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5.101. Harolde, the baſe ſonne of Cnute.

Harolde, the baſe ſonne of Cnute.

[figure appears here on page 263]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Harold Mat. VVeſt. VVil. Mal.AFter that Cnute was departed this lyfe, ther aroſe great variance amongſt the peeres and great Lordes of the realme about the ſucceſſion. The Danes and Lõdoners (which through con|tinuall familiaritie had with the Danes, were be|come lyke vnto them) elected Harrolde the baſe ſonne of king Cnute,Controuerſie for the crovvn. to ſucceede in his fathers roome, hauing Earle Leofrike, and diuers other of the noble menne of the Northe partes on theyr ſide.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But other of the Engliſhmẽ, and namely Erle Goodwyn Erle of Kent, with the chiefeſt lordes of the weaſt partes, coueted rather to haue one of K. Egelreds ſons, which were in Normandie, or elſe Hardiknought the ſonne of kyng Cnute by his wife Quene Emme, Simon Dun. The realm de|uided betvvixt Harold and Ha+diknought. which remained in Denmarke, aduaunced to the place.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thys controuerſie helde in ſuche wyſe, that the Realme was deuided (as ſome write) by lotte betwixte the two brethren, Harolde, and Har|dicnute.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The north parte as Mercia and Northum|berlande fell to Harrolde, and the ſouth part vn|to Hardicnute: but at length the whole remai|ned vnto Harrolde, bycauſe his brother Hardi|cnute refuſed to come out of Denmarke to take the gouernment vpon him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But yet the authoritie of Earle Goodwyn who had the queene and the treaſure of the realm in his keeping, ſtayed the matter a certayn time,The authoritie of Erle Good|vvyn. H. Hunt. (hee profeſſing hymſelfe as it were Gardian to the yong men, the ſonnes of the Queene, tyll at length he was conſtrayned to gyue ouer hys holde, and conforme hym ſelfe to the ſtronger parte and greater number.) And ſo at Oxforde, where the aſſemble was holden aboute the elec|tion, Harrolde was proclaymed kyng, and ſa|cred accordyng to the manner (as ſome write) But it ſhoulde appeare by other, that the Arch|biſhoppe of Canterburye Elnothus, a manne endued with all vertue and wyſedome refuſed to crowne hym:The refuſall of the Archb. El|nothus to ſacre kyng Harolde. For when kyng Harolde bee|ing elected of the nobles and peeres, requyred the ſayde Archebiſhoppe that he myght be of him ſacred, and receyue at hys handes the Regall Scepter wyth the Crowne, whyche the Arche|biſhoppe hadde in hys cuſtodie, and to whome it onely did appertayne to inveſte hym there|wyth, the Archebiſhop flatly refuſed and wyth an othe proteſted, that he woulde not ſacre any other for Kynge, ſo long as the Queenes chyldren liued: For (ſayth he) Cnute committed them to my truſte and aſſuraunce, and to them will I keepe my ſayth and loyall obedience.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſcepter and crowne I heere laye downe vp|on the aulter and neyther doe I deuye nor de|liuer them vnto you: but I forbid by the Apo|ſtolyke authoritie all the Biſhoppes, that none of them preſume to take the ſame away, and delyuer them to you, or facte you for kyng. As for your ſelfe, if you dare, you maye vſurpe that whyche I haue committed vnto God and hys table.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But whether afterwardes the Kyng by one meane or other, cauſed the Archebyſhoppe to crowne hym Kyng, or that he was ſacred of ſome other, he was admitted for kyng of al the Engliſhe people, beginning hys reygne in the yeare of our Lorde a thouſande thirtie and ſixe,1036. in the fouretenth yeare of the Emperour Con|cade the ſeconde, in the ſixte yeare of Henrye the firſte, kyng of Fraunce, and aboute the ſeuen and twentie yere of Malcolme the ſecond, king of Scotlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus Harold for his grear ſwyftneſſe,Harold vvhy he is ſurnamed Harefoote. was ſurnamed Harefoot, of whom little is written touchyng hys doyngs, ſauyng that he is noted EEBO page image 264 to haue ben an oppreſſour of his people, and ſpot|ted wyth manye notable vices. It was ſpoken of dyuers in thoſe dayes,Harolde euill ſpoken of. that thys Harrolde was not the ſonne of Cnute, but of a ſhoemaker: and yt his ſuppoſed mother Elgiua, king Cnu|tes concubine,Ran. Higd ex Marione. to bring the king further in loue with hir, fayned that ſhe was with chyld: and a|bout the time that ſhe ſhuld be brought to bed (as ſhe made hir accompt) cauſed the ſayd Shoema|kers ſon to be ſecretly brought into hir chamber, and then vntruly cauſed it to be reported, that ſhe was deliuered, and the chylde ſo reputed to bee the kings ſonne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Mat. VVeſt.Immediatly vpon aduertiſement had of Cnu|tes death, Alfred the ſonne of king Egelred, with fifty ſaile landed at Sandwich, meaning to cha|lenge the crowne, & to obteyn it by lawful claym with quietnes if he might, if not, then to vſe force by ayde of his frends, and to aſſay that way forth to winne it, if he mighte not otherwyſe obteyne it. From Sandwiche he came to Canterbury, and ſhortly after, Earle Goodwyn feygnyng to receyue hym as a friend, came to meet hym, and at Gilford in the night ſeaſon, appoinied a num|ber of armed men to fall vpon the Normans as they were a ſleepe, and ſo tooke them together with Alvred, & ſlewe the Normans by the poll, in ſuche wiſe that .ix. were ſlaine, and the .x. re|ſerued. But yet when thoſe that were reſerued ſeemed to him a greater number than he wiſhed to eſcape, he fell to and againe tithed them as be|fore. Alvred had his eyes put out, and was con|ueyed to the Ile of Elye, where ſhortely after he died.Ra. Higd. How Alvred ſhould clayme the crowne to himſelfe, I ſee not: for verily I can not be per|ſwaded that he was elder brother, although di|uers authors haue ſo written, ſith that Gemeti|cenſis and the authour of the booke called Enco|mium Emma, plainly affirme, that Edward was the elder: but it might bee, that Alvred beeing a man of a ſtouter ſtomacke than his brother Ed|ward, made this attempt, eyther for himſelf, or in the behalfe of his brother Edward, being as then abſent,See M. Foxe Acts & Mon. Eag. 11 [...]. Si. Dunelm. and gone into Hungarie, as ſome write: but other ſaye, that as well Edwarde as Alvred came ouer at this tyme with a number of Nor|man knights, & men of war embarqued in a few ſhippes onely to ſpeake with their mother, which as then laye at Wincheſter, whether to take ad|uiſe with hir howe to recouer their righte here in this lande, or to aduaunce their brother Hardi|cnute, or for ſome other purpoſe, our authors do not declare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But the Lordes of the realme that bare their good willes vnto Harold, and (although contra|rie to right) ment to mayntein him in the aſtate, ſeemed to be much offended wyth the comming of theſe two brethren in ſuche order: for Earle Goodwin perſuaded them, yt it was great dangl [...] to ſuffer ſo many ſtraungers to enter the realm, as they had brought with them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Whervpon Earle Goodwyn with the aſſent of the other Lordes, or rather by commaunde|mente of Harolde, wente foorthe, and at Gild|forde met with Alvred that was comming to|wardes Kyng Harrolde to ſpeake wyth hym, accordingly as he was of Harolde required to doe. But nowe being taken, and hys compa|nie miſerably murthered (as before ye haue herd) to the number of ſix hundred Normans, Alvred hymſelfe was ſente into the Iſle of Elye, there to remayn in the Abbey in cuſtodie of the Mon|kes, hauyng his eyes put out as ſoone as he en|tred firſte into the ſame Iſle. William Malmſ|burye ſayeth, that Alvred came ouer, and was thus handeled betwixte the tyme of Haroldes death, and the comming in of Hardicnute: and other write, that this chaunced in hys brother Hardicnutes dayes, whiche ſeemeth not to bee true: for Hardicnute was knowne to loue hys brethren by his mothers ſide too dearely, to haue ſuffred any ſuche iniurie to be wrought to eyther of them in hys tyme.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus ye ſee how writers diſſent in this mat|ter, but for the better clearing of the truthe tou|ching the tyme, I haue thought good to ſhewe alſo what the author of the ſayd booke intituled Encomium Emma writeth hereof, whiche is as followeth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 When Harolde was once eſtabliſhed kyng, he ſought meanes howe to rid Queene Emme out of the waye, and that ſecretely, for that openlye as yet he durſte not attempte any thing againſte hir. Shee in ſilence kepte hir ſelfe quiet, lookyng for the ende of theſe thyngs.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But Harrolde remembryng himſelf of a ma|licious purpoſe, by wicked aduiſe tooke counſell howe hee might gette into his handes and make awaye the ſonnes of Queene Emme, ſo to bee out of daunger of all annoyanes that by them myght be procured agaynſt him: and therefore hee cauſeth a Letter to bee written in name of their mother the ſayde Emme,A co [...] letter. whiche he ſente by certayne meſſengers ſuborned for the purpoſe into Normandie, where Edwarde and Alvred as then remayned. The tenour of whiche letter here enſueth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1


Emma tantùm nomine Regina

filijs Edwarde & Alfrido materna impertit ſalutamina:

The tenour of the letter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Dum domini noſtri Regis obitum ſeparatim plangimus, (filij chariſsimi) dum diatim magis magis reg|no haereditatis vestrae priuamius, miror quid ca|ptetis conſilij, dum ſciatis intermiſsionis veſtrae di|latione inuaſ [...]r is veſtri imperij fieri quitidiè ſolidi|tatem. Is enim inceſſanter vicos & vrbes circuit, EEBO page image 265 & ſibi amicos principes muneribus, minis, & pre|cibus facit: ſed vnum è vobis ſuper ſe mallent reg|nare quàm istius (qui nunc eis imperat) teneri di|tione. Vnde rogo vnus veſtrũ ad me velociter & priuatè veniat, vt ſalubre à me conſiliũ accipiat, & ſciat quo pacto hoc negotium quod v [...]lo fieri debeat, per praſentem quo internuncium, quid ſuper his facturi estu remandate.

Valete cordis mei viſcera.

The ſame in effect in engliſhe is thus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1


Emme in name onely Queene,

to hir ſonnes Edwarde and Alfred, ſendeth motherly greting:

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Whyleſt we ſeparately bewayle the death of our ſoueraigne Lorde the kyng (moſte deare ſonnes) and whyleſt you are euery daye more and more depriued from the kingdom of your inheritance, I meruaile what you doe determine, ſithe you knowe by the delaye of youre ceaſſyng to make ſome enterpriſe, the grounded force of the vſurper of your kingdome is daily made the ſtronger: for inceſſantly goeth he frõ town to towne, from ci|tie to citie, and maketh the Lordes his frende by rewardes, threattes, and prayers, but they had rather haue one of you to reigne ouer them than to be kepte vnder the rule of this man that nowe gouerneth them. Wherfore my requeſt is, that one of you do come with ſpeed, and ye priuately ouer to me, that he maye vnderſtande my whol|ſome aduiſe, and know in what ſort this matter ought to be handled, which I would haue to goe forward, and ſee that you ſend me worde by this preſent meſſenger what you mean to do herein.

Fare ye well euen the bowels of my heart.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theſe Letters were deliuered vnto ſuche as were made priuie to the purpoſed treaſon, who beyng fully inſtructed howe to deale, wente ouer into Normandie, & preſentyng the Letters vnto the young Gentlemenne, vſed the matter ſo, that they tooke it veryly that this meſſage had bene ſente from their mother, and wrote agayn by them that broughte the Letters, that one of them woulde not fayle but to come ouer vnto hir according to that ſhe had requeſted, and withal appointed the day and tyme.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The meſſengers returning to king Harolde, enformed him howe they hadde ſped.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The younger brother Alfrede, with his bro|thers conſente, tooke wyth hym a certayne num|ber of Gentlemen and men of warre, and firſt came into Flanders, where after he had remay|ned a whyle with Earle Baldwyne, he increa|ſed his retinue with a few Bolongners, and paſ|ſed ouer into Englande, but approchyng to the ſhore, he was ſtreyghtwayes deſcried by his eni|mies, who haſted foorth to ſette vpon him: but he perceyuing their purpoſe, commanded ye ſhip|pes to caſte aboute, and to make agayne to the [figure appears here on page 265] ſea: And after this landing at an other place, he mente to haue gone the nexte waye to his mo|ther.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But Earle Goodwyn hearyng of his arriual,Goodvvyn vvas ſuſpected to do this vn|der a colour to betray him as by vvriters is ſeemeth. met him, receyued hym into his aſſurance, and bynding his credite with a corporal othe became his manne, and therewith leading hym oute of the highe way that leadeth to London, he brou|ghte him vnto Gildforde, where hee lodged all the ſtraungers, by a ſcore, a dozeyn, and halfe a a ſcore together in Innes, ſo as but a fewe re|mayned aboute the yong Gentleman Alvred to attende vpon him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There was meate and drynke plentie pre|pared in euery lodgyng, for the refreſhing of all the companie. And Goodwyn takyng hys leaue for that nyght, departed to his lodgyng, promi|ſing the nexte morning to come agayne to giue his dutiefull attendaunce on Alvred.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But beholde, after they had filled themſelues with meates and drinkes, and were gone to bed, in the dead of the nyght came ſuche as king Ha|rold had appointed, and entring into euery Inne,Not only Goodvvyn but other ſuche as king Harold apointed, toke Alvred vvith his Normans. firſt feyſed vppon the armour and weapons that belonged to the ſtraungers. Whiche done, they tooke them, and chayned them faſte with fetters and manacles, ſo keeping them ſure till the nexte morning. Which being come, they wer brought foorthe with their handes bounde behynde theyr backes, and deliuered to moſt cruell tormentors, who were commaunded to ſpare none, but eue|ry tenth man, as he came to hand by lot, and ſo they ſlew nyne and left the tenth aliue. Of thoſe that were lefte alyue, ſome they kepte to ſerue as bondmen, other for couetouſneſſe of gayne, they ſolde, and ſome they put in priſon, of whome yet diuers afterwardes eſcaped.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This with more hath the forſaid author wri|ten of this matter, declaring further, that Alvred being conueyed into the yſle of Ely, had not only his eyes put out in moſt cruell wyſe, but was al|ſo preſently there murthered. But hee ſpeaketh EEBO page image 266 not further of the manner howe he was made a|way, ſauing that he ſaith, he forbeareth to make long recitall of this matter, bycauſe he will not renewe the mothers greefe in hearyng it, ſithe there can be no greater ſorow to the mother than to heare of hir ſonnes death.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 I remember that in Caxton we reade, that his cruell tormentours ſhoulde cauſe his belly to be opened, and taking out one ende of his bowelles or guttes, tyed the ſame to a ſtake whiche they had ſet faſt in the ground, and then with needels of yron pricked his bodie, and cauſed him to run rounde about the ſ [...]ake, tyll he had wound out all his entrailes, and ſo ended his innocente lyfe, to the great ſhame and obloquie of his cruell aduer|ſaries. But whether he was thus tormented or not, or rather dyed (as I thinke) of the anguiſhe by putting out his eyes, no doubte but his death was reuenged by Gods hande in thoſe that pro|cured it.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But whether Erle Goodwyn was chief cau|ſer thereof, in betraying him vnder a cloked co|lour of pretended frendſhippe, I can not ſaye: but that he took him and ſlew his companie, as ſome haue written, I can not thynke it to bee true, both as well for that whiche ye haue hearde reci|ted out of the author that wrote Encomium Em|mae, as alſo for that it ſhould ſeme he myght ne|uer be ſo directly charged with it, but that he had matter to alledge in his owne excuſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But nowe to retourne vnto other doings of king Harolde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After he had made away his halfe brother Al|vred, his mother in law Queene Emme he ſpoi|led of the moſte parte of hir riches, and therwith baniſhed hir out of the realme: Simon Dun. Queene Emme banished. ſo that ſhe ſayled ouer into Flauntes where ſhe was honorably receyued of Earle Baldwyne, and hauyng of hym honourable prouiſion aſſigned hir, ſhe con|tinued there for the ſpace of three yeeres, tyl that after the death of Harrolde ſhe was ſent for by hir ſonne Hardiknought, that ſucceded Harrolde in the kingdome.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer, Harrolde made ſmall accompte of his ſubiectes, Polidor. Harold dege|nerate it from his father. degenerating from the noble ver|tues of hys father, folowing hym in few things, (except in exacting of tributes and paymentes.) He cauſed in deede.Hen. Hunt. viij. markes of ſiluer to bee leuyed of euery porte or hauen in Englande, to the reteyning of .xvj.A nauie in a readineſſe. ſhippes furniſhed with men of warre, whyche continued euer in a readineſſe to defende the coaſtes from pyrates.Euil men, the longer they liue, the more they grovve into miſerie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To conclude, with this Harrold, His ſpeedy death prouided well for his fame, bycauſe as it was thought if his lyfe had bene of long con|tinuance his infamie had bin the greater.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But after he had reigned foure ye [...]es or (as Ha|riſon gathereth) .iij. yeres & .iij. monethes, he de|parted out of this worlde at Oxforde, and was,VVil. Ma [...] H. Hunt. VV. Mal. buryed at Wincheſter (as ſome ſay:) other ſay he dyed at Meneforde in the moneth of Apryll, and was buryed at Weſtminſter, whiche ſhould ap|peare to be true by that whiche after is reported of his brother Hardiknoughtes cruell dealyng, and great ſpite ſhewed towarde his dead bodye, as after ſhall be ſpecified.

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