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2.3. Of ſuch ſtreames as fall into the maine ri|uers betweene Humber and the Thames. Cap. 3.

Of ſuch ſtreames as fall into the maine ri|uers betweene Humber and the Thames. Cap. 3.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THe courſe of the Ouze is alreadie ſet forth in the firſt booke of this deſcription & ſo exactely as I hope that I ſhall not néede to adde any more thereunto at this time.Ouze. Wherefore I will deale onely with ſuch as fall into the ſame, ymagining a voyage frõ the Rauenſpurne, vntill I come néere to the heade of Theſe, and ſo ſouthwardes about a|gaine by the bottome of the hilly ſoyle vntill I get to Buxſton, Sheffelde, Scroby, and the very ſouth point of Humber mouth, wherby I ſhall croſſe them all that are to be found in this walke, and leaue I doubt not ſome eſpe|ciall notice of their ſeuerall heads & courſes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The courſe of the Hul is already deſcribed,Hul [...] yet here I will not let to inſert Lelandes de|ſcription of the ſame, and that more for thoſe odde notes which he hath ſet down in the pro|ceſſe of his matter, then that I thincke his dealing herein to be more exacte then myne, if ſo much may be ſayde without all cauſe of offence. The Hulne (ſaieth he) riſeth of thrée ſeuerall heads, whereof the greateſt is not farre from Dryfielde, nowe a ſmall village ſixtéene myles frõ Hull. Certes it hath béene a goodly towne, and therein was the pallace of Egbright king of the Northumbers, and place of Sepulture of a noble Saxon king, whoſe name I now remember not although his Tõbe remaine for ought that I do know to the contrarie, with an inſcription vpon the ſame written in Latine letters. Neare vnto this towne alſo is the Danefielde, wherein great numbers of Danes were ſlaine, and buried in thoſe hils, which yet remaine there to be ſéene ouer their bones and carkaſſes. The ſecond head ſaith he is at Eſtburne, and the thirde at Emmeſwell, and méeting alto|gither not farre from Dryfielde, the water there beginneth to be called Hulne, as I haue ſayde alreadie. From hence alſo it goeth thorowe Beuerley medowes, and comming at the laſt not farre from an arme led from the Hulne by mans hande (and able to beare great veſſels) almoſt to Beuerley towne,Cott [...]+ham. & méeting thereabout alſo with the Cottinghã EEBO page image 69 becke comming frõ Weſtwood by the way, it haſteth to Kingſton vpon Hulne, and ſo in|to the Humber without any maner impeche|ment.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]wlney.The Fowlney riſeth about Godmanham, from whence it goeth by Wighton, Hareſ|well, Seton, Williams bridge, and ſoone af|ter ſpreading it ſelfe, one arme called Skel|flete, [...]elflete. goeth by Cane Cawſey to Browneflete and ſo into the Ouze. The other paſſeth by Sandholme, Gilbertes dike, Scalby chap|pell, Blacketoft and ſo into the aforeſayde Ouze, leauing a very pretie Iſlande, which is a percel as I here of Walding fen more, though otherwyſe obſcure to vs that dwell here in the ſouth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 [...]rwent.The Darwent ryſeth in the hilles that lye weſt of Robin Whodes baie, or two myles aboue Ayton bridge, weſt of Scarborow as Lelande ſayth: and eare it hath runne farre from the head, it receyueth two rilles in one bottome from by weſt, which ioyne withall about Langdale ende. Thence they go togy|ther to Broxey and at Hackneſſe take in an other water comming from about Silſey. Afterwarde it commeth to Ayton, then to Haybridge, [...]nford. and there croſſeth the Kenforde that deſcendeth from Roberteſton. After this alſo it goeth on to Potterſbrumton where it taketh in one rill, as it doth another beneath running from Shirburne, and the thirde yet lower, on the fader bancke, that deſcendeth from Brumpton. From theſe confluences, it runneth to Fowlbridge, Axbridge, Yel|dingham bridge, and ſo to Cotehouſe, recey|uing by the way many waters. Lelande re|coning vp the names of the ſeuerall brookes, numbreth them confuſedly after his accuſto|med order. The Darwent ſaith he receyueth diuers ſtreames as the Shyrihutton. [...]hirihut| [...]n. [...]rambeck The ſe|conde is the Crambecke, deſcending from Hunderſkell caſtell, [...]rambeck (ſo called tanquã a cen|tum fontibus, or multitude of Springes that ryſe about the ſame) and goeth to Rie, which comming out of the Blacke moores, paſſeth by Riuers abbay, taking in the Ricoll on the left hande, [...]. [...]coll. [...]euen. [...]oſtey. [...]ckering then the Seuen, the Coſtey and Pickering brooke. The Seuen alſo ſayeth he riſeth in the ſide of Blackmoore, and thence goeth by Sinnington foure myles frõ Pic|kering, and about a myle aboue a certayne bridge ouer Rie goeth into ye Streame. The Coſtey in like ſorte ſpringeth in ye very edge of Pickering towne, at a place called Keld head, and goeth into the Rie two myles be|neath Pickering, about Kyrby minſter. Fi|nally Pickering water ariſeth in Blacke|more, and halfe a myle beneath Pickering falleth into Coſtey, meting by the way with the Pocklington becke,Pockling|ton. and an other ſmall rill or two of whoſe names I haue no know|ledge. Hitherto Lelande, but in mine opiniõ it had béene far better to haue deſcribed them thus. Of thoſe waters that fal into the Dar|went beneath Cotehouſe, the firſt commeth from Swenton, the ſeconde from Ebberſtõ, the thirde from Ollerſton, the fourth from Thornetõ, and Pickering, and the fift on the other ſide that commeth thither from Win|tringham, for ſo ſhoulde he haue dealt in bet|ter order, & rid his hands of them with more expeditiõ, referring the reaſt alſo vnto their proper places. But to procéede after myne owne maner. Being paſt Cotehouſe, & eare the Darwent come at Wickham, it croſſeth the Rie, which riſeth of two heades,Rie. and ioy|ning weſt of Locton they run thorow Glanſ|by parke.Coſtey. Finally receyuing the Coſtey it méeteth at the laſt with an other ſtreame in|creaſed by the falles of ſixe waters & more, eare it come into ye Darwent. The moſt ea|ſterly of theſe is called Seuen,Seuen. & ryſeth as is aforeſayde in Blackemore, from whence it goeth by Sinnington, Murton, Normanby, Newſounde, How & ſo into the Rie.Doue or Doue. The ſe|conde named Dou hath his original likewiſe in Blackemore, and deſcẽding by Raſmore, Keldon and Edſton, (where it receyueth the Hodge becke, that commeth by Berneſdale,Hodge|becke. Ricoll. Kirkedale, and Welburne) it goeth to Sawl|ton, and there taketh in firſt the Ricoll, that goeth by Careton, & whereof Ridall as ſome think (but falſly) doth ſéeme to take the name. Then Feſſe, which ryſeth aboue.Feſſe. Biliſdale chappell, & méeteth with the Rie at the Sha|king bridge, from whence they go togyther vnder the Rie bridge, to Riuis abbaye, and thence (after it hath croſſed a becke from the weſt) thorowe a parke of the Earle of Rut|landes to Newton, Muniton, and ſo to Saw|ton, or Sawlton, as I doe finde it written: Here alſo it taketh in the Holbecke brooke,Holbecke. that commeth thither from by weſt by Gyl|ling caſtell, and Stangraue, from whence it goeth on to Braby, next into the Seuen, then into the Rie, and ſo into the Darwent, which from thẽce doth run to Wickhã. Being paſt Wickhã, it meteth with a water that cõmeth thereinto from Grynſton to Setterington at ſoutheaſt, and thence it goeth on to Malton & Malton, Sutton, Wellam, Furby, & Kirk|ham, receyuing by ye way one rill on the one ſide and another on the other, whereof this commeth from Burdfall, that other frõ Co|niſthorpe. From Kyrkeham it goeth to Crã|burne and Owſham bridge, (croſſing by the way an other brooke comming from S. Ed|wardes gore, by Faſton) then to Aldby, But|tercram, EEBO page image 79 (alias Butterham) bridg, Stamford bridg, Kexby bridg, Sutton, Ellerton, Augh|ton, Bubwith, Wreſill, Babthorpe & ſo into ye Ouze, wherwith I finiſhe the deſcription of the Derwent, ſauing that I haue to let you vnderſtand how Leland heard that an arme ran ſometime from the hed of Darwent alſo to Scarborow till ſuch time as two hils be|twixt which it ran, did ſhalder & ſo choke vp his courſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Foſſe.The Foſſe (a ſlow ſtream yet able to beare a good veſſell) ryſeth in Nemore Calaterio, or among the wooddy hilles now called Gal|ters forreſt, and in his deſcent frõ the higher ground, he leaueth Crake caſtel, on his weſt ſide: thence he goeth by Marton abbay, Mar|ton, Stillington, Farlington, Towthorpe, Erſwijc, Huntingdon, and at Yorke into the Ouze.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Kile.The Kile ryſeth flat north at Newborow, from whence it goeth by Thorneton on the hyll, Ruſkell parke, Awne, Tollerton, and ſo into the Ouze about Newton vpon Ouze.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Swale.The Swale is a ryght noble ryuer. It ri|ſeth in the hilles aboue Kyrkedale, and from this towne it goeth to Kelde chappell, Car|ret houſe, Crackepot, Whiteſide, and néere vnto Yalen,Barney. taketh in the Barney water, which commeth from the north eaſt. Thence it goeth by Harcaſide to Reth (where it mée|teth with the Arcley) and ſo to Flemington,Arcley. Holgate. Grinton, Marrike (taking in the Holgate that commeth from by ſouth: & in the way to Thorpe,Mariſke becke. the Mariſke becke, or peraduẽture Applegarth water, as Leland calleth it, that diſcendeth from the north) then to Thorpe, Applegarth, Richmonde, Eaſby and Brun|ton. Here by North it entertayneth two or thrée waters in one chanell, called Rauen|ſwathe water, whereof the twoo fardeſt doe ioyne not far from the Dawltons, & ſo go by Rauenſwath,Rauenſ|wathe. Hartforth, Gilling, & at Ske|by méete wyth the thirde, comming from Richmonde Beaconwarde. By weſt alſo of Brunton,Rhe. the Swale méeteth with the Rhe, runnyng from Reſdale, and beyng paſt Brunton, it goeth to Caterijc bridge beneath Brunton, then to Ellerton, Kyrkeby, Lang|ton parua, Thirtoft, Anderby Steple, and before it come vnto Gatenby, it méeteth wt ye Bedall brooke,Bedall alias Le|ming. alias Leminges becke, that cõmeth weſt of Kellirby, by Cũſtable, Bur|ton, Langthorpe, Bedall, and Leming chap|pell. From Gattenby lykewiſe it goeth to Mawby, and at Brakenbyry, receiueth the Wiſke,Wiſke. which is a great water, ryſing be|twéene two parkes aboue Swanby in one place, and ſoutheaſt of Mountgrace Abbaie in another, and after the confluence which is about Siddlebridge, goeth on betwéene the Rughtons to Appleton, the Smetons, Byrt|by, Huttõ Coniers, Danby, Wijc, Yafford, Warlaby, and taking in there a ryll from Brunton, by Aluerton, it procéedeth to Ot|teringtõ, Newley, Kyrby Wiſke, Newſon, and Blackenbury, there méeting as I ſayde with the Swale, that runneth from thence by Skipton bridge, Catton, Topcliffe, and Ranyton, and aboue Eldmyre, méeteth with ſundrye other rylles in one botome, whereof the northweſterley is called Cawdebec: [...] the ſouth Eaſterly Kebecke, which ioyne eaſt of Thornton moore, and ſo go to Thorneton in the ſtreate, Kiluington, Thruſke, Sowerby, Graſtwijc, and ſoone after croſſing another growing of the myxture of the Willow, and likewyſe of the Cuckwolde beckes,Cuck+wol [...] becke. which ioyne aboue Bridforth, and running on till it come almoſt at Dalton, it maketh confluence with the Swale, and go thence as one by Thornton bridge, Mitton vpon Swale, and ſo into the Ouze.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Skell ryſeth out of the weſt two my|les from Fountaines Abbay,Skell and commeth as Lelande ſayth with a fayre courſe by the one ſide of Rippon, as the Vre doth on the o|ther. And on the bankes hereof ſtoode the fa|mous Abbaie called Fountaines, ſomuch re|noumed for the luſty monkes that dwelled in the ſame. It receiueth alſo the Lauer water,Lauer. (which ryſeth thrée myles from Kyrby, and méeteth withall néere vnto Rippon) and fi|nally falleth into the Vre, a quarter of a mile beneath Rippon Towne, and almoſt midde waye betwéene the North and Huicke brid|ges.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Nidde ryſeth among thoſe hilles that lye by weſt northweſt of Gnarreſborowe,Nidde. fyue myles aboue Pakeley bridge, & going in ſhort proceſſe of time by Weſt houſes, Lodg houſes, Woodhall, Newehouſes, Midleſ|more, Raunſgill, Cowthouſe, Gowthwall, Bureley, Brymham, Hampeſwale, & ſoone after méeting with the Killingale becke,Killing [...] it goeth after the confluence, by Bylton parke, Gnareſbridge, Waſhforde, Cathall, Willeſ|thorp, Munketon, or Nonniocke, and ſo into the Ouze, fouretéene miles beneath Gnareſ|borow, beyng increaſed by the waye wyth very fewe or no waters of any countenance. Lelande hauing ſaid thus much of ye Nidde, addeth herevnto the names of two other wa|ters, that is to ſay, the Couer & the Burne,Couer. Burne. which doe fal likewiſe into the Vre or Ouze, but as he ſayth little of the ſame, ſo among all my Pampheletes, I can gather no more of them, then that the firſt ryſeth ſixe myles aboue Couerham by weſt, and falleth into ye EEBO page image 70 Vre, a little beneath Middleham bridge, which is two myles beneath the towne of Couerham. As for the Burne, it ryſeth at More hylles, and falleth into the ſayde ryuer a lyttle beneth Maſſham bridge, and ſo much of theſe two.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]harfe [...]ias [...]werfe.The Wharffe or Gwerfe, ryſeth aboue Vghterſhaw, from whence it runneth to Beggermons, Raſemill, Hubberham, Backden, Starbotton, Kettlewell, Cunniſtõ in Kettlewell, and here it méeteth with a rill comming from Haltongill chappel, bp Arne|cliffe, & ioyning withal north eaſt of Kilneſey crag, it paſſeth ouer by the lower groundes to Gyrſington, and receyuing a ryll there al|ſo from Treſfelde parke, it procéedeth on to Brunſall brydge. Furthermore at Appletre|wijc, it méeteth wyth a ryll from by north, & thence goeth to Barden Towre, Bolton, Beth and Miſley hall, where it croſſeth a rill comming frõ by weſt. Thence to Addinghã, taking in there alſo a another from by weſt, and ſo to Ikeley, and receyuing ere long a|nother by north from Denton hall, it haſteth to Weſton Vauaſour, Oteley, and Letheley where it taketh in the Padſide, & the Waſh|burne, [...]adſide. [...]aſhburn. both in one ſtreame from Lyndley ward, and thence to Caſley chappell, & there it croſſeth one from by north, & another ere long from by ſouth, and ſo to Yardwoode ca|ſtell, Kereby, Woodhall, Collingham, Lin|ton, Wetherby, Thorpatche, Newton, Tad|caſter, and when it hath receyued the Cocke|becke from ſouthweſt, [...]ocke| [...]cke. that goth by Barwy, Aberforth, Leadhall, and Grymſton, it run|neth to Exton, Kyrby Wharf, Vſkel, Rither Nunapleton, and ſo into the Ouze, beneath Cawood, a caſtell belonging to the Arche bi|ſhop of Yorke, where he vſeth oft to lye when he refreſheth himſelfe, with chaunge of ayre & ſhift of habitation, for the auoiding of ſuch infection as maye otherwiſe engender by his long abode in one place, for want of due pur|gation, and aiering of his houſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]ir.The Air ryſeth out of a Lake, South of Darnbrooke, wherin as I here is none other fiſh but red Trowt, & Perche. Leland ſaith it riſeth néere vnto Ortõ in Crauen, wherfore the oddes is but litle. It goeth therfore from thence to Mawlam, Hamlithe, Kyrby Mol|dale, Calton hall, Areton, and ſo forth tyll it come almoſt to Gargraue, there croſſing the Otterburne water on the weſt, [...]tter| [...]rne. [...]inter| [...]rne. & the Win|terburne on the north, which at Flaſby, re|ceiueth a ryll from Helton as I here. Being paſt Gargraue, our Air goeth on to Eſhton, Elſwoode, and ſo forth on, firſt receyuig a brooke from ſouthweſt, (wherof one braunch commeth by Marton, the other by Thornet, which méete about Broughton) then another from northeaſt, that runneth by Skipton ca|ſtell. After this confluence it haſteth to Newebiggin, Bradley, and Kildwijc, by ſouth eaſt whereof, it méeteth with one wa|ter from Mawſis, and Gluſburne or Glu|keſburne, called Glyke,Glyke. another lykewyſe a lytle beneath from Seton, beſide two rylles from by north, after which confluence it run|neth by Reddleſdẽ, & ouer againſt this towne the Lacocke and the Worth doe méete with|all in one chanell,Lacocke. Woorth. Moreton. as the Moreton water doth on the north, although it be ſomewhat lower. Thence it goeth to Riſheforth hall, & ſo to Bungley, where it taketh a ryll from Denholme parke to Shipeley, & there croſ|ſing another from Thorneton, Leuenthorpe, and Bradley, it goeth to Caluerley, to Chri|ſtall, and ſo to Léedes, where one water run|neth thereinto, by north from Wettlewoode, and two other from by ſouth in one chanell, whereof the firſt hath two armes, of which the one commeth from Pudſey chappell, the other from Adwalton, their confluence being made aboue Farneſley hall. The other lyke|wiſe hath two heades, whereof one is aboue Morley, the other cõmeth from Domingley, and méeting with the firſt not far ſouth weſt of Léedes, they fall both into the Aire, and ſo runne with the ſame to Swillington, & there taking in ye Rodwel becke ſouth of the bridg, it procéedeth to Ollerton, Caſtelforde,Redwell. Went. Bro|therton and Ferribridge there receiuing the Went, a becke from Pontifract which ry|ſeth of diuers heads, wherof one is among ye cole pits. Thẽce to Beall, Berkin, Kelling|tõ, middle Hodleſey, Tẽplehirſt, Gowldall, Snath [...], Rawcliffe, Newlande, Army, and ſo into the Ouze wyth an indifferent courſe. Of all the ryuers in the North, Lelande (in ſo many ot hys bookes as I haue ſéene) ſayth leaſt of this. Mine annotations alſo are very ſlender in the particular waters whereby it is increaſed: wherfore I was compelled of neceſſity to conclude euen thus with the de|ſcription of the ſame, & had ſo left it in déede if I had not receyued one other note more to adde vnto it (euen when the leafe was at the Preſſe) which ſaith as followeth in maner worde for worde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 There is a noble water that falleth into Aire, whoſe heade as I take it is about Stã|forde. From whence it goeth to Creſton cha|pell, to Lingfield, and there about receyuing one ryll, néere Elfrabright bridge,Hebden. and alſo the Hebden by northweſt, it goeth to Brear|ley hall, and ſo taking in the thirde by north it procéedeth on eaſtwarde by Sorſby bridge chappell, (and there a ryll from ſouthweſt) EEBO page image 80 and ſo to Coppeley hall. Beneath this place I finde alſo that it receyueth one ryll from Hallyfaxe, which ryſeth of two heades, & two other from ſouthweſt, of which one commeth by Bareſlande, and Stanelande in one cha|nell, as I reade, ſo that after this confluence the aforeſayd water goeth on toward Cow|forde bridge, and as it taketh in two rilles a|boue the ſame on the North ſide, ſo beneath that bridge, there falleth into it a prety arme increaſed by ſundry waters comming from by ſouth, as from Marſheden chappell, from Holmeſworth chappell, and Kyrke Heton, eche one growyng of ſundrie heades, wherof I woulde ſay more, if I had more intelligẽce of their ſeuerall gates and paſſages. But to procéede from Cowford bridge it runneth to Munfeld, & receiuing ere long one ryll from Leuerſage hall, and another from Burſhall by Deweſburye, it goeth on North eaſt of Thornehul, ſouth of Horbyry thornes, & ther|about croſſyng one ryll from by ſouth from Woller by newe Milner Damme, and ſoone after another from northweſt,Chalde. called Chald, ryſing in the Peke hilles, whereon Wake|fielde ſtandeth, and likewiſe the thirde from ſouth eaſt, and Waterton hall, it goeth by Warmefield, Newelande, Altoftes, and fy|nally into the Aire, weſt of Caſtelworth, as I learne. What ye name of this ryuer ſhould be as yet I here not, and therefore no mer|ueile that I doe not ſet it downe, yet is it po|ſible ſuch as dwell thereabout are not igno|raunt thereof, but what is that to me, if I be not pertaker of their knowledge. It ſhal ſuf|fiſe therefore thus farre to haue ſhewed the courſe thereof, and as for the name I paſſe it ouer vntill another time.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Trent.The Trent is one of the moſt excellent ry|uers in the lande, and increaſed wyth ſo ma|ny waters, as for that onely cauſe it may bée compared either with the Ouze or Sauerne, I meane the ſeconde Ouze, whoſe courſe I haue lately deſcribed. It ryſeth of two heads which ioyne beneath Norton in the moore, & from thence goeth to Hiltõ Abbay, Bucknel church, and aboue Stoke, receyueth in the foule brooke water,Foulbrook which commeth thyther from Tunſtall, by Shelton, and finally ma|king a confluence they go to Hanflete, where they méete wyth another on the ſame ſide, that diſcendeth frõ Newcaſtell vnder Line, which Lelande taketh to bée the very Trent it ſelfe, ſaying, that it ryſeth in the hylles a|boue Newcaſtell, as maye be ſéene by hys commentaryes. But to procéede. At Trent|ham or not farre from thence, it croſſeth a riueret from northeaſt, whoſe name I know not, & thence goyng to Stone Aſton, Stoke Burſton, the Sandons and Weſton, a little aboue Shubburne and Hawood, it receyueth the Sowe, a great chanell increaſed wyth ſundry waters, which I will here deſcribe, leauyng the Trent at Shubburne, tyll I come backe agayne.Sow [...]. The Sowe diſcendeth from the hylles, aboue Whytemoore cha|pell, and goeth by Charleton, and Stawne, and beneath Shalforde ioyneth wyth ano|ther by northeaſt that commeth from By|ſhoppes Offeley, Egleſhal, Cheſby, Rauntõ. After thys confluence alſo, it runneth by Bridgeforde, Tillington, and Stafforde, be|neath which Towne, it croſſeth the Penke becke, that ryſeth aboue Nigleton,Penke. & Bere|wood, and aboue Penke bridge, vniteth it ſelf with another comming frõ Knightley ward, by Gnaſhall church, Eaton, and ſo goyng forth as one, it is not long ere they fall into Sow, after they haue paſſed Draiton, Dun|ſtan, Acton, and Banſwiche, where looſing their names, they with the Sow & the Sow with them, doe ioyne wyth the Trent, at Shubburne, vpon the ſoutherly bank. From Shubburne ye Trent goeth on, to lytle Har|woode, (méeting by the way one ryll at Ouſ|ley bridge, and another ſouth of Riddleſley) thence by Hawkſhery, Maueſtane, Ridware and ſo towarde Yoxhall, where I muſt ſtaye a whyle to conſider of other waters, where|with I mete in this voiage. Of theſe therfore the leſſer commeth in by ſouth frõ Farwall, the other from by weſt, a fayre ſtreame, and increaſed with two brookes, whereof the firſt ryſeth in Nedewoode forreſt, northeaſt of Haggarſley parke, wherinto falleth another weſt of Hamſted Ridware, called Blythe,Blithe. which ryſeth among the hylles in Whate|ley moore, aboue Weſton Cony and thence goyng to the ſame Towne, it commeth to Careſwel Druicote, alias Dracote, Painſley Gratwitch, Grymley, Aldmaſton, Hamſted Ridware, and finally into the Trent, direct|ly weſt of Yoxhall, which runneth alſo from thence, and leauing kinges Bromley, in a parke (as I take it) on the left hand, and the Blacke water comming from Southton, and Lichefielde on the ryght, goeth ſtreight waye to Catton, where it méeteth wyth the Tame, whoſe courſe I deſcribe as follow|eth.Tame. It riſeth in Staffordſhyre (as I remẽ|ber) not farre from Petteſhall, & goeth foorth by Hamſted, towarde Pyrihall and Brimi|chams Aſton, taking in by the way a rill on eache ſide, whereof the firſt groweth through a confluence of two waters, the one of them comming from Typton, the other from Ald|bury, and ſo rũning as one by Wedbury till they fall into the ſame. The latter commeth EEBO page image 71 from Wolfhall and ioyneth with it on the left hande. After this and when it is paſt the aforeſayd places, it croſſeth in like ſort a rill frõ Smethikewarde: thence it goeth to Yar|neton hall, beneath which it méeteth with the Rhe, [...] and thence thorow the parke, at Parke hal by Watercote croſſing finally the Cole, whoſe heade is in the forreſt by Kingeſnortõ wood, and hath this courſe, whereof I nowe giue notice. It riſeth as I ſayde in the for|reſt by Kingeſnorton wood, & going by Yare|ley and Kingeſhirſt, it méeteth betweene that & the parke, with a water running betwéene Helmedon and Sheldon. Thence it paſſeth on to Coleſhull, by eaſt whereof it ioyneth with a brooke, mounting ſouthweſt of Soly|hull called Blithe, which going by Henwood and Barſton, [...]lithe. croſſeth on eche ſide of temple Balſhall a rill, whereof one cõmeth thorow the Quéenes parke or chaſe that lyeth by Weſt of Kenelworth, and the other by Kenelworth caſtell it ſelfe, from about Haſe|ly parke. After which confluences it procée|deth in like maner to Hampton in Arden, & the Packingtons and ſo to Coleſhull, where it méeteth with the Cole, [...]urne. that going a little farder vniteth it ſelf with the Burne, on the one ſide, (whereinto runneth a water com|ming frõ Anſley on the eaſt) & ſoone after on ye other doth fal into ye Tame. That which ſome call the Rhée, Leland nameth the Brimichã water, [...]hée. whoſe head as I heare is aboue Norf|field, ſo that his courſe ſhoulde be by Kingeſ|nortõ, Bremicham, Budſton hall, till it fall beneath Yarneton into the Tame it ſelf, that runneth after theſe confluences on by Lée, Kingeſbyry parke, & going by eaſt, of Dray|ton Baſſet Parke to Falkeſley Bridge, it méeteth with another water, called Burne alſo comming from Hammerwich churche, by Cheſterforde, Shenton, Thickebrowne, and the north ſide of Drayton, Baſſet parke, whereof I ſpake before. From hence our Thame runneth on to Tamworth, there ta|king in the Ancre by eaſt, [...]ncre. whoſe deſcription I had in this maner deliuered vnto me. It riſeth aboue Burton, from whence it goeth by Nonneaton, Witherley and Atherſtone. Ere long alſo it taketh in a water frõ north|eaſt, which commeth by Hugleſcote, Shap|ton, Cunſtõ, Twicroſſe (vniting it ſelf with a water from Boſworth) Ratcliffe and ſo into Ancre: which after this confluence paſſeth by Whittendõ, Crindõ, Polleſworth Armimg|ton, Tamworth and ſo into Tame, that ha|ſteth to Hopwaſh, Cõberford hall, Telford, & ſoone after croſſing a rill that ryſeth ſhorte of Swinfelde hall, and commeth by Feſtyrike, it runneth not farre from Croxhall, and ſo to Catton, there about receyuing his laſt in|creaſe not worthie to be omitted.Meſe. This brooke is named Meſe, & it riſeth in the great parke that lyeth betwéene Worthington, & Sme|thike, from whence alſo it goeth by Aſheby de la ſouche Packington, Meſham & Stret|ton, & therabout croſſing a ril about Nether|ſale Graunge, from Ouerſale by eaſt, it pro|céedeth by Chilcote, Clifton, Croxal, into the Thame and both out of hand into the maine riuer a mile aboue Reptõ. Leland writing of this riuer as I earſt noted laith therof in this wiſe. Into the Thame alſo runneth the Bre|micham brooke, which ryſeth foure or fiue myles about Bremicham in the Blacke hils in Worceſterſhyre, and goeth into the a|foreſayde water a myle aboue Crudworth bridge. Certes ſayth he this Bremicham is a towne maintayned chiefly by ſmithes, as Naylers, Cutlers, Edgetoole forgers, Lori|mers or Bitmakers, which haue their yron out of Stafforde, and Warwijc ſhyres, and coles alſo out of the firſt countie, & hitherto Leland. Nowe to reſume the Trent, which being growen to ſome greatneſſe, goeth on to Walton, Drakelow, and there croſſing a water that commeth by Newbold hall, it rũ|neth to Stapenell, Winſhull, Wightmere, and Newtõ, Souche, where it receyueth two chanels within a ſhort ſpace, to be deſcribed a part. The firſt of theſe is called the Dow or Doue.Dow. It ryſeth about the thrée ſhyres méere, & is as it were Limes betwéene Staf|forde and Darbyſhyres vntill it come at the Trent. Deſcending therfore from the head, it goeth by Erles Booth, Pilſbury Graung, Hartington, Wolſcot, Eaton, Himſington Graunge, and aboue Thorpe receyueth the Manifolde water,Manifold. ſo called bycauſe of ye ſun|drie crinckling rils that it receyueth & tur|nagaines that it ſelfe ſheweth before it come at the Dow. Riſing therefore not farre from Axe edge croſſe, (in the bottome thereby) it runneth from thence to Longmoore, Shene, Warſlow Chappell, and Welton. Beneath Welton alſo it taketh in the Hanſby water,Hanſley. that commeth out of Blackemoore hilles to Waterſall, where it falleth into the ground, and afterwarde mounting againe is recey|ued into the Manifold north of Throwley as I heare, which goeth from thence to Ilam & aboue Thorpe doth caſt it ſelfe into Dowe. Hauing therefore mette togither after this maner, the Dow procéedeth on to Mapling|ton, beneath which it croſſeth one water de|ſcending from Braſſingtõ by Fenny Bent|ley, and another ſomewhat lower that com|meth from Hocſton hall by Hognaſton and Aſheburne, and then going to Matterfielde, EEBO page image 81 Narbury, Ellaſton, Rawſton, Rowceſter, it méeteth with the Churne,Churne. euen here to be de|ſcribed before I go any farder. It riſeth a good waie aboue Delacraſſe abbay, and com|ming thither by Helleſby wood, it taketh in the Dunſméere betwéene Harracraſſe,Dunſmere and Leike. Thence it goeth to the Walgraunge, and a little beneath receyueth ye Yendor, that commeth frõ aboue Harton,Yendor. thence to Ched|dleton, & hauing croſſed the Aſhenhirſt brooke aboue Cnutes hall,Aula Ca|nuti. Aſhenhirſt it runneth by Ypſton, Froghall, Below hill, Alton caſtell, Preſt|wood & at Rowceſter falleth into the Dow, which eare long alſo receyueth a rill from Crowſden, and then going to Eton meeteth firſt with the Teine that commeth thither from each ſide of Chedley by Teinetwone,Teine. Bramhirſt and Stranehill. Secondly with the Vnceſter or Vttoyeter water,Vttoyeter or Vnce|ſter. and then going on to Merchington, Sidbery, Cawltõ, it croſſeth a brooke from Sidmiſter colledge, by Saperton. From this confluence in lyke ſorte it paſſeth foorth, to Tilbery caſtel, Mar|ſton and at Edgerton, méeteth with the wa|ter that commeth from Yelderſley by Long|forde (whereinto runneth another that com|meth from Hollington) and ſo to Hilton. Theſe waters being thus ioyned and many endes brought into one, the Dow it ſelfe fal|leth eare long, lykewyſe into the Trent, aboue Newton Souche: ſo that the maine ri|uer being thus inlarged, goeth onwardes with his courſe, and betwéene Willington and Reptõ méeteth with two waters on ſun|dry ſides, whereof that which falleth in by Willington ryſeth néere Dawbery Lyes, & runneth by Truſſely and Aſhe: the other that entreth aboue Repton deſcendeth from Har|teſburne, ſo that the Trent being paſt theſe haſteth to Twiforde, Ingleby, Staunton, Weſton, Newton, and Aſton, eare long alſo méeting with the Darwent, next of all to be diſpatched.Darwent. The Darwent riſeth plaine weſt néere vnto the edge of Darbyſhyre, aboue Blackewell a market towne, and from the heade runneth to the new chappell within a few miles after it be riſen. Frõ hence more|ouer it goeth by Howden houſe, Darwent chappel,Neue. Yorkeſhyre bridge, and at Witham bridge doth croſſe the Neue or Nouius that commeth from Newſtole hill, by Nether|burgh, Hope, (croſſing there one rill frõ Ca|ſtelton, another from Bradwell, & the thirde at Hatherſage, from ſtony ridge hill) and ſo goeth on to Padley, Stockehall, receyuing a rill by the way from by weſt, to Stony Mid|dleton, and Baſtow,Burbroke and hauing here taken in the Burbrooke on the one ſide, and another from Halſop on the other, it goeth to Chat|worth and to Rowſeley, where it is increa|ſed with the Wye comming from by weſt, & alſo a rill on the eaſt, a little higher, but I will deſcribe the Wye before I go any far|der.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 The Wye ryſeth aboue Buxſton well,Wye. and there is increaſed with the Hawkeſhow, and the Wyle broke, whoſe heades are alſo far|der diſtaunt from the edge of Darbyſhyre, [...] Wyle. then that of Wye, and races ſomewhat lon|ger, though neither of them be worthie to be accompted long. For the Wyle, hauing two heads, the one of them is not farre aboue the place where Wilebecke abbaye ſtoode, the o|ther is farder of by weſt, about Wilebecke towne, and finally ioyning in one they runne to Cuckney village, where receiuing a beck that commeth downe from by weſt, it hol|deth on two miles farder, there taking in the ſeconde rill, and ſo reſort to Rufforde,Rufford [...] alias [...] becke. or the Man becke: Vnto this alſo do other two rils repaire, wherof the one goeth thorowe & the other harde by Maunſfield, of which two al|ſo this latter ryſeth weſt about foure miles, and runneth foorth to Clipſton (thrée myles lower) and ſo likewiſe to Rufforde, whereof I will ſpeake hereafter. In the meane tyme to returne againe to the Wye. From Bur|ſton well, it runneth to Staddon, Cowdale, Cowlow, New medow, Milhouſes, Banke|well, and Haddon hall, beneath which it re|ceyueth the Lath kell,Lath [...] that runneth by Ouer|haddon,Brad [...] and the Bradforde both in one bot|tome after they be ioyned in one, at Alport, & this is the firſt great water that our Der|went doth méete withall. Being therfore paſt the Rowſleies, the ſayde Derwent goeth to Stancliffe, Darley in the peke, Wenſley, Smitterton hall, and at Matlocke taketh in a rill by northeſt, as it doth another at Crũ|forde that goeth by Boteſhall. From Mat|tocke, it procéedeth to Watſton, or Wat|ſond, Well bridge, Alderwaſh and ioyneth with an other ſtreame called Amber com|ming in from by North by Amber bridge, [...] whoſe deſcription ſhall inſue, in this wiſe as I finde it. The heade of Amber is aboue Ed|leſton hal, or as Leland ſaith eaſt of Cheſter|fielde, and comming from thence by Midle|ton, to Ogſton hall, it taketh with al another brooke, deſcending from Hardwijc woode, by Alton and Stretton. Thence it goeth to Hig|ham, Brackenfelde, and aboue Dale bridge, méeteth with a brooke running from Huck|nall warde to Shirelande parke ſide (there croſſing the Moreton Becke) & ſo to Alfer|ton, except I name it wrong. [...] From Dale bridge it goeth by Wingfelde, to Hedge, Fritchlin, and ſo into Darwent, takyng the EEBO page image 72 water withall that diſcendeth from Swanſ|wijc by Pentridge, as Leland doth remẽber. From this confluence likewiſe it runneth to Belper, where it méeteth with a ryll com|ming from Morley parke: thence to Make|ney, [...]gleſ| [...]ne. and at Du [...]felde, receyueth the Egleſ|burne, which ryſeth about Wirkeſworth or Oreſworth but in ye ſame pariſh out of a rock & commeth in by Turnedich [...]. From Du [...]|feld, it paſſeth to Bradſall, Darley Abbaie, and at Darby Towne, taketh in a ryll com|ming from Mirkaſton, by Weſton vnder|woode, Kidleſton, and Merton.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 If a man ſhoulde ſaye that Darwent ry|uer giueth name to Darby towne, he ſhould not well knowe [...]owe euerye one woulde take it, and thereby he might happen to of|fende ſome. In the meane tyme. I beléeue it, let other iudge as pleaſeth them, ſithe my coniecture can preiudice none: to procéede therfore. From Darby it runneth on by Al|uaſton, Ambaſton, the Welles, and ſo into Trent, which goeth from hence to Sawley, & north of Thrumpton taketh in the Sore, [...]ra, or [...]us. a fayre ſtreame and not worthy to be ouer|paſſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 It ryſeth in Leiceſter ſhyre aboue Wig|ton & thence goeth to Sharneford, Sapcote, and beneath Staunton; taketh in a ryll that commeth by Dounton and Broughton Aſt|ley. Thence to Marleborowe and before it come to Eſton croſſeth another on the ſame ſide (diſcending by Burton, Glen, Win|ſtowe, Kilby and Blabye) then to Leirce|ſter towne, Belgraue, Burſtall, Wanlippe, & ere it come at Cuſſington or Coſiton, croſ|ſeth the Eye, [...]. which riſeth aboue Bramſton, goeth by Knawſtow, Somerby, Pickewell, Whiteſonden, [...]ande [...]eth one [...]heſe [...]es [...]co. & beneath (a little) receyueth a ryll on the ryght hande from Coldnorton. Thence to Stapleforde, and ſoone after croſ|ſing a brooke from aboue Sproxton, Coſon, Garthrope and Saxby, it runneth to Wi|uerby, Brentingby, and ere it come at Mil|ton, méeteth with two other ſmal rils, from the right hand wherof one commeth from a|bout Caldwell by Thorpe Arnolde, & Wal|tham in the woulde, the other from Skale|forde warde, & from Melton goeth by Siſon|by, there méeting with another from north|eaſt ouer againſt Kirby Hellars, after which tyme ye name of Eye is changed into Wark, or Vrke, [...]rke, [...]ke or [...]ke. and ſo continueth vntill it come at the Soure. From hence alſo it goeth to Aſterby, Radgale, Haby, Truſſington, Rat|cliffe, and ſoone after croſſeth ſundry waters not very farre in ſunder, whereof one com|meth from Oueſton, by Twiforde, Aſh|by and Gadeſby, another from Loſeby, by Baggraue, and Crawſton, and ioining with ye firſt at Quennyhow, it is not long ere they fall into the Warke. The ſeconde runneth from Engarſhy, by Barkeley, and Siſon. But the thirde and greateſt of the thrée, is a chanell increaſed with thrée waters, whereof one commeth from Norton, by Burton, Kylby, Folton and Blaby, the other from Dounton, by Broughton, and Aſtley, and méeting with the thirde from Sa [...]th, and ſtony Staunton, they run togyther by Nar|borow, and [...]e after ioyning aboue Elſtõ, wyth the firſt of the thrée, they go as one by Elſton to Leirceſter, Belgraue, Wanlippe, and aboue Cuſſington, doe fall into ye Wark and ſoone after into the Soure. The Soure, in lyke ſorte goyng from thence to mounts Sorrel, & taking in another brooke ſouthweſt from Leirceſter forreſt, by Glenfield, Auſty, Thurcaſton and Rodeley, ioyneth wyth the Soure, which goeth from thence to mount Sorrell, and Quarendon (where it taketh in a water comming from Charnewoode for|reſt, and goeth by Bradegate and Swyth|lande) and then procéedeth to Cotes, Lugh|borow and Stanforde, there alſo taking in one ryll out of Notingham ſhyre, by north eaſt, and ſoone after another from ſouthweſt; comming from Braceden to Shepeſheued, Garrington and Dighely graung, and like|wiſe the thirde, from Worthington, by Diſ|worth, long Whitton, & Wathorne. Fynal|ly after theſe confluences, it haſteth to Sut|ton, Kingſton, and Ratclife, and ſo into the Trent.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theſe things being thus brought togither, and we nowe reſuming the diſcourſe of the ſame riuer. It doth after his méeting wyth the Soure, procéede withal to Barton, where it taketh in the Erwaſh,Erwaſhe. which ryſeth about Kyrby, and thence goeth to Selſton, Wanſ|by, Codnor caſtell, Eſtwoode, and croſſyng a water from Beual, runneth to Coſhal Tro|wel (& there taking in another rill comming from Henor, by Shypeley) it procéedeth on to Stapleforde, long Eaton, and ſo into the Trent. This beyng done it goeth to Clifton, and ere it come at Wilforde, it méeteth with a brooke that paſſeth from Staunton, by Bõ|ny and Rodington, and thence to Notinghã, where it croſſeth the Line, which ryſeth a|boue Newſted, and paſſyng by Papplewijc, Hucknall, Bafforde, Radforde and Linton, nexte of all to Thorpe and Farmdon, where it brauncheth and maketh an Iſland, and in|to the ſmaller of then goeth a broke frõ Be|uer caſtell, which riſing betwéene eaſt Well & Eaton in Leirceſter is called the Dene,Dene. & from thence runneth by Bramſton to Knip|ton, EEBO page image 82 & beneth Knipton méeteth with a brooke that commeth by weſt of Croxſton, & thence holdeth on wt his courſe, betwéene Willeſ|thorp & Beuer caſtel aforſaid, & ſo to Botteſ|worth, Normantõ, Killington, Shilton there receyuing the Snite frõ by ſouth (whoſe head is néere Clauſton,Snite. and courſe from thence by Hickling, Langer, Whalton Orſton, and Flareborow and ere long another comming from Bingham, and Sibthorpe. Thence our Trent runneth to Coxam, Hawton, New|acke caſtel, and ſo to Winthorpe, where the braunches are reunited, and thence go on by Holme, to Cromwell (and ſoone after taking in a brooke comming frõ Bilſthorpe, by Ker|ſal, Cawnton, Norwel & Willowby) to Carl|ton, and to Sutton, there making a litle Iſle, then to Grinton, where it toucheth a ſtreame one eche ſide, whereof one commeth from Morehouſe by Weſton, and Greſthorp, ano|ther from Langthorpe, by Collingham, and Boſthorpe. From hence lykewyſe it paſſeth to Clifton, Newtõ, Kettlethorpe, Torkeſey, Knath, Gainſborow, Waltrith, Stockwith, and leauing Axholme on the left hande, it ta|keth with all Hogdike water, out of the Iſle, and ſo goeth foorth to Wildſworth, Eaſtfer|rye, Fruſworth, Burringham Gummeis, Hixburghe, Burton, Walcote, & at Anker|bury into the Humber, receiuing the Downe with by the way, which for his nobleneſſe is not to be ouerpaſſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Done therfore riſeth in Yorkeſhire a|mong the Pekehils,Done alias Donne. & hauing receiued a wa|ter cõming by Ingbirchworth goth to Pen|nieſtõ, which is foure myles frõ the hed, then by Oxſpring, to Thurgoland, and ſoone after (ioining by the way with the Midhop water, that runneth by Midhop chappell, & Honde|ſhelfe) it méeteth with another comming frõ Bowſterſtõ chapell. Then goeth it by Wad|deſley wood to Waddeſley bridge, and at Al|uerton receiueth the Bradfelde water. Then paſſeth it to Crokes, and ſo to Sheffelde ca|ſtell, (by eaſt whereof it receyueth a brooke from by ſouth that commeth thorowe Shef|feldpark.) Thence it procéedeth to Weſtford bridg, Brikſie bridg & ſouthweſt of Timſley receyueth the Cowley ſtreame,Cowley. that runneth by Ecclefeld.Rother. Next of al it goeth to Rotherhã where it méeteth with ye Rother a goodly wa|ter, whoſe head is in Darbyſhyre, about Pil|ſley, from whence it goeth vnder the name of Doley, till it come at Rotheram, by north Winfielde churche, Wingerworth, & Fore|lande hall twelue myles from Rotheram, to Cheſterforde, where it méeteth with the Iber,Iber. Bramptõ. and Brampton water that commeth by Holme hall, both in one chanel. Thence it runneth to Toptom caſtell, & ere long croſ|ſing one water comming from Drouefeld [...] by Whittington on the one ſide, and the ſe|conde from aboue Brimington on the other, it goeth thorowe Staley parke, and ere long meeteth with the Crawley becke, wherof I finde this note. The Crawley ryſeth not far from Hardwijc, [...] and going by Staneſby and Woodhouſe, it receiueth aboue Netherhorpe, one water on the one ſide comming from the olde parke, and another from Barleborowe hill on the other, that runneth not far from Woodthorpe. After this confluence likewyſe they run as one into the Rother, which haſt|eth from thence to Eckington (there croſſing a ryll that runneth by Byrley hill) and ſo to Kilmarſhe, in the confines of Darby ſhire, where it taketh in the Gunno from by eaſt, [...] thence to Boughton, vniting it ſelfe therea|bout wyth another by weſt from Gledles, called Meſebrooke,Meſ [...]|brooke. which deuydeth Yorke ſhyre from Darby ſhyre, and ſo runneth to Treton, Whiſton, there taking in a ryll frõ Aſton and ſo to Rotheram, where it méeteth wyth the Donne, & from whence our Done haſteth to Aldwarke, Swaiton, Mexburge, there takyng in the Darne, which I wyll next deſcribe, and ſtaye with the Done, vntil I haue finiſhed the ſame. It ryſeth at Comb|worth and ſo commeth about by Bretton hall, to Darton warde, where it croſſeth a water that runneth from Gunthwake Hall, by Cawthorne vnited of two heades. From hence it goeth to Burton graunge, then to Drax, where it toucheth wyth a water from ſouthweſt & then goeth to Dexfielde & Gold|thorpe, but ere it come to Sprotborowe, it v|niteth it ſelfe with a faire ryuer, increaſed by dyuers waters, before it come at ye Done, & whereinto it falleth as I here northeaſt of Mexburghe. After this confluence lykewyſe the Done goeth by Sprotborowe, to War|neſworth, Doncaſter, [...] Wheatley (there mée|ting wyth the Hampall créeke on the north|eaſt ſide, which ryſeth eaſt of Kyrby) thence to Sandal, Kyrke Sandall, Branwith ferry Stanford, Fiſhelake, and ſo to Thuorne, or Thurne, where it croſſeth the Idle (whoſe deſcription followeth) & finally into Trent, & ſo into the Humber. But before I deale with the deſcription of the Idle, I wil adde ſome|what of the Rume which is a fayre water for although the deſcription thereof be not ſo exactly deliuered me as I looked for, yet ſuch as it is I wyll ſet downe, conferring it wyth Lelandes booke and helping their defecte ſo much as to mée is poſſible. It ryſeth by ſouth of Maunſfielde, fyue myles from Rumforde abbaye, & when the ſtreame commeth néere EEBO page image 73 the abbay, it caſteth it ſelfe abroade and ma|keth a fayre lake. After this it commeth a|gaine into a narrowe chanell, and ſo goeth on to Rumford village, [...]dby. [...]rbertõ, carying the Budbye and the Gerberton waters wyth all. From thence & with a méetely long courſe, it goeth to Bawtry or Vautrye, a market towne in Nottingham ſhyre, fiue myles from Don|caſter, and ſo into the Trent. Beneth Rum|ford alſo commeth in the Gyrt, which goeth vnto Southwel mylles, [...]rt. & ſo into the Trent. Nowe as concerning our Idle. The Idle ryſeth at Sutton in Aſhfelde, from whence it runneth to Maunſfelde, Clypſton and Al|lerton, [...]. where it taketh in a water that riſeth in the forreſt, one myle north of Bledworth, and runneth on by Rughforde abbaye, tyll it come at Allerton. The forreſters call thys Man becke, whereof Lelande alſo ſpeaketh, who deſcribeth it in this maner.Man [...]. Man brooke ryſeth ſome where about Linthirſt woode, from whence it goeth to Bilſthorpe, and ſo to Allerton. But to procéede the Idle hauing taken in the Manbecke, it runneth to Bo|thomſall, by Boughton, and Perlethorpe but ere it come there, [...]eding [...]ke. it méeteth the Meding Mayden, or Midding brooke, which ryſing a|bout Teuerſall, goeth to Pleaſley, Nettle|worth, Sawcan, Warſop, Budley, Thureſ|by, Bothomſall & ſo into the Idle. After thys it procéedeth to Houghton, weſt Draiton, but ere it touche at Graunſton or Gaunſton, it taketh in the Wily, which commeth from Clowne, [...]. to Creſwell, Holbecke, Woodhouſe Wilebecke, Normanton, Elſley, Graunſtõ, and ſo into the Idle. Beyng thus increaſed the Idle runneth on to Idleton, Ordſal, Ret|forde, Bollam, Tilney, Matterſey abbaye, & ſo to Bawtry, where it méeteth another frõ the ſhire Okes, that ryſeth aboue Geytford, paſſeth on to Workſop (or Radfurth) Oſber|ton, [...]lithe. Bilby, and Blythe, there vniting it ſelf wyth thrée rylles in one botome, wherof one commeth from Waldingwel to Careleton, and ſo thorowe a parke to Blithe towne, a|nother from by weſt Furbecke thrée myles and ſo to Blithe, but the thirde out of ye white water néer to Blithe, and there being vnited they paſſe on to Scroby, and ſo into the Idle. From hence it runneth on to Miſſen, to Sad|lers bridge, & next of all to Santoft, where it méeteth with the Sandbecke, [...]ande [...]ke. which ryſing not farre from Sandbecke towne, paſſeth by Tickhill, Roſington bridge, Brampton, Ril|holme, Lindholme, & one myle ſouth of San|toft into the Idle water, which runneth from thence to Thorne, where it méeteth with the Done, & ſo with it to Crowley. Finally en|uironning the Iſle of Axeholme, it goeth to Garthorpe, Focorby, and ſo into the Trent, Leland wryting of the Wily, Wile or Gwi|ly, as ſome wryte it, ſaith thus thereof. The Wile hath two heades, whereof one is not far aboue the place where Wilbecke abbaie ſtoode, the other ryſeth farder of by weſt a|boue Welbecke, or Wilebecke Towne: finally ioyning in one, they runne to Cucke|ney village, where croſſing a becke that con|meth in frõ by weſt, it holdeth on two myles farder, there taking in the ſeconde ryll, and ſo reſort to Rufforde. To thys ryuer likewiſe ſaith he do two other waters repaire, wherof ye one goeth hard by Maunſfeld (riſing foure myles from thence by weſt) & then commeth thrée myles lower vnto Rufford, the other ſo far as I remember goeth quite thorowe the towne. Hauing thus finiſhed ye courſe of the Trent, & ſuch notable waters as diſcharge themſelues into the ſame. I find none of any coũtenance omitted before I come to Lindis or Witham, where I haue to make ſupplie of foure or fiue as followeth, albeit that their courſes be not of any quantitie in compari|ſon of thoſe, whereof I ſpake in the Trent. Into Witham therefore from by north and ſeuen myles beneath Lincolne,Witham. there falleth a faire water, the heade whereof is at Hake|thorne, from whence it goeth by Hanworth,Hake. Snarford, Reſby, Stainton, and at Bulling|ton méeteth with a water on each ſide, wher|of one commeth from Haytõ and Turring|ton, the other from Sudbrooke, and likewyſe beneath Byrlinges with the third comming from Barkeworth by Stanſted, and ioining all in one ſoone after, it is not long ere it fall into the chanell of Witham, and ſo are ne|uer more hearde of. There is alſo a brooke by ſouthweſt, that commeth from Kyr [...]y to Cateley, Billingai [...], and the ferry.Bane. At Ta|terſall it méeteth with the Bane, which ry|ſeth aboue Burghe, and néere vnto Ludford goeth downe to Dunnington, Stanygod, Hemmingſby, Bamburghe, Fillington, Horne caſtell (where it croſſeth a rill from Belcheworth) Thorneton, Marton, Halton, Kyrkeby, Comſby, Taterſall and ſo to Dog|dike ferry. Aboue Boſton, likewiſe it taketh in a water comming from Luſeby by Bo|lingbrooke, Stickeford, Stickney, Sibbeſey and Hildrike. And to Boſton towne it ſelfe doe finally come ſundry brookes in one cha|nell, called Hammond becke, which riſing at Doneſby runneth on to Wrightbold where it caſteth one arme into Holly well water. Thence it haſteth towarde Donnington,Bolling|borow. Sem|pringham. re|ceyuing foure brookes by the waye, whereof the firſt commeth from Milthorp, the ſecond from Fokingham, called Bollingbrowe or EEBO page image 83 Sempringham water, the thirde frõ Bridge ende, the fourth from Sempringham, and afterwardes the maine ſtreame is founde to runne by Kyrton holme, and ſo into the Wi|tham. Into the Wylande likewyſe falleth the Hallywell, which ryſeth of a ſpryng that runneth towarde the eaſt from Halywell to Oneby, Eſonden, Gretforde, and ſo to Cat|bridge, where it receyueth another ryſing at Witham and Weſt of Manthorpe, and the ſeconde comming from Laund, and ſo runne from thence togither to Willeſthorp & Cat|bridge, and then into the Hallywell, which after theſe confluences, goeth to Tetforde, & Eaſtcote, where it méeteth with a Drayne, comming from Bourne, and ſo thorowe the Fennes to Pinchebeck, Surflete, and Foſ|dike, where it méeteth with the Welland, in ye mouth of the waſhe as I haue béene aduer|tiſed. And thus much of the ſmaller brookes, wherby the greater are augmented, ouer all the realme of Englande. Certes I would if it had béene poſſible, haue dealt more orderly in their deſcriptions, but ſith many occaſiõs hindered my purpoſe, that which I haue done I hope ſhall ſuffice for this time, ſith here after I may happen to take farder trauaile herein, & bring the whole diſcourſe to ſome more perfite order, as better inſtruction and good acceptation of that which is done alrea|die ſhall encourage me thereto.

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1.15. Of such falles of waters as ioine with the sea, betweene Hum|ber and the Thames. Chap. 16.

EEBO page image 100

Of such falles of waters as ioine with the sea, betweene Hum|ber and the Thames. Chap. 16.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _HAuing in this maner descri|bed the Ouze, and such riuers as fall into the same: now it resteth that I procéed in my voiage toward the Thames, according to my former or|der. Being therefore come a|gaine into the maine sea, I find no water of anie countenance or course (to my remembrance) till I come vnto the Ancolme a good|lie water,Ancolme. which riseth east of Mercate Rafing, and from thence goeth by middle Rafing. Then receiuing a short till from by south, it runneth on vnder two bridges, by the waie, till it come to Wingall, north|east; where also it méeteth with another brooke, from W [...]bie that commeth thither by Uresbie, goeth by Cadneie (taking in the two rilles in one bottome, that descend from Howsham, and north Leiseie) and thence to Newsted, Glanford, Wardeleie, Thorne|ham, Applebie, Horflow, north Ferribie, and so into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being past Ancolme,K [...]lis. we go about the Nesse, and so to the fall of the water which commeth from Kele|die, by Cotham abbeie, Nersham abbeie, Thorneton, and leauing Coxhill by west, it falleth into the Oce|an. The next is the fall of another brooke comming from Fleting, all alongst by Stas [...]ingburne. Then crossed we Grimsbie gullet, which issuing aboue E|rebie commeth to Lasebie, the two Cotes, and then into the sea. After this we passed by another portlet, whose backwater descendeth from Balesbie by Ash|bie, Briggesleie, Wath, and Towneie, and finallie to the next issue, before we come at Saltflete, which branching at the last, leaueth a prettie Iland wherein Comsholme village standeth. This water riseth short (as I heare) of Tathe well, from whence it goeth to Rathbie, Hallington, Estington, Lowth, Kidiring|ton, Auingham, and then branching aboue north So|merton, one arme méeteth with the sea, by Graue|thorpe, the other by north of Somercote.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Saltflete water hath but a short course: for rising among the Cockeringtons, it commeth to the sea,Saltflete. at Saltflete hauen: howbeit the next vnto it is of a longer race, for it riseth (as I take it) at Cawthorpe paroch, and descendeth by Legburne, the Carletons, the west middle and east Saltfletes, and so into the Ocean. The water that riseth aboue Ormesbie and Oribie, goeth to Cawsbie, Swabie abbeie, Cla|thorpe, Belew, Tattle, Witherne, Stane, and north|cast of Thetilthorpe into the maine sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Maplethorpe water riseth at Tharesthorpe, and going by Markeleie, Folethorpe,Maplethorpe. and Truthorpe, it is not long yer it méet with the Germane Ocean. Then come we to the issue that commeth from aboue Hotost, and thence to Mumbie chappell, whither the water comming from Claxbie, Willowbie, and Slouthbie (and whereinto another rill falleth) dooth runne, as there to doo homage vnto their lord and so|uereigne. As for Ingold mill créeke, I passe it ouer, and come streight to another water, descending from Burge by Skegnes. From hence I go to the issue of a faire brooke, which (as I heare) dooth rise at Tetford, and thence goeth by Somerbie, Bagender|bie, Ashwardbie, Sawsthorpe, Partneie, Ashbie, the Stepings, Thorpe croft, and so into the sea. As for Wainflete water, it commeth from the east sea, and goeth betwéene S. Maries & Alhallowes by Wain|flete towne, and treading the path of his predecessors, emptieth his chanell to the maintenance of the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Now come I to the course of the Witham, a fa|mous riuer, whereof goeth the beword, frequented of old, and also of Ancolme, which I before described:

Ancolme ele, and Witham pike,
Search all England and find not the like.
Leland calleth it Lindis, diuerse the Rhe,Lindis, wi|tham, Rhe. and I haue read all these names my selfe: and thereto that the Lincolneshire men were called in old time Corita|ni, and their head citie Lindus, Lindon, or Linodu|num, in which region also Ptolomie placeth Rage, which some take to be Notingham, except my memo|rie doo faile me. It riseth among the Wickhams, in the edge of Lincolnshire, and (as I take it) in south-Wickham paroch, from whence it goeth to Co [...]ster|worth, Easton, Kirkestoke Paunton, and Paunton Houghton, and at Grantham taketh in a rill from by southwest, as I heare. From Grantham it run|neth to Man, Thorpe, Bolton, and Barneston, where crossing a becke from northeast, it procéedeth further southwest ward by Mereston, toward Faston (there also taking in a brooke that riseth about Denton, and goeth by Sidbrooke) it hasteth to Dodington, Cla|pale, Barmebie, Beckingham, Stapleford, Bassing|ham, Thursbie, and beneath Amburgh crosseth a wa|ter that commeth from Stogilthorpe by Somerton castell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this confluence also, our Witham goeth still foorth on his waie to the Hickhams, Boltham, Bracebridge, and Lincolne it selfe, for which the Nor|mans write Nicholl by transposition of the letters, or (as I may better saie) corruption of the word. But yer it come there, it maketh certeine pooles (whereof one is called Swan poole) and soone after diuiding it selfe into armes, they run both thorough the lower part of Lincolne, each of them hauing a bridge of stone ouer it, thereby to passe through the principall stréet: and as the bigger arme is well able to beare their fisher botes, so the lesser is not without his seue|rall commodities. At Lincolne also this noble riuer méeteth with the Fosse dike, whereby in great floods vessels may come from the Trents side to Lin|colne.Fosse dike. For betweene Torkseie, where it beginneth, and Lincolne citie, where it endeth, are not aboue se|uen miles, as Leland hath remembred. Bishop At|water began to clense this ditch, thinking to bring great vessels from Trent to Lincolne in his time: but sith he died before it was performed, there hath no man beene since so well minded as to prosecute his purpose. The course moreouer of this our streame following, from Lincolne to Boston is fiftie miles by water: but if you mind to ferrie, you shall haue but 24. For there are foure common places where men are ferried ouer; as Short ferrie, fiue miles from Lincolne, Tatersall ferrie, eight miles from Short ferrie, Dogdike ferrie a mile, Langreth fer|rie fiue miles, and so manie finallie to Boston.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to go forward with the course of Lindis (whereof the whole prouince hath béene called Lin|deseie) when it is past Linclone, it goeth by Shepe|wash, Wassingburg, Fiskerton, and soone after ta|keth in sundrie riuers in one chanell, whereby his greatnesse is verie much increased. From this con|fluence it goeth to Bardolfe, and there receiuing a rill (descending from betwee [...]e Sotbie and Randbie, and going by Harton) it slideth foorth by Tupham to Tatersall castell, taking vp there in like sort thrée small rills by the waie, whereof I haue small notice as yet: and therefore I referre them vnto a further consideration to be had of them hereafter, if it shall please God that I may liue to haue the filling of these rude pamphlets yet once againe, & somewhat more leasure to peruse them than at this time is gran|ted. Finallie, being past Tatersall, and Dogdike EEBO page image 101 ferrie, the Witham goeth toward Boston, & thence into the sea. Thus haue I briestie dispatched this no|ble riuer Witham. But hauing another note deliue|red me thereof from a fréend, I will yéeld so farre vn|to his gratification, that I will remember his trauell here, and set downe also what he hath written there|of, although the riuer be sufficientlie described al|redie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Into Witham therefore from by north, and seuen miles beneath Lincolne,Witham. there falleth a faire water, the head whereof is at Hakethorne, from whence it goeth by Hanworth,Hake. Snarford, Resbie, Stainton, and at Bullington méeteth with a water on ech side, whereof one commeth from Haiton and Turxing|ton, the other from Sudbrooke, and likewise beneath Birlings with the third comming from Barkeworth by Stansted, and ioining all in one, soone after it is not long yer it fall into the chanell of Witham, and so are neuer more heard of. There is also a brooke by southwest, that commeth from Kirbie to Cateleie, Biltingams, and the Ferrie. At Taterfall it méeteth with the Bane,Bane. which riseth aboue Burgh, and néere vnto Ludford goeth downe to Dunnington, Sta|nigod, Hemmingsbie, Bamburgh, Fillington, Horne castell (where it crosseth a rill from Belch|worth) Thornton, Marton, Halton, Kirkebie, Coms|bie, Tatersall, and so to Dogdike ferrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Aboue Boston likewise it taketh in a water com|ming from Lusebie by Bolingbrooke, Stickeford, Stickneie, Sibbeseie and Hildrike. And to Boston towne it selfe doo finallie come sundrie brookes in one chanell, called Hammond becke, which rising at Do|nesbie, runneth on to Wrightbold, where it casteth one arme into Holiwell water. Thence it hasteth to|ward Dunnington, receiuing foure brookes by the waie, whereof the first commeth from Milshorpe, the second from Fokingham,Bolling|borow. Sem|pringham. called Bollingborow, or (after some, I wote not vpon what occasion) Sem|pringham water, the third from Bridge end, the fourth from Sempringham, and afterwards the maine streame is found to run by Kirton holme, and so into the Witham. Into the Wiland likewise falleth the Holiwell, which riseth of a spring that runneth toward the east from Haliwell to Onebie, Esonden, Gretford, and so to Catbridge, where it re|ceiueth another rising at Witham and west of Man|thorpe, and the second comming from Laund, and so run from thence togither to Willesthorpe and Cat|bridge, and then into the Haliwell, which after these confluences goeth to Tetford and Eastcote, where it meeteth with a draine, comming from Bourne, and so through the sennes to Pinchbecke, Surfleet, and Fosdike, where it méeteth with the Welland, in the mouth of the Wash, as I haue noted vnto you.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Hauing thus set foorth the riuers that fall into the Witham,Wiland. now come we to the Wiland or Welland, wherevnto we repaire after we be past Boston, as drawing by litle and litle toward the Girwies, which inhabit in the fennes (for Gir in the old Saxon speach dooth signifie déepe fennes and marishes) and these beginning at Peterborow eastward, extend themselues by the space of thrée score miles & more, as Hugh of Peterborow writeth. This streame ri|seth about Sibbertoft, and running betwéene Bos|worth and Howthorpe, it goeth to Féedingworth, Merson, Bubberham, Trussell, Herborow (recei|uing there the Braie,Braie. which commeth from Braie|brooke castell) to Bowton, Weston, Wiland, Ashleie, Medburne, Rokingham, and Cawcot, where a riue|ret called little Eie méeteth withall, comming from east Norton by Alexstone, Stocke, Faston, and Drie stocke. From Cawcot it goeth to Gritto, Harring|worth, Seton, Wauerlie, Duddington, Collie We|ston, Eston, and there ioineth with the third called Warke,Warke. not far from Ketton, which commeth from Lie by Preston, Wing, Lindon, Luffenham, &c. Thence it goeth on by Tinwell, to Stanford (crossing the Brooke water,Brooke water Whitnell. and Whitnelbecke, both in one bottome) and from Stanford by Talington, Maxeie, to Mercate, Deeping, Crowland (where it almost meeteth with the Auon) then to Spalding, Whap|land, and so into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Leland writing of this Wiland, addeth these words which I will not omit, sith in mine opinion they are worthie to be noted, for better consideration to be had in the said water and his course. The Wi|land (saith he) going by Crowland, at Newdrene di|uideth it selfe into two branches, of which one goeth vp to Spalding called Newdrene,Newdrene. and so into the sea at Fossedike Stow: the other named the SouthSouth. in|to Wisbech. This latter also parteth it selfe two miles from Crowland,Writhlake. & sendeth a rill called Writh|lake by Thorneie, where it méeteth with an arme of the Nene, that commeth from Peterborow, and hol|deth course with the broad streame, till it be come to Murho, six miles from Wisbech, where it falleth into the South.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Out of the South in like sort falleth another arme called Sheepes eie,Shéepes eie. and at Hopelode (which is foure|téene miles from Lin) did fall into the sea. But now the course of that streame is ceased, wherevpon the inhabitants susteine manie grieuous flouds, bicause the mouth is stanched, by which it had accesse before into the sea. Hitherto Leland. Of the course of this riuer also from Stanford, I note this furthermore out of another writing in my time. Being past Stanton (saith he) it goeth by Burghleie, Uffington, Tallington, Maxeie, Déeping, east Deeping, and comming to Waldram hall, it brancheth into two armes, whereof that which goeth to Singlesole, recei|ueth the Nene out of Cambridgeshire, and then go|ing by Dowesdale, Trekenhole, and winding at last to Wisbech, it goeth by Liuerington, saint Maries, and so into the sea. The other arme hasteth to Crow|land, Clowthouse, Bretherhouse, Pikale, Cowbecke and Spalding. Here also it receiueth the Baston dreane, Longtost dreane, Déeping dreane, and thence goeth by Wickham into the sea, taking with|all on the right hand sundrie other dreanes. And thus farre he.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Next of all, when we are past these, we come to another fall of water into the Wash, which descen|deth directlie from Whaplade dreane to Whaplade towne in Holland: but bicause it is a water of small importance, I passe from thence, as hasting to the Nene, of both the more noble riuer: and about the middest thereof in place is a certeine swallow, so déepe and so cold in the middest of summer, that no man dare diue to the bottome thereof for coldnesse, and yet for all that in winter neuer found to haue béene touched with frost, much lesse to be couered with ise. The next therefore to be described is the A|uon,Auon. otherwise called Nene,Nene. which the said author de|scribeth after this maner. The Nene beginneth foure miles aboue Northampton in Nene méere, where it riseth out of two heads, which ioine about Northampton. Of this riuer the citie and countrie beareth the name, although we now pronounce Hampton for Auondune, which errour is commit|ted also in south Auondune, as we may easilie see. In another place Leland describeth the said riuer after this maner. The Auon riseth in Nene méere field, and going by Oundale and Peterborow, it diuideth it selfe into thrée armes, whereof one goeth to Hor|neie, another to Wisbech, the third to Ramseie: and afterward being vnited againe, they fall into the sea not verie farre from Lin. Finallie, the descent of these waters leaue here a great sort of Ilands, wher|of EEBO page image 102 of Elie, Crowland, and Merfland, are the chiefe. Hi|therto Leland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit, because neither of these descriptions touch the course of this riuer at the full, I will set downe the third, which shall supplie whatsoeuer the o|ther doo want. The Auon therefore arising in Nene|mere field, is increased with manie rilles, before it come at Northhampton, & one aboue Kings thorpe, from whence it goeth to Dallington, and so to North|hampton, where it receiueth the Wedon. And here I will staie,Vedunus. till I haue described this riuer. The We|don therefore riseth at Faulesse in master Knight|lies pooles, and in Badbie plashes also are certeine springs that resort vnto this streame. Faulesse pooles are a mile from Chareton, where the head of Chare riuer is, that runneth to Banberie. There is but an hill called Alberie hill betwéene the heads of these two riuers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From the said hill therefore the Weldon directeth his course to Badbie, Newenham, Euerton, We|don, betwixt which and Floretowne, it receiueth the Florus (a pretie water rising of foure heads,Florus. whereof the one is at Dauentrie, another at Watford, the third at long Bucke, the fourth aboue Whilton) and then passeth on to Heiford, Kislingberie, Upton, and so to Northhampton, where it falleth into the Auon, receiuing finallie by the waie the Bugbrooke water at He [...]ford, [...]ugius. Pat [...]hall water néere [...]islingberie, and finallie Preston water beneath Upton, which run|ning from Preston by Wootton, méeteth at the last with Milton rill, and so fall into Auon. Now to re|sume the tractation of our Auon. From North|hampton therefore it runneth by Houghton, great Billing, Whitstone, Dodington, and Willingbo|row, where we must staie a while: for betweene Wil|lingborow and Higham Ferries, it receiueth a pre|tie water comming from about Kilmarsh,Kilis. which go|ing by Ardingworth, Daisborow, Rusheton, New|ton, Gaddington, Boughton, Warketon, Kette|ring, Berton, and Burton, méeteth there with Roth|well water,Rother. which runneth west of Kettering to Hi|sham, the greater Haridon, and then into the Auon.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being therfore past Burton, our maine streame goeth to Higham Ferries, Artleborow, Kingsted, Woodford, and (méeting thereby with Cranford rill) to Thraxston, north whereof it ioineth also with the Ocleie water,Ocleie. that commeth from Sudborow and Lowicke, to old Umkles, Waden ho, Pilketon, Toke (where it taketh in the Liueden becke) and so to Oundell, Cotterstocke, Tansoner, and betweene Tothering and Warmington receiueth the Corbie water,Corbie. which rising at Corbie, goeth by Weldon, De|neshap, Bulwich, Bletherwijc, Fineshed, Axthorpe, Newton, Tothering, and so into the Auon. After this, the said Auon goeth to Elton, Massington, Yer|well, Sutton, Castor, Allerton, and so to Peterbo|row, where it diuideth it selfe into sundrie armes, and those into seuerall branches and draines, among the fennes and medowes, not possible almost to be numbred, before it méet with the sea on the one side of the countrie, and fall into the Ouze on the other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Ouze, which Leland calleth the third Isis,Isis 3. fal|leth into the sea betwéene Mersland & Downeham. The chiefe head of this riuer ariseth néere to Stanes, from whence it commeth to Brackleie (sometime a noble towne in Northampton shire, but now scarse|lie a good village) and there taking in on the left hand one water comming from the parke betwéene Si|sam and Astwell (which runneth by Whitfield andSisa. Tinweston) and another on the right from Imleie, it goeth on by Westbirie,Imelus. Fulwell, water Stretford, Buckingham, and Berton, beneath which towne the Erin falleth into it, whereof I find this short descrip|tion to be inserted here.Erin. The Erin riseth not farre from Hardwijc Northamptonshire, from hence it goeth by H [...]th, Gunford, Godderington, Twiford, Stéeple C [...]adon, & yer it come at Padbirie, méeteth with the Garan [...]brooke descending fromGaran. Garan|burge, and so they go togither by Padbirie, till they fall into the Ouze, which carieth them after the con|fluence to Thorneton bridge (where they crosse ano|ther fall of water comming from Whitlewood for|rest by Luffe [...]d, Le [...]amsted and Fosent) and so to Beachampton, Culuerton, Stonie Stratford, and Woluerton.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here the Ouze méeteth with a water (called,Verus. as Leland coniectureth, the Uere or Were) on the left hand, as you go downewards, that commeth be|twéene Wedon and Wexenham in Northampton|shire, and goeth by Towcester, and Alderton, and not farre from Woluerton and Hauersham into the foresaid Ouze, which goeth also from hence to New|portpaganell, where in like sort I must staie a while till I haue described another water, named the Clée, by whose issue the said streame is not a little increa|sed.Cle aliàs Claius. This riuer riseth in the verie confines betwéene Buckingham and Bedfordshires, not farre from Whippesnade, and going on toward the northwest, by Eaton and Laiton, it commeth to Linchlade, where it entreth wholie into Buckinghamshire, and so goeth on by Hammond, Brickle, Fennie Strat|ford, Simpson, Walton and Middleton, beneath which it receiueth the Saw from aboue Halcot, and so goeth on till it meet with the Ouze néere vntoSaw. Newport, as I haue said. Being vnited therefore, we set forward from the said towne, and follow this noble riuer, to Lathbirie, Thuringham, Filgrane, Lawndon, Newington, Bradfield on the one side, and Turueie on the other, till it come at length to Bedford after manie windlesses, and then méeteth with another streame, which is increased with so ma|nie waters, that I was inforced to make an imagi|ned staie here also, and view their seuerall courses, supposing my selfe to looke downe from the highest steeple in Bedford, whence (as best meane to view anie countrie wheresoeuer) I note the same as fol|loweth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes on the east side, where I began this specu|lation, I saw one that came from Potton, and met withall néere Becliswade: another that grew of two waters, wherof one descended from Baldocke, the other from Hitchin, which ioined beneth Arleseie, and thence went to Langford and Edworth. The third which I beheld had in like sort two heads, wher|of one is not farre from Wood end,These rise not far from Michelborow & one of them in Higham parke. the other from Wooburne (or Howburne) and ioining about Flit|wijc, they go to Flitton (where they receiue Antill brooke) and so by Chiphill, and Chicksand, they come to Shafford, from whence taking the aforsaid Lang|ford water with them, they go foorth by Becliswade, Sandie, Blumham, and neere vnto Themisford are vnited with the Ouze. And now to our purpose a|gaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this the Ouze goeth by Berkeford, to Win|teringham (méeting there with the Wareslie becke) and so runneth to S. Neotes (or saint Nedes, Verus or the Were. in old time Goluesburg, as Capgraue saith In vita Neoti) to Paxston, Offordes,Stoueus. and so to Godmanchester, in old time called Gumicester, which (as it should séeme) hath béene a towne of farre greater countenance than at this present it is; for out of the ruines thereof much Romane coine is found, and sometimes with the image of C. Antius which hath long haire, as the Romans had before they receiued barbars into their citie, and therevnto the bones of diuerse men of farre greater stature than is credible to be spo|ken of in these daies. But what stand I vpon these things? From hence therfore our water goeth on to EEBO page image 103 Huntingdon,Stoueus. Wilton, saint Iues, Holiwell, and E|rith, receiueth in the meane time the Stow (néere vnto little Paxton) and likewise the Ellen, and the Emmer,Helenus. Elmerus. in one chanell a little by west of Hunting|don.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Finallie, the maine streame spreading abroad into the Fennes, I cannot tell into how manie branches, neither how manie Ilets are inforced by the same; although of Iles, Marshland, Ancarig or Ancarie be the chiefe, and of which this later is called Crowland (as Crowland also hight thornie A cruda terra, or store of bushes saith Hugo le Blanc) some|time growing in the same, and Ancartjc because sun|drie Ancres haue liued & borne great swaie therein. But howsoeuer this case standeth, this is certeine, that after it hath thus delited it selfe with ranging a while about the pleasant bottoms & lower grounds, it méeteth with the Granta, from whence it goeth with a swift course vnto Downeham. Betwéene it also and the Auon, are sundrie large meeres or pla|shes, by southwest of Peterborow full of powts and carpes, whereof Whittleseie méere, and Ramseie méere (whereinto the Riuall falleth,Riuelus. that commeth from aboue Broughton, Wiston, and great Riuel|leie) are said to be greatest. Of all the riuers that run into this streame, that called Granta (whereof the whole countie in old time was called Granta|brycshire,Granta. as appéereth by the register of Henrie prior of Canturburie) is the most noble and excellent, which I will describe euen in this place, notwith|standing that I had earst appointed it vnto my se|cond booke. But for somuch as a description of Ouze and Granta were deliuered me togither, I will for his sake that gaue them me, not separate them now in sunder.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The verie furthest head and originall of this riuer is in Henham, a large parke belonging to the earle of Sussex, wherein (as the townesmen saie) are foure springs that run foure sundrie waies in|to the maine sea. Leland sought not the course of this water aboue Newport pond, and therefore in his commentaries vpon the song of the swan, he writeth thereof after this maner insuing. Although doctor Iohn Caius the learned physician, and some o|ther are of the opinion, that this riuer comming from Newport, is properlie to be called the Rhée: but I may not so easilie dissent from Leland, whose iudgement in my mind is by a great deale the more likelie. Harken therefore what he saith.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The head of Grantha or Granta, is in the pond at Newport, a towne of the east Saxons, which going in a bottome beside the same, receiueth a pretie rill, which in the middest thereof dooth driue a mill, and descendeth from Wickin Bonhant, that standeth not farre from thence. Being past Newport, it go|eth alongst in the lower ground, vntill it come to Broke Walden, west of Chipping Walden (now Saffron Walden) hard by the lord Awdleis place, where the right honorable Thomas Howard with his houshold doo soiourne, and sometime stood an abbeie of Benedictine moonks, before their generall suppres|sion. From Awdleie end it goeth to Littleburie, the lesse and greater Chesterfords, Yealdune, Hinc|stone, Seoston or Sawson, and néere vnto Shale|ford receiueth the Babren that commeth by Linton, Abbington, Babrenham, and Stapleford: and so go|ing forward it commeth at the last to Tromping|ton,Babren. which is a mile from Cambridge. But yer it come altogither to Trompington, it méeteth with the Barrington water, as Leland calleth it, but some other the RheeRhée. (a common name to all waters in the Saxon speech) whereof I find this description, to be touched by the waie. The Rhée riseth short of Ashwell in Hertfordshire, and passing vnder the bridge be|tweene Gilden Mordon and Downton, and leauing Tadlow on the west side (as I remember) it goeth to|ward Crawden, Malton, Barrington, Haseling|field, and so into Granta, taking sundrie rills with him from south and southwest, as Wendie water southwest of Crawden, Whaddon brooke southwest of Orwell, Mildred becke southwest of Malton, and finallie the Orme which commeth out of Armington or Ormendum well, and goeth by Fulmere and Fox|ton, and falleth into the same betweene Barrington and Harleston, or Harston; as they call it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now to procéed with our Granta. From Trom|pington on the one side, and Grantcester on the o|ther, it hasteth to Cambridge ward, taking the Burne with it by the waie, which descendeth from a castell of the same denomination, wherein the Pi|cotes and Peuerels sometime did inhabit. Thence it goeth by sundrie colleges in Cambridge, as the queenes college, the kings college, Clare hall, Tri|nitie college, S. Iohns, &c: vnto the high bridge of Cambridge, and betwéene the towne and the castell to Chesterton, and receiuing by and by the Stoure, or Sture (at whose bridge the most famous mart in England is yearelie holden and kept) from Chester|ton it goeth to Ditton,Sturus. Milton, and yer long méeting with two rilles (from Bottesham and Wilberham, in one bottome) it runneth to Horningseie, & Wa|ter Bech: and finallie here ioining with the Bul|becke water, it goeth by Dennie, and so forth into the Ouze,Bulbecke. fiftéene miles from Cambridge, as Leland hath set downe. And thus much of the third Isis or Ouze, out of the aforesaid author: wherevnto I haue not onelie added somewhat of mine owne experi|ence, but also of other mens notes, whose diligent obseruation of the course of this riuer hath not a little helped me in the description of the same. Now it resteth that we come neerer to the coast of North|folke, and set foorth such waters as we passe by vpon the same, wherein I will deale so preciselie as I may: and so farre will I trauell therein, as I hope shall content euen the curious reader: or if a|nie fault be made, it shall not be so great, but that after some trauell in the finding, it shall with ease be corrected.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The first riuer that therefore we come vnto, after we be past the confluence of Granta, and the Ouze, and within the iurisdiction of Northfolke, is called the Burne.Burne. This streame riseth not ve|rie farre from Burne Bradfield, aboue the grea|ter Wheltham, and from thence it goeth on to Nawnton, Burie, Farneham Martin, Farne|ham Alhallowes, Farneham Genouefa, Hen|graue, Flemton, Lackeford, Icklingham, and to Milden hall: a little beneath which, it meeteth with the Dale water,Dale. that springeth not farre from Catilege, and going by Asheleie, Moul|ton (a benefice as the report goeth not verie well prouided for) to Kenford, Kenet, Bradingham, Frekenham, it falleth at the last not farre from Iselham into the Burne, from whence they go togither as one into the Ouze. With the Burne also there ioineth a water comming from about Lid|gate, a little beneath Iselham, and not verie far from Mildenhall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Dune head,Dunus. and rising of Wauenheie, are not much in sunder: for as it is supposed, they are both not farre distant from the bridge betweene Lo|pham and Ford, wherby the one runneth east and the other west, as I haue béene informed. The Dune goeth first of all by Feltham, then to Hopton, & to Kinets hall, where it méeteth with a water cõming out of a lake short of Banham (going by Quidden|ham, Herling, Gasthorpe) and so on, both in one chanell, they run to Ewston. Here they méet in like EEBO page image 104 sort, with another descending from two heads, wher|of the one is néere vnto Pakenham, the other to Tauestocke, as I heare. Certes these heads ioine a|boue Ilesworth, not farre from Stow Langtoft, from whence they go to Yxworth, Thorpe, Berdwell, Hunnington, Fakenham, and so into the Dune at Ewston; as I said. From hence also they hasten to Downeham, which of this riuer doth seeme to borow his name. South Rée rill I passe ouer as not wor|thie the description, because it is so small.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Next vnto this riuer on the south side is the Bra|den, or Bradunus,Bradunus fortè. which riseth at Bradenham, and goeth by Necton, north Peckenham, south Pecken|ham, Kirsingham, Bedneie, Langford, Igbor, Mun|ford, North Old, Stockebridge, Ferdham, Helgie, and so into the Ouze.Linus. The néerest vnto this is ano|ther which riseth about Lukeham, and from thence commeth to Lexham, Massingham, Newton, the castell Acre, Acres, Nerboe, Pentneie, Wrongeie, Rounghton (which at one time might haue béene my liuing if I would haue giuen sir Thomas Rugband monie inough, but now it belongeth to Gundeuill and Caius college in Cambridge) Westchurch, and so to Linne. As so dooth also another by north of this, which commeth from the east hilles by Congenham, Grimston,Congunus. Bawseie, Gaiwood, whereof let this suf|fice. And now giue eare to the rest sith I am past the Ouze. Being past the mouth or fall of the Ouze, we méet next of all with the Rising chase water,Rising. which Ptolomie (as some thinke) doth call Metaris, and descendeth from two heads,Ingeli. and also the Ingell that commeth from about Snetsham. From hence we go by the point of saint Edmund, and so hold on our course till we come vnto the Burne, which falleth in|to the sea by south from Waterden, and going be|twéene the Crakes to Burnham Thorpe, and Burn|ham Norton, it striketh at the last into the sea; east of Burnham Norton a mile at the least, except my con|iecture doo faile me.Glouius. The Glow or Glowie riseth not far from Baconsthorpe, in the hundred of Tunsted; & going by and by into Holt hundred, it passeth by Hunworth, Thornage, Glawnsford, Blackneie, Clare, and so into the sea, receiuing there at hand al|so a rill by east, which descendeth from the hilles li|eng betwéene Killing towne and Waiburne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Wantsume riseth in Northfolke at Gales|end in Holt hundred,Wantsume. from whence it goeth to Wa|tersend. Townton, Skelthorpe, Farneham, Pens|thorpe, Rieburg, Ellingham, and Billingsford. And here it receiueth two waters in one bottome, of which the first goeth by Stanfield and Beteleie, the other by Wandling and Gressonhall, and so run on ech his owne waie, till they méet at Houndlington, southwest of Billingsford with the Wantsume. From hence they go all togither to Below, Ieng, Weston, and Moreton; but yer it come to Moreton, it méeteth with the Yowke, which (issuing about Yex|ham) goeth by Matteshall and Barrow.Yocus. After this th [...] said Wantsume goeth on by Ringland, and so to Norwich the pontificall sée of the bishop, to whome that iurisdiction apperteineth, which seemeth by this memoriall yet remaining in the corrupted name of the water, to be called in old time Venta or (as Le|land addeth) Venta Icenorum. But to procéed. Be|neath Norwich also it receiueth two waters in one chanell, which I will seuerallie describe, according to their courses, noting their confluence to be at Bix|leie, within two miles of Norwich, except my anno|tation deceiue me. The first of these hath two heads wherof one mounteth vp southwest of Whinborow, goeth by Gerneston,Hierus. and is the verie Hiere or Yare that drowneth the name of Wantsume,Gern [...]. so soone as he meeteth withall. The other head riseth at Woo [...] in Mitford hundred, and after confluence with the Hi|ere at Caston, going by Brandon, Bixton, Berford, Erleham, Cringlefield (not farre from Bixleie as I said) doth méet with his companion, which is the se|cond to be described as followeth. It hath two heads also that méet northwest of Therstane; and hereof the one commeth from Findon hall, by Wrenningham from about Wotton, by Hemnall, Fretton, Stret|ton, and Tasborow, till they ioine at Therston, as I gaue notice aforehand. From Therston therefore they go togither in one to Newton, Shotesham, Dunston, Castor, Arminghale, Bixleie, Lakenham, and Trowse, and then fall into the Wantsume be|neath Norwich, which hereafter is named Hiere. The Hiere, Yare, or Gare therefore proceeding in his voiage, as it were to salute his grandame the Oce|an, goeth from thence by Paswijc, Surlingham, Claxton, and Yardleie; and here it meeteth againe with another riueret descending from about Shote|sham to Therstane, Shedgraue, Hockingham, and so into Gare or Yare, whereof Yardleie the towne re|ceiueth denomination. After this it goeth to Fre|thorpe, and aboue Burgh castell meeteth with the Waueneie,Wauen. and so into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Into this riuer also falleth the Bure,Bure. which ri|sing at a towne of the same name, passeth by Milton, Buresdune, Corpesteie, Marington, Blekeling, Bure, Alesham, Brampton, Buxton, Horsted, Werxham bridge, Horning, Raneworth; and be|neath Bastewijc receiueth the Thurine which riseth aboue Rolesbie;Thurinus. then to Obie, Clipsbie (there also receiuing another from Filbie) Rimham, Castor, and by Yarmouth into the Ocean. The Waueneie afore mentioned, riseth on the south side of Brising|ham, and is a limit betweene Northfolke and Suf|folke. Going therefore by Dis, Starten, not farre from Octe, it méeteth with the Eie, which riseth néere Ockold, or betwéene it and Braisworth, & goeth on by Brome,Wauen. Octe, and so into the Waueneie. From thence our Waueneie runneth by Silam, Brodish, Nedam, Harleston, Rednam, Alborow, Flixton, Bungeie, Sheepemedow, Barsham, Beckles, Albie, & at Whiteacre (as I heare) parteth in twaine, or re|ceiuing Milford water (which is most likelie) it go|eth along by Somerleie, Hormingfléet, S. Olaues, (there receiuing the Frithstane or Fristan brooke,Einus. out of low or litle England) FristanFritha. & Burgh castell, where it méeteth with the Hiere, & from thencefoorth accompanieth it (as I said) vnto the sea. Willing|ham water commeth by Hensted, Einsted, or Eni|state, and falleth into the sea by south of Kesland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Cokell riseth south southwest of Cokeleie towne in Blithe hundred,Cokelus. & neere vnto Hastelworth it meeteth with the rill that commeth from Wisset, and so going on togither by Wenhaston, and Blibo|row, it falleth into the sea at an hauen betwéene Roidon and Walderswicke. A little rill runneth also thereinto from Eston by Sowold, and another from Dunwich, by Walderswijke: and hereby it wanteth little that Eston Nesse is not cut off and made a pretie Iland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Ford riseth at Poxford,Ford. and going by For|derleie, and Theberton, it falleth at last into the Mis|mere créeke.Orus. Into the Oreford hauen runneth one water comming from Aldborow ward, by a narrow passage from the north into the south. By west wher|of (when we are past a little Ile) it receiueth the se|cond, descending from betwéene Talingston and Framingham in Plomes hundred;Fromus which cõming at last to Marleford, meeteth with a rill southwest of Farnham called the Gleme (that commeth by Ren|dlesham,Glema. the Gleinhams) and so passing foorth, it ta|keth another at Snapesbridge, comming from Carleton by Saxmundham, Sternefield & Snape. Then going to Iken (where it méeteth with the third EEBO page image 105 rill at the west side)I [...]n, or Ike. it fetcheth a compasse by Sud|burne east of Orford, and so into the hauen. Next vnto this by west of Orford, there runneth vp ano|ther créeke by Butleie, whereinto the waters com|ming from Cellesford, and from the Ike, doo run both in one bottome. And thus much of Orford hauen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Deue riseth in Debenham,Deua. in the hundred of Hertesméere, and from thence goeth to Mickford, Winston, Cretingham, Lethringham, Wickham, hitherto still creeping toward the south: but then go|ing in maner full south, it runneth neere vnto Ash, Rendlesham, Ufford, Melton, and Woodbridge, be|neath which it receiueth on the west side, a water comming of two heads, wherof one is by north from Otelcie, and the other by south from Henleie, which ioining west of Mertelsham, go vnto the said towne and so into the Deue, east of Mertelsham abouesaid. From thence the Deue goeth by Waldringfield and Henleie,Clarus fons. and méeting soone after with Brightwell brooke, it hasteth into the maine sea, leauing Bawd|seie on the east, where the fall therof is called Bawd|seie hauen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Ure riseth not farre from Bacton,Urus. in Hertesmeere hundred, and thense descendeth into Stow hundred by Gipping Newton, Dagworth, Stow (beneath which it méeteth with a water comming from Rat|tlesden, by one house) and so going on to Nedeham (through Bosméere and Claidon hundreds) to Bla|kenham, Bramford, Ypswich, receiuing beneath Stoke, which lieth ouer against Ypswich, the Chat|sham water, that goeth by Belsted, and so into the Ure, at the mouth whereof is a maruellous deepe and large pit, whereof some marriners saie that they could neuer find the bottome, and therefore calling it a well, and ioining the name of the riuer withall, it commeth to passe that the hauen there is called Ure|well, for which in these daies we doo pronounce it Or|well. Into this hauen also the Sture or Stoure hath readie passage, which remaineth in this treatise next of all to be described.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Sture or Stoure parteth Essex from Suf|folke,Sturus. as Houeden saith, and experience confirmeth. It ariseth in Suffolke, out of a lake neere vnto a towne called Stourméere. For although there come two rilles vnto the same, whereof the one de|scendeth from Thixlo, the Wratings and Ketton, the other from Horshed parke, by Hauerill, &c: yet in summer time they are often drie, so that they cannot be said to be perpetuall heads vnto the aforesaid ri|uer. The Stoure therefore (being, as I take it, called by Ptolomie, Edomania, for thereon toward the mouth standeth a prettie towne named Manitrée, which carieth some shadow of that ancient name thereof vnto this daie, if my coniecture be any thing) ariseth at Stouremeere, which is a poole conteining twentie acres of ground at the least, the one side whereof is full of alders, the other of réeds, wherin the great store of fish there bred, is not a little succoured. From this méere also it goeth to Bathorne bridge, to Stocke clare, Cawndish, Pentlo, Paules Beau|champe, Milford, Foxerth, Buresleie, Sudburie, Bu|res, Boxsted, Stoke, Nailand, Lanham, Dedham, Strotford, east Baxfold, Brampton, Manitree, Catwade bridge, and so into the sea, where in the vexie fall also it ioineth with Orwell hauen, so néere that of manie they are reputed as one, and parted but by a shingle that dooth run along betwéene them: neither dooth it passe cléere in this voiage, but as it were often occupied by the waie, in receiuing sun|drie brookes and rilles not héere to be omitted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For on Essex side it hath one from Hemsted, which goeth by Bumsted, and Birdbrooke: another rising short of Foxerth, that runneth by water Beauchampe, Brundon, and falleth into the same at Badlington, west of Sudburie: and the third that glideth by Horkesleie, and méeteth withall west of Boxsted. On the north, or vpon Suffolke side, it re|ceiueth one descending from Catiledge, by Brad|leie, Thurlow, Wratting, Kiddington, and at Haue|rell falleth into this Sture. The second descendeth northward from Posling field, and ioineth therewith east of Clare. It was in old time called Cicux or Ceuxis, and it méeteth with the Stoure in such wise that they séeme to make a right angle, in the point almost wherof standeth a ruinous castell. Howbeit as sithence which time this water (in some mens iudgement) hath béene named Clarus (not so much for the greatnesse as cleerenesse of the streame) euen so the Stoure it selfe was also called Ens as they say, and after their confluence the whole Clarens, which giueth denomination to a duchie of this Iland of no small fame and honour. But these are but meere fa|bles, sith the word Clare is deriued from the towne, wherein was an house of religion erected to one Clara, and Clarens brought from the same, because of an honour the prince had in those parties: which may suffice to know from whence the name procee|deth. The third ariseth of two heads, whereof one commeth from Wickham brooke, the other from Chedbar in Risbie hundred, and ioining about Stan|field, it goeth by Hawton, Somerton, Boxsted, Stansted, and north of Foxerth falleth into Stoure. The fourth issueth from betwéene the Waldingfields, and goeth by Edwardstone, Boxsted, Alington, Pol|sted, Stoke, and so at south Boxsted falleth into the same. The fift riseth northwest of Cockefield, and goeth to Cockefield, Laneham, Brimsleie, Midling,Kettle baston and receiuing Kettle Baston water southwest of Chelsworth (and likewise the Breton that commeth from Bretenham, by Hitcheham, and Bisseton stréet on the south east of the same towne) it goeth in by Nedging, Aldham, Hadleie, Lainham, Shellie, Hi|gham, and so into the Stoure. The sixt is a little rill descending southwest from Chappell. The seuenth ri|seth betweene Chappell and Bentleie, and going be|twéene Tatingston, and Whetsted, Holbrooke, and Sutton, it falleth at length into Stoure, and from thence is neuer heard of.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 As for Ocleie Drill, that riseth betweene Ocleie,Ocleie. and Wikes parkes, and so goeth into the Stoure, on Essex side, west of Harwich, and east of Ree Ile; I passe it ouer, because it is of it selfe but a rill, and not of anie greatnesse, till it come to the mill aboue Ramseie bridge, where I was once almost drowned (by reason of the ruinous bridge which leadeth ouer the streame being there verie great) as an arme of the sea that continuallie ebbeth & floweth. Next vn|to this,Mosa. we came to another that runneth south of Beaumont by Mosse, and falleth into the sea about the middest of the Baie, betwixt Harwich and the Naze. Betwixt the Naze also and the mouth of Colne, is another rill, which riseth at little Bentleie, and thence goeth to Tendring thorpe, through Clac|ton parke by great Holland,Claco. and east of little Hol|land, into the déepe sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Colne hath three heads,Colunus. whereof one is at O|uington that goeth by Tilberie, and east of Yeldam falleth into the chiefe head which riseth about Redge|well in Essex, from whence also it goeth to Yeldam and Hedingham, otherwise called Yngham: also Hedningham or Heuedingham, or Heuedingham of the super [...]oritie which accrued therevnto, because the chiefe lords of the same from time to time kept residence in the towne. For Heued or Hed signifieth The chiefe, in the old English language, which in the name of this and manie other townes and villages yet standing in England cannot esilie be forgotten. EEBO page image 106 The third falleth in south of Yeldam, and being once met all in one chanell, and called the Colne, it goeth (as I said) to Hedningham, Hawsted, Erles Colne, Wakes Colne, Fordon, Bardfold, Colchester, in old time Camalodunum, and so into the sea at Brick|leseie. Some thinke that Colchester and Camalodu|num are sundrie cities and situat in diuerse, places whereby Maldon (or Ithancester out of whose ruines the said towne of Maldon was erected) should rather be Camalodunum than Colchester, but hereof I can|not iudge. Indeed if (as Leland saith) Maldon should be written Malodunum, it were a likelihood that there assertions should be probable. Some reason also may be gathered for the same out of Dion, and such as make the Thames mouth to take his beginning at Colchester water. But I dare not presume to con|clude any thing hereof, least I should séeme rashlie to take hold of euerie coniecture. This I relie vpon rather as a more certeintie, that in the first edition of this treatise I was persuaded, that the sea entring by the Colne made thrée seuerall passages frõ thence into the land: but now I vnderstand that these are seuerall entrances and streames, of which the Colne is one, another is the Salcote water, which commeth in beneath the Stroud (a causeie that leadeth vnto Merseie Ile, ouer which the sea méeteth with a con|trarie course) and the third the faire arme that flow|eth vnto Maldon, and all these thrée haue their falles either ouer against or néere vnto the aforesaid Ile, which at a low water is not halfe a mile from the shore. Into the Colne or Colunus also (whereof Le|land thinketh Colchester to take his name, and not A colonia Romanorum, although I may not con|sent to him herein) doo run manie salt creekes be|neath Fingering ho, of whose names sith I doo not know, nor whether they be serued with anie backe|waters or not, I giue ouer to intreat anie further & likewise of their positions. Into that of Maldon runneth manie faire waters, whereof I will saie so much as I know to be true in maner by experience.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There is a pretie water that beginneth néere vn|to Gwinbach or Winbeche church in Essex,Gwin or Pant. a towne of old, and yet belonging to the Fitzwaters, taking name of Gwin, which is beautifull or faire, & Ba [...]he that signifieth a wood: and not without cause, sith not onelie the hilles on ech side of the said rillet, but all the whole paroch hath sometime abounded in woods; but now in manner they are vtterlie decaied, as the like commoditie is euerie where, not onelie tho|rough excessiue building for pleasure more than pro|fit, which is contrarie to the ancient end of building; but also for more increase of pasture & commoditie to the lords of the soile, through their sales of that emolument, whereby the poore tenants are inforced to buie their fewell, and yet haue their rents in tri|ple maner inhanced. This said brooke runneth di|rectlie from thence vnto Radwinter, now a parcell of your lordships possessions in those parts, descen|ded from the Chamberleins, who were sometime chéefe owners of the same. By the waie also it is in|creased with sundrie pretie springs, of which Pant|well is the chéefe (whereof some thinke the whole brooke to be named Pant) and which (to saie the truth) hath manie a leasing fathered on the same. Certes by the report of common fame it hath béene a pretie water, and of such quantitie, that botes haue come in time past from Bilie abbeie beside Maldon vnto the moores in Radwinter for corne. I haue heard also that an anchor was found there neere to a red willow, when the water-courses by act of parlement wers surueied and reformed throughout England, which maketh not a little with the aforesaid relation. But this is strangest of all, that a lord sometime of Winbech (surnamed the great eater, because he would breake his fast with a whole calfe, and find no bones therein as the fable goeth) falling at conten|tion with the lord Iohn of Radwinter, could worke him none other iniurie, but by stopping vp the head of Pantwell, to put by the vse of a mill which stood by the church of Radwinter, and was serued by that brooke abundantlie. Certes I know the place where the mill stood, and some posts thereof do yet remaine. But sée the malice of mankind, whereby one becom|meth a woolfe vnto the other in their mischeeuous moodes. For when the lord saw his mill to be so spoi|led, he in reuenge of his losse, brake the necke of his aduersarie, when he was going to horsebacke, as the constant report affirmeth. For the lord of Radwin|ter holding a parcell of his manour of Radwinter hall of the Fitzwaters, his sonne was to hold his stirrop at certeine times when he should demand the same. Shewing himselfe therefore prest on a time to doo his said seruice, as the Fitzwater was readie to lift his leg ouer the saddle, he by putting backe his foot, gaue him such a thrust that he fell backward, and brake his necke: wherevpon insued great trou|ble, till the matter was taken vp by publike autho|ritie; and that seruile office conuerted into a pound of pepper, which is truelie paid to this daie. But to leaue these impertinent discourses, and returne a|gaine to the springs whereby our Pant or Gwin is increased. There is likewise another in a pasture belonging to the Grange, now in possession of Wil|liam Bird esquier, who holdeth the same in the right of his wife, but in time past belonging to Til|teie abbeie. The third commeth out of the yard of one of your lordships manors there called Radwin|ter hall. The fourth from Iohn Cockswets house, named the Rotherwell, which running vnder Ro|thers bridge, méeteth with the Gwin or Pant on the northwest end of Ferrants meade, southeast of Radwinter church, whereof I haue the charge by your honours fauourable preferment.

I might take occasion to speake of another rill which falleth into the Rother from Bendish hall: but bicause it is for the most part drie in summer I passe it ouer. Yet I will not omit to speake also of the ma|nor which was the chiefe lordship sometime of a pa|rish or hamlet called Bendishes, now worne out of knowledge, and vnited partlie to Radwinter, and partlie to Ashdon. It belonged first to the Bendishes gentlemen of a verie ancient house yet extant, of which one laieng the said manour to morgags to the moonks of Feuersham, at such time as K. Edward the third went to the siege of Calis, thereby to fur|nish himselfe the better toward the seruice of his prince, it came to passe that he staied longer beyond the sea than he supposed. Wherevpon he came before his daie to confer with his creditors, who commen|ding his care to come out of debt, willed him in friendlie maner not to suspect anie hard dealing on their behalfes, considering his businesse in seruice of the king was of it selfe cause sufficient, to excuse his delaie of paiment vpon the daie assigned. Herevpon he went ouer againe vnto the siege of Calis. But when the day came, the moonks for all this made sei|sure of the manour, and held it continuallie without anie further recompense, maugre all the friendship that the aforsaid Bendish could make. The said gen|tleman also tooke this cousening part in such choler, that he wrote a note yet to be séene among his eui|dences, whereby he admonisheth his posteritie to be|ware how they trust either knaue moonke or knaue frier, as one of the name and bescended from him by lineall descent hath more than once informed me. Now to resume our springs that méet and ioine with our Pant.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next is namedFroshwell. Froshwell. And of this spring EEBO page image 107 dooth the whole hundred beare the name & after this confluenc [...] the riuer it selfe wher vnto it falleth (from by north) so farre as I remember. Certes, all th [...]se, sauing the first and second, are within your lordships towne aforesaid. The streame therfore running from hence (& now, as I said, called Froshwell, of Frosh, which signifieth a frog) hasteth immediatlie vnto old Sandford, then through new Sandford parke, and afterward with full streame (receiuing by the waie, the Finch brooke that commeth thorough Finching|field) to Shalford, Borking, Stisted, Paswijc, and so to Blackewater, where the name of Freshwell cea|seth, the water being from hencefoorth (as I heare) commonlie called Blackwater, vntill it come to Maldon, where it falleth into the salt arme of the sea that beateth vpon the towne; and which of some (except I be deceiued) is called also Pant: and so much the rather I make this coniecture, for that I|thancester stood somewhere vpon the banks thereof, & in the hundred of Danseie, whose ruines (as they saie) also are swalowed vp by the said streame, which can not be verified in our riuer that runneth from Pantwell, which at the mouth and fall into the great current, excéedeth not (to my coniecture) aboue one hundred foot. But to returne to our Pant, aliàs the Gwin. From Blackwater it goeth to Corall, Ea|sterford, Braxsted and Wickham, where it méeteth with the Barus, and so going togither as one, they descend to Heiebridge, and finallie into the salt wa|ter aboue Maldon, and at hand as is aforesaid. As for the Barus,Barus. it riseth in a statelie parke of Essex called Bardfield, belonging to sir Thomas Wroth whilest he liued, who hath it to him and his heires males for euer, from the crowne. Being risen, it hasteth directlie to old Saling Brainctrée, crossing a rillet by the waie comming from Raine, blacke Notleie, white Notleie, Falkeburne, Wittham, and falleth into the Blackewater beneath Braxsted on the south.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Beside this,Chelmer. the said Pant or Gwin receiueth the Chelme or Chelmer, which ariseth also in Wimbech aforesaid, where it hath two heads: of which the one is not farre from Brodockes (where master Thomas Wiseman esquier dwelleth) the other nigh vnto a farme called Highams in the same paroch, and ioin|ing yer long in one chanell, they hie them toward Thacsted vnder Prowds bridge, méeting in the waie wish a rill comming from Boiton end, whereby it is somewhat increased. Being past Thacsted, it goeth by Tilteie, and soone after receiueth one rill which riseth on the north side of Lindsell,Lind [...]s. & falleth into the Chelmer by northeast at Tilteie aforesaid, & another cõming from southwest, rising southeast from Lind|sell at much Eiston. From thence then holding on still with the course, it goeth to Candfield the more, Dunmow, litle Dunmow, Falsted, Lies, both Wal|tams, Springfield, and so to Chelmeresford. Here vpon the south side I find the issue of a water that ri|seth fiue miles (or thereabouts) south and by west of the said towne, from whence it goeth to Munasing, Buttesburie (there receiuing a rill from by west, to Ingatstone, Marget Inge, Widford bridge, Writ|tle bridge, and so to Chelmeresford (crossing also the second water that descendeth from Roxford south west of Writtle by the waie)Roxford. whereof let this suffice.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From hence the Chelmer goeth directlie toward Maldon by Badow, Owting, Woodham water, Bilie, and so to Blackwater northwest of Maldon, receiuing neuerthelesse yer it come fullie thither, a becke also that goeth from Lée parke, to little Lées, great Lées,Lée Hatfield, Peuerell, Owting, and so in|to Blackwater (whereof I spake before) as Maldon streame dooth a rill from by south ouer against saint Osithes, and also another by Bradwell. After which the said streame growing also to be verie great, pas|seth by the Tolshunts, Tollesbie, and so foorth into the maine sea néere vnto Merseie: betwéene which fall and the place where Salute water entreth into the land, Plautus abode the comming of Claudius some|time into Britaine, when he being hardlie beeset, did [...]nd unto him for aid and spéedie succour, who also be|ing come did not onelie rescue his legat, but in like manner wan Colchester, and put it to the spoile, if it be Camalodunum.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Burne riseth somewhere about Ronwell,Burne. and thence goeth to Hull bridge, south Fambridge, Kirke shot ferrie, and so to Foulnesse. And as this is the short course of that riuer, so it brancheth, and the south arme thereof receiueth a water comming from Haukewell, to great Stanbridge, and beneath Pakesham dooth méet by south with the said arme, and so finish vp his course, as we doo our voiage also about the coast of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus haue I finished the description of such ri|uers and streames as fall into the Ocean, according to my purpose, although not in so precise an order and manner of handling as I might, if information promised had been accordinglie performed; or others would, if they had taken the like in hand. But this will I saie of that which is here done, that from the Solueie by west, which parteth England & Scotland on that side; to the Twede, which separateth the said kingdoms on the east: if you go backeward, contra|rie to the course of my description, you shall find it so exact, as beside a verie few by-riuers, you shall not need to vse anie further aduise for the finding and falles of the aforesaid streames. For such hath beene my helpe of maister Sackfords cardes, and confe|rence with other men about these, that I dare pro|nounce them to be perfect and exact. Furthermore, this I haue also to remember, that in the courses of our streames, I regard not so much to name the ve|rie towne or church, as the limits of the paroch. And therefore if I saie it goeth by such a towne, I thinke my dutie discharged, if I hit vpon anie part or par|cell of the paroch. This also hath not a little troubled me, I meane the euill writing of the names of ma|nie townes and villages: of which I haue noted some one man, in the description of a riuer, to write one towne two or thrée manner of waies, whereby I was inforced to choose one (at aduenture most commonlie) that séemed the likeliest to be sound in mine opinion and iudgement.

Finallie, whereas I minded to set downe an especiall chapter of ports and créeks, lieng on ech coast of the English part of this Ile; and had proui|ded the same in such wise as I iudged most conue|nient: it came to passe, that the greater part of my labour was taken from me by stealth, and therefore as discouraged to meddle with that argument, I would haue giuen ouer to set downe anie thing therefore at all: and so much the rather, for that I sée it may prooue a spurre vnto further mischéefe, as things come to passe in these daies. Neuerthelesse, because a little thereof is passed in the beginning of the booke, I will set downe that parcell thereof which remaineth, leauing the supplie of the rest either to my selfe hereafter, (if I may come by it) or to some other that can better performe the same.