and mightie things now and then, by the weake and féeble hath gouer|ned states and kingdomes oftentimes in as good quiet and princelie policie by a child, as by men of age and great discretion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to the purpose, beside the doubt which rested among the lords, how to bestow the crowne, the ma|nifold and strange woonders, which were séene and heard in those daies, betokening (as men thought) some change to be at hand in the state of the realme, made the lords a [...]raid, and namelie bicause they stood in great doubt of William duke of Normandie, who pretended a right to the crowne, as lawfull heire appointed by king Edward, for that he was kin to him in the second and third degree.Dukes of Normandie. For Richard the first of that name duke of Normandie, begot Ri|chard the second, and Emma; which Emma bare Edward by hir husband Ethelred. Richard the se|cond had also issue Richard the third, and Robert, which Robert by a concubine had issue William, sur|named the bastard, that was now duke of Norman|die, and after the death of his coosine king Edward, made claime (as is said) to the crowne of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilest the lords were thus studieng and consul|ting what should be best for them to doo in these doubts, Harold, the son of Goodwine earle of Kent, proclaimed himselfe king of England:Harold pro|claimed king of England. the people being not much offended therewith, bicause of the great confidence and opinion which they had latelie conceiued of his valiancie. Some write (among whome Edmerus Edmerus. is one) how king Edward ordeined before his death, that Harold should succéed him as heire to the crowne, and that therevpon the lords im|mediatlie after the said Edwards deceasse, crowned Harold for their king, and so he was consecrated by Aldred archbishop of Yorke, according to the custom and maner of the former kings, or (as other affirme) he set the crowne on his owne head without anie the accustomed ceremonies,Matth. West. in the yéere after the birth of our sauiour 1066, or in the yéere of Christ 1065, after the account of the church of England (as before is noted.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But how and whensoeuer he came to the seat roiall of this kingdome, certeine it is, that this Ha|rold in the begining of his reigne, considering with himselfe how and in what sort he had taken vpon him the rule of the kingdome, rather by intrusion than by anie lawfull right, studied by all meanes which way to win the peoples fauour, and omitted no occasion whereby he might shew anie token of bountious liberalitie,Harold sée|keth to win the peoples hearts. gentlenesse and courteous be|hauiour towards them.Sim. Dunel. The gréeuous customes al|so and taxes which his predecessors had raised, he ei|ther abolished or diminished: the ordinarie wages of his seruants and men of warre he increased, and further shewed himselfe verie well bent to all vertue and goodnesse, whereby he purchased no small fauor among such as were his subiects.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilest Harold went about thus to steale the peoples good willes,An ambassage from N [...]mandie. there came ouer vnlooked for sundrie ambassadours from William the bastard duke of Normandie, with commission to require him to remember his oth sometime made to the said William in the time of his extremitie, which was, that he the said Harold should aid him in the obtei|ning of the crowne of England, if king Edward should happen to die without issue. This couenant he made (as it is supposed) in king Edwards daies, when (by licence of the same Edward, or rather (as Edmerus writeth) against his will) he went ouer in|to Normandie to visit his brethren, which laie there EEBO page image 197 as pledges.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Howbeit at this present,K. Harolds answer. Harolds answer to the said ambassadors was, that he would be readie to gratifie the duke in all that he could demand, so that he would not aske the realme, which alreadie he had in his full possession. And further he declared vnto them (as some write) that as for the oth which he had made in times past vnto duke William,E [...]dmerus. the same was but a constreined & no voluntarie oth, which in law is nothing;Matth. West. since thereby he tooke vpon him to grant that which was not in his power to giue, he being but a subiect whilest king Edward was li|uing. For if a promised vow or oth which a maid ma|keth concerning the bestowing of hir bodie in hir fathers house, without his consent, is made void; much more an oth by him made that was a subiect, and vnder the rule of a king, without his souereignes consent, ought to be void and of no value. He alled|ged moreouer, that as for him to take an oth to deli|uer the inheritance of anie realme without the ge|nerall consent of the estates of the same, could not be other than a great péece of presumption, yea al|though he might haue iust title therevnto; so it was an vnreasonable request of the duke at this present to will him to renounce the kingdome, the gouer|nance whereof he had alreadie taken vpon him, with so great fauor and good liking of all men.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Duke William hauing receiued this answer,Duke Willi|am eftsoones sendeth to king Harold. and nothing liking thereof, sent once againe to Harold, requiring him then at the least-wise, that he would take his daughter to wife, according to his former promise; in refusing whereof he could make no sound allegation, bicause it was a thing of his owne mo|tion, and in his absolute power, both to grant and to performe. But Harold being of a stout courage, with proud countenance frowned vpon the Norman am|bassadors, and declared to them that his mind was nothing bent as then to yéeld therevnto in any ma|ner of wise. And so with other talke tending to the like effect he sent them away without anie further answer. The daughter of duke William whome Ha|rold should haue maried, was named Adeliza, as Gemeticensis saith,Gemeticensis. and with hir (as the same author writeth) it was couenanted by duke William, that Harold should inioy halfe the realme in name of hir dower.Wil. Malm. Howbeit some write that this daughter of duke William was departed this life before the comming of these ambassadors, and that Harold therevpon thought himselfe discharged of the oth and couenants made to duke William, and therefore sent them away with such an vntoward answer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But howsoeuer it was,Polydor. after the departure of these ambassadors, king Harold (doubting what would insue) caused his ships to be newlie rigged, his men of warre to be mustered, and spéedilie put in a readinesse, to the end that if anie sudden inuasion should be made and attempted by his enimie, he might be able to resist them. ¶About the same time also, and vpon the 24 of Aprill (whilest Harold was making prouision to withstand the Norman force) there appeared a blasing starre, which was séene not onelie here in England, but also in other parts of the world, and continued the space of seuen daies.Rog. Houed. Simon Dun. This blasing starre might be a prediction of mischéefe im|minent & hanging ouer Harolds head; for they ne|uer appeare but as prognosticats of afterclaps. To be resolutelie instructed herein, doo but peruse a trea|tise intituled; A doctrine generall of comets or bla|sing starres published by a bishop of Mentz in La|tine, and set foorth in English by Abraham Fleming vpon the apparition of a blasing starre séene in the southwest, on the 10 of Nouember 1577, and dedi|cated to the right worshipfull sir William Cordell knight, then maister of hir maiesties rolles, &c.