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21.1. The protectors of England collected out of the ancient and moderne chronicles, wherin is set downe the yeare of Christ, and of the king in which they executed that function.

The protectors of England collected out of the ancient and moderne chronicles, wherin is set downe the yeare of Christ, and of the king in which they executed that function.

_VPon the death of this duke of Summer|set protector of England,The collectiõ of Frãcis Thin in the yeare 1585. it shall not be vnsitting in this place to set downe all the protectors (whereof I can as yet haue intelligence) and who haue béene gouernors, re|gents, gardians, or deputies of the realme, and of the kings person during his minoritie and time of his insufficiencie of gouernement; or else of his absence being out of the realme: whereof I haue made an especiall title in my Pantographie of En|gland, in which this my collection of the protectors, although perhaps I shall not set downe all (for Bar|nardus non videt omnia) yet it is better to haue halfe a loafe than no bread, knowledge of some than of none at all. Thus therefore I begin.

Guendoline the daughter of Corineus duke ofGuendoline. Cornewall (after the procurement of warre against hir husband wherein he was slaine) was by common consent (for that hir sonne Madrane which she had by Locrine was insufficient by reason of his minoritie to gouerne the kingdome) made by the Britons ru|ler of the Ile, in the yeare of the world 2894, and so continued the same by the space of fiftéene yéeres, vntill hir sonne came to lawfull age.

Martia (the widow of Guenteline the king) by reason that Sicilius hir sonne was not of age con|uenientMartia. to weld the scepter (as one being but seuen yeares old) obteined the gouernement both of the realme and of hir sonnes person, which she most wor|thilie deserued, being a woman of rare vertue and iudgement.

Eldred, Ethelred,Eldred. or Edred (for all these diuersi|ties are found in authors) brother to Edmund king of England, while the sonnes of Edmund (Edwine and Edgar) were for their minorities insufficient to dispose the kingdome, was appointed protector to his nephues, in the yeare of Christ 940, who about six or seuen yeares after his protectorship tooke on him the kingdome at Kingstone on Easter daie, in the yeare of Christ, as hath Iohn Stow 946, as others haue nine hundred fortie seuen.

Emma the quéene of England,Emma. the widow of king Etheldred, and of Canutus, both kings of England iointlie, with Goodwine earle of Kent had the gouernement of the realme vnder Hardiknute EEBO page image 1070 king of England, who began his reigne in the yeare of Christ 1041.

Harold.Harold the sonne of Goodwine at the death of king Edward the Confessor (which fell in the yeare of Christ 1066, and the three and twentith yeare of the same king) was by the testament of the said king Edward appointed regent of the yong Edgar Athe|ling (named heire in the life of the said Edward) and of the kingdome, after the death of king Edward, during the minoritie of the said Edgar. Beside which the like commending of the kingdome to this Ha|rold, in respect of the quéenes honour, as that before of the successours right, is set downe by one that li|ued at that time, and wrote the life of king Edward, of erle Goodwine, and of his children, in these words. Porrectá manu (meaning king Edward lieng on his death bed, and speaking in the behalfe of Editha the quéene, sister to this Harold) ad praedictum nutricium suum fratrem Haroldum; Hancinquit cum omni regno tutan|dam tibi commendo, vt pro domina & sorore vt est fideli ser|ues & honores obsequio, vt quoad vixerit à me adepto non priuetur honore debito. Commendo pariter etiam eos, qui na|tiuam terram suam reliquerunt causa amoris mei, mihíque haectenus suleliter sunt obsequuti: vt suscepta ab eis siita volunt fidelitate eos tuearis & retineas, aut tua defensione conductos cum omnibus quae sub me acquisiuerunt cum salute ad propria transfretari facias, &c. But he, when king Edward was dead, vsurped the crowne to himselfe, and short|lie after lost both his life and his kingdome.

Odo bishop of Baieux, and William Fitzos|borne the first,Odo bishop of Baieux, and William Fitz|osborne earle of Hereford. being earle of Kent, and chiefe iustice of England, and the second being earle of Hereford, were gouernours of the realme, in the yeare of our Lord 1067, and the first yeare of William the Con|querour, when he went into Normandie after the conquest and indifferent quieting of the realme.

Lanfranke archbishop of Canturburie, as ap|peareth by Matthew Parker,Lanfranke archbishop of Canturburie. writing in this sort in the life of the said Lanfranke: Absente Gulielmo omnia Lanfranco mandabantur, qui summa prudentia cunctae mode|ratus, proceres & plebem in officio tranquillè sine vlla motu atque tumultu continebat, adeò vt si quae defectionis suspicio nascebatur, ad eam illicò compescendam maximus & potentis|simus quisque opem & adiumentum illi imperantipraestitit.

Sir Richard Lucie knight, chiefe iustice of Eng|land was protector of the realme in the twelfe yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the second,Sir Richard Lucie chéefe iustice of England. being the yeare of our Lord 1166, in the absence of the king when he was in Normandie, and in the parts be|yond the seas. Which Lucie in the thirteenth yeare of the same king, being the yeare of our redemption 1167, did valiantlie resist, and politikelie driue backe the earle of Bullongne inuading the realme. Hée built the abbeie of Leosnes or Westwood in the pa|rish of Erith in Kent (and not in Southfléet as some haue written) in the yeare of Christ 1178, being a|bout the foure and twentith yeare of king Henrie the second; and further built the castell of Angier in Essex, in the diocesse of the bishop of London. He had issue Godfreie bishop of Winchester, and thrée daughters, who after the death of Godfreie their bro|ther were his heires: the eldest daughter of which sir Richard Lucie, was maried to Robert the first cal|led Fitzwater: the second daughter Auelina, was maried to Riuers, of whome issued Iohn de Riuers: the third daughter Rose, was maried to Richard Warraine, son to king Iohn, as appeareth by a déed (belonging to my selfe, who had the rectorie of Leos|nes) beginning thus: Rosade Douer quondam vxor ve|nerabilis viri Richardi filij regis de Chilham.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Hugh Pusaz de Puteaco or Pudsie, nephue to king Stephan,Hugh Pudsie bishop of Durham. being bishop of Durham, and erle of Northumberland, and William Longchampe bi|shop of Elie, had the gouernement of the realme for Richard the first, vpon his departure foorth of the realme to take his iournie into the holie land. For in his absence he appointed this Hugh to haue the rule of the north parts, as chiefe iustice & warden of the realme from Humber to Scotland, deliuering to him also the keeping of the castell of Winchester, the other parts of the realme, with the custodie of the tower, he assigned to the gouernement of Wil|liam Longchampe bishop of Elie, whome he made chiefe iustice and warden of those east, south and west parts, making him also his chancellour: who being a man of great diligence and knowledge in the administration of things, was yet verie facti|ous and desirous of rule, honour and riches, farre a|boue all measure. And with these two bishops hée linked in authoritie by commission Hugh lord Bar|dolph, William Marshall the great, earle of Chep|stow Strigull or Penbroke, Geffreie Fitzpeter, and William Brewer, barons, men of great honor, wisdome & discretion. This the king did in the yeare of Christ 1190, and the first yeare of his reigne.

Walter de Constantijs sometime chancellor of England, bishop of Lincolne,Walter de Constantijs archbishop of Roane. and now archbishop of Roane, vpon the misdemeanor of the proud bishop of Elie William Longchampe, about the yeare 1192, had the custodie and gouernement of the realme committed vnto him, whilest king Richard the first remained still in the holie warres: who be|ing called from that place in the yeare of Christ 1193 (with Eleanor mother to the king) to come to king Richard then imprisoned in Austria, the archbishop of Canturburie Hubert succeeded him in the yeare 1194, whome the said archbishop of Roane procured to be installed in the see of Canturburie, which Wal|ter de Constantijs (as hath Eueresden) was made bishop of Lincolne in the yeare 1183, and the next yeare after bishop of Roane.

Hubert Walter,Hubert arch|bishop of Can|turburie. or Walter Hubert (for such a tansmutation of the name is vsed amongst historio|graphers) was made (vpon the discharge and going of Walter archbishop of Roane beyond the seas to king Richard) gouernor and protector of the realme, before the returne of Richard the first into England after the said kings imprisonment (by the duke of Austria and the emperour) procured by Sauaricus bishop of Glastenburie and Welles, & kinsman to the emperor, wherof our moderne printed chronicles nor our ancient writers, except one, make any men|tion. This Hubert died at his manor of Tenham, and was buried at Canturburie in the south wall, in the yeare of our redemption 1205, the third ides of Iulie, being the seuenth yeare of king Iohn.

Eleanor widow to Henrie the second,Eleanor the widow of Henrie the second. and mo|ther to Richard the first, was made protectresse of England, after the departure of hir son into France, when he had beene deliuered out of prison: in which office she continued during the life of hir sonne, which he ended in Poitiers in those French warres, by a hurt receiued from one that discharged a crossebow against him, on a fridaie as he besieged Chalons. Touching whose death (sith I am now in hand with the same) it shall not be amisse to set downe such se|uerall verses composed by seuerall men in seuerall sorts, as I haue read, and are not yet made common to the world, which verses be these, concerning his death and place of buriall, as hereafter followeth:

Pictauus exta ducis sepelit, tellúsque Chalucis
Corpus dat claudi sub marmore fontis Ebraudi,
Neustria tá tegis cor inexpugnabile regis,
Sic loca per trina se sparsit tanta ruina,
Nec fuit hoc funus cui sufficeret locus vnus.
Whereof also another composed these following verses somewhat eloquentlie, as saith Matthew Pa|ris (and so in truth they were, considering that age EEBO page image 1071 which mostlie vsed a riming kind of Latine verses, induced into the west part of the world by the bar|barous Gothes) in his greater historie of the life of king Richard in manner and forme following:
Ad Chalus cecidit rex regni cardo Richardus,
[...] His ferus, his humilis, his agnus, his leopardus,
Casus erat lucis, Chalus per secula nomen
Non intellectum fuerat, sed nominis omen
Non patuit, res clausa fuit, sed duce cadente
Prodijt in lucem, pro casu lucis adeptae.

Besides which verses of two seuerall men, it plea|seth my pen to ad also the third mans dooing, aswell for that the number of thrée is the holie number, as for that there is nothing so sweet, but that varietie dooth refresh it: yet especiallie sith it is delightfull to sée the seuerall inuentions of manie wits, this third poet therefore, exclaming against the daie in which the said king Richard the first receiued his deaths wound (being on a fridaie) dooth thus write:

O veneris damnosa dies! ô sydus amarum!
Ille dies tua nox fuit, & Venus illa venenum,
Illa dedit laethum, sed pessimus ille dierum,
Primus ab vndecimo, quo vitae victricus ipsum
Clausit vtra dies: homicida tyrannide mira
Transigitur, clausus exclusum, tectus opertum,
Prouidus incautum, miles inimicus inermem.

This quéene Eleanor the protectresse died in the yere of Christ 1205, being the seuenth of king Iohn.

Gefferie Fitzpeter lord Ludgersall, who was by Richard the first made chiefe iustice of England,Geffreie Fitz|peter earle of Essex. af|ter the remouing of Hubert the archbishop of Can|turburie, and was in the first yeare of king Iohn girded by him with the sword of the earldome of Es|sex, was also protector of the realme. Who being a man of great power and authoritie, was by nature gentle, by birth noble, in the lawes cunning, in re|uenues great, and to all a good iusticer. This man was a bridle to king Iohn, to restreine his insolen|cie; since he was confederat and alied in friendship & bloud with all the nobilitie of England: & for that cause was greatlie feared of the K. who said of him, as he did before of the archbishop Hubert, that he then did fullie reigne, when they two were dead. For turning to those which stood by him, when news was brought vnto him of the death of Fitz Geffreie, he sware by Gods feet, that he was then king & lord of England, and not before. Which words he would not vse, when the archbishop Hubert died; because this man was yet liuing, whome the king (as is al|readie said) greatlie feared. And therefore vpon the death of the archbishop, he did onelie saie that he be|gan to reigne; but now vpon this mans departure out of the world, he said he was become a full lord & absolute king of England. This Geffreie Fitzpeter died in the yeare of our redemption 1212, being about the fourtéenth yeare of the reigne of the said miserablie afflicted king Iohn, who died in the yeare of Christ 1216: whose death I haue beene the wil|linger here to mention; because I would set downe his epitaph (not else before set downe in our Eng|lish chronicles) as I find the same of ancient report:

Hoc in sarcophago sepelitur regis imago,
Qui moriens multum sedauit in orbe tumultum,
Et cui connexa dum vixit probra manebant,
Hunc mala post mortem timor est nefata sequantur.
Qui legis haec metuens dum cernis te moriturum,
Discito quid rerum pariat tibi meta dierum.

This Geffreie Fitzpeter maried Beatrice, daugh|ter and heire of William lord Saie, by whom he had issue, Geffreie Mandeuile earle of Essex, & Mawd maried to Humfreie de Bohuns, by whome the Bo|hunes became earles of Essex.

[...] Marshall earle of Pen|broke.William Marshall surnamed the great, being erle of Penbroke, was made protector of the realme, & person of the king, after that the king (being nine yeares of age) was crowned in the yeare of our Lord 1216. Which office this William (being also marshall of England) vsed so honorablie, that he re|couered a great part of the nobilitie (which tooke part with Lewes son of the French king against king Iohn father to this Henrie) to assist the yoong king Henrie against the said Lewes: who in the time of the said Iohn had obteined a great part of the king|dome of England. By which meanes the said Lew|es was expelled, and the kingdome wholie recouered to the vse of the said yoong king Henrie the third.

This William Marshall maried Isabell daugh|ter and heire to Richard Strangbow earle of Pen|broke, who made him a happie father in the multi|tude of his children. For by hir he had fiue sonnes, all which were in succession marshals of England, and earles of Penbroke; and fiue daughters. The sonnes were William, Richard, Gilbert, Walter, and Anselme; who all dieng without issue, the inhe|ritance was deuolued to the fiue sisters; which were, Mawd the eldest, maried to Hugh Bigod, in hir right earle marshall; Ione the second, maried to Waraine Monthensie, in hir right also earle of Penbroke, as hath Nicholas Triuet; Isabell the third, maried to Gilbert de Clare earle of Glo|cester; Sibill the fourth, maried to William Fer|rers erle of Darbie; & Eue the fift daughter, maried to William de Berehuse, or de Brause. This Wil|liam the great died in the yeare of our redemption 1219, being the third (as hath Nicholas Triuet) or the fourth (as hath Matthew Westminster) yeare of the reigne of the said king Henrie the third, and was buried at the new temple, on Ascension daie, be|ing the seuenteenth calends of Aprill: of whome was made this epitaph by Geruasius Melckeleie, taking vpon him the person of the earle marshall:

Sum quem Saturnum sibi sentit Hibernia, Solem
Anglia, Mercurium Normannia, Gallia Martem.

Which signifieth that he was a sharpe corrector and ruler of the Irish, an honor & glorie to the Eng|lish, a councellor and dispatcher of the affaires of Normandie, a warlike knight and inuincible cap|teine against the Frenchmen.

Petrus de rupibus, or Peter of the Roch,Peter de l [...] Roches. being bi|shop of Winchester, was after the death of Wil|liam Marshall earle of Penbroke aduanced to the protectorship of the king; because that the yoong king was almost destitute of anie of his owne kin|dred that might woorthilie haue the rule of his per|son. For his mother quéene Isabell was newlie maried to Hugh Brune earle of March in France. This bishop of Winchester (who was both a wise and a stout prelat) being now in possession of the king, and mistrusting that he had entred into a more weightie office than he might well discharge, if all things were not doone according to the fansie of the nobilitie, procured diuerse graue and honorable men to be preferred to the kings councell, and to be associats to him in the administration of the weale publike; and so entred into the administration of his new atchiued honor. Which yet he did not long in|ioie.

But as the bishop was at the first carefull to plant such of the nobilitie about the king, for the support of the realme; so yet himselfe being a Gascoine, did after in the riper yeares of the king prefer to offi|ces about the king such Gascoins as both were of his owne bloud and kindred; and by their extraor|dinarie dealing procured the nobilitie with an hard and vndutifull course to oppose themselues against the king. This Peter was aduanced to the seat of Winchester, in the yeare of our redemption 1204, being about the sixt yeare of king Iohn. After which EEBO page image 1072 he went to Rome, and being a prelat more fit to fight than to preach for Mars than for the muses; did re|turne from Rome in the yeare of Christ 1205, be|ing about the seuenth yeare of king Iohn. He re|mained bishop about two and thirtie yeares, and di|ed at his manour house of Fernham, on the fift ides of Iune, in the yeare of our Lord (as haue Matthew Paris and Matthew Westminster) 1238, being the two & twentith yeare of Henrie the third. Who somewhat before his death, about the one and thirtith yeare of his bishoprike, went into the holie land with the bishop of Excester. He builded, and in|dued with possessions manie religious houses: a|mongst which he founded Tichfield in Hampshire; of which Peter de la Roches, or of the rocks, Mat|thew Paris maketh a more large discourse.

Hubert de Burow, conestable of Douer castle, earle of Kent,Hubert de Burow earle of Kent. and chiefe iustice of England, being of great account in the realme for his probitie and goodnesse, was made protector of the king and king|dome, in the yeare of our redemption 1221, being the fift yeare of king Henrie the third. This man in the yeare of Christ 1221 (being the same yeare in the which he was made protector) maried at Yorke, Margaret, sister to Alexander king of Scots. And here I thinke it not amisse to saie somewhat tou|ching the issue of this Hubert of Burow, who in a certeine namelesse booke (caried about in the hands of all men) treating of the nobilitie (created since the inuasion of William Conqueror) is said to die without issue: which cannot possiblie be so, if that be true which I haue séene: which I am led by manie reasons to beléeue to be most true.

For I haue read of two children which this Hu|bert had, whereof the one being a sonne, was called Richard de Burow, who was knighted by Hen|rie the third (as it séemeth to me) after the death of his father: if this Richard be not the same Iohn, of whome Matthew Paris writeth, that in the yeare of Christ 1229, Rex Anglorum Henricus, in die Penteco|stes Iohannem filium Huberti Angliae iusticiarij cingulo mi|litari donauit tertio nonas Iunij. The other child was a daughter called Margaret, maried to Richard heire to the earldome of Glocester, as noteth Iohn Beuer in these words: Richardus haeres comitis Glouerniae Mar|garetam filiam Hoberti de Burgo comitis Cantiae in vxorem accepit. This Hubert of Burow was a verie old man, who after manie persecutions by the king, and after so manie chances of both fortunes, depar|ted this world on the fourth ides of Maie, in the yeare of our redemption 1243, being the seuen and twentith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the third at his manour of Banstud, or Bansted. Whose bodie was honorablie caried to London, and there buried in the church of the frier preachers, to whom in his life he had giuen great gifts; and amongst other things, his goodlie place which stood not far from the palace of earle Richard of Cornewall (as I with some probable reasons coniecture) néere vn|to Westminster, which afterward the archbishop of Yorke did procure. His wife the countesse of Kent, being likewise verie old, a woman that kept verie great hospitalitie, and that was well beloued, died in the yeare of Christ 1259, being the three and fortith yeare of Henrie the third, about sixteene years after the death of the earle hir husband.

Walter Greie archbishop of Yorke.Walter Greie archbishop of Yorke was made protector of the realme in this sort. The French king hauing vniustlie giuen the earldome of Poitiers to his brother Adulphus; Hugh Brune earle of March (the greatest of the nobilitie in that prouince) would not doo homage vnto Adulphus, but wrote his let|ters to his son in law king Henrie the third (whose mother Eleanor he had married) that if he would come into those parts, he should haue both aid of men, and furniture of war for the perfect restoring of those dominions to the crowne of England. For which cause Henrie the third assembling his power, did with his brother Richard (then latelie returned frõ Ierusalem) depart the realme in the yéere of our redemption 1242, being the six & twentith yeare of his gouernment into Poitiers, & left the administra|tion of the kingdome to Walter Greie archbishop of Yorke, whilest he should remaine in those parts. Which office the said archbishop held also in the yéere of Christ 1243, being the seauen and twentith yéere of king Henrie the third. Of this man is more men|tion made in my collection of the chancellors of En|gland; in this place onelie further setting downe, that this Walter died in the yeere of Christ 1255, being about the nine and thirtith yeare of this Hen|rie the third, as hath Anonymus M. S.

Eleanor daughter to Reimond earle of Pro|uince,Eleanor wi [...] to king Hen|rie. wife to king Henrie the third and quéene of England, with Richard earle of Cornewall the kings brother (to whose custodie was committed Edward Longshanks, being after king of Eng|land by the name of Edward the first, son to the said king Henrie) were (in the yéere of our redemption 1253, being the seuen and thirtith yeere of the reigne of king Henrie the third) appointed gouernors and protectors of the realme in the kings absence, whilest he went into Gascoine, whither he went to pacifie the nobilitie, and to kéepe the same in safetie from the French. And because my pen hath here fallen vpon Richard earle of Cornwall, I determine to say somewhat of him in this place, not hauing other oc|casion offered to me therefore. This Richard the son of king Iohn was borne in the yeare of Christ 1208, being the tenth yeare of the reigne king Iohn. He was made (and so called) earle of Poitiers by Hen|rie the third, about the ninth yéere of his reigne, in the yéere of Christ 1225, who also that yéere with his vncle William earle of Sarisburie went into Poi|tiers, where he was ioifullie receiued: he putteth the earle of March to flight, he recouereth that which was lost in Gascoine, he went into the holie land, refuseth the kingdome of Apulia offered vnto him, he is chosen emperor, and receiueth that honor at Co|len, being there crowned king of the Romans: he subdued Alfonsus competitor with him for the em|pire, he after returneth into England: he is an eni|mie to Simon Montfort and the barons rebelling a|gainst his brother king Henrie the third; he is taken prisoner by the barons, and is afterward deliuered: he was created knight and earle of Cornwall in the yeare of our redemption 1225, as hath Matthew Westminster, but as saith William Packington, he was created earle of Cornwall in the yeare of Christ 1227. He married foure wiues, if that Eli|sabeth his first wife and Isabell the widow of Gil|bert de Clare were not all one woman. But lea|uing that to further knowledge, I doo for this time make them but one person; for so in truth it must be, whatsoeuer otherwise shall be shewed in mistak|ing their names. Elizabeth that was his first wife, as noteth Leland, was buried in the quéere of Bel|land, being that woman which is called Isabell, and was the daughter of William Marshall earle of Penbroke surnamed the great: and the widow of Gilbert de Clare earle of Glocester was maried to this erle of Cornwall, in the yeare of our Lord 1231 being the fiftéenth yeare of king Henrie the third.

This Isabell died in the yeare of our redemption 1240, being the foure and twentith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the third, after this manner. For she being great with child, and néere to the time of hir deliuerance, fell into Mer [...]um ictericum, or the EEBO page image 1073 hicket, and deliuering a child into the world, which had life, and was baptised by the name of Nicholas, they both presentlie died therevpon. Which thing when the earle vnderstood being then on his iourneie into Cornwall, he burst out in teares, and greatlie lamented that losse. Wherefore hastilie returning, and leauing his former iourneie, he honorablie bu|ried his wife at [...] religious [...]use in [...]pshire, as [...] by some [...]pposed. Belland or Beauleu, an house of religion builded by king Iohn from the foundati|on, and replenished with Charterhouse moonks.

His second wife was Sinthia or Sanclia, daugh|ter to Reimond earle of Prouince, and sister to the queene of England, wife to king Henrie the third, brother to the said Richard earle of Cornwall, who maried the said Sinthia in the yeare of our redemp|tion 1243, being the seuen and twentith yéere of the reigne of king Henrie the third. Leland also appoin|teth to him the third wife, which was Beatrix de Fa|mastais, whom he calleth quéene of Almaine, & wife to king Richard, brother to Henrie the third. Which ladie died in the yere of our redemption 1277, being the sixt yéere of Edward the first, and was buried at the friers minors in Oxford. This noble Richard erle of Cornwall died in Februarie at Berkhamsted, in the yeare of Christ 1271, in the fiue and fiftith yeare of king Henrie the third, as saie Matthew Paris and Matthew Westminster: but Nicholas Triuet refer|reth his death to the yeare 1270, being the foure and fiftith yéere of Henrie the third: and the chronicle be|longing to Euesham to the yeare 1272, being the six and fiftith yeare of Henrie the third. After whose death his hart was buried in the friers minors of Oxford, and his bodie committed to the earth in the monasterie of Hales (being Charterhouse moonks) which he had builded at his charge of 10000 marks, which at this daie at fiue shillings the ounce of sil|uer amounteth to the summe of twentie thousand pounds. He had two sonnes, the one called Henrie by his first wife Isabell; the other called Edmund de Almania by his second wife Sinthia. Henrie was slaine by Simon and Guie of Montfort sonnes of the last Simon Montfort earle of Leicester, in the life of his father Richard in Italie at Uiterbo, in the yere of our redemption 1270. Which fact be|ing doone in saint Syluesters church as he was at masse, occasioned the townesmen to paint the ma|ner of his death on the wall of the church: and that picture being beheld by a certeine versifier, he was vrged therevpon to compose these following verses:

Regis Theutonici Richardi clara propago,
Sternitur Henricus, velut haec designat imago,
Dum redit à Tripoli, regum fultus comitiua,
In crucis obsequio patitur sub gente nociua,
Irruit in templum, post missam, stirps Guen [...]lonis
Perfodit gladius hunc Simonis atque Guidonis,
Disposuit Deus vt per eos vir tantus obiret,
Ne reuocatis his, gens Anglica tota periret,
Anno milleno Domini cum septuageno
Atque duceno, Carolo sub rege sereno,
Vrbe Viterbina fit in eius carne ruina,
Coeli regina precor vt sit ei medicina.

His bones were brought into England, and bu|ried in the monasterie of Hales, where his father was after also buried: but his hart was bestowed in a guilt cup, and placed beside the chaine of saint Ed|ward the Confessor in Westminster abbeie. The o|ther sonne to this Richard earle of Cornwall was Edmund of Almaine, who after the death of his fa|ther was inuested with the honor of the earledome of Cornwall, being borne at Berkhamsted in the yéere of our redemption 1250, being the foure and thirtith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the third, to whome his vncle Bonifa [...]ius bishop of Cantur|burie was godfather, and called him Edmund in the honor of saint Edmund archbishop of Canturburie and Confessor. This Edmund earle of Cornwall married the daughter of Richard earle of Clare, of whome shall be more spoken when we come to treat of him as protector of England.

Boniface the archbishop of Canturburie, with o|thers which follow,Boniface archbishop of Canturburie. were protectors of the realme af|ter this maner, as I haue gathered. It was ordei|ned in the parlement at Oxford called Parlementum insanum, that the king should choose foorth twelue per|sons of the realme, and the communaltie of the land other twelue, the which hauing regall authoritie in their hands, might as gardians of the kingdome take in charge vpon them the gouernment of the realme, & should from yeare to yeare prouide for the due election of iustices, chancellors, treasurors, and other officers, and further prouide to sée to the safe kéeping of the castels belonging to the crowne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 These foure and twentie persons appointed to that function, began to order all things at their owne ple|sure: in the meane time not forgetting to vse things chieflie to their owne aduantage, as well in proui|ding excheats and wards for their children and kins|folks, as also in bestowing of patronages of chur|ches belonging to the kings gift, vnto their owne li|king. So that these prouiders which shuld haue made carefull and beneficiall prouisions for the realme, made spéedie and plentifull prouision for them and theirs, insomuch that neither king nor Christ could get anie thing from these protectors. There be that write, how that there were but twelue or thirtéene chosen to be gouernors at this time (which for this present I déeme to be the truer opinion) whose names are as follow: Boniface archbishop of Can|turburie, the bishop of Worcester, Roger Bigod earle of Norffolke and marshall of England, Si|mon de Montfort earle of Leicester, Richard de Clare earle of Glocester, Humfreie Bohune earle of Hereford, Richard Fitzalane earle of Arundell, sir Iohn Mansell chiefe iustice of England, sir Ro|ger lord Mortimer, sir Hugh Bigod, sir Peter de Sauoie, sir Iames Audleie, & sir Peter de Montfort. To these (as some saie) was authoritie onlie giuen to punish all such as trespassed in the breach of anie of the constitutions of the parlement of Oxford. O|thers say that they were made rulers & protectors of the realme, and to dispose thereof, because the king was much misseled in the gouernment of the king|dome by the peruerse councell of his flatterers. Which twelue gouernors I suppose did not long con|tinue: for being euerie one priuatlie for himselfe, and so not iointlie for the common-wealth, they grew diuided, and what the one labored to set vp, the other sought to pull downe.

Boniface archbishop of Canturburie the second time, & the bishop of Worcester,Boniface archbishop of Canturbu|rie. with sir Philip Bas|set, or rather sir Hugh Bigod made chiefe iustice of England by the barons, were appointed in the yeere of our redemption 1260, being the fortie and fourth of king Henrie the third, to haue the gouernment of the realme in the absence of the king, whilest he re|mained in France at Paris about the affaires of Normandie: at what time a peace was made be|twéene the kings of England and France.

Gilbert de Clare the second of that name that was earle of Glocester and Hertford,Gilbert de Clare. was the sonne of Richard de Clare erle of Glocester and Hertford, which died in the yeere of our redemption 1262, be|ing the fortie & sixt yeare of the reigne of king Hen|rie the third, and was buried at Tewkesburie, with a great image of siluer and gilt vpon his toome, and the same sword and spurres which he did weare in his life time. Of which Richard these verses were composed for his probitie and rarenesse of vertuous EEBO page image 1074 maners and conditions, and set vpon his toome:

Hîc pudor Hyppoliti, Paridis gena, sensus Vlyssis,
Aeneae pietas, Hectoris ira iacet.

This Gilbert (I saie) the sonne of the said Richard was after the death of Henrie the third (which happe|ned in the yeare of our Lord 1277, & in the seuen & fiftith yeare of the reigne of the said king Henrie) in the absence of king Edward the first in the holie warres made gouernour of the realme, vntill the re|turne of the said king Edward into England, to which function he was appointed by king Henrie the third, lieng on his death-bed: who caused the said Gil|bert to sweare to kéepe the peace of the land to the be|hoofe of Edward his sonne. Which he did most faith|fullie, vntill the second daie of August, in the second yeare of the said king, in which the said king Ed|ward landed in England, being in the yeare of our redemption 1274, at what time the king was hono|rablie interteined of the said Gilbert, and Iohn earle of Warraine (a supporter to him in the charge of the kingdome) at the castell of Tunbridge in Kent, and Rigate in Surrie, which Gilbert with the other péers of the land, immediatlie after the death of king Hen|rie the third, assembling at the new temple brake the old seale of king Henrie, made a new seale in the name of king Edward, and appointed faithfull officers for the sure kéeping and obseruing of the treasure, the riches, the peace, and the lawes of the kingdoms.

This Gilbert had two wiues, his first wife was Alice the daughter of Hugh le Brune erle of March, by whom he had issue a daughter, that was countesse of Fife in Scotland: his second wife was Ione the daughter of king Edward the first, called Ione of Acres, by whome he had one sonne, called Gilbert the third, earle of Glocester and Hertford, who mar|ried Mawd the daughter of Richard earle of Ulster in the yeare of Christ 1308 at Waltham, by whome he had issue a sonne, Iohn borne in the yeare of Christ 1312, being in the sixt yeare of Edward the second, that died without issue; after the death of which Gil|bert the third, his lands and earldomes of Glocester and Hertford came to the sister of the said Gilbert the third, who was slaine in the battell of Striueling against the Scots in the seuenth (or as others haue the eight) yeare of king Edward the second, whome the Scots would gladlie haue kept for ransome if they had knowne him: but he had forgotten to put on his cote of armes to shew what he was, after which he was brought into England and was buried at Tewkesburie, vpon whose death the two earle|domes of Glocester and Hertford were so dispersed, that there was neuer anie to this daie, that iointlie succéeded or possessed them both. Thus hauing digres|sed from Gilbert the second, in treating of his sonne Gilbert the third, let vs againe returne to him. He besides his sonne Gilbert the third, had by his wife Ione thrée daughters; Elenor, first married to Hugh Spenser, second sonne to Hugh Spenser earle of Glocester, and after his death to William Zouch; Margaret married to Piers de Gaueston earle of Cornewall, and after to Hugh Audeleie; and Eliza|beth or Isabell married in the yeare of our Lord 1308, being the first yeare of Edward the second, to Iohn the sonne of Richard earle of Ulster. This Gil|bert the second, before the marriage of his second wife, was on the fiftéenth kalends of August diuor|sed from Alice his first wife, in the yeare of our re|demption 1271, being the six and fiftith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the third; and after in West|minster church the last of Aprill married his second wife, about the eightéenth yeare of Edward the first being the yeare of Christ 1290, which Gilbert the se|cond, being taken awaie by vntimelie death, de|parted this world in the yeare of our redemption 1195 (being the thrée and twentith of the reigne of the said Edward the first) who was in word & déed, in commandement and authoritie the greatest per|son of the kingdome, next to king Edward the first: for which cause he well deserued to haue his sepul|ture among his worthie ancestors.

Edmund earle of Cornewall,Edmund [...] of Corne [...] of whome there is somewhat spoken before, being the sonne of Richard king of Almaine, and earle of Cornewall brother to Henrie the third, married Margaret the daughter of Richard de Clare erle of Glocester, he was made protector of the Realme by Edward the first in the fouretéenth yeare (as some saie) or in the fifteenth, as others saie (for there is so much disagréement a|mongst authors for the accounts of yeares, as it pas|seth anie one man to reconcile them in all points) when the said king went into Aragon to reconcile the two kings of Arragon & Naples. He continued in this office in the yeare of Christ 1287, or 1228, as hath Treuet, being the sixteenth yeare of Edward the first, in which he subdued Rise ap Merdach the Welsh prince, rebelling against Edward the first, and ouerthrew the castell of Druffillane (as hath the said Nicholas Treuet) he was lord of Wallingford, did much cost therevpon, and died without issue, as hath Matthew Westminster, in the yeare of Christ 1300: but as hath Thomas Walsingham 1301, lea|uing the king of England his heire. Yet are there some pedegrées and other authors, and those not the meanest, which saie that he had a daughter, Isabell married to Morice Fitz Harding lord Barkleie: so that these authors, which saie that he died without is|sue, are to be vnderstood of the issue male, & not of the heire generall: for they account him to die without issue, which leaueth no posteritie to continue his title of honor. The which their meaning they make more plaine, in that they saie that after his issulesse death, the earledome came to the crowne. And here bicause there is mention made of Wallingford, I will set downe what Leland hath written touching the same, bicause I desire to make common, and to preserue all whatsoeuer monuments of Leland that come vnto my hands: thus therefore he writeth of Wal|lingford in his commentaries of England, written in the yeare of our redemption 1542, being the foure and thirtith yeare of king Henrie the eight in these words.

The towne of Wallingford hath béene a verie no|table thing and well walled. The dich of the towne, and the crest wherevpon the wals stand, be yet ma|nifestlie perceiued, and begin from the castell, going in compasse a good mile and more, and so continueth to Wallingford bridge, a large thing of stone ouer the Thames. There remaine yet the names of these stréets amongst others. Thamesstréet, Fishstréet, Woodstréet, Goldsmiths row. And by the patents and donation of Edmund earle of Cornewall and lord of the honour of Wallingford, it appeereth that there were fourtéene parish churches in Walling|ford: and there be men yet aliue that can shew the places and churchyards where they stood, at this time there are but thrée parish churches. The towne and the castell was sore defaced by the Danes warres, yet they méetlie florished in the time of Richard king of the Romans earle of Cornewall, and brother to Henrie the third, he did much cost vpon the castell which ioineth to the north gate of the towne, and hath thrée diches (as vpon the crests of the same may ap|péere) large and déepe, about each of the two first di|ches (on the crests of the ground cast out) runneth an embatteled wall now sore in ruine, and for the most part defaced. All the goodlie buildings, with the tower and dungeon, be within the third dich. There EEBO page image 1075 is also a collegiat chapell amongest the buildings within the third dich. Edmund earle of Cornewall son to Richard king of Romans was the first foun|der and indower of this college. Prince Edward the blacke (as one told me) augmented this college. There is a deane, foure priests, six clerkes, and foure choristers. The late deane before doctor London that now is, builded a faire stéeple of stone at the west end of the collegiat chapell, to the making whereof he defaced (as it is said without licence) a peece of the kings lodging on the east end of the chapell. The deane hath a faire lodging of timber within the ca|stell, and to it is ioined a place for the ministers of the chapell. Thus much Leland for Wallingford, & thus much I for Edmund earle of Cornewall and lord of Wallingford.

Edward prince of Wales.Edward of Carnaruan prince of Wales, sonne to Edward the first, was in the yeare of our re|demption 1295, being the fiue and twentith yeare of Edward the first, protector of England, in the ab|sence of his father in Flanders, who because he was of tender yeares, had as tutors and gouernours ap|pointed vnto him Richard bishop of Durham (Eu|logium hath the bishop of London) William Mont|acute, with diuerse other knights, as Reignold Greie, Iohn Giffard, & Alane Plunket, being wise, discreet and expert soldiers.

Piers de Gauestone erle of Corne|w [...]ll.Piers or Peter de Gauestone a Gascoine borne, whome king Edward the second so tenderlie loued as that he preferred him before all men, was appoin|ted gardian of the realme in the first yeare of the said king Edward the second, being the yeare of our redemption 1308, when the king went into France and there aboad to marrie Isabell daughter to Phi|lip king of France, before that the said Edward was crowned king of England, as hath Radulphus Higden. Of this Piers I will here saie litle, bicause I haue spoken more largelie of him in my panto|graphie of England.

Iohn de Dro|kensford.Iohn de Drokensford bishop of Bath and Wels, was in the yeare of our redemption 1313, being the sixt yeare of king Edward the second, made protec|tor of the realme in the absence of the said king Ed|ward the second, and his wife quéene Isabell, who went into France to solemnize the coronation of Philip (sonne to Philip king of France) who was at that instant created king of Nauarre. This Dro|kensford was the fourtéenth bishop of Bath & Wels. Great contention was there betwéene him and the deane and priests of that church. He succéeded in the bishoprike Walter Houelshaw. This Drokensford held the bishoprike about ninetéene yeares, he beau|tified the same with manie goodlie buildings, procu|red manie priuileges vnto it, and greatlie exalted his kindred. He was buried at Welles before the high altar of saint Iohn Baptist.

Henrie Lacie earle of Lin|colne.Henrie Lascie or Lacie earle of Lincolne, and of Salisburie, baron of Halton and of Pontfrait, cor|ruptlie called Pomefret, and constable of Chester, was made protector of the realme in the fift yeare of Edward the second, being the yeare of our redemp|tion 1310, whilest the king remained in the warres of Scotland. Which Henrie died shortlie after in the same yeare, and was buried in the new worke of Paules, who carried for his armes the purple lion cõtrarie to the cote his ancestors had borne before. This man had doone great seruice in the warres in the time of Edward the first, he married Margaret the daughter and heire of William Longespée earle of Salisburie, and had by hir a daughter named A|lice, married to Thomas Plantagenet earle of Lancaster, Leicester, and Darbie. This Henrie (as I haue learned of other and read in Leland) had issue a bastard sonne, and hauing amongst manie other lordships the manour of Grantcester besides Cam|bridge, he gaue the same with other lands vnto that bastard, and commanded that the same Lacie so set vp in Grantcester, should for himselfe and his suc|cessors euer name their sonnes and heires by the names of Henrie, which hitherto hath béene religi|ouslie obserued amongst them. And this was the ori|ginall of the houses of the Lacies in Grantcester, as Leland learned of him which was then heire of those lands.

Gilbert de Clare the third earle of Glocester of that name, after the death of Henrie Lacie,Gilbert de Clare earle of Glocester was cho+sen gouernour of the realme (the king being still in Scotland) during the time that the king shuld make his abode in that countrie. Of this man see before in the discourse of his father Gilbert the second earle of Glocester and Hertford, and protector of the realme.

Edward prince of Wales and duke of Aqui|tane,Edward prince of Wales. comming out of France with Isabell in the second yeare of Edward the second, his father was after his landing in England and the taking of his father made gardian of England vnder his father, which office he did not long continue: for deposing his father from the kingdome in the yeare of Christ 1326 he assumed the crowne himselfe in his fathers life.

Walter Reinolds archbishop of Canturburie was with others appointed gardian of England on this sort.Walter Rei|nolds archbi|shop of Can|turburie. Edward the third as before atteining to the crowne in the yeare of our redemption 1327, or as some others more trulie saie 1326, being fourteene years of age did then begin his reigne. But bicause he was so yoong (not being of power or policie to weld so great a charge) it was decréed in this first yeare of his reigne, that twelue gouernors of the greatest lords within the realme should possesse the gouernement, vntill he came to riper yeares, whose names were as insueth: Walter archbishop of Canturburie, the archbishop of Yorke, the bishop of Winchester, the bishop of Hereford, Henrie earle of Lancaster, Thomas Brotherton earle marshall, Edmund of Woodstocke earle of Kent, Iohn earle of Warren, the lord Thomas Wake, the lord Hen|rie Persie, the lord Oliuer de Ingham, and the lord Iohn Rosse, who were sworne of the kings councell and charged with the gouernement of the kingdome as they would answere for the same. But this ordi|nance continued not long, for in the second yeare of this king, Isabell the kings mother and the lord Ro|ger Mortimer tooke the whole rule into their hands, in such sort that the king and his councellors were in all affaires of state, and otherwise, onelie gouer|ned by their direction. Of this Walter Reinolds the archbishop, bicause he was sometime chancellor, and sometime treasuror, is more mention made in the large volume of the liues of the chancellors.

Iohn of Eltham earle of Cornewall sonne to Edward the second,Iohn of El|tham earle of Cornewall. had (in the fourth yeare of king Edward the third being the yeare of our redemp|tion 1330) the gouernement of the realme com|mitted vnto him, whilest king Edward the third had passed the seas onelie fiftéene horsses in his compa|nie, apparelled in clokes like vnto merchants, which office the said Iohn of Eltham executed vntill the returne of the said king, and before that also when the said Edward the third, in the second yeare of his reigne, did before this time go into France to doo his homage. He was made earle of Cornewall in the second yeare of king Edward the third, being the yeare of Christ 1328, and died at Barwike, others saie at S. Iohns towne in Scotland, in the moneth of October 1336, being the tenth yeare of Edward the third, and was honorablie buried at Westmin|ster; for the solemnization of whose buriall the king EEBO page image 1076 came out of Scotland about the feast of the Epi|phanie.

Edward the Blacke prince.Edward the Blacke prince, eldest sonne to Ed|ward the third, being about the age of nine yeares, was in the twelfe yéere of his father, being the yeare of our redemption 1338, or as saith Matthew Par|ker 1337, made gardian of England in the ab|sence of his father being as then sailed into Flan|ders to procure the Flemmings to aid him against the French king. Under which prince as some write (or rather as I for the time take it) equall in commis|sion to him it séemeth that Iohn archbishop of Can|turburie had the cheefest rule of the land,Iohn Strat|ford. bicause that king Edward after his returne into England, which was about the fouretéenth or the fifteenth of his reigne, charged the said bishop with certeine negli|gences which he vsed in collections of monie, whilest he had the chiefe rule of the land, when he was in the wars of France. Wherefore the words of Matthew Parker in the life of the said Iohn Stratford (saieng that the king held a parlement, in which Omnem regni curam & gubernationem archiepiscopo cõmisit) must néeds be intended that he had that charge vnder or equallie with the said Blacke prince, as chiefest councellor to support the tender yeares of his sonne.

After which also in the yeare of our redemption, as hath the same Matthew Parker 1342, being about the sixteenth of the said Edward the third, the king committed the care & gouernement of the kingdome to the said archbishop, whilest the king was beyond the seas in the warres: for thus writeth the said Par|ker, fol. 257. Ac paulo post nulla purgatione indicta (speaking of the said bishop vniustlie accused to the king) aut recepta, omnibus penè parlamenti ordinibus pro ar|chiepiscopo deprecantibus, rex eum sua sponte legitimè purga|tum & excusatum pronuntiauit, eúmque multo magis charum quàm antè habuit, omnibúsque gerendis in Anglia rebus se in militia absente praefecit. Of which archbishop being som|time chancellor and treasuror of England shall be set downe a more large discourse in my large booke of the liues of the chancellors.

Lionell duke of Clarence.Lionell third sonne to Edward the third, was in the ninth yere of the reigne of the said king Edward the third, being the yeare in which the word became flesh 1345, made gardian of England, in the absence of his father, who as then was sailed into the parts (beyond the seas) of Flanders. Of this man there is more spoken in my following treatise of the dukes of England.

Henrie lord Persie, & Rafe lord Neuill, when Ed|ward the third was sailed into Normandie,Henrie lord Persie. were in the twentith yere of the reigne of the said Edward the third, being the yeare of our redemption 1346, appointed to be gardians of the realme in his absence with the archbishop of Yorke, the bishop of Lincolne, and Thomas Hatfield bishop of Durham.

Thomas of Woodstocke being verie yoong was made custos or gardian of England,Thomas of Woodstocke. in the yere that God tooke on him the forme of a seruant 1359, being the thrée & thirtith of the reigne of the said king Ed|ward the third, when he sailed into France with a 1100 ships. Of this man is more spoken in my dis|course of the dukes of England, set downe in the time of quéene Elizabeth: and in my treatise of the conestables of England, set downe in the time of Henrie the eight pag. 867.

Iohn of Gant duke of Lan|caster.Iohn of Gant duke of Lancaster, fourth sonne of Edward the third, bicause the king his father was féeble and sicklie (being now about thrée score & fiue yeares of age, though Bodinus in his Methodo historiae saie that he died in his climactericall yeare of thrée score and thrée: for the truth is, that the said Edward the third was fourtéene yeares old when he began to reigne, and he reigned about one and fiftie yeares, which make of his age thrée score and fiue yeares) but especiallie for the sorrow which the king inwardlie conceiued for the death of that worthie prince his son, commonlie surnamed the Blacke prince. This Iohn of Gaunt (after the death of the said Blacke prince, which died in the yeare of Christ 1376, being the fiftith yeare of the reigne of Edward the third, whose death was déemed to be hastned by the said Iohn of Gaunt aspiring to the crowne, the plat whereof though it tooke not effect in the life of the said Iohn, yet it was performed in his sonne Henrie of Bullingbrooke. who deposed Richard the second) was appointed by his father Edward the third to haue the rule of the realme vnder him, the which he continued during his fathers life, which was not a full yeare after that he had made the said Iohn of Gaunt gouernour of England. After which death of king Edward the third, when Richard the second, a child of eleuen yeares of age began his reigne, in the yeare of our redemption 1377, in the first yeare of the said Ri|chard the second, after his coronation, the said Iohn of Gaunt duke of Lancaster, & Edmund of Lang|leie earle of Cambridge brother to the said Iohn of Gaunt, were appointed to haue the gouernement of the kings person, and the administration of the com|mon-wealth. But shortlie after, in the same yere of the king, in the yeare of our redemption 1378, the said Iohn of Gaunt gaue vp the same office. Of this man is more said in my treatise of the dukes of England.

William Courtneie bishop of London (but short|lie after his protectorship aduanced vnto the sée of Canturburie, in the yeare of Christ 1381,William Courtneie bishop of London. about the ninth of Ianuarie, being about the fourth of Richard the second, was made gouernor of the realme in this maner. After (as is before said) that the duke of Lan|caster had wiselie weied the fickle estate of the realme, and considered that by the euill gouernment of the nobilitie, and inconstant mind of the yoong king, there must néeds fall a change of the estate, & doubting that if any thing succéeded otherwise than the nobles liked, the cause and negligence might be imputed to him, as one who cheeflie had the gouern|ment in his hands (and thanks howsoeuer the state was ruled he looked for none) did in the end after a few months authoritie (wholie misliking the maners of the court, which commonlie are not of the best in the minoritie of princes) surrender his protectorship, and obteined licence of the king to depart, and so got him quietlie to his castell of Kenelworth, permit|ting others to haue the whole swaie of the king|dome.

Notwithstanding all which, in the second yeare of Richard the second, about the yeare of Christ 1379 being not altogither carelesse of the kings well doo|ing; this duke before his departing to Kenelwoorth, caused certeine graue persons with his full consent, to be ordeined, which should haue the gouernement of the kings person, and administration of the com|mon-wealth. The names of whome were, William Courtneie before mentioned, Edmund Mortimer earle of March, Rafe Ergume bishop of Salisburie, and William lord Latimer, with others, of whome for the most part the people had conceiued a good o|pinion: yet bicause the said bishop of Salisburie, and the lord Latimer were associat to the rest, and of e|quall authoritie with them, the commons murmured greatlie against them. The cause for which they so misliked the lord Latimer, was for that he had some|times bin too much fauouring to dame Alice Piers, concubine to king Edward the third, to whome the said lord Latimer was chiefe chamberleine, & there|fore was of him best be loued, which two persons, the lord Latimer, and dame Alice, were by parlement EEBO page image 1077 in the fiftith yeare of Edward the third remooued from the king, for that they miscounselled him, but especiallie sith much mischiefe grew in the realme by the same Alice Piers. For she being now exalted in pride by ouermuch loue of K. Edward the third, would beyond the modestie and maner of women, sit in iudgement with the kings iustices, be with the doctors in the consistorie, turne sentences to what side she would, and require manie things dishonest in themselues, and dishonourable to the king. Of which woman, an old written chronicle belonging to the house of Euesham, hath deliuered to me these words: Alicia Piers regis concubina supra modum mulierum nimis & supergressa, sui etiam sexus & fragilitatis foemineae immemor, nunc iuxta iusticiarios regios nunc in foro ecclesi|astico iuxta doctores sedendo, & pro defensione causarum sua|dere, & etiam contra iura postulare minimè verebatur, vnde propcer scandalum-petierunt ab illo (which was the king) penitùs amoueri in parlemento tento anno Domini 1376 & 50 Ed. 3. Thus that author.

And here before I go anie further with my pro|tectors, bicause some curious heads that find not all these matters in the records of the tower, which they dailie turne with a churlish hand, or else thinke that nothing maie be knowne out of the walles of their office, will séeme to séeke a knot in a rush, and saie that I in compasse of some few lines haue written a contrarietie, in saieng that Iohn of Gaunt thirsted after the kingdome, and for that cause hastened the death of his elder brother prince Edward the blacke as Richard the third did the death of his brother George duke of Clarence, which intent could not possiblie be in Iohn of Gaunt, as appeareth by my owne following words: where I saie that he gaue ouer the protectorship of his nephue, bicause he would auoid all suspicion of euill gouernement: which hée would neuer haue doone if he had so ment, that place being so apt for the execution of his purpose, and might giue occasion to him that neuer ment anie such matter before, to attempt it being in that place, as Richard duke of Yorke did attempt, but not per|forme it, in the time of Henrie the sixt; and as Ri|chard duke of Glocester, being in the same office of protectorship, did not onelie attempt it, but brought to perfection. Wherevnto I answer, that all this is no contrarietie, but onelie a manifest shew and con|firmation, the one part of my words to the other. For sith he could not in the life of his father Edward the third before the crowning of king Richard the se|cond (as Richard the third did) atteine the crowne, he would not now attempt it (the king being once crowned, and in full possession of the kingdome) so rashlie and vnaduisedlie (as did Richard duke of Yorke against Henrie, for which he was in the end slaine) least that thereby his part might séeme to ca|rie the face of a rebellion, as in truth it should haue doone. For whosoeuer either for colour of God, bene|fit to their countrie, or for whatsoeuer cause, lift vp the sword against a crowned king, sitting at the sterne of gouernement, being one of the gods of the earth, the same must needs tend vnto a rebellion, which Iohn of Gaunt would not seeme to execute, & for that cause leauing off his purpose at that time, he did in the end also leaue the whole matter to his son to performe, especiallie sith he afterward perceiued Richard the second so much to fauor and further him with monie, munition, and men, to recouer the king|dome of Castile & Arragon in Spaine, in the right of the wife of the said Iohn of Gaunt. To whom and to his wife (as hath Henrie Knighton) king Richard the second gaue a seuerall crowne of gold to honour them withall, & to shew how intierlie he loued them when they both went into Spaine. And for these cau|ses the said Iohn of Gaunt refused the oportunitie of time & place in the king his nephues minoritie to execute it. But did he cease it so? No. For that sparke although it were a litle cooled, was not vtterlie quen|ched, bicause he hastened the same in his son, whom he not onelie persuaded, but furthered (after the ba|nishment of his said sonne Henrie of Bullingbrooke by Richard the second in the life of said Iohn of Gaunt) to returne into England, and after his death to chalenge by sword the earldome of Lancaster his right inheritance, and vnder the same to reuenge the death of the duke of Glocester and others: and by that means, when Richard the second was out of the realme of England in Ireland, the said Henrie Bullingbrooke sonne of Iohn of Gaunt entered the realme, put downe the king, and got the crowne which his father sought. Thus this much digressing from the protectors, and to returne to that course which I haue in hand, I will leaue the discourse of policies to obteine kingdoms, bicause they be no balles for me to bandie, and follow on my former in|tent as meeter for my simplicitie.

Thomas Beauchampe earle of Warwike was in the third yeare of Richard the second,Thomas Beauchampe earle of War|wike. being the yeare of our redemption 1380, made protector in this sort. In the parlement holden the same yeare, at the speciall sute of the lords, and of the commons, the bishops and barons chosen (as you haue heard) before by Iohn of Gaunt to be protectors of the realme, were remoued, and the earle of War|wike especiallie elected to that function, to remaine continuallie with the king as chéefe gouernor of his roiall person; & one that should giue answer to all for|reners repairing thither, vpon what cause soeuer their comming were; hauing further as ample go|uernment of the kingdome giuen vnto him, as the other remoued gouernors had. Being placed in that office by the duke of Lancaster, he died the sixt ides of Aprill, in the yeare of Christ 1401, being the third yeare of Henrie the fourth. He maried Margaret, the daughter of William lord Ferrers of Grobie; by whome he had issue, Richard earle of Warwike.

Thomas Fitzalane otherwise called Arundell bishop of Elie,Thomass Arundell bi|shop of Elie. the two and twentith that inioied that seat, being two and twentie yeares of age, and the son of Richard Fitzalane earle of Arundell & War|ren, was with others made protector of England in this sort. At a parlement holden at London in the tenth yeare of Richard the second, being the yeare of Christ 1386, were certeine gouernors of the kingdome elected, because the treasure of the realme had beene imbesiled & lewdlie wasted, nothing to the profit of the king and kingdome, by the couetous and euill gouernment of the deposed officers, which were Michaell de la Poole earle of Suffolke lord chancellor, Iohn Fortham bishop of Durham lord treasuror, & diuerse other persons that ruled about the king.

Now the gouernors elected by this parlement were in number thirtéene; and by name Thomas Arundell bishop of Elie, then made lord chancellor; Iohn Gilbert bishop of Hereford made lord treasu|ror; and Nicholas abbat of Waltham at that time made kéeper of the priuie seale; William Court|neie archbishop of Canturburie, Alexander Neuill archbishop of Yorke, Edmund Langleie duke of Yorke, Thomas of Woodstocke duke of Glocester, William bishop of Winchester, Thomas bishop of Ercester, Richard Fitzalane erle of Arundell, Iohn lord Deuereux, and Reinold lord Cobham of Star|borow. These were thus by parlement chosen to haue vnder the king the whole ouersight and gouern|ment of the realme, as by their commission in the statutes of the tenth yeare of the said Richard the se|cond it dooth in the printed booke appeare.

EEBO page image 1078 Edmund of Langleie duke of Yorke.Edmund Langleie duke of Yorke, vncle vn|to Richard the second, was in the eighteenth yeare of the said Richard, being about the yeare of our redemption 1395, ordeined lord gardian of England, in the kings absence in the realme of Ire|land. This protector caused a parlement to be assem|bled at Westminster: where he dealt so effectuallie, notwithstanding the vntowardnesse of the burges|ses, that a tenth was granted by the cleargie, and a fiftéenth by the temporaltie; but not without prote|station, that those paiments were granted of a méere fréewill, for the loue they bare to the king, and to haue the affaires in Ireland to succéed the better. After this, about foure yeares; king Richard the second in the two and twentith yeare of his reigne, in the yeare of Christ 1399, making another viage into Ireland (being the last and most vnhappie that euer was to him, for before his returne he had in effect lost his realme, which after his com|ming he lost in deed) did againe in his absence sub|stitute this Edmund duke of Yorke as cheefe gouer|nor of England. Who in the absence of the king, assembled a power of men against Henrie of Bul|lingbrooke, now entered into the land to chal|lenge the dukedome of Lancaster after the death of his father Iohn of Gaunt, and vnder that colour to vsurpe the crowne. Which Edmund passing into Wales in the thrée and twentith yeare of Richard the second, was receiued into the castell of Bark|leie, & there remained vntill the comming of Hen|rie of Bullingbrooke. Whom when he perceiued (for the power which the said duke of Lancaster had as|sembled from all parts of the realme) that he was not of sufficiencie to resist; he came foorth into the church that stood without the castell, and there fell to par [...]ée with the duke of Lancaster; after which he did neuer forsake the duke of Lancaster, vntill he came to the crowne. Who, if he had faithfullie stood vnto his nephue, might perhaps haue saued vnto him both his crowne and life. Of this man is more said in my treatise of the dukes of England.

Ione de Namures sometime dutches of Britaine, (widow to Philip Montfort,Ione de Na|mures wi|dow to Henrie the fourth. as saith Hypodigma; but Walsingham in his historie casteth him Iohn duke of Britaine; being also the widow of king Henrie the fourth) was substitute gouernor of the realme by hir son in law king Henrie the fift, king of England, in the third yeare of his reigne, being the yeare from the birth of the Messias 1415, when the said Henrie the fift tooke his iournie into France to conquer the same. This woman in the seuenth yeare of Henrie the fift, which was in the yeare of Christ 1419, being suspected (as saith Iohn Stow) to practise witchcraft against the king, was committed to the custodie of Iohn Wellam, or ra|ther Iohn Pelham, who appointed nine seruants to attend vpon hir, and brought hir to Peuenseie castell to be gouerned vnder his prouidence. But shortlie after cléering hir selfe, she was deliuered. This ladie died at Hauering at the bowre in Essex the ninth of Iulie in the seuentéenth yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the sixt, being the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thirtie and seuen, and was buried at Canturburie with hir husband king Henrie the fourth.

Iohn de Plantagenet duke of Bed|ford.Iohn duke of Bedford son to Henrie the fourth, & brother to K. Henrie the fift, was in the fourth yeare of the reigne of the said Henrie, being the yeare of our redemption 1416, by parlement appointed regent of the realme, to inioie the same office so long as the king was imploied in the French wars. Which place he possessed accordinglie; and in the ninth yeare of the victorious prince, king Henrie the fift, being gardian of England, he, with Henrie Beauford bishop of Winchester vncle to Henrie the fift, and Iaqueline duches of Holland remaining then in England, were godfathers, and godmother to Henrie, after king by the name of Henrie the sixt, the son of Henrie the fift; Henrie Chichleie archbi|shop of Canturburie baptising the child. In the tenth and last yeare of Henrie the fift, this Iohn with a strong power conueied quéene Katharine wife to Henrie the fift from Southampton into France. This man being duke of Bedford, earle of Rich|mond and of Kendall, conestable of England, and warden of the marches of Scotland, died the four|téenth daie of September at Rone in Normandie, who (hauing also béene regent of France, a most valiant gentleman, and one that kept the parts be|yond the seas in great obedience to the crowne of England) had for his yearelie pension 20000 crownes at the least. After whose death all things went backeward, and the English lost all that they had beyond the seas, Calis, & those dominions onlie excepted.

This man (I saie) died in the yeare of our redemp|tion 1435, being the thirtéenth yeare of the vnfor|tunat gouernment of the deposed king Henrie the sixt, and was honorablie buried at Rone in our la|die church there. Touching whome it shall not gréeue me to set downe the answer of a French king late|lie in our age made to one of his nobilitie; saieng vnto the king (then being in the said ladie church of Rone, and beholding the toome of this Iohn of Bedford) that it were conuenient that the same toome were defaced and pulled downe; since he was the onelie man that wrought the greatest damage that euer happened vnto France. To whom the king said; Hold thy peace foole, God forbid that euer we should doo such reproch to him being dead; whome the proudest of our nation durst not looke in the face when he was liuing. This duke Iohn maried the se|cond yeare of Henrie the sixt, in the yeare of Christ 1423, Anne the daughter of Iohn duke of Bur|gognie, who died in the tenth yeare of Henrie the sixt, in the yeare of Christ 1433, after which he ma|ried Iaques daughter to Peter earle of S. Paule in the same yeare, and yet died without issue. Of this man is mention made in my former discourse of the conestables of England, pag. 868.

Humfreie duke of Glocester brother to Henrie the fift, and vncle to Henrie the sixt,Humfreie duke of Glo|cester. was in the tenth and last yeare of Henrie the fift, being the yeare of our Lord 1422, made regent of England, vpon the remouing and departure of Iohn duke of Bedford with quéene Katharine, wife to Henrie the fift into France. In which yeare (happening the lamentable death of that woorthie prince king Henrie the fift) the said Henrie vppon his death-bed appointed this Humfreie to be protector of the realme; which he did exercise in the time of the minoritie of Henrie the sixt, from the time of his first enterance into the kingdome. Who at that time taking vppon him that function, called vnto him graue and wise coun|cellors; with whose support he might with better ho|nor to the realme, and benefit to the subiects, rule the ship of this kingdome, sailing in the dangerous waues of the kings infancie. By which meanes holding the sterne thereof, directed by the course of iustice, he did most honorablie during his life dis|charge the dutie of so weightie an office. Who in the fourteenth yeare of Henrie the sixt, being the yeare of our Lord 1439, did with fiue hundred saile land at Calis, and for eleuen daies spoiled the low countries and so by Calis returned againe into England. This man in the fiue & twentith yeare of king Hen|rie sixt, being the yeare of Christ 1447, was in his castell of U [...]es in Wilshire, & comming from thence EEBO page image 1079 to the parlement was lodged in the hospitall, and ar|rested by Iohn lord Beaumont high conestable of England. But on the foure and twentith daie of Fe|bruarie he died for sorrow as some said, and as Iohn Stow hath noted, bicause he might not come to his answer. Other write that he was murdered in the night by the quéens procurement, to the great griefe of the commons, and in time following to the vtter destruction of the king and the quéene. He was duke of Glocester, and also in the right of his wife duke of Holland and Zeland, earle of Penbroke, lord cham|berleine of England, and protector of the realme, be|ing highlie estéemed of learned men, himselfe also not meanlie furnished with knowledge, hauing rare skill in astrologie, wherof beside manie other things he compiled a singular treatise, obteining the name of Tabula directionum, touching whose death I haue read these verses following in Iohn Whethamsted:

Aemula sors varijs signanter honoribus altis
Causauit miserè mala multos flere ruinae,
Laesus erat Iulius, vndis mersus Ptolomeus,
Pulsus Tarquinius, exul factúsque Tydeus,
Dux nimis properè iam dictus tempora vitae
Compleuit tristis, heu indignatio regis
Causa fuit magna, maior detractio falsa,
Plebis & iunctae fallacis & insidiosae,
Nam regis patrius, quamuis & proximus haeres,
Tunc fueratque suus consultor in ordine primus,
Vir prudénsque pius, vir doctus & ingeniosus,
Non tamen erubuit, nec pertimuit, ve pepercit
Hunc accusare falsè de proditione,
Discere quódque suam clàm vellet tollere vitam
Et sibi surripere violenter iura coronae.
Diuitis argentum, proprium qui captat in vsum,
Desiderat medium quo vindicet aptiùs ipsum,
Sic regem plures comitantes collaterales
Sectantur praedam, mediat fraus, dat dolus ipsam,
Fidior in regno regi duce non fuit isto,
Plúsue fide stabilis aut maior amator honoris,
Et tamen vt praedo voto potiretur iniquo,
Fraudem consuluit, cum fraude dolum sociauit,
Sícque ducem falsi maculans cum proditione
Obtinuit votum, praedator erátque bonorum
Illius, & tristis obijt dux criminis expers.

Which duke Humfrie was buried at saint Al|bons, dieng without issue, after he had married two wiues; whereof the first wife was Iacoba or Ia|queline (daughter and sole heire of William of Bauier) being then the lawfull wife to Iohn duke of Brabant then liuing, which wife this Humfrie mar|ried in England in the yéere of our redemption 1424 being the third yéere of king Henrie the sixt, vpon which grew great warres, and Humfrie duke of Glocester challenged the combat of the duke of Burgognie, taking part with his cousine Iohn duke of Brabant. But in the end the duke of Glocester left his wife at Mons & returned into England, and shée vnto Gaunt, and so into Holland, & the combat staid by means of the duke of Bedford brother to the duke of Glocester. But after (as it séemeth) the duke of Glocester was diuorsed from this dutchesse, and then married Eleanor Cobham (whome he had ten|derlie loued as his paramour before that) in the yeere of our redemption 1428, being the sixt yéere of the reigne of king Henrie the sixt. This woman in the nineteenth yeere of the said Henrie the sixt (vp|on the taking of Henrie Bullingbrook for practising necromancie, thereby to consume the king) fled in the night to Westminster for sanctuarie, which cau|sed hir to be suspected of treason. Wherevpon Bul|lingbrook confessing that he wrought the same at the procurement of the said Eleanor, desirous to know to what estate she should come vnto, the said dame Eleanor did oftentimes for the same fact appéere be|fore the bishop, and in the end was conuicted. After which in the twentith of Henrie the sixt she did grée|uous penance therefore, and so escaped with hir life. And here because I haue said somewhat of Ia|queline dutchesse of Holland, I thinke it not amisse to adde a little more of hir, being a woman of great beautie, and desire of change in performing the ple|sures of the flesh: wherefore I will set downe what I haue seene written vnder the pictures of hir and hir husband Francis in this sort.

21.2. The subscription vnder the pictures of the ladie Iaqueline, and of Francis hir husband.

The subscription vnder the pictures of the ladie Iaqueline, and of Francis hir husband.

IAcoba Dei gratia comitissa Hannoniae, Hollandiae, & Ze|landiae, domina Frisiae, Zutbeuerlandiae, terrae Brilensis, Vorensis, &c: Gulielmi Bauariensis ducis filia & haeres vnica, quae primò desponsata fuit Philippo Burgundiorum duci: po|stea Delphino Francorum regis filio: tertiò Iohanni duci Bra|bantiae Antonij filio: deinde Humfrido Glocestriae duci Hen|rici quarti Angliae regis filio: & postremò Franconi Bursa|liensi comiti Osteruandiae matrimonio copulatur. Quae obijt absque liberis 8 Idus Octobris, anno Domini 1463 sepulta apud Hagam comitis in Hollandia.

Beside which was this written in Dutch:

Vrowen Iacoba van Byeren Grauenne van Hollant starfe Anno Domini 1463.

21.3. The subscription vnder the picture of hir husband Francone or Fran|cis was in this sort.

The subscription vnder the picture of hir husband Francone or Fran|cis was in this sort.

FRanciscus Dei gratia comes de Osteruant (erfginocht) in comitatibus Hollandiae, Hannoniae, Zelandiae, & Frise|landiae, dominus de Boursalia de Viorne, Zuylen, Hochstraten, Kortkene, de la Veer, Flishing, Zandenburge, terrae Bri|lensis, Sentmartinsdike, quo loco fundauit coenobium cano|nicorum, &c: & regi Edwardo quarto fideliter assistebat, necnon equestris ordinis diui Antonij.

Beside which also was this written in the Dutch toong. Here vranck van Boselen graue van Osteruant starfe Anno Domini 1470.

Thomas Beaufort duke of Excester (appointed to that office by Henrie the fift on his death-bed) was with Henrie Beaufort bishop of Winchester great vncle to king Henrie the sixt in the yéere of our re|demption 1422,Thomas Beaufort duke of Ex|cester. being the first yeere of the reigne of king Henrie the sixt (then but nine months old) made protector and gardian of the person of the yoong king, to see him tenderlie and carefullie brought vp and in|structed in all such parts as were to be required in the person of a monarch. Which office he left about the fourth yeere of king Henrie the sixt, and died on Newyéeres daie at his manor of Gréenwich in the said fift yéere of Henrie the sixt, being the yeere of our redemption 1446: he married Margaret the daughter of Thomas Neuill of Hornesbie.

Richard Beauchampe earle of Warwike son of the former Thomas Beauchampe,Richard Beauchampe earle of War|wike. being beyond the seas, and there deputie for Iohn duke of Bedford (be|ing regent of France) did (whilest the said regent was come ouer into England) obteine manie cas|tels in his deputieship; who being thus imploied in the forren warres, was in his absence out of his countrie (for his singular wisdome and valor) ordei|ned by the thrée estates of the realme of England in open parlement, to be gouernor of the person of the yoong king Henrie the sixt, in the place of Thomas Beaufort duke of Excester latelie deceased: which Richard did not yet foorthwith hasten his returne in|to England, but remained in France for a season, EEBO page image 1080 inlarging the fame of his martiall exploits. This his election to the protectorship of the kings person, was in the fift yéere of Henrie the sixt, being the yéere of our redemption 1426. He died in the yeere of our Lord 1439, being the seuentéenth yéere of the deposed king Henrie the sixt, at Rone in Norman|die the last daie of Maie, as hath Iohn Stow; and the fourth of October next following his corps was ho|norablie conueied, as well by land as by water from Rone to Warwike, and there honorablie buried in the college of our ladie church founded by his noble ancestors. He maried two wiues, the first Elisabeth daughter and heire of Thomas lord Barkleie, by whome he had thrée daughters, Margaret maried to Iohn lord Talbot earle of Shrewesburie, Eleanor maried to Thomas lord Rosse, and Elisabeth mar|ried to Gorge Neuill lord Latimer. His second wife was Isabell the daughter and heire of Richard lord Spenser, by whome he had issue Henrie duke of Warwike, and Anne married to Richard Neuill earle of Salisburie.

Richard Plantagenet duke of Yorke.Richard Plantagenet duke of Yorke, sonne to Richard earle of Cambrige, and father to Edward the fourth king of England, notwithstanding that he made challenge to the crowne against Henrie the sixt, then in possession thereof, as heire to the house of Yorke, and was to be preferred before the house of Lancaster; and notwithstanding that he was by parlement appointed to weare the crowne after the death of Henrie the sixt: yet after all this, in the thrée and thirtith yeere of the same king, being the yéere of our redemption 1455 (such was the imperfection of the king to gouerne) he was appointed protec|tor of the realme, ruling the same at his owne dispo|sition. Which office he did not long inioie, and that most worthilie: for the next yéere after being the foure and thirtith of king Henrie the sixt, and the yeere of our redemption 1456, he was depriued from the same, and queene Margaret wife to Henrie the sixt tooke againe the absolute regiment into hir hands: which duke after in the nine and thirtith of king Henrie the sixt, being the yéere of our redempti|on 1460, the thirtith daie of December, being lord of Wakefield, was there with his sonne the earle of Rutland slaine at the battell commonlie called the battell of Wakefield; of which I haue read these verses in Whethamsted once abbat of saint Albons:

Anno milleno centum quater quoque seno,
This was doone 1561, counting the yeare to begin at Christmas as some doo, or at Ianuarie as others d [...] Terdenóque die, duodeno mense Decembre,
Infra Eboracensem nixta Wakefield comitatum
Dux dominus villae fertur pugnans habuisse
Conflictum grandem contra gentem borealem,
Ac proceres plures praeerant quae gentibus ipsis,
Quod docuit, quia sors quod res fortuna secundas,
Vitat habere moras, cecidit dux natus & eius,
Ac comes insignis sors belli, sors fuit ipsis
Obuia, sícque fatis regni fuerat breuis haeres
Omen & idlaetum tulerat mutamine meestum
Deslendum multis, ius regni, ius fuit eius.

He maried Cicilie daughter to Rafe Neuill first earle of Westmerland, by whome he had issue Ed|ward duke of Yorke, earle of March, and after king of England by the name of Edward the fourth: George Plantagenet duke of Clarence, Richard Plantagenet duke of Glocester, after king of Eng|land by the name of Richard the third: thrée daugh|ters, Anne maried to Henrie Holland duke of Ex|cester, Elisabeth married to Iohn de la Poole duke of Suffolke, and Margaret maried to Charles duke of Burgognie.

George Plantagenet duke of Clarence, and co|nestable of England,George Plan|tagenet duke of Clarence. sonne of the foresaid duke of Yorke, and brother to king Edward the fourth, with Richard Neuill earle of Warwike (who set vp and pulled downe kings at his pleasure) were after the flight of Edward the fourth out of England into Burgognie to his brother in law (in the tenth yeare of the reigne of the said king Edward, being the yeare of our redemption 1470, when Henrie the sixt had by their means readepted the kingdome) made gouernors of the land, which office they inioied not long. For the said Edward the fourth returning into England, in the eleuenth yeare of his reigne, being the yeare of our redemption 1471, reconciled to him the duke of Clarence, did againe put downe king Henrie the sixt, and slue the said earle of Warwike (flieng awaie) at Barnet field (on Easter day) by one of the men of his campe. After this, on the fiftéenth daie of Ianuarie began a parlement, in the eigh|téenth yere of the reigne of king Edward the fourth, being the yeare of our redemption 1478, where this duke of Clarence was atteinted of treason, and the eleuenth of March following he ended his life in a but of malmeseie, and was buried at Teukesburie beside his wife, who being with child died by poison a little before him. Of this man sée more in my dis|course of the conestables of England pag. 869.

Richard Plantagenet third sonne to Richard duke of Yorke,Richard Plantagenet duke of Glo|cester. was conestable of England and go|uernour of the person of the king, of whome is more spoken in my discourse of the conestables of Eng|land pag. 869. But here mentioning the conesta|bles of England,A digression concerning the conesta|bles of Eng|land nor men|tioned before in pag. 865. I thinke it better now than not at all, to mention also some imperfection and default in my former discourse of the said conestables, set downe by me before in pag. 865. Which default of mine in that place grew by reason of ouermuch hast, which I vsed in sudden seeking for the same, whereby (according to the old prouerbe) I brought foorth a blind whelpe. For in the former description I haue omitted diuerse the which were conestables of England, the names of which were Henrie the first in the life of his father, Nigellus, and Robert de Oilie, with others of that line in descent, which Ni|gellus I can not as yet learne to be anie other but Nigellus de Oilie,Nigellus de Oilie cone|stable of Eng|land. brother to Robert de Oilie that came in with the Conqueror, who gaue Oxfordshire vnto the said Robert.

Besides which, if it shall séeme to anie that I haue in my former treatise rashlie written I know not what, & that here I make Henrie the first conestable in his father the Conquerors time, & by contrarietie therevnto did before make Walter conestable also in the Conquerors and William Rufus his time: let them know that there is no contrarietie herein. For Walter might first be conestable, & then Hen|rie the first, and both they in the Conquerors time, this office being taken from the first, and giuen to the latter by the Conqueror. After whose death Wil|liam Rufus might take it from his brother Henrie, bicause he would not make him too great in Eng|land, for doubt least he might hereby put the crowne in hazard, being fauoured of the people as one borne in England, and for that cause might restore that of|fice to Walter. Againe it maie be, that some men reading that I haue before set downe, that Mawd the empresse gaue the conestableship to Milo the son of Walter in the sixt of king Stephan, and that king Stephan tooke that office from Milo in the first yere of his reigne, and gaue it to Walter Beauchampe, will condemne me therefore of like vnaduised wri|ting: bicause it seemeth thereby that Stephan tooke it from Milo before that Milo had it. Which is not so, for I can proue with some reason and authoritie, that Milo had it a little before the death of king Henrie the first, and also after his death in part of the first yeare of king Stephan, being witnesse to a deed by king Stephan, made and dated the first of his reigne, EEBO page image 1080 to which he subscribed his name Milo Constabularius, After which, king Stephan might in that yeare take that office from him, and so he did. Which Mawd the empresse vnderstanding, and finding Milo (now fal|len from king Stephan) one which assisted hir, she the better to confront Stephan, gaue the conestable|ship to Milo (accounting hir selfe as quéene) in the sixt of Stephan.

This being thus spoken in defense of that which before I haue written pag. 866. let vs go to our o|ther matter concerning the conestables not mentio|ned before in the said discourse, wherein I find my selfe in a maruellous laberinth (out of which I doubt that the best antiquaries cannot loose themselues, no not he which thinketh and saith that he can controll all men, for I suppose he will be lame in this matter) how all these could be conestables, vnlesse that in the time of Henrie the first, and of king Stephan, as it is most likelie, there was chopping & changing, put|ting in and taking out, setting vp and pulling downe one man in diuerse yeares of one and the selfe same king: for king Stephan was sometime a king, and sometime as no king, and then againe a king. And so likewise was it with Mawd the empresse at the same time, bearing hir selfe sometime as queene, and then deiected as no quéene. But be it as it will be, I will here set downe what I find in ancient charters and pedegrées touching the conestables of England not before mentioned, leauing the same to others (ei|ther to order for succession of time, or to amend for truth of matter) who peraduenture reading these things, which I haue seene and will here set downe, can bestow them in better order than I can, which I earnestlie praie them to doo, whereby truth maie be brought to light and perfection; which as yet tou|ching these conestables set downe in this place, sée|meth to be obscured and confused vntill the time that Roger Fitz Miles had that office: for from his time the same is without all controuersie sufficientlie knowne. Wherefore, here before I enter into the de|scent of the de Oilies, who were conestables of Eng|land, I will set downe a strange note of thrée per|sons witnesses to a déed, dated Primo Stephani, anno Dom. 1136, who doo all subscribe their names as cone|stables. Which charter being the same wherein king Stephan gaue the manor of Sudton or Sutton to the house of Winchester, the same was amongst o|ther witnesses thus signed, Robertus de Veer constabula|rius, Milo constabularius, Brientius filius comitis constabula|rius: all who could not be conestables of England at one time. Wherfore sauing correction I suppose that it is out of all controuersie, that neither the first nor the last of these three were conestables of England, but of some other places, as of Douer or other ca|stels. And so to that which I haue further to saie of the kings conestables in one descent and succession of the de Oilies, being tearmed the kings conesta|bles, both in ancient charters and pedegrées, whereof Nigellus before mentioned séemeth to be one.

This Nigellus was conestable of England in the yeare of our redemption one thousand one hundred and one, being the first yéere of king Henrie the first, as may appeare by a déed of confirmation made by Henrie the first touching the cathedrall church of Norwich, whereof I thinke good to saie somewhat to bring in the proofe that this Nigellus was constable. This church was built for the most part in the time of William Rufus,The founda|tion of the ca|thedral church [...] Norwich. by Herebert de Losinga the first bishop of Norwich, who translated the sée from Tet|ford vnto Norwich, in the yeare of Christ 1094, which church being finished and consecrated to the holie tri|nitie, was afterward confirmed by Henrie the first, and Mawd his wife, in the first yeare of the said Henrie, being the yeare of our redemption 1101, to the charter whereof signed by king Henrie & Mawd his wife, were manie bishops, noblemen and abbats witnesses, amongst whome are these two set downe; Nigellus Constabularius, and Rogerus Cancellarius, of which Nigellus thus writeth Leland in his com|mentaries on the song of the swan in the word Isidis insulae: Erat Roberto frater Nigellus nomine, de quo fam [...] non admodum multa refert, which I suppose is this Nigellus de Oilie the conestable, as I before said.

Robert de Oilie, sonne of the said Nigellus,Robert de Oilie consta|ble of Eng|land. did succéed his father, and was as may appeare by some authors (who tearme him accordinglie) great consta|ble of England. This man together with his wife Edith were the founders of the religious house of Osneie, touching whome I shall not greeue to set downe what I haue gathered out of Leland and o|thers. This Edith obteined of hir husband to build a church in the Ile of Osneie in Oxfordshire, to our sa|uiour Christ, about the yeare of our redemption 1129,The foundati|on of the ab|beie of Osneie or Orosneie in the yeare of Christ 1129, being about the thirtih yeare of Hen|rie the first, as some write. being about the nine and twentith yeare of king Henrie the first, which church did after grow to be of great renowme and building, the occasion of building whereof is set downe by others in this sort. Edith being in great estimation with Henrie, first married the said Robert de Oilie by the kings pro|curement, which Robert began the priorie of the blacke chanons of Osneie by Oxford, amongst the Iles made by the riuer of Isis or Owse. This Edith vsed oftentimes to walke out of Oxford castell with hir gentlewomen for to solace and recreate hir selfe. At what time at a certeine place, as often as she came by the same, certeine pies assembled them|selues in a tree, where they chattered and as it were spake vnto hir. This ladie much maruelling at the matter, happening so continuallie at one time in one place after one order, and with one maner of foules, was manie times astonished and feared therewith, esteeming it a verie strange woonder. Whervpon she sent for one Radulph or Rafe a chanon of saint Fre|diswide in Oxford, a man of vertuous life & hir con|fessor, asking his counsell vpon the same. To whom he answered (after that he had séene the order of those pies onelie chattering at hir comming thither) that she should build some church or monasterie in that place. Wherevpon she intreated hir husband to build a priorie, and so he did, making that Radulph the first prior of that house. All which matter, that is the com|ming of Edith to Osneie, Radulph wating on hir, and the trée with the pies were all extant (at the ge|nerall dissolution of the abbeies in the time of Hen|rie the eight) to be séene painted on the north side of the high altar, in the arch of the wall ouer Ediths toome in Osneie priorie, vpon which toome there laie a stone image of Edith in the habit of a vowesse holding a hart in hir right hand. This Robert de Oi|lie was buried in Osneie in the verie middle of the presbiterie, vnder a flat marble stone; wherevpon was a flowred crosse portraid, which Robert had issue Henrie de Oilie, baron of Hochnorton, & the kings conestable, which maried Margerie the daughter of Humfreie de Bohune, by whome that Henrie had issue Henrie de Oilie baron of Hochnorton, and the kings conestable which died without issue. Thus this much by waie of digression, touching the conestables of England, left out in my former discourse of those officers. And so againe to the protectors.

Katharine the daughter of Ferdinando king of Spaine, and wife to king Henrie the eight,Katharine quéene of England was (in the absence of the said king beyond the seas in the the warres of Turwine and Turneie) made regent of the realme, in the yeare of Christ 1513, and the fift yeare of king Henrie the eight, she had béene the wi|dow of Arthur prince of Wales, eldest sonne vnto king Henrie the seauenth, and eldest brother to king EEBO page image 1081 Henrie the eight, who after the death of that Arthur was by dispensation of the pope married to Henrie after king, by the name of Henrie the eight, being yoonger brother of the said Arthur, from which king Henrie she was afterward not onelie diuorsed, in the one and twentith of his reigne, being the yeare of Christ 1529, but after by parlement also in the foure and twentith of the kings reigne, in the yeare of Christ 1532, disgraded from the name of quéene, and from thensefoorth appointed onlie to be called the princesse dowager of prince Arthur, about fiue yeers after which she died on the eight of Ianuarie, being the yeare of our redemption 1535, which was the seauen and twentith yeare of king Henrie the eight, and was honourablie buried in the abbeie of Peter|borow, for which cause afterward in the generall dis|solution of the abbeies, when all those houses were spoiled, this abbeie was not onelie for hir buriall there spared and not defaced, but also further honored with a greater title, and turned into a bishoprike, by the said king Henrie the eight.

Katharine Par, the daughter of sir Thomas Par, lord of Kirkbie Kendall, and wife to king Henrie the eight, was by patent made protectresse of the realme of England, when king Henrie the eight went in person to the wars of Bullongne, on the thirtéenth of Iulie in the yeare of our redemption 1544, being the six & thirtith yeare of the triumphant reigne of the said king. This ladie Katharine being the lord Latimers widow, was maried to the king at Hampton court, one the twelfe of Iulie being the fiue and thirtith yeare of his reigne, and the yeare of Christ 1543, who hauing no issue by the king, was after the kings death married to Thomas Seimer knight, lord Seimer of Sudleie and high admerall of England.

Edward Seimer knight, vicount Beauchampe earle of Hertford, & after duke of Summerset, was protector of the kings person, and of the kingdome, in the first yeare of king Edward the sixt, his nephue which was in the yeare of our redemption 1546, the king being then but nine yeares old. Of this man is more spoken in my following discourse of all the dukes of England by creation or descent since the conquest, with which duke of Summerset, the last in office of protectorship, Francis Thin knitteth vp this simple discourse of the protectors of England of the kings person.

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