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5.51. Lucius.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 74] LVcius the ſon of Coi|lus,Lucius. whoſe ſur|name (as ſayth William Har|riſon) is not ex|tant, began his raygne ouer ye Britaynes a|bout the yeare of oure Lorde .180. as Fabian following the authoritie of Pee|ter Pictanienſis hathe, although other writers ſeeme to diſagree in that accompt, as by the ſame Fabian in the table before his Booke partly ap|peareth, whereto Mathaeus VVeſt monasterienſi: af|firmeth, that this Lucius was borne in the yeare of our Lord .5. and was Crowned King in the yeare .124. as ſucceſſor to his father Coilus, which dyed the ſame ye [...]re, being of great age ere the ſaid Lucius was borne. William Harriſon in the ſe|cond part of his chronologie noteth his entraunce to be in the .1 [...]2. of the world .916. after the buyl|ding of Rome .220. after the comming of Ceſar into Britayne, and .165. after Chriſt,165 whoſe ac|comptes I followe (as before is ſayde) in this treatiſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Lucius is highly renowmed of the wri|ters, for that hee was the firſte King of the Bri|taynes that receyued the faith of Ieſus Chriſt: for being inſpired by the ſpirit of grace and truth euẽ from the beginning of hys raigne, he ſomewhat l [...]ned to the fauoring of Chriſtian Religion, being moued with the manifeſt miracles whyche the Chriſtians dayly wroughte in witneſſe and proofe of their ſound and perfect doctrine: for euen from the dayes of Ioſeph of Aramathia and hys fellowes, or what other godly men firſt taughte the Britaynes the Goſpell of our Sauiour, there remayned amongſt the ſame Britaynes ſome Chriſtians which ceaſſed not to teach & Preache the word of God moſt ſincerely vnto them: but yet no king amongſt them openly profeſſed that Religion, till at length this Lucius perceyuyng not only ſome of the Romayne Lieutenantes in Britayne as Trebellius and Pertinax, with o|ther, to haue ſubmitted themſelues to that pro|feſſion, but alſo the Emperour himſelfe to begin to be fauorable to them that profeſſed it, hee tooke occaſiõ by their good enſample to giue care more attentiuely to the Goſpell, and at length ſent vn|to Eleutherius Biſhop of Rome, two learned men of the Brittiſh nation, Eluane and Med|uin, requiring him to ſende ſome ſuche miniſters as might inſtruct him and his people in the true faith more plentifully, and to baptiſe them accor|ding to the rules of the Chriſtian Religion.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Herevpon were ſent from the ſayd Eleuthe|rius two godly learned mẽ, ye one named Fuga|trus and ye other Damianus, the which baptiſed the King with all his family and people. And [figure appears here on page 74] EEBO page image 75 therewith remoued the worſhipping of Idolles and falſe Gods, [...]ayne re| [...]eth the [...]. and taught the right meane and way howe to worſhippe the true and immortall God. There were in thoſe dayes within the boundes of Britayne .28. Flamynes, and three Archflamynes, which were as Biſhops & Arch|biſhops, or ſuperintendentes of the Pagane or Heathen religion, in whoſe place (they being re|moued) were inſtituted .28. Biſhops and three Archbiſhops of the Chriſtian Religion. One of the which Archbiſhops held his ſee at London, a|nother at Yorke, and the third at Caerleion, Ar|wiſke in Glamorgan ſhire. [...]ath. VVeſt. To the Archbiſhop of London was ſubiect Cornewall, and all the middle part of England, euen vnto Humber. To the Archbiſhop of Yorke all the North partes of Britayne from the Riuer of Humber vnto the furtheſt partes of Scotlande: and to the Archbi|ſhop of Caerleon was ſubiect all Wales, within whiche countrey as then were ſeuen Biſhops, where nowe there are but foure. The Riuer of Seuerne in thoſe dayes deuided Wales (then cal|led Cambria) from the other partes of Britayne. Thus Britayne partly by the meanes of Io|ſeph of Aramathia (of whome ye haue hearde be|fore) and partly by the wholeſome inſtructions & doctrine of Fugatius and Damianus, [...]ſephus of [...]amathia. was the firſt of all other regions that openly receyued the Goſpell, and continued moſt ſtedfaſtly in yt pro|feſſion, till the cruell furie of Diocletian perſecu|ted the ſame in ſuche ſorte, that as well in Bri|tayne as in all other places of ye world, the Chri|ſtian religion was in manner extinguiſhed, and vtterly deſtroyed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 [...]olidor. [...]eſtminſter [...]hurch built.Ther be that affirme, how this Lucius ſhould build the Church of Saint Peter at Weſtmin|ſter, though many attribute that acte vnto Si|bert King of the Eaſt Saxons, and write, howe the place was then ouergrowen with thornes & buſhes, and thereof tooke the name, and was cal|led Thorney. They adde moreouer (as Harriſon ſayeth) howe Thomas Archbiſhop of London preached, redde, and miniſtred the Sacraments there to ſuch as made reſorte vnto him. Howbeit by the tables hanging in the reueſtry of Sainte Paules at London, and alſo a table ſometyme hanging in Saint Peters Church in Cornehill, it ſhoulde ſeeme, that the ſayd Church of Saint Peter in Cornehill was the ſame that Lucius builded. But herein (ſayth Harriſon anno mundi 4174) doth lie a ſcruple, ſure Cornell might ſoone be miſtaken for Thorney, eſpecially in ſuch olde recordes, as time, age, euill handling, hath often|times defaced. But howſoeuer this caſe ſtãdeth, troth it is, that Lucius reioycing muche in that he had brought his people to the perfect light and vnderſtanding of the true God, that they needed not to bee deceyued any longer with the craftie temptations and feigned miracles of wicked ſpi|rites, he aboliſhed all prophane worſhippings of falſe Gods, and conuerted ſuche Temples as had bin dedicated to their ſeruice, vnto the vſe of the Chriſtian Religiõ: and thus ſtudying only how to aduance the glory of the immortall God, and the knowledge of his worde, without ſeeking the vayne glory of worldly triumph whiche is gote with ſlaughter and bloudſhed of many a giltleſſe perſon, hee lefte his kingdome (though not enlar|ged with broder dominion than hee receyued it,) yet greatly augmented and enriched with quiet reſt, good ordinances, and (that which is more to be eſteemed than all the reſt) adorned with Chri|ſtes religion, and perfectly inſtructed with hys moſt holy worde and doctrine. He raigned as ſome write .21. yeares,Polidor. Fabian. Iohn. Hard. though as other affirme but twelue yeares. Agayne, ſome teſtifie that he raigned .77. other ſay .54. & Harriſon .43. More|ouer, heere is to bee noted, that if he procured the faith of Chriſt to be planted within his Realme in the time of Eleutherius the Romayne Bi|ſhop, the ſame chanced in the dayes of the Em|perour Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. And about the time that Lucius Aurelius Commodus was ioyned & made partaker of the Empire wt his fa|ther, which was ſeuen yeres after ye death of Lu|cius Aelius Aurelius Verus, and in the .177. af|ter the birth of our Sauiour Ieſus Chriſt, as by Harriſons chronologie is eaſie to bee collected. For Eleutherius beganne to gouerne the ſea of Rome in the yeare .169. according to the opinion of ye moſt diligent chronogrophers of our time, & gouerned fifteene yeeres and thirteene days. And yet there are that affirme, howe Lucius dyed at Glowceſter in the yeare of our Lorde .156.Galfridus. Mat. VVeſt. other ſay that he dyed in the yeare .201. and other .208. So that the troth of this hiſtorie is broughte into doubt by the diſcorde of writers, concerning the time and other circumſtances, although they all agree that in this kings days the Chriſtian faith was firſt by publique conſent openly receyued & profeſſed in this lande, whiche as ſome affirme, ſhould chance in the twelfth yeare of his raigne,Polidor. and in the yeare of our Lord .177. Other iudge, that it came to paſſe in the eyght yeare of his re|giment, and in the yeare of our Lord .188. where other (as before is ſayd) alledge that it was in the yeare .179. Nauclerus ſayth, that this happened about the yeare of our Lord .156.Nauclerus Henricus de Herford. And Henricus de Erphordia ſuppoſeth, that it was in the yeare of our Lorde .169. and in the nineteenth yeare of the Emperour Marcus Antonius Verus: & af|ter other, about the ſixth yeare of the Emperoure Comodus. But to proceede: King Lucius dyed without iſſue, by reaſon whereof, after his deceſſe the Britaynes fell at variance,Fabian. whiche continued about the ſpace of fiftene yeares (as Fabian thin|keth) EEBO page image 76 howbeit, the olde engliſhe Chronicle affir|meth,Caxton. Iohn. Hard. that the contention betwixte them remai|ned .50. yeares, though Harding affirmeth but 4. yeares. And thus much of the Britaynes, and their kings Coylus and Lucius. Now it reſteth to ſpeake ſomewhat of the Romaynes whyche gouerned here in the meane while. After that A|gricola was called backe to Rome, the Britaines (& namely thoſe that inhabited beyond Twede) partly being weakened of their former ſtrength, and partly in conſideration of their pledges, whi|che they had deliuered to the Romaynes, remay|ned in peace certayne yeres.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cn Trebelli|us Lieutenãt. [figure appears here on page 76] IN the meane time, the Romayne Lieu|tenant Cn. Trebellius that ſucceded Iulius Agricola, hee coulde not foreſee all things ſo preciſely, but that ye ſouldiers waxing vn|ruly by reaſon of long reſt, fell at variance a|mongſt themſelues, & would not in the ende obey the Lieutenante, but diſquieted the Britanes beyond meaſure. Wher|fore the Britaynes perceyuing themſelues ſore oppreſſed with intollerable bondage, & that dayly the ſame increaſed, they conſpire togither, vppon hope to recouer libertie, and to defende their coũ|trey by all meanes poſſible, and heerewith they take weapon in hand againſt the Romaines, and boldly aſſaile them: but this they did yet warely, and ſo, that they might flee vnto the Wooddes & bogges for refuge vpon neceſſitie, according to the manner of their countrey. Herevpon diuers ſlaughters were committed on both parties, and all the countrey was now ready to rebell: where|of, when the Emperour Adrian was aduertiſed from Trebellius the Lieutenant, with all conue|nient ſpeede he paſſed ouer into Britayne, & quie|ted all the Iſle, vſing great humanitie towardes the inhabitants, and making ſmall accompte of that part where the Scottes nowe inhabite, ey|ther bycauſe of the barrenneſſe thereof, or for that by reaſon of the nature of the coũtrey he thoughte it would be hard to be kept vnder ſubiection, hee deuiſed to deuide it from the reſidue of Britayne, and ſo cauſed a wall to be made from the mouth of Tyne vnto the water of Eſke,The wall of Adrian built. Spartianus. whyche wall conteyned in length .xxx. mile.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, the Britaynes bearing a malici|ous hatred towards the Romayne Souldiers, & repyning to be kepte vnder the bond of ſeruitude, eftſoones goe aboute to recouer libertie againe. Whereof aduertiſement being giuen, the Empe|rour Pius Antonius ſendeth ouer Lollius Vr|bicus as Lieutenant into Britaine,Lollius Vrbi|cus Lieutenãt who by ſun|dry battayles ſtryken, conſtreyned the Britaines to remaine in quiet, and cauſing thoſe that inha|bited in the North partes to remoue further off from the confines of the Romaine prouince,Iulius [...] An other [...] built. rey|ſed another wall beyond that whiche the Empe|rour Adrian had made, as is to be ſuppoſed, for ye more ſuretie of the Romayne ſubiectes agaynſte the inuaſion of the enimies. But yet Lollius dyd not ſo make an end of the war, but that the Bri|taynes ſhortly after attempted of newe, eyther to reduce their ſtate into libertie, or to bring the ſame into further daunger.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 76] WHerevpõ Mar|cus Antonius that ſucceeded Pius, Iulius C [...]tolinus. Of the [...] of this Cal|phurnius [...] Britaynes may [...] more in [...] Scotti [...]h [...]. ſendeth Calphurnius Agricola to ſucceede Lollius in the gouerne|mente of Britayne, the which eaſily ouercame and ſubdued all his eni|mies. After this, there chanced ſome trouble in the dayes of the Emperoure Commodus the ſonne of Marcus Antonius and his ſucceſſor in the Empire: for the Britaynes yt dwelled North wardes beyond Adrians wall, brake through the ſame, and ſpoyled a great part of the countrey, a|gainſt whom the Romayne Lieutenant for that time beeing come foorthe, gaue them battell:Dion [...] but both he and the Romayne Souldiers that were with him, were beaten downe and ſlayne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 With whiche newes Commodus being ſore amaſed,Vlpius Mar|cellus Lieu [...]naunte. ſent againſt the Britaynes one Vlpius Marcellus, a man of great diligence & temperan|cy, but therwith rough & nothing gentle. He vſed the ſame kinde of diet that the common ſouldiers did vſe. He was a Captayne much watchfull, as one contented with very little ſleepe, & deſirous to haue his ſouldiers alſo vigilante and carefull to keepe ſure watch in the night ſeaſon. Euery eue|ning hee would write twelue tables, ſuch as they vſed to make of ye linde tree, & deliuering them to one of his ſeruants, appointed him to beare them at ſeueral houres of ye night to ſundry ſouldiers, wherby ſuppoſing that their Generall was ſtyll watching and not gone to bed, they might be in doubt to ſleepe. And although of nature he could wel abſteyne from ſleepe, yet to be the better able to forbeare it, he vſed a maruellous ſpare kinde of dyet: for to the end yt he would not fil hymſelfe too much with bread, he woulde eate none but ſuche as was brought to him frõ Rome, ſo that more than neceſſitie compelled him, he could not eate, by reaſon that the ſtalneſſe toke away ye pleaſant taſt therof, & leſſe prouoked his appetite. He was a maruellous cõtẽner of money, ſo yt bribes might not moue him to do otherwiſe thã dutie required.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 77Thus Marcellus beeing of ſuch diſpoſition, ſore afflicted the Britaynes, and put them often|times to greate loſſes, through fame whereof, Commodus enuying his renoune, was after in minde to haue made him away, but yet ſpared him for a further purpoſe, and ſuffered hym to de|parte.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After he was remoued from the gouernement of Britayne, [...]rhennis [...]ptayne [...] the Empe| [...]rs garde. one Perhennis Captayne of the Emperours garde (or Pretorian Souldiers, as they were then called) bearing all the rule vnder the Emperour Commodus, appoynted certaine Gentlemen of meane calling to gouerne the ar|my in Britaine. The Souldiers therefore in the ſame army repining to be gouerned by menne of baſe degree, [...]elius Lam| [...]dius. in reſpect of thoſe that had borne rule ouer them before, being honorable perſonages, as Senators, and of the conſuler dignitie, they fel at ſquare among themſelues, and about fifteene hũ|dred of them departed towardes Rome to exhi|bite their complaynte againſte Perhennis: for whatſoeuer was amiſſe, the blame was ſtill layd to him. They paſſed foorthe withoute impeach|mente at all, and comming to Rome, the Em|perour himſelfe came foorth to vnderſtande what they meant by this their comming in ſuche ſorte from the place where they were appoynted to ſerue. Their aunſwer was, that they were come to informe him of the treaſon which Perhennis had deuiſed to his deſtruction, that hee mighte make his ſonne Emperoure. To the whiche ac|cuſation, when Commodus too lightly gaue eare, and beleeued it to be true, namely, through the ſetting on of one Cleander, who hated Per|hennis, for that he brid led hym from doyng dy|uers vnlawfull actes, which he went about vpon a wilfull minde, (without all reaſon or modeſtie) to practiſe: The matter was ſo handled in the ende, that Perhennis was deliuered to the Soul|diers, who cruelly mangled him, and preſently put him to death.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 77] BVt nowe to the tu|multes in Britayne.Pertinax Lief|tenant of Britayne. It was thought nedeful to ſende ſome ſufficiente Captayne of authoritie thither, & therefore was one Pertinax that hadde bin Conſul and ruler o|uer foure ſeuerall conſu|ler prouinces, appointed by Commodus, to goe as Lieutenãt into that Ile, both for that he was thought a mã moſt meete for ſuch a charge, and alſo to ſatifie his credite, for that hee had bin diſ|charged by Perhennis of bearing any rule, & ſent home into Liguri [...] where hee was borne, & there appoynted to remayne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Pertinax comming into Britayne, pa|cifyed the army,The Lieute|nant in dan|ger. but not without danger to haue bin ſlayne by a mutinie reyſed by one of the Le|gions: for he was ſtriken downe, and left for dead [figure appears here on page 77] among the ſlayne carcaſſes. But he worthily re|uenged himſelfe of this iniurie. At length, hauing chaſtiſed the Rebels, and broughte the Ile into meetely good quiet, hee ſued and obteyned to bee diſcharged of that roomth, bicauſe as he alledged, the Souldiers could not brooke him, for that hee kept them in dutifull obedience, by corrrectyng ſuch as offended the lawes of Armes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 77] THen was Clodius Albinus appoynted to haue the rule of the Romayn army in Bri|tayne:Clodius Albi|nus Lieutenãt. whoſe deſtruction whẽ Seuerus the Em|peroure ſought, Albinus eſteemed it quickly: and therefore chooſing foorth a greate power of Bri|taynes, paſſed with the EEBO page image 78 ſame ouer into Fraunce to encounter with Se|uerus, who was come thither towards him, ſo that neere to the Citie of Lions, they ioyned in battell & fought right ſore, in ſo much that Seue|rus was at poynt to haue receyued ye ouerthrow by the high proweſſe and manhoode of the Bri|taynes: but yet in the ende, Albinus loſt ye fielde, & was ſlayne. Then Heraclitus as Lieutenant began to gouerne Britayne (as writeth Sparci|anus) being ſent thither by Seuerus for that pur|poſe before. And ſuch was the ſtate of this Iſle a|bout the yere of our Lord .195. In which ſeaſon, bycauſe that King Lucius was dead, and hadde left no iſſue to ſucceede him, the Britaynes (as before ye haue heard) were at variance amongſt themſelues, and ſo continued till the commyng of Seuerus, whom the Britiſh Chronographers affirme to raigne as King in this Iſle, and that by righte of ſucceſſion in bloud, as diſcended of Androgeus the Britaine, which went to Rome with Iulius Ceſar, as before ye haue heard.

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4.21. Pertinax is sent as lieutenant into Bri|taine, he is in danger to be slaine of the souldiers, he riddeth himselfe of that perilous office: Albinus with an armie of Britains fighteth against Seuerus and his power neere to Lions, Seuerus is slaine in a conflict against the Picts, Geta and Bassianus two brethren make mutuall warre for the regiment of the land, the one is slaine, the other ruleth. The xxj. Chapter.

EEBO page image 54

Pertinax is sent as lieutenant into Bri|taine, he is in danger to be slaine of the souldiers, he riddeth himselfe of that perilous office: Albinus with an armie of Britains fighteth against Seuerus and his power neere to Lions, Seuerus is slaine in a conflict against the Picts, Geta and Bassianus two brethren make mutuall warre for the regiment of the land, the one is slaine, the other ruleth. The xxj. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 _NOw will we saie some|what of the tumults in Bri|taine.Pertinax lieu|tenant of Bri|taine. It was thought néed|full to send some sufficient capteine of autoritie thither; and therefore was one Per|tinax that had béene consull and ruler ouer foure seuerall consular prouinces, appoin|ted by Commodus to go as lieutenant into that Ile, both for that he was thought a man most méet for such a charge, and also to satisfie his credit, for that he had béene discharged by Perhennis of bea|ring anie rule, and sent home into Liguria where he was borne, and there appointed to remaine. This Pertinax comming into Britaine, pacified the ar|mie, but not without danger to haue béene slaine by a mutinic raised by one of the legions: for he was stricken downe,The lieute|nant in dan|ger. and left for dead among the staine carcasses. But he woorthilie reuenged him|selfe of this iniurie. At length, hauing chastised the rebels, and brought the Ile into méetelie good quiet, he sued and obteined to be discharged of that roome, because as he alledged, the souldiers could not brooke him, for that he kept them in dutifull obedience, by correcting such as offended the lawes of armes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 THen was Clodius Albinus appointed to haue the rule of the Romane armie in Britaine:Clodius Albinus lieutenãt. whose destruction when Seuerus the emperour sought, Albinus perceiued it quicklie: and therefore choosing foorth a great power of Britains, passed with the same ouer into France to encounter with Seuerus, who was come thither towards him, so that néere to the citie of Lions they ioined in battell and fought right sore, in so much that Se|uerus was at point to haue receiued the ouerthrow by the high prowesse and manhood of the Britains: but yet in the end Albinus lost the field, and was slaine. Then Heraclitus as lieutenant began to gouerne Britaine (as writeth Spartianus) be|ing sent thither by Seuerus for that purpose be|fore. And such was the state of this Ile about the yeare of our Lord 195. In which season, because that king Lucius was dead, and had left no issue to succéed him, the Britains (as before ye haue heard) were at variance amongst themselues, and so con|tinued till the comming of Seuerus, whome the British chronographers affirme to reigne as king in this Ile, & that by right of succession in bloud, as descended of Androgeus the Britaine, which went to Rome with Iulius Cesar, as before ye haue heard.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 THis Seuerus as then emperour of Rome,Seuerus. be|gan to rule this Ile (as authors affirme) in the yeare of our Lord 207, and gouerned the same 4 yeares and od moneths. At length hearing that one Fulgentius as then a leader of the Picts was en|tred into the borders of his countrie on this side Durham, he raised an host of Britains and Ro|mans, with the which he marched towards his eni|mies: and méeting with the said Fulgentius in a place néere vnto Yorke, in the end after sore fight Seuerus was slaine, when he had ruled this land for the space almost of fiue yeares, as before is said, and was after buried at Yorke, leauing behind him two sonnes, the one named Geta, and the other Bassianus. This Bassianus being borne of a Bri|tish woman, succéeded his father in the gouerne|ment of Britaine, in the yeare of the incarnation of our Lord 211. The Romans would haue had Geta created king of Britaine, bearing more fauour to him because he had a Romane ladie to his mother: but the Britains moued with the like respect, held with Bassianus. And thervpon warre was raised betwixt the two brethren, who comming to trie their quarrell by battell, Geta was slaine, and Bassia|nus with aid of the Britains remained victor, and so continued king, till at length he was slaine by one Carausius a Britaine, borne but of low birth, howbeit right valiant in armes, and therefore well estéemed. In somuch that obteining of the senat of Rome the kéeping of the coasts of Britaine, that he might defend the same from the malice of stran|gers, as Picts and others, he drew to him a great number of souldiers and speciallie of Britains, to whome he promised that if they would make him king, he would cléerelie deliuer them from the op|pression of the Romane seruitude. Wherevpon the Britains rebelling against Bassianus, ioined them|selues to Carausius, who by their support vanquished and slue the said Bassianus, after he had reigned 6 or (as some affirme) 30 yeares.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶Thus farre out of the English and British wri|ters, the which how farre they varie from likelihood of truth, you shall heare in the next chapter what the approued historiographers,Herodianus. Gréekes and Latines, writing of these matters, haue recorded.