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21.1. The description of the citie of Exces|ter, and of the sundrie assaults giuen to the same: collected and gathered by Iohn Vowell (alias Hooker) gentleman and chamberleine of the same.

The description of the citie of Exces|ter, and of the sundrie assaults giuen to the same: collected and gathered by Iohn Vowell (alias Hooker) gentleman and chamberleine of the same.

_Excester or Exceter is a famous and an ancient citie, being the metropole and Emporium of the west parts of England, Dumnonia, the countrie of vallies. situated and lieng in the pro|uince sometime called Dumnonia, that is to saie, the countrie of vallies: for whereas are manie hilles (as that countrie is full of hilles and mounteins) there are manie vallies. But ne [...] cor|ruptlie it is named Deuonia, or Deuonshire, Deuonia, Deuonshire. and not Daneshire of the Danes, as some would haue it. Of the first foundation thereof, by reason of the sun|drie inuasions of forren nations, who with their hosti|lities and cruell warres did burne and destroie the same, there remaineth no certeine memoriall, nei|ther among the records of the said citie, ne yet in a|nie one other writer.

But most certeine it is, that it was first builded and founded by the Britons or Brutes. For the names which they gaue and vsed, are yet at this pre|sent had in remembrance, as well among the chrono|graphers of this land, as also among the Cornish people, who were sometimes one with this prouince; but now in a countie of themselues, and next borde|ring to this, and in the same diocesse. And they are the remanent of the bloud of Brutus. For when Cad|wallader king of this land, by reason of a great fa|mine and pestilence was driuen to forsake the same, & to flie into little Britaine named Armorica, which is now vnder the dition of the French king: diuers & the most part of his people fled, some into Wales, and some into Cornwall, where euer since they and after them their posteritie haue remained and conti|nued.

The old chronographers, searchers, Corinia, Baleus lib. 1. Centuriarum Lelandus in Genethliaco. and writers of antiquities doo find, that this citie was called Co|rinia, and thereof the cathedrall church of the same was (as Bale saith) named Ecclesia Coriniensis: which name, if it were first giuen by Corinus (as Leland writeth) who after the arriuall of Brutus into this land, was made the first duke of this whole west countrie of Deuon and Cornewall, which were both comprised vnder the name of Corinia, and wherof this citie euer hath beene and is the metropole, and al|waies parcell sometime of the kingdome, then of the duchie, and after of the earledome, and now againe of the duchie of Cornwall: then out of doubt this citie is of no lesse antiquitie than the said names doo import. It was also called Augusta. Of this name there were diuerse cities, so named by the Romans; but this onelie was named Augusta Britannorum, and so called (as some thinke) by the Romans at the con|clusion of the peace made at the siege of this citie be|twéene king Aruiragus and Uespasian coronell of the Romane armie vnder Claudius Augustus. The Britons in their toong or language doo call this citie by sundrie names;Penhulgoile. the first and eldest in remem|brance is cair Penhulgoile, that is to saie, the pros|perous EEBO page image 1008 chiefe towne in the wood, as dooth appeere by Geffreie of Monmouth, and Ponticus Virunnius. It was also called Pennehaltecaire,Pennehalte|caire that is, the chiefe citie or towne vpon the hill; as dooth appéere in a tra|uerse betweene the bishop, deane, and chapiter of this citie of the one partie; and the maior, bailiffe, and communaltie of the other partie, concerning their liberties. But the names which the Cornish people doo at these presents remember & reteine, are special|lie thrée,Pen necaire the chéefe citie, Caireruth the red citie, Caireiske the citie of Exe. Pennecaire, Caireruth, Caireiske, Penne|caire signifieth, and is to saie, the chéefe citie. Caire|ruth signifieth the red or reddish citie, so called and taking the name of the ground and soile wherevpon it is situated, which is a red earth. Caireiske is the citie of Iske, being so called of the riuer, which the Britons name Iske, and flotesh fast by the same. And of this name Houeden in his chronicle maketh men|tion, Houeden. saieng thus: Anno Domini 877 exercitus Dano|rum ab Wareham nocte quadam, foedere dirupto, ad Exean|cestre diuerterunt, quod Britannicè dicitur Caireiske.

Ptolomeus in [...]abulis. Ptolomeus the famous astronomer, who was a|bout the yéere of our Lord 162, Coell being king of this land, nameth this citie Isca; and the riuer Isa|ca. Baleus centur. lib. And Bale the searcher of antiquities following the same opinion, dooth also name the citie Isca, and the inhabitants therein Iscans. But vnder corre|ction be it spoken, a man maie well thinke that Ptolomeus being in Alexandria, and so farre distant from this land, was misinformed, or the print mis|taken. For it is most likelie that the riuer should be named Isca according to the British spéech, wherein it was called Isca; and which name by transposing of the two middle letters, dooth at this present re|maine being now named Icsa or Era. But what|soeuer the censures and opinions of Ptolomeus and of Bale, who wrote onelie vpon report, be herein, it is certeine, that the names which the Brutes or Bri|tons gaue, were of longest continuance. And this citie was called by their denominations, by the space of fiftéene hundred yéeres, vntill the comming of the Saxons, the Picts, and the Scots into this realme, which was about the yéere of our Lord foure hundred and fiftie.New lords new names. For they, where, and whensoeuer they preuailed in anie place, did for the most part al|ter and change the names of all places & townes, ac|counting it a great renowme, as also a perpetuall memoriall of their chiualrie, to giue new names, ei|ther of their owne deuises, or of their owne natiue countries; for so is it writen of them: Picti, Scoti, An|gli, Daci, & Normanni in hac insula rerum potiti, cuncta im|mutârunt, pro tropheis habentes, locis à se deuictis noua impone|re nomina. The Saxons therfore as of all other cities & townes (few excepted) so of this also they changed and altered the old names and called it Monketon; and by which name it was so called by the space of three hundred and od yéeres,Monketon. and vntill the time of king Athelstane: for he about the yéere of our Lord nine hundred thirtie and two, being much gréeued and vnquieted with the rebellion of the Cornish peo|ple, because they refused and denied to acknowledge him for their lawfull king, did bend his force, & con|duct his armie against them. And hauing subdued and preuailed ouer them, he returned to this citie: and while he rested here, he repared the same; and the walles which before were but mightie ditches of earth, [...] [...]ibro. and the banks set with great poles of timber now destroied, he builded all of square stone, as it is recorded: Hanc vrbem primus Athelstanus in potesta|tem Anglorum fugatis Britonibus reductam, turribus muni|uit, & m [...]raex quadratis lapidibus randem cinxit. And then he altered and changed the former names, and called it after the name of the riuer Esseterra or Exe|terra, that is to saie, Exeter. For so is it written, Est Exonia vi [...] Deuoniae comitatus, Polydorus hist. lib. 5. Exeter. [...]eco praecelso ad occiden|tem versus posita: ablu [...]túr flumine Exi, à quo nomen habet. Others name it of the riuer [...]oting by it, Baleusce [...] [...] lib. in [...] descripti [...] Exces [...]er Ex [...]ancestre. which they saie is named Excestrum, & thus they write: Clarissima vrbium est Excestria, quae ab amni Excestro qui eandem prae|terfluit est sic nuncupata. I find it also written in an old chronicle, that it is named Exancestria or Exancest [...]e: which shuld seeme to be so called by the Saxons. For the most part of the cities, townes, & forts, which they builded or reedified, did end in cestre: as Glocestre, Lecestre, Manchestre, Winchestre, Oscestre, Wor|cestre, Colchestre, Cicestre, Ilcestre, Bicestre, & this citie of Excestre, with others. For Caire in British & Cestre in Saxonish are one thing,Caire, a fort Cestre a fort & doo signifie in English a fort, towre, or castell. This citie (as is be|fore said) being walled about with stone by king A|thelstane is not altogither foure square, but decli|neth somewhat toward a roundnesse, and contein|eth in circuit or compasse sixteene hundred whole pa|ses, after fiue foot to a pase; which accounting after the Italian maner one thousand pases to a mile, it is a mile and halfe about, & somewhat more.The site of Excester and circuit. The situa|tion of this citie is verie pleasant and delicate, be|ing set vpon a little hill among manie hilles. For the whole countrie round about is mounteinous and full of hilles. It is pendent towards the south and west parts, after and in such sort, that be the streets neuer so foule or filthie, yet with a shoure of raine they are clensed and made sweet. And albeit hilles are commonlie drie,The citie is full of water springs. yet nature is so beneficiall to this litle hill, that it is in euerie quarter full of water springs: & by that meanes the whole citie is through|lie furnished with wels and tirpits; the great good benefit and commoditie whereof hath well appéered in sundrie times of necessitie, and especiallie in the time of the late commotion, which was in the yeere of our Lord 1549. For albeit the enimie, by breking and spoiling of the pipes or canales,The rebels breake and spoile the pipes o [...] lead for waters. whereby water was conueied to the founteins of the citie, from cer|teine springs distant not a mile from the same, did abridge them of that water: yet most comfortablie they did inioy without impeachment the wels and tirpits within the walles, which abundantlie floted with waters to the satisfieng of all people therein.

There are also within this citie certeine foun|teins or conduits, wherevnto,The conduits for water. through certeine ca|nales or pipes of lead, the waters from certeine springs, rising in the fields not far from the citie, are brought and conueied. And these waters are of most price, because by the carriage thereof they are puri|fied, and made lighter than are the other waters springing within the citie: and by that means more meet for dressing of meats. Of these conduits two are speciall, the one of them standeth and is within the cemiterie or churchyard of the cathedrall church of the said citie, and is called saint Peters conduit:Saint Pe|ters conduit. the other being of great antiquitie standeth in the middle of the citie, at the méeting of foure principall streets of the same, and whereof som [...]times it tooke his name,The great conduit. being called the conduit at Quatrefois or Carfox; but now the great conduit.

At the higher end of this citie is a verie old and ancient castell, named Rugemont,Castell Ruge|mont. that is to saie the red hill, taking that name of the red soile or earth wherevpon it is situated.The site of the castell. The site or situation of it is eminent and aboue both the citie and countrie ad|ioining: for they doo all lie as it were vnder the lée thereof. It hath a goodlie and pleasant prospect to|wards the seas: for betweene that and it is no hill at all. It is stronglie ditched round about,The cast [...]ll builded by the Romans. and was first builded (as some thinke) by Iulius Cesar: but rather and in truth by the Romans after him when they had their recourse to it for their defense, refuge, and abode, manie yeares. The same was sometimes the palace of such kings, as vnto whome the king|dome EEBO page image 1009 of Westsex or Westsaxons was allotted vnto: and after them, it was the habitation of the earles of Cornewall, and last of all of the dukes of Exce|ster. It was alwaies parcell and of the inheritance of the earledome, but now of the duchie of Corne|wall: it is in great ruine and decaie, and not easilie to be gotten with force, if it were reedified and inui|roned.

At the lower end and part of this citie, without the wals, floteth a goodlie and a pleasant riuer, which the Britons called Isk; Ptolomeus by misinfor|mation nameth it Isaca: The riuer of E [...]e. but the other old writers named it Esse, Exe, Exa, or Excestrum: and these names be reteined at these presents. It hath his head or spring in a certeine moore or desert distant from the citie néere about foure and twentie miles, called Ex|moore. It floweth into the maine seas about eight miles from the citie,E [...]e riseth in Exmoore. at a place named Exmouth, and by the waie it is increased with sundrie riuers, brooks & lakes, the chiefe of which are Créedie and Collome. It is well stored and is plentifull of samon, front, peale, dace, pike, and other like freshwater fishes: which albeit they be verie good and delicate, and espe|ciallie the samon and pike: yet they are the lesse e|stéemed, bicause the seas being so néere do [...] furnish the citie & countrie verie abundantlie with sundrie kinds of sea fishes most delicate.

The maine seas are not distant from the citie a|boue eight miles, out of which commeth an arme ser|uing for the port of the same: which (as dooth appeare by certeine old and ancient records) did sometimes flow vp to the verie wals of the citie,The hauen of Excester. where boats and vessels were woont to be laden and vnladen of all kind of wares and merchandizes, at a proper place appointed for the same: which at these presents kée|peth his old and ancient name, and is called the wa|tergate. The decaie thereof hapned about the yeare of our Lord 1312,The decaie of the hauen of Excester. Hugh Court|n [...]ie the first [...]estroier of the [...]. by one Hugh Courtneie the third of that name, and earle of Deuon: who being of|fended and incensed against this citie, his wrathfull humor could not be satisfied, vntill by some meanes he did impaire and annoie the state of the common|wealth of the same. And séeing that among other commodities, the vse of the hauen and watercourse to the citie to be one of the chiefest, he was neuer quiet vntill he had destroied the same: wherefore minding to performe what he had conceiued, he did in the yeare of our Lord 1313, the fift yeare of king Edward the second, enterprise & begin his pretended deuise and mischéefe.

And first whereas the ladie Isabella d [...] Fortibus, coun|tesse of Aumerle and of Deuon, his ancestrix had builded certeine wéers vpon the riuer of Exe (the propertie and seignorie whereof did apperteine to the citie) the one of the west side of the riuer of Exe in Exminster parish, and the other of the east side of the same riuer in the parish of Topesham; leauing be|twéene the said two wéers a certeine aperture or o|pen space of thirtie foot, thorough which all boats and vessels without let or hinderance might haue and had their vsuall passage and repassage, to and from the citie vnto the seas: the said earle to abridge and destroie this great benefit and commoditie, did leuie and build a new wéere in the said aperture or open roome, stopping, filling, and quirting the same, with great trees, timber, and stones, in such sort, that no vessell nor vessels could passe or repasse.

Edward CourtneieAfter him Edward Courtneie earle of Deuon, and nephue to the said Hugh, did not onelie main|teine and continue the dooings of his ancestor, by his dailie reparing and defending the same: but also to worke an vtter destruction for euer, of anie passage or repassage to be had thensefoorth to and from the said citie; vnder pretense to build and make certeine mils, did erect two other weeres, the one at saint Iames ouerthwart the whole riuer, and the other at Lampreford: by meanes whereof not onelie the citie did susteine the whole losse of the hauen, but the whole countrie also was surrounded about it, and in pro|cesse of time altogither, and as it is at these presents couered with salt waters. For which gréefs and iniu|ries vpon complaints made thereof, diuerse & sun|drie writs and commissions of inquirie were awar|ded and granted by the king;Sundrie in|quisitions and iuries ta|ken against the earles of Deuon for destroieng of the hauen. and the said earles by sundrie inquisitions and verdicts found giltie. And yet notwithstanding, such was their power and au|thoritie, and such was the iniquitie of those daies, as no iustice could take place, nor law haue his due course against them.

Furthermore also the foresaid Hugh, to incroch the gaine and commoditie of the lading & vnlading of merchandizes within the port & riuer to himselfe, did build a keie and a crane in the riuer at his towne of Topesham,A keie first builded at Topesham. The mer|chants com|pelled to lade and vnlade at Topesham keie. distant from the citie about thrée miles: and by power did inforce and compell all ma|ner of merchants arriuing within that port to vn|lade & lade all their wares and merchandizes brought within that port (to be laden and vnladen) there one|lie. And from thense, euer since, all wares and merchandizes haue béene caried and recaried to and from the citie by horsse, cart, and waine, though to the gaine of the earle and his tenants, yet to the great trouble and hinderance of the citie and mer|chants of the same. Neuerthelesse, the port hath euer|more and yet dooth kéepe his old and ancient name, being called the port of the citie of Excester: and al|waies hath béene and presentlie is paied a tribute vn|to the citie, by the name of the towne custome, for all kind of wares and merchandizes, discharged with|in that port or riuer, or the members thereof.

And although the watercourse thus being de|stroied can hardlie be restored to his old pristinate and naturall estate; for that thorough long conti|nuance the old course can not be discerned:The hauen is recouered and renewed a|gaine. yet now at length after manie attempts and with great ex|penses, a watercourse and passage begun in the yeare 1564, is recouered, and by certeine sluces, boats, and vessels of fifteene or sixtéene tuns are con|ueied and brought vp to the citie, and there discharged at the old and ancient place, called the watergate: & where is builded a verie faire large keie or wharfe,A keie and a crane builded at Excester. as also an engine called a crane fit for the purpose. Within the citie were somtimes but few parish chur|ches, vntill the time of Innocentius the third: who when in the yeare 1198 he had established the doc|trine of transubstantiation, and had made it an ar|ticle of the symbole, as appeareth in the decretals, Ti|tulo de summa trinitate, canone Firmiter: then his next successor Honorius the third, in the yeare 1218 did not onelie confirme the same, but also by decree did establish reseruation, candlelight, and praieng for the dead, as dooth appeare, Decret. tit. de celebratione mis|sarum, canone Sane cum, & Sane cum creatura: by which meanes the number of sacrificing & massing priests did not onelie increase, but churches also and chapels began in all places and euerie where to be builded and erected.

And among others in this citie in the yeare 1222 and the sixt yeare of king Henris the third, the parish churches were limited,The parish churches first limited in Ex|cester. and increased to the number of ninetéene churches within the citie and suburbs, and were called by the name of the christianitie euen to this daie. Euerie of which in times past was a suf|ficient and competent liuing to mainteine a massing sacrificer; for such and so great was the blind deuo|tion of the people then in that Romish religion: but the same now being abolished, and the gospell prea|ched, the liuelihoods are so small, as not sufficient for EEBO page image 1010 the most part to mainteine a poore clerke or scholar, & by reason thereof, the most part of them doo lie void and vacant, without incumbent.

A monasterie of saint Be|nets order builded in Excester.Besides these parish churches, there was also a monasterie, sometimes of moonks of saint Benets order, but since a cathedrall church, being of a verie faire and sumptuous building of fréestone and with beautifull pillers of graie marble. It standeth and is situated in the east part of the citie; and (as some re|port) was first founded and built by king Ethel|dred,

King Ethel|dred the first founder of the monasterie. King Edgar founder of a religious house in Ex|cester.

The cathe|drall church was first a monasterie and founded by king A|theistane. Chronica ecclesiea.

the third sonne to king Ethelwolphus. Some thinke that king Edgar did it. True it is that euerie of them builded a house for religious persons within this citie, of which the one was spoiled and burned by the Danes, and the other in processe of time was vni|ted to the monasterie, which is now the cathedrall church. But the cathedrall church it selfe was founded & builded by king Athelstane, the sonne to king Ed|ward the elder: for so is it recorded in the historie of the same church, the words whereof are these: Athel|stanus subingatis Cornugualensibus, reuersus est ad ciuitatem, quae antiquitùs Monketon vocabatur, nunc autem Exeter: acibi sedens, anno Dom. 932, non tam lacerata eiusdem ci|uitatis moenia reparabat, quin & mansum quoddam dedit ad fundandum monasterium promonachis, Deo & sancto Petro famulantibus.

This king besides his great charges and expenses in building of this church, which at the first was but small, and that part which is now called the Ladie chapell, he placed therein moonkes of S. Benets or|der, prouided liuelihoods for them, and appointed a ru|ler or gouernour ouer them, and who was called by the name of an abbat, towards whose diet and liue|lihood he gaue Morkeshull and Tresurors béere: and which at these presents doo remaine to the said church and are annexed to the dignitie of the treasurorship of the same. The church being thus begun, kings, princes, & noble men were from time to time glad|lie and willinglie verie liberall contributors to the absoluing and finishing of the same. For about foure score years after king Athelstane, king Knoght who was also named Cahutus or Canutus,King Canu|tus confir|meth the pri|uileges of the monasteries. at the ear|nest sute of one of his dukes named Atheldred, did confirme and grant to Athelwood then abbat of the said church, and to his successors manie and sundrie priuileges and liberties, vnder his letters patents, dated the second yeare of his reigne, Anno Domini, 1019.

After him about thirtie yeares, king Edward the confessor remooued the moonkes vnto Westminster,K. Edward the confessor remooued the moonks vnto Westminster, and made this a cathe|drall church. Leofricus the first bishop of Excester. and made this church a cathedrall church, and remoo|ued the bishops sée which was then at Crediton vnto this citie, making Leofricus bishop therof, and whom he and his wife quéene Edith did put in possession of the same, as appeareth by his letters patents dated the eight yeare of his reigne, Anno Dom. 1050, Howbeit the moonke of Burie, Polydorus, and o|thers doo affirme and write, that this should be doone about the twelfe yeare of William the conqueror, Polyd. hist. li. 19 Chronica chro|nicorum. lib. 7. for thus they doo write: Habitum est Londini, sub Lanfran|co, autistitum & sacerdotum comitium, in quo decretum est, quòd aliquot sedes episcopales, quae in oppidulis & pagis an|teà fuerant in vrbibus & locis celeberrimis collocarentur, vn|de factum est vt Bathonia, Lincolnia, Sarisburia, Exonia, Ce|stria, & Cicestria vrbes, huiusmodi nouis episcoporum domici|lijs sunt nobilitatae.

But the reuerence of these writers reserued, this cannot be true concerning this church,The charter of the church. bicause the words of the charter thereof doo witnesse the contra|rie, and declare expresselie, how that king Edward and queene Edith his wife did put Leofricus the first bishop in possession, the one by the one hand and the other by the other hand, leading him betweene them vp to the high altar, and there put his hands vpon the same And yet it may be true, that at the foresaid councell, this remoouing and placing of this bishop might be ratified and confirmed.The con [...]e|ror confirmeth the charters of the church, and inlargeth the possessions of it. Likewise William the conqueror, in the third yeare of his reigne 1069, did not onelie confirme the former charter, but also at the instance and request of William Warewest, then his chapleine, but afterwards bishop of the same sée, did giue vnto it the seigniories of Plimp|ton, Brampton, and S. Stephans in Excester, which the said William Warewest being afterwards bi|shop did distribute, giuing Plimpton to the religious canons, whome he placed there: Brampton was annexed to the deanerie, but S. Stephans was re|serued alwaies to the bishop, and to his successors, whereby they are barons, and so lords in the parle|ment house.

It was also inlarged from time to time with great possessions, reuenues, buildings, riches, priuileges, and sundrie other commodities, by kings, princes, prelats, bishops, and sundrie others. And this one thing is to be noted,The cath [...]|drall church was foure hundred yeres in building. that albeit there were about foure hundred yeares distant from the first founda|tion and building thereof, vnto the ending and fini|shing of the same; yet it is so vniformelie and de|centlie compact and builded in one mould, as though it had beene doone at one instant. The bishop is di|stinct from the chanons both in house and reuenue: his liuelihoods being no part nor parcell of that which apperteineth to the deane and chapter. It was some|times of great reuenues and large possessions, but the more part thereof hath béene consumed and ex|hausted by a wastfull bishop. The bishop and chanons haue verie faire houses, which are situated about the church & cemiterie, and are inclosed euerie night by shutting fast of certeine gates, by which occasion it is called a close, A claudendo: and which gates are to be shut euerie night (except at certeine times) and to be opened euerie morning at certeine hours appointed, as it appeareth by a composition made for the same betwéene the communaltie of Excester, and the bi|shop and deane of the same. In the middle of the ce|miterie or churchyard is a verie faire founteine or conduit of water conueied by certeine pipes of lead from out of the same féelds, as is the cities conduit.S. Peters conduit. And albeit the springs of both waters are in the same field, and not farre distant: yet this dooth excell the other. Out of this well or founteine waters are conueied to sundrie of the chanons houses, as also of late vnto the bishops house, and yet it serueth be|sides the whole close and citie. The citie it selfe is verie populous,The inhabi|tants of this citie. and was sometimes chéefelie inha|bited with clothiers & clothworkers of broad clothes, seruing much for the Spanish and south countries; and which in those daies were of such goodnesse & sub|stance, that the names of them doo remaine in those countries: but new it is chéeflie inhabited with mer|chants, kersie- [...]othiers, and all sorts of artificers, a|mong whom the merchants are the chéefe & welthiest.

The gouernement of this citie was sometimes by foure bailiffes,The gouern|ment of this citie. which before the conquest were cal|led portgreues, that is, the chéefest lords or rulers of the towne: for porta is taken for a towne, and greue in Saxonie is Dominus or maior: Portegreues. but after the conquest they were after the French toong named Prouostres, that is to saie Praefecti or rulers,Prouostres. and now stewards. Not long after the conquest there was or|dered and constituted a senate of six and thirtie per|sons, but of later yeares by king Henrie the sea|uenth of foure & twentie persons, out of which num|ber yearelie there was and is chosen one to be the chéefest gouernour for the yeare following; and is called by the name of a maior, whome the Saxons called Meregreue, that is, Maior dominus,Mai [...]r or Meregreue. or the cheefe ruler. This maior associated with the foure prouosts EEBO page image 1011 or bailiffes, hath the hearing, decerning, and deter|mining in all ciuill causes betwéene partie and par|tie, and for which they kéepe wéekelie vpon euerie mondaie a court in the Guildhall of the said citie: but the bailiffes reteining their old and ancient cu|stome,The maiors [...]. doo kéepe the like courts, and in the like causes distinctlie from the maior by themselues, at all time and times (the mondaies and festiuall daies excep|ted) as it shall please them to assigne, and with their court is called by the name of the prouost court.The prouost [...].

Thus the maior and bailiffes both iointlie and se|uerallie haue iurisdiction to decerne and determine in ciuill matters. But if the matters doo touch and concerne the prince, the crowne, the common peace, anie criminall matter, or the publike state of the ci|tie and common-wealth of the same, then the same are decided by the maior and iustices, or by the maior and common councell, or by the maior himselfe, or by some other officer or officers, according to the nature and qualitie of the cause and offense. But bicause it requireth a large and speciall course, to describe the gouernement of this citie and common-wealth of the same, the charge of euerie officer, the diuersitie of officers, their seuerall iurisdictions, and a number of other things incident vnto their charges: there is a particular booke imprinted, and at large the same is set out, in such order as is requisite, and apperteining to the gouernement: whereby euerie man may know his office and charge, and what to him dooth apperteine. And let it suffice, that partlie through good gouernement, and partlie of a good in|clination,The good in|clination and [...]fulness of the citizens. the people of this citie haue béene alwaies dutifull and obedient to the king and the lawes: and haue in great awe and reuerence their gouernours and magistrats for the time being. And this one thing is not so strange as worthie to be noted, that euen from the beginning, from time to time they haue béene carefull for their common-wealth, and vigilant for the preseruation of the same. And as in times of peace and quietnesse the same hath beene well gouerned: so in times troublesome and vn|quiet, it hath béene most valiantlie defended against the inuasions and assaults of the enimies, as by sun|drie histories it may appeare: whereof for example these few may serue.

First Aruiragus king of this land, then named Britaine, minding to staie the land in his ancient e|state, fréedome and libertie, did withdraw and denie to paie vnto the Romans the tribute which they did require and demand: wherefore Claudius the empe|ror sent Uespasian then duke of the Romane armie,Claudius [...]e [...]o the em|peror sendeth Uespasian in|to Britaine. into this realme with a great hoast, either to recouer the tribute, or to subdue the land. This Uespasian is he, who in the foure and twentith yeare after this his iourneie, did destroie Ierusalem. Wherfore this duke landing in Torrebate,Uespasian [...]andeth in Torreb [...]e, and lateth [...]ge to this [...]. then named Totonesium littus, came to this citie, laid siege vnto it, and gaue conti|nuall assaults therevnto, for eight daies continuallie togither. Aruiragus the king, being then in the east parts of the land, and hearing of this, with a great armie and power marcheth towards this citie to re|mooue the siege,King Aruira|gus rescueth this citie and [...]ncountereth the enemie. and incountereth with the enimie. The Romane after long fight, and not able to pre|uaile, is contented to come to parlée, and in the end a composition was concluded, as if dooth appeare, and is set downe and written by sundrie historiogra|phers. The chronicle of the cathedrall church of the said citie hath these words: [...] ecclesi [...] [...]. Anno Domini 49, Vespass|anus cum Romano exercitu ciuitatem nunc vocatam Exeter, [...]cto diebus obsedit sedminimè praeualuit, Aruirago rege ci|uibus auxilium praestante.

[...] Geffreie of Monmouth hath these words:

Vespasianus a Claudio missus est, ut Aruiragum vel pacificaret, vel Romanae subiectioni restitueret. Cum igitur in portu in Rupturi applicare voluisset Vespasianus, obuiauit ei Aruiragus, atque prohibuit ne portum ingrederetur. Retraxit itaque se Vespasianus a portu illo, retorisque velis in littore Totonesio applicauit. Nactus deinde tellurem Caier Penhulgoite, quae nunc Exonia vocatur obsessurus; eandem adiuit, cumque octo diebus eandem obsedisset, superuenit Aruiragus cum exercitu suo, praeliumque commisit: die illa, valde laceratus fuit vtrorumque exercitus, sed neuter est victoria potitus, mane autem facto, mediante Genvvissa regina, concordes effecti sunt.
Matthew of Westminster writeth:
Aruiragus Britannorum rex, in tantam prolapsus est superbia(m), Flores histo|riar [...]m. quod Romanae potestatis noluit diuitius in subiectioni parere. Vespasianus igitur a Claudio missus cum in Rupturi portu applicare incepisset, Aruiragus illi obuius prohibuit ne ingrederetur. At Vespasianus retortis velis in Totonesio littore applicauit, & ciuitatem qua Britannice Caier Penhulgoite, nunc autem Exonia appellatur, obsedit: elapsis inde septem diebus Aruiragus superuenit, praeliumque commisit, & vtrorumq(ue) exercitu valde lacerato, mediante Genwissa Claudij filia, duces amici facti sunt.

In the historie intituled, Noua historia. Noua historia de gestis Anglorum a Britonibus vsque ad Henricum sextum, is written the like in effect: Vespasianus à Claudio missus est vt Aruiragum pacificaret, vel Romanae ditioni restitueret, cui obuians Aruiragus, probibuit ne terram suam ingredere|tur, timens Vespasianus armatorum cohortem, retraxit sese, retortis velis in Totonesio littore est appulsus, atque vrbem Exoniae obsedit, post septem dies superuenit Aruiragus, prae|lium committitur, laceratùrque vtrorùmque exercitus, sed neuter potitur victoria, demum mediante Genewissa regina, reconciliati sunt. It was also in manie troubles and great perplexities, in the vncerteine and trouble|some states of this realme, when sometimes the Ro|mans, sometimes the Picts, sometimes the Scots, sometimes the Saxons, and sometimes the Danes made their incursions and warres within this land, by reason whereof the records and memorials in those daies for the most part were lost and consu|med.

And yet Matthew of Westminster writeth that it was besieged by Penda king of Mertia, in the yeare of our Lord 632,

Flores historia|rum.

Penda king of Mertia. Edwin king of Northum|berland.

King Cad|wallo is dri|uen to flée into Ireland.

in the time of Cadwallin one of the last kings of the Britons. The historie is this. Edwin the Saxon king of the Northumbers, [...]a|uing wars against Cadwallin or Cadwall [...], did so preuaile and had such conquests ouer him, that Cad|wallo was driuen to forsake his realme of Wale [...], and to flie into Ireland, where he being, was [...] carefull and pensifull how to recouer his countrie againe. Wherefore he repareth his armie and gathe|reth a new force, and gaue sundrie [...]ttempts to at|chiue to his purpose: but all was in vaine, [...] could neuer set foot on land in his countrie. [...] win was alwaies at hand and in a readinesse to [...] and resist the same, for this Edwin had about him in his seruice a man named Pellitus,Pellitus a witch droth foretell to king Edwin of things to come. who was a ma|gician and verie skilfull in necromancie, and who by his art and science did foreshew and declare vnto Edwin what things were a dooing and attempted against him.

Cadwallo hauing continuallie euill successe, was in vtter despaire and distrust to preuaile against Edwin, and therefore as one giuing ouer all, saileth ouer the seas into Armorica now called little Bri|taine,King Cad|wallo [...]a [...]leth into Armo|rica. vnto Salomon the king thereof, and vnto him dooth disclose his miserable estate and fortune, as also greatlie complaineth of Pellitus and of his sorce|ries. When these two kings had throughlie consulted and debated the matter, it was at length concluded and thought best, that some one man being bold and wittie should be sent ouer to the court of king Ed|win, & to giue the aduenture to kill Pellitus.Brienus the kings nephue is sent to kill Pellitus. Where|vpon the matter being discouered to Brienus ne|phue to king Cadwallo, he taketh vpon him to en|terprise EEBO page image 1012 the matter, and to couer himselfe from all suspicion, apparelleth himselfe in a poore beggers wéed, and so saileth ouer into England, and trauel|leth foorthwith towards king Edwins court, who then laie at Yorke, and there ioineth and accompa|nieth himselfe among the poore people, whose cu|stome and maner was, to lie about the kings gates at dinner and supper times, waiting for the almesse vsuallie giuen and woont to be distributed amongst the poore.

Pellitus being the kings almoner, and hauing the charge to distribute the said almesse, commeth foorth and setteth the poore folke in order.Brienus kil|leth Pellitus. Brienus be|ing there and amongst them, watcheth his time to worke his purpose, and thrusting himselfe in the middle of the presse of the people, suddenlie with his poinado or weapon which for the purpose he had pre|pared, thrusteth Pellitus into the bodie, & gaue him a deadlie wound whereof he died, and forthwith (the thing in such a thrust not perceiued) shifteth himselfe awaie priuilie, and through woods, hils, thickets, and dales out of the common waie, commeth to this citie of Excester, & declareth vnto the citizens (who were then Britons) what he had doone: whereof they were verie glad and ioifull, and in good hope that their king Cadwallo should yet againe returne; and therefore vpon good aduise doo prepare and make rea|die both themselues and the citie, aswell for the resi|sting of the enimie, as for the receiuing, succouring and aiding of their king.

King Penda aduertised of this murther, and vn|derstanding the whole course of the matter and prac|tise, taketh in griefe the iniurie thus doone to his neighbor and countriman king Edwin. And there|fore to reuenge the same mustereth his subiects and gathereth a great armie;King Penda besiegeth Ex|cester. and vnderstanding that Brienus was come to this citie marcheth towards the same, and in the end laieth his siege round about it, minding the vtter subuersion thereof. But the citi|zens manfullie withstanding his force, did defend and kéepe both themselues and their citie, vntill that king Cadwallo, who before was aduertised both of the fact of Brienus and of this preparation of Pen|da, did with his force and armie come to the citie, who did not onelie rescue the same; but also ioining the battell with his enimie gaue him the ouerthrow, and so deliuered his countrie, and recouered himselfe and his kingdome.

It was also in greater troubles in the time of king Alured or Alfred the fourth sonne to king E|thelwolphus. Polyd. lib. 5 For Polydorus and others doo write, that in the fift yeare of the said kings reigne, the Danes concluded a peace with the said king, and gaue hostages for the true kéeping thereof. And yet notwithstanding most perfidiouslie and falselie con|trarie to the same, they assembled themselues, and vpon a sudden marched to this citie, and perforce en|tered and tooke the same: Daci etenim qui religionem & fidem pro suo commodo postponendam ducebant, Londino se mouent, & maximis itineribus Exoniam proficiscuntur, vrbéin, per vim capiunt. But long they inioied not the same, for after that winter passed, the king to be re|uenged marcheth with a great power to this citie, which the Danes vnderstanding and thinking them|selues too weake to withstand the K. as also vtterlie distrusting the citizens, shifted themselues awaie, of which some fled vnto Dartmouth and there tooke shipping, and who for the most part were drowned in a tempest at the seas. Some fled to Chipenham or (as some saie) to Bristow,The Danes are ouer|throwne and their capteins are slaine. but the king followed and pursued these so sharplie, that he neuer left nor gaue ouer, vntill he had ouercome and slaine the capteins Hubbert and Hungar.

Likewise in the nineteenth yeare of the reigne of the said king, the Danes contrarie to their faith, pledges, and promises, did againe come to this citie, and laid siege to the same: Neus [...] Danorum exercitus anno 877, ab Wareham nocte quadam foedere dirupto, ad Exean|cestre, quod Britannice dicetur Caieriske diuerterunt, at au|dito regis aduentu [...]d puppes fugerunt, & in mari praedantes manebant.

It was also besieged by the said Danes in the ninetéenth yeere of king Egelred, in the yeere of our Lord 1001. For the Danes, which were in Nor|mandie, being aduertised of the good lucke, successe, and great spoiles which their companions and coun|triemen in England had, and their teeth set on edge therewith suddenlie prepared shipping, and came o|uer the coasts and landed in Deuon, and forthwith marched and tooke their course towards the citie of Excester; thinking to haue found the citizens nap|ping & to haue taken them suddenlie and vnawares; Sed ciuibus viriliter resistentibus recesserunt. The people & cõmons of Deuon, Cornewall, Flores hist [...]|riarum Summerset & Dor|set, aduertised hereof, assembled themselues, & mind|ing to rescue the citie, as also to incounter & aduen|ture the field with the Danes, met with them at a place néere the citie called Pinneho, and ioined bat|tell with them,The battell at Pinneh [...] betwéene whome the fight was cruell and the slaughter great. And thus dooth Houeden testifie, whose words be these: Houeden. Memoratus paganorum exercitus de Normannia in Angliam reuectus, ostium fluuij Exe ingreditur, & mox ad extinguendam vrbem Exeance|stre egreditur, sed dum murum illius destruere moliretur, at ciuibus vrbem viriliter defendentibus repellitur, vnde nimis exasperatus more solito villas succendendo, agros depopulando, hominésque caedendo per Domnoniam vagatur, quare Domno|nenses invnum congregati, in loco qui dicitur Pinho certa|men cum eis ineunt.

King Sweno being in Denmarke, and aduerti|sed hereof, as also giuen to vnderstand how king Elfre [...] aliàs Etheldred or Egelred had caused all the Danes in the realme to be suddenlie slaine in one night, being much gréeued therewith, did prepare and prouide a great armie for the reuenge thereof.King Sweno inuadeth and spoileth the land. And in the yeare of our Lord 1002, he landed in sundrie and diuerse parts of this realme, vsing great hostili|tie, and making great spoiles, and brought the whole land to an vnspeakeable miserie and distresse: but at length, receiuing a tribute for a peace, he returned home into his owne countrie. Howbeit the citizens of Excester hearing of this crueltie vsed in the east parts, made themselues strong: and doubting of so mightie an enimie, did make themselues readie, and prepared the citie to withstand him, if he should haue attempted anie force or hostilitie against them.

But the Dane being gone and returned home,Hugh earle of Deuon as a false mã to his countrie, dooth betraie the citie. and knowing nothing of this preparation, one Hugh then earle of Deuon (as princes lacke no fawners) sent his letters into Denmarke to king Sweno, certifieng him both of the state and wealth of this citie, as also of the great preparation which had bene made to withstand him, persuading him not to su|steine such an iniurie. And as coles will be soone kindled: euen so the Dane vpon this aduertisement was in a great heat, and foorthwith arreareth his ar|mie, and repareth all things in readinesse to crosse the seas anew to worke his will against this citie. And accordinglie when time serued, in the yeare fol|lowing, being the yeare of our Lord 1003, he tooke the seas and landed vpon the coasts of Deuon and Cornewall, and marched foorthwith to this citie,King Sweno by the treche|rie of the earle of Deuon be|siegeth the citie. and laid his siege against the same in the beginning of the moneth of August, and continued the same vntill the kalends of September: during which time were sundrie sharpe, fierce, and cruell assaults giuen by the Dane, and as valiantlie resisted by the citizens.

But in continuance of time, when they saw them|selues EEBO page image 1013 dailie more and more to be weakened, vittels to saile, the fire round about them, their walles bea|ten downe, themselues slaughtered and murthered, and the enimie to increase and be strong, and in all these distresses, their king Eldred being fled into Normandie,k [...]ng Eldred [...] his [...]. to haue no care of them, nor to prepare anie rescue, aid, or helpe for them: it was not to be maruelled, if in so heauie a distresse they were ama|zed and astonished. And yet considering with them|selues that Sweno was a Dane, a cruell enimie, a bloudie murtherer, an vsurping tyrant, hauing no other title to the crowne of England, but the sword, did with one consent agrée and conclude, neuer to yéeld nor giue ouer whilest anie were left liuing able to withstand the same,The stoutnes [...]nd courage of the citizens. wishing rather to die manfullie for their common wealth, than to liue in reproch and infamie; and by death to reape an immor|tall fame, than by life to become ignominious & in|famous, and in the end also to be the miserable slaues of a cruell and vsurping tyrant.

Wh [...]n therefore after manie assaults, all or the most part of the ablest men were spent and consu|med, and none or few left aliue to withstand so migh|tie and so manie enimies:king Sweno entereth and [...]aketh the [...], & vtterlie destroieth it. the Dane on the seuen and twentith daie of August, with force entered the citie, And after that he had serued and satisfied his bloudie appetits, in deflowring the women, murthering the children, and making hauocke of all the people, hée spoiled the citie, [...]. Malm. burned the houses, rased the walles, bet downe the temples, and left nothing to be doone which might by fire, sword, and spoiles be consumed: and this is so witnessed by sundrie writers. Reinulph of Chester writeth thus: [...] Co [...]t. Daci cum suo rege Sweno Exce|striam venerunt, & vrbem funditùs destruxerunt, nullare in|columi relicta, quae aut serro aut igni vastari poterat: & omnia spolia cineribus tantùm relictis secum deportauerunt. Hun|tington hath these words: Hen. Hunt. Daci ir a exarserunt sicut ignis quem velit aliquis sanguine extinguere: aduolantes igitur quasi multitudo locustarum, quidam Excestriam venerunt, & vrbem funditùs destruxerunt: & omnia spolia cineribus tan|tùm relictis secum deportauerunt.

Houeden. Houeden thus saith: Rex Danorum Sweni periurium & proditionem Normannici comitis, quem Emma Domnaniae praefecerat, ciuitatem Exon infregit, spoliauit, & murum ab orientali vs ad occidentalem portam destruxit, & cum in|genti praeda naues repetijt. It was also besieged by Wil|liam the Conquerour in the first yeare of his reigne Anno 1068.William the Conqueror besiegeth the [...]. For when he first entered this land, and by dint of sword sought the conquest thereof; the ci|tizens of this citie, and the noble and gentlemen of all the countrie about,A league be|twéene the gentlemen & the citizens to resist the Con|querour. entered into one common league, conclusion and promise, to ioine togither and to withstand the enimie to the vttermost. And this confederacie being confirmed by a publike oth, pre|paration on all parts was made accordinglie, for the accomplishing of the same. But the conquerour hauing preuailed, and subdued in a maner the whole land, was aduertised that this citie stood vpon their gard, and would not yéeld nor submit themselues vn|to him. Wherevpon he sent his armie from London and besieged the same: and perceiuing the siege to continue, marched and came himselfe vnto the same, but rather came no further than Salisburie. In the meane time the citizens were aduertised how the whole realme had yeelded, The records of the citie. and seeing also how their confederats did dailie shrinke awaie from them, and by that meanes they to grow weaker & weaker, and therefore the lesse able to withstand so great a force, and to keepe out so puissant an armie as was round about them; and considering also, that small mercie or fauor should they find if the citie by force were ta|ken; did by way of intreatie offer submission, and de|sire peace, which in the end they obteined: and so pa [...]|eng a grieuous fine, they and the citie were restored. But yet in token of his conquest, the king altered and changed the gates of the castell, and tooke an oth of all the citizens to be his liege and true subiects.

Houeden in his historie maketh mention, that Githa king Harolds mother should be within this citie, Houeden. Polychron. li. 7 during the time that this siege and assault la|sted: and perceiuing the bent of the people to submit and yeeld themselues, secretlie conueied hirselfe a|waie. For these be his words: Hyeme minuente, re [...] Wilhelmus de Normannia in Angliam redijt, & Anglis im|portabile tributum imposuit: deinde in Dunmoniam hostiliter profectus est ad ciuitatem Excestriam, quam ciues & nonnulli Anglici ministri contra illum retinebant: & obsedit, & in [...]e|git. Githa verò comitissa, Githa king Harolds mo|ther laie in the citie during the siege, and secretlie fleeth awaie into Flanders., mater scilicet Haroldi regis Anglo|rum, & soror Swani regis Danorum, cum multis de ciuitate fugiens, euasit & Flandriam petijt, ciues autem dextris accep|tis regi se dederunt. Also in the second yeare of king Stephan Anno 1137, the lords and péeres of the realme, remembring the oth which they had before made to king Henrie the first, to whom they sware to be true to Mawd the kings onelie daughter and heire, and to hir heires, and yet contrarie to the same had sworne themselues to king Stephan, began to repent themselues, & consulted how to restore Mawd the empresse, and to expell Stephan. Wherefore they assembled themselues in armor, & diuided them|selues into sundrie cities, townes and castels.

Among whom one Baldwin Rideuers then erle of Deuon, with force entered and tooke this citie.Baldwin Ri|deuers earle of Deuon entred into this citie and resisteth against king Stephan. Baldwin the earle is taken and banished. But the king so sharpelie followed and pursued him, that he draue him from hence into the Ile of Wight, which was then his lordship. But the king when he had receiued the citie into his faith, mar|ched with his armie to the said Ile, & tooke the same, as also the earle himselfe, whome he foorthwith bani|shed. But Mawd the empresse afterwards remem|bring this citie for such their seruice as she well li|ked, did inlarge the liberties of this citie,Q. Mawd is friendlie to the citie. for whome yearelie euer after was an anniuersarie kept at the charges of the citie.

It was also in great troubles in the eleuenth yere of king Richard the second, Anno 1387. Polydor. li. 20. For a con|trouersie being fallen betwéene the king & his two vncles, the dukes of Yorke & Glocester, none were then so highlie in the kings fauour, as were Robert Uere marques of Dublin, and Michaell de la Poole earle of Suffolke, & others of their faction. To these the king gaue in commandement, to collect and mu|ster an armie, as it were for his defense, against his said vncles: which when they had partlie doone, whe|ther it were bicause they mistrusted their owne parts, or whether they doubted of the sequele of their dooings, they left their iourneie towards London,The marques of Dublin, and the earle of Suffolke, come to Exon and are pur|sued by the dukes of York and Glocester. as it was first appointed, and came towards this citie. The two dukes who stood vpon their owne gard and defense, hauing aduertisement hereof, followed and persuaded them with all haste and spéed: and hauing ouertaken them at this citie, they ioined the fight with the marques and the earle. But they trusting more to their feet than to their hands, secretlie gaue the slip and fled awaie, making no staie before they came to Scotland; and from thence into Flan|ders, where they died.

It was moreouer in troubles in the tenth yere of king Edward the fourth Anno 1469, when the states of this king, and of king Henrie the sixt were doubtfull, and the whole realme diuided: some follo|wing king Henrie, and some king Edward. In time of which troubles the duches of Clarence,The duches of Clarẽce with others com|meth to Exon being great with child & li|eth in the bi|shops palace. the lord Dineham, the lord Fitzwaren, and the baron of Carew, who followed and tooke part with king Hen|rie, came to this citie, being accompanied and stipa|ted with a thousand fightingmen. The duches was great with child, and lodged in the bishops palace, but EEBO page image 1014 the lords were in other houses within the close a|mong the chanons, and here staied themselues. But sir Hugh Courtneie knight,Sir Hugh Courtneie laieth siege to the citie. who then fauoured and was on the part of king Edward, hearing of this as|semblie, raiseth an armie of his friends and alies, approcheth therewith vnto this citie, besiegeth it, brea|keth the bridges, and stoppeth all the waies leading to the same, and by which means no vittels could bée brought to the markets: and being thus incamped about this citie,The maior is required to de|liuer the keies of the citie and refuseth so to doo. sendeth to the maior, requiring him either to open the gates and to giue him entrie, or to deliuer vnto him the gentlemen that were therein. On the other side, the gentlemen which were within, they either mistrusting the maior and citizens or not willing to stand to his courtesie, and be vnder his go|uernement, required the keies of the citie gates to be deliuered vnto their custodie, and that all things to be doone by their order and appointment.

In these doubts and perplexities consulting what were best to be doone, they did at length resolue & con|clude neither to yeeld to the requests of them who were without, nor yet to satisfie the demands of them which were within the citie: but pacifieng both parties with such good words, and in such good order as they might, did reserue to themselues the kée|ping and safe custodie of the citie, being the chamber of the king, & parcell of the reuenues of the crowne, to the onlie vse of the king and crowne, as to them in dutie and allegiance did apperteine. And there|fore forthwith they rampired vp the citie gates, for|tified the walles,The maior and citizens doo fortifie the citie. appointed souldiers, and did set all things in such good order as in that case was requisit; leauing nothing vndoone which might be for the pre|seruation of the state & commonwealth of the citie.

But yet for want of forecasting, in processe of time the prouision within the citie waxed short, and vit|tels to be scant; whereof it was doubted there would insue some famine, which the common people nei|ther could nor would indure, if some remedie were not in due time had and prouided. The magistrats did their best indeuor euerie waie, aswell by dili|gence in following, as by counselling, in persua|ding euerie man to continue firme and true to the publike state, and their owne priuate common|weale. And albeit the common people were vnpa|tient to abide troubles, and loth to indure the pre|sent state of want and famine; yet they had that re|spect to their owne truth, faith, and safetie, as euerie man yeelded himselfe contented to abide and indure the time of their deliuerance: and by the good will of God it followed, and the same tooke good effect.

For about twelue daies after this sturre begun, by waie of intreatie and mediation of certeine cha|nons of the cathedrall church of this citie,The siege rai|sed, and the citie deliuered. the siege was remoued and raised; wherevpon verie shortlie after did insue the field of Edgecourt, where the duke of Clarence and the earle of Warwike being put to the worst,The duke of Clarence and the Earle of Warwike came from Edgecourt field to this ci|tie, and from hence to Dartmouth. did flée vnto this citie, and made their entrie into the same the third daie of Aprill, 1470, and laie in the bishops palace for a few daies, vn|till they had caused to be prouided ships at Dart|mouth for their passage ouer into Calis.

The king being aduertised which waie his eni|mies were gone, followed and pursued them with an armie of fortie thousand men, and came to this citie the fourtéenth of Aprill 1470, hauing with him in his companie sundrie & diuerse great lords and estates, as namelie the bishop of Elie lord tresuror of England, the duke of Norffolke earle marshall of England, the duke of Suffolke, the earle of Arundell, the earle of Wiltshire son to the duke of Buckingham, the earle of Shrewesburie, the earle Riuers, the lord Hastings, the lord Greie of Codner, the lord Audleigh, the lord Saie, the lord Sturton, the lord Dacres, the lord Mountioie, the lord Stanleie, the lord Ferris, & the baron of Dud|leigh, with a number of knights and gentlemen. But they all came too late; for the duke and the earle were both departed and gon to the seas before their comming.

Wherefore the king, after that he had rested and reposed himselfe here thrée daies, he departed and re|turned to London. It was also in great troubles, being besieged in the twelfe yeare of king Henrie the seuenth: by one Perkin Warbecke, 1470, who in the beginning of the moneth of Septem|ber came to this citie,Perkin Wa [...]|becke com|meth to Ex|cester and b [...]|siegeth it. and incamped about it with his whole armie with ordinance battered the walls, fired the gates, vndermined it, and with mightie ladders scaled them, and left nothing vndoone which might be to compasse their attempt: thinking and supposing that small would be the resistance against them. But such was the noble courage and valiant stomach of the citizens, that they manfullie resi|sted and defended those forces, and indured the same to the vttermost, vntill that the king be|ing aduertised thereof, did send the lord Edward Courtneie, earle of Deuon and the lord William his sonne, with sundrie others well appointed,The earle of Deuon sent to rescue the citie and i [...] hurt. who came and rescued the citie: but in certeine con|flicts the said earle and others were hurt; notwith|standing the enimie had the repulse, and was driuen to raise his campe and to depart.

Finallie & last of all, it was besieged in the third yeare of king Edward the sixt, 1549,The rebellion or commotio [...] in Deuon. by the com|mons of Deuon and Cornewall: the historie where|of, for so much as hitherto it hath not béene fullie and at large set forth by anie man, & wherat I Iohn Hoo|ker the writer herof was present, and Testis oculatus of things then doone, I will somewhat at large discourse & set downe the whole course & maner of the same. It is apparant and most certeine, that this rebellion first was raised at a place in Deuon named Samp|ford Courtneie,The rebellion first began at Sampford Courtneie. which lieth westwards from the citie about sixtéene miles; vpon mondaie in the Whitsun|wéeke being the tenth daie of Iune 1549. The cause thereof (as by the sequele it did appeare) was onelie concerning religion;The cause of this rebellion was for reli|gion. which then by act of parlement was reformed, and to be put in execution on Whit|sundaie the ninth of Iune. The which daie being now come, and the statute made for the same to be put in execution throughout the whole realme: it was ac|cordinglie with all obedience receiued in euerie place, and the common people well inough conten|ted therewith euerie where; sauing in this west coun|trie, and especiallie at the said Sampford Court|neie.

For albeit at the daie appointed by statute, they had heard and were present at the diuine ser|uice said, and had according to the new reformed or|der, and could not in anie respect, find fault, or iust|lie reprehend the same: yet (as old bottels which would not receiue new wine) would rather wallow in the old dreggs and puddels of old superstition, than to be fed and refreshed with the wholesome and heauenlie manna. Wherefore they confederated themselues, vtterlie to renounce, reiect, and cast off the same, not onelie to the great offense of God, whome they ought in all truth and veritie to reue|rence and honor; and to the great displeasure of the king, whome in all dutifulnesse they ought to haue obeied: but also to the raising of open rebellion, the cause of the spoile of the whole countrie, and the vndooing of themselues, their wiues, and children; as in sequele and in the end it fell out and came to passe.

And here dooth appeare what great detriments doo come and insue to the church of God, and what great EEBO page image 1015 trouble to the publike and commonweale: when as learned preachers doo want to teach and instruct the peoople;The want of preaching was the cause of the rebel|lion. and well persuaded magistrats to gouerne the common state. For these people lacking the one, & not stored with the other, were left to themselues, and to their owne dispositions: and thereby partlie of ignorance, but more of a froward and a rebellious disposition, they doo now vtterlie condemne to ac|cept, and doo openlie resist to receiue the reformed religion, now put, and to be put in vre and execu|tion. For vpon the said mondaie, the priest being come to the parish church of Sampford, & preparing himselfe to saie the seruice according to the booke & reformed order set foorth, & as he had doone the daie before: some of the parishioners, namelie one Wil|liam Underhill a tailor,Underhill and Segar [...] first cap|tains of the rebellion. and one Segar a laborer, and others who had consulted and determined before of the matter, went to the priest, and demanded what he ment to doo, and what seruice he would saie? Who answered that according to the lawes set forth, he would saie the same seruice as he had doone the daie before. Then they said, that he should not so doo, saieng further, that they would kéepe the old and an|cient religion, as their forefathers before them had doone; and as king Henrie the eight by his last will and testament had taken order, that no altera|tion of religion should be made, vntill king Ed|ward his sonne were come vnto his full age. And therefore, for somuch as he was now but a child, and could doo nothing, they also would not haue a|nie change.

In the end, all the parishioners ioining and ta|king parts togither,The priest was comp [...]l|led b [...]cause he would be com|pelled saie [...]asse. were all of the same mind, willing and charging the priest that he should vse and saie the like seruice as in times past he was woont to doo: who in the end, whether it were with his will, or against his will, he relied to their minds, and yéelded to their wills: and forthwith rauisheth himselfe in his old popish attire, and saith masse, and all such seruices as in times past accustomed. These newes, as a cloud caried with a violent wind, and as a thunder clap sounding at one instant through the whole countrie, are caried and noised euen in a moment through out the whole countrie: and the common people so well allowed and liked thereof, that they clapped their hands for ioie, and agréed in one mind, to haue the same in euerie of their seue|rall parishes.

The iustices of peace dwelling not far from Sampford, being aduertised how disorderlie, & con|trarie to the lawes, things had béene doone in the church of Sampford; and how that the common people were clustered and assembled togither, to continue and to mainteine their lewd & disordered behauiour:The iustices [...] to Sampford and doo no good. such of them, namelie, sir Hugh Pol|lard knight, Anthonie Haruie, Alexander Wood, and Marke Slader esquiers came & met at Samp|ford, minding to haue had conference with the chiefe plaiers in this enterlude, aswell for the redresse of the disorder alreadie committed, as also to persuade and pacifie the rest of the people. But they partlie vnderstanding before hand of the iustices comming, were so addicted and wholie bent to their follies, that they fullie resolued themselues, wilfullie to main|teine what naughtilie they had begun. And therfore, when the iustices were come to the place, and reque|sted to talke with them, they refused it; vnlesse the said gentlemen would leaue all their men behind, and go with them into a certeine seuerall close not far off; and so they would be contented to conferre with them.These gentle|men were a|fraid of their [...]wne shadowes.

The gentlemen, albeit they and their men were the greater number, and sufficient to haue repressed the small companie of the commoners then & there assembled: yet whether it were because they thought in such a case to vse all the best & quietest waie for the pacifieng of them; or whether some of them being like affected as they were, did not like the alteration, as it was greatlie suspected: they yéelded, and accor|ding to the motion made, they left their men in the towne, & went into the foresaid close, & there hauing had conference a pretie while togither, did in the end depart without anie thing doone at all. Whereof as there appéered some weakenesse in the said iustices which were so white liuered, as they would not, or durst not to represse the rages of the people (which they might haue done) so therof also insued such a scab as passed their cure, and such a fire as they were not able to quench. For the commons hauing now their willes, were set vpon a pin, that the game was theirs, and that they had woone the garland before they had runne the race; nothing forecasting what might insue, nor yet accounting what follie it is to triumph before the victorie. Wherfore they assemble & confederat themselues throughout the whole shire in great troops and companies, and doo associat and flocke vnto them the Cornish people, minding to ioine togither, and foolishlie to mainteine what rash|lie they had begun.

The king and councell then occupied in the weightie causes concerning the state of Scotland, being aduertised of this towards rebellion, & respec|ting the speedie redresse thereof, sent foorthwith for sir Peter Carew knight, who then was in Lincolne|shire, and for sir Gawen Carew,Sir Peter Carew and sir Gawen Carew sent into Deuon. who was then at|tendant at the court: and to them commandement was giuen, that foorthwith, and with all spéed they should hasten and depart into Deuon, and there to vse, by the aduise of the iustices, all the best meanes and waies that they might for the appeasing of this rebellion, quieting of the people, and pacifieng of the countrie; and to cause euerie man quietlie to returne to his home, and to refer the causes of their griefs and complaints (if they had anie) vnto the king and councell: and if they then refused so to doo, they to vse such other good means and waies as might be for the suppressing of them. And the councell being dailie more and more aduertised, that these begun rebelli|ons did more and more increase; and doubting of the sequele thereof, by reason that in other places of the realme the like tumults were begun, though not for the like causes; doo direct and giue an order to the lord Russell, then lord priuie seale, and after earle of Bed|ford, that he also should follow and dispatch himselfe into Deuon; and he had a commission to deale in such order as he might best doo for the pacifieng of the said tumults and vprores.

The foresaid two knights,The iusticia|ries doo assem|ble all at Ex|cester. hauing receiued their commission vnder the kings hand, came in post into the countrie, and making their repaire to this citie, doo foorthwith send for sir Péers Courtneie then shi|riffe and the iustices of the peace of the countrie; and vnderstanding, that a great companie of the com|mons were assembled at Crediton, which is a towne distant about seauen miles from Excester, and that among them were the Sampford men: & who were the chiefe of them tooke councell & aduise what was best to be doone, and what waie méetest to be taken. In the end it was concluded,Sir Peter Carew by the aduise of the iustices rideth to Kirton. that the said sir Peter and sir Gawen with others should ride to Crediton, & there to haue conference and spéeches with the said commons, and to vse all the good waies and meanes they might to pacifie & appease them, they then suppo|sing, and being persuaded, that by good spéeches and gentle conferences they should haue béene able to haue compassed and persuaded the said commons. But the people being by some secret intelligence ad|uertised of the comming of the gentlemen towards EEBO page image 1016 them, and they fullie resolued not to yéeld one iote from their determinations, but to mainteine their cause taken in hand, doo arme and make themselues strong,The people at Kirton doo arme them|selues & ram|pire vp the waies. with such armors and furnitures as they had; they intrench the high waies, and make a mightie rampire at the townes end, and fortifie the same, as also the barns next adioining to the said rampires with men and munition, hauing persed the walles of the barns with loopes and holes for their shot.

The foresaid gentlemen knowing nothing here|of, rode on their iourneie, and being come almost to the towne, they were aduertised how the waies were stopped and rampired, and that they could not ride into the towne. Whervpon they alighted from their horsses, and after a little conference had, they agréed to go into the towne on foot, nothing thinking lesse that they should be stopped or denied to go in on foot. But when they came to the rampires they found the contrarie: for they not onelie were denied to come néere the rampire, but vtterlie were refused to be talked withall: no offers of persuasions nor motions of conference at all could be allowed. For the sun be|ing in cancer, & the midsummer moone at full, their minds were imbrued in such follies, and their heads caried with such vanities, that as the man of Athens they would heare no man speake but themselues, and thought nothing well said but what came out of their owne mouths.

The gentlemen vpon such checks, taking the mat|ter in euill part, to be so vnreuerentlie and discour|teouslie intreated, with one consent doo agree to make waie ouer the rampire. But in the aduenture thereof they were so galled both by them which kept the rampires, and speciallie by such as were within the barnes, that they were faine to retire and giue place, with the losse of some, and the hurt of manie. In which distresse,The barns at the townes end at Kirton are set on fire. a certeine seruing man named Fox, and reteining to sir Hugh Pollard, suddenlie set one of the barnes on fire: wherevpon not onelie such as were therein, but all they also which were in the rampires fled and ran awaie. And then the gen|tlemen hauing recouered the rampire went into the towne; but there they found none except a few poore and old people, the residue trusting better to their héeles than to their armes were fled to a further place: and then they returned againe to Excester without anie thing doone.

The noise of this fire and burning was in post hast, and as it were in a moment carried and blazed abroad throughout the whole countrie; and the com|mon people vpon false reports, and of a gnat ma|king an elephant, noised and spread it abroad, that the gentlemen were altogither bent to ouer-run, spoile, and destroie them. And in this rage, as it were a swarme of wasps they cluster themselues in great troops and multitudes, some in one place, and some in an other, fortifieng and intrenching them|selues as though the enimie were readie to inuade and assaile them. And among other places one was at a village belonging to the lord Russell named S. Marie Clift distant from Excester about two miles, where the commons of the countrie thereabout had begun to fortifie the towne for their defense & safetie.An assemblie of the people at Clift Ma|rie or bishops Clift.

The cause and pretense of their dooings herein, was not onelie the burning of the barnes at Credi|ton aforesaid, which all the commons generallie did vse for a cloke of this their rising and rebellion: but this one thing also increased their disposition. It hap|pened that a certeine gentleman named Walter Raleigh dwelling not far from thense,A cause whie they rose at bishops Clift. as he was vpon a side holie daie riding from his house to Ex|cester, ouertooke an old woman going to the parish church of saint Marie Clift, who had a paire of beads in hir hands, and asked hir what she did with those beads? And entring into further spéeches with hir concerning religion, which was reformed, & as then by order of law to be put in execution, he did per|suade with hir that she should as a good christian wo|man and an obedient subiect yéeld therevnto; saieng further, that there was a punishment by law appoin|ted against hir, and all such as would not obeie and follow the same, and which would be put in executi|on vpon them.

This woman nothing liking, nor well digesting this matter, went foorth to the parish church, where all the parishioners were then at the seruice: and be|ing vnpatient, and in an agonie with the spéeches before passed betwéene hir and the gentleman, be|ginneth to vpbraid in the open church verie hard and vnséemelie spéeches concerning religion, saieng that she was threatned by the gentleman, that except she would leaue hir beads, and giue ouer holie bread and holie water, the gentlemen would burne them out of their houses and spoile them; with manie other spéeches verie false and vntrue, and whereof no talke at all had passed betwéene the gentleman and hir. Notwithstanding she had not so soon spoken, but that she was beléeued: and in all hast like a sort of wasps they fling out of the church, and get them to the towne which is not far from thense, and there began to intrench and fortifie the towne, sending abroad into the countrie round about, the news aforesaid, and of their dooings in hand, flocking, and procu|ring as manie as they could to come and to ioine with them.

And they fearing or mistrusting, least the gen|tlemen which were then at Excester, would come vpon them, they first fortified the bridge, which lieth at the end of the towne towards the citie, and laid great trées ouerthwart the same,The towne [...] Clift is forti|fied, and the bridge ram|pired. as also planted cer|teine peeces of ordinance vpon the same, which they had procured and fetched from Topsham a towne not far from thense. But before they came into the towne, they ouertooke the gentleman maister Ra|leigh aforesaid, and were in such a choler, and so fell in rages with him, that if he had not shifted himselfe into the chappell there,Walter Ra|leigh esquier in danger of the rebelles. and had béene rescued by cer|teine mariners of Exmouth which came with him, he had béene in great danger of his life, and like to haue béene murdered. And albeit he escaped for this time, yet it was not long before he fell into their hands, and by them imprisoned and kept in prison in the towre and church of faint Sidwelles, without the east gate of the citie of Excester, during the whole time of the commotion, being manie times threatned to be executed to death. But to the mat|ter.

These the dooings of the commons being aduer|tised to sir Peter Carew, who then was in Excester, assembleth all the iustices & the gentlemen, & confer|reth with them what were best to be doone; and in the end, concluded & agréed that he, sir Gawen Ca|rew,Sir Peter Carew and others ride to Clift. sir Thomas Denis, sir Hugh Pollard, and sun|drie others should ride to Clift, and there to vse all the best meanes they might, for the pacifieng and quieting of them. And accordinglie in the next morning being sundaie they all rode thither: and be|ing come almost to the bridge, they perceiued the same to be rampired, & no waie to be open for them to passe into the towne. Whervpon sir Peter Carew alighted from his horsse, and mistrusting nothing, was going on foot toward the bridge. But such was the rancor and malice conceiued against him,Sir Peter Carew like to be slaine. partlie for religion, and partlie for the burning of the barns at Crediton, which was laid altogither to his fault, that the gunner whose name was Iohn Hamon an alien and a smith, and dwelling then at Woodburie, not far from Clift, by the procurement and abetting EEBO page image 1017 of some there, hauing charged his peece of ordinance there lieng, leuelled the same, to haue shot and dis|charged it at him: which he had doone, if one Hugh Osborne seruant then to sergeant Prideox had not let him and staied his hand.

The gentlemen perceiuing they could not passe into the towne, doo send in a messenger vnto the towne, aduertising them that they were come to talke friendlie with them, as also to satisfie them if they had anie cause of griefe, or were by anie bodie misused. They at this message and motion staggered a while and cast manie doubts: but in the end they sent word that they were contented, that if sir Tho|mas Denis, sir Hugh Pollard, and Thomas Yard esquier, would come into the towne to them and leaue their men behind them, as also would take order, and giue their faith and promise that no hurt should be doone or offered to be doone vnto them, whiles they were thus in conference togither:The conference of the gentleman with the com|mons at [...]. that then vpon these conditions they would be contented to talke with them. Upon which promise made and assured vnto them, the foresaid thrée gentlemen went into the towne about ten of the clocke in the fore|noone, and there taried and spent the most part of the daie in much talke and to no purpose: as in the end it fell out.

The other knights and gentlemen, which in the meane while taried without, and waited a long time euen vntill the daie did draw toward night, be|gan to mislike of the matter, some speaking one thing and some an other; yea and some of them in plaine spéeches said they would ride ouer the water and issue into the towne. But the friends and ser|uingmen of the two knights, respecting the promise made before their entrie into the towne, but especi|allie their masters safetie, which by breach of promise might be put in perill, did vtterlie mislike and were grieued with those spéeches,

[...] to|wards among the serving|men.

This man [...]as named Richard Carwithian [...]ruant to sir Peter [...].

and whereof began a lit|tle quarrelling among themselues, but foorthwith pa|cified and quieted. And yet some one or two of the companie rode to the waters side, & with their slaues searched the depth thereof: for at that bridge the wa|ter at euerie tide (by reason that the seas are so néere) swelleth vp and reboundeth. Which thing when they in the towne did sée, foorthwith cried out alarum, and made much a doo; and some of them began and grew into such rages, that the gentlemen within the towne began to distrust their safetie.

Neuerthelesse the conference and talke herewith ended, and they came awaie; who as soone as they were come to sir Peter Carew, they were deman|ded what they had doone, and how they had sped: who answered; Well inough: & giuing no other answer they rode all togither to Excester, deferring the dis|couerie of their dooings vntill their comming thither. The same night they supped all togither, & after sup|per ended, and all the seruingmen auoided out of that roome,The agrée|ment offered by the commo| [...]ers. sir Peter Carew demanded of them what they had doone, and what agréement they had made: who answered that the commons had promised, and were contented to keepe themselues in good & quiet order, and to procéed no further in their attempts: so that the king and the councell would not alter the religion, but suffer it to remaine and tarie in the same state as king Henrie the eight left it, & vntill the king himselfe came to his full age. Sir Peter Carew and all the residue nothing liking this an|swer, being farre from their expectation, were for the time in a great dumpe or studie; but in the end misli|ked and discommended both the matter and the ma|ner of their dealings: insomuch that sir Peter Ca|rew, and sir Péerce Courtneie, then shiriffe of De|uon, openlie, sharpelie, and in plaine termes inueied against them for their slender, or rather sinister dea|lings in so weightie a cause: wherein they all ought rather to haue vsed all meanes to haue suppressed their outrages, than to haue mainteined their fol|lies: and therefore as there was a blame in them, so was there a plaine rebellion in the other.

But though the two knights would haue excu|sed the matter,The gentle|men depart asunder and euerie man shifteth for himselfe. and haue purged their sinceritie here|in; yet on ech side words were so multiplied, that they brake asunder without anie further dealings, and euerie man shifted for himselfe, some one waie some an other waie. The commons vnderstanding hereof stop all the high waies, casting great tren|ches, and laieng great trées ouerthwart the same,The high waies are stopped and intrenched. and doo watch & ward the same: and by that meanes sundrie gentlemen suspecting no such matter, and making waie to their appointed places, were intrap|ped, taken, and put in prison; and manie of them kept in durance,Sundrie gen|tlemen taken and impriso|ned. during the whole time of the com|motion, & abode great hardnesse, and were in perill of life and limme: manie were taken bicause they would be taken, & found fauour; & manie forsaking their houses and home, were driuen to sequester and hide themselues in woods & secret places. In the ci|tie none or verie few remained or taried, sauing six or seuen persons then knowne of: for by conference had before with the maior, it was knowne that the citie was vnprouided of sufficient vittels, méet for such a companie as the foresaid gentlemen were.

The gentlemen which taried and remained in the citie; namelie, sir Roger Blewet knight,A few gentle|men taried in the citie. Iohn Beauchampe, Bartholomew Fortescute, Iohn Courtneie, & Iohn Peter customer, esquiers, and o|thers, did verie good seruice as well in their persons, as in their good aduises and counsels, sauing such as secretlie kept themselues close in certeine houses then vnknowne.Sir Peter Carew rideth to the lord Russell being at George Henton. Sir Peter Carew verie earlie in the next morning tooke his horsse, and the high waies being then not stopped he escaped and rode vn|to George Henton, a place of sir Hugh Paulets in Summersetshire: where was the lord Russell, being then newlie come from London, and vnto him he gaue to vnderstand, how all things had passed:

Sir Peter Carew rideth to the court & aduertised the king & coun|cell.

The king grieued to heare of the commotion. The determi|ned conquest of Scotland was hindered by the rebel|lion.

who foorthwith dispatched and sent him awaie to the king and councell to aduertise them of the same. The king at the first hearing of the matter, was verie much grieued, & in great perplexitie in two respects; the one bicause at this instant the like tumults and rebellions (though for an other cause) were now raised and begun in other places; the other was bicause he was inforced to leaue and giue ouer the appointed attempt for the conquest of Scotland, and to imploie now those soldiors and strangers, whome he had reteined for that seruice, for the quenching of this fire kindled at home.

Neuerthelesse minding to follow the first,The king v|seth all gentle persuasions to reduce the commoners to conformi|tie. and to appease the last, he sent verie courteous letters, gra|tious proclamations, and manie mercifull offers vnto all the commons of these parties, to haue paci|fied and satisfied them, if they had had so much grace so to haue accepted it. The commons being now en|tered in their follies, and hauing driuen the gentle|men to the flight, doo openlie shew themselues trai|tors & rebels: and therefore assembling themselues doo appoint out capteins to direct & order both them|selues, and all their procéedings,The first and chiefe cap|teins of the rebellion. and as the common prouerbe is, Like lips like lettice, as is their cause, so are the rulers, the one being not so bold and euill, as they wicked or woorse. The capteins then are these: Underhill a tailor, Maunder a shoomaker, Seager a labourer, and A [...]sheredge a fishdriuer, with sundrie other such like, the woorst men and the reffuse of all o|thers, thought most méet in this seruice. Howbeit it was not long before, that certeine gentlemen and yeomen of good countenance and credit both in De|uon EEBO page image 1018 and Cornewall were contented, not onelie to be associats of this rebellion: but also to carrie the crosse before this procession, and to be capteins and guiders of this wicked enterprise, as namelie in Deuon sir Thomas Pomeroie knight, Iohn Burie and one Coffin gentlemen: & in Cornewall Hum|frie Arundell and Winneslade esquiers, & Holmes a yeoman, with sundrie others, who for the most part were in the end executed and put to death: and their facts to the memoriall of their perpetuall infamie recorded in chronicles.

The principall & chiefe capteins in Deuon being fullie resolued by their owne power and authoritie to mainteine & continue the religion, according to the Romish church, & vtterlie to impugne the reformati|sion therof, established by act of parlement; & to sup|port the authoritie of the idoll of Rome (whome they neuer saw) in contempt of their true and lawfull king,The rebels send to the maior of the citie to ioine with them. whome they knew and ought to obeie: these I saie sent their messengers vnto the maior of this ci|tie, whose name was Iohn Blackaller, to mooue and praie him to ioine with them, they thinking that they hauing by these meanes the libertie to haue frée accesse to and from the citie, and the helpe of the citi|zens, should not want monie or armor, or anie thing else to serue their turne: the maior foorthwith aduer|tised vnto his brethren this motion. And albeit some and the chiefest of them did like & were well affected to the Romish religion: yet respecting their dutie to God,The maior & citizens refuse to ioine or to deale with the rebels. their obedience to the king, their fidelitie to their countrie, and safetie of themselues, gaue their full resolute and direct answer, that they would not ioine nor deale with them at all.

This answer was nothing liked, and therefore sent they their second messenger, requiring and com|manding them to mainteine the old catholike reli|gion with them, and to doo as they did; or else they would besiege them, and perforce compell them ther|vnto. The maior and his brethren returned their for|mer answer, adding moreouer that they in their doo|ings were wicked & bad men; & they did & would re|pute them for enimies and rebels against God, their king, and countrie: and so renounced them. The one side therefore as they prepare to besiege the citie, and to worke all the extremities they can, by force to take that which by words they can not obteine: so on the other side the maior and his brethren vpon good aduise,Preparation is made on both sides to withstand the one the other. garded and watched the citie with sufficient men, armed both by daie and by night. The rebels (according to their determination) relieng themsel|ues vpon a vaine hope, thinking that notwithstan|ding the answer before made; yet because the most part of the citizens were of their opinions, and of the like affections in religion, would not resist them: as also that they had manie friends within the citie, more readie to ioine with them, than to follow the maior, if they might haue the choise what to doo: they came being in number about two thousand persons, to the citie, vpon the second of Iulie 1 [...]49, first ma|king proclamation that if the citie would not yeeld,The citie of Exon besie|ged. and ioine with them, they would enter with force and take the spoile of it, & so then they vpon the deniall compassed the same round about, and gained vnto them at the first all the suburbs.

And hereof they conceiued such a vaine hope to haue their full desire vpon the citie, that not onelie the number in hope did dailie more & more increase, but also manie of them brought their wiues, horsses, and p [...]niers; persuading themselues, and promising them,The vaine persuasions of the rebels to haue the spoile of the citie. by such a daie and vpon such a daie to enter in|to the citie, and then to measure veluets and silks by the bow, and to lade their horsses home with plate, monie, and other great riches. The maior and his brethren forecasting the perils which might in such a case insue, doo prouide all things necessarie and méet wherewith to defend themselues, and to annoie the enimie. The citie therefore is viewed for armor,The citie is viewed for [...]r|mor and all things are prepared for defense of the citie. men are mustered, soldiers are reteined, capteins in euerie ward appointed, warders for the daie and watchmen for the night assigned, great péeces of or|dinance laid in euerie gate, and placed in all conue|nient places of the wals; mounts in sundrie places erected, as well for laieng of ordinance, as for sa|uing of the soldiers & watchmen from the enimies shot: and nothing was left vndoone, which in anie re|spect that present state and necessitie required.

The rebels likewise intrench the high waies,The rebels stop vp all the waies com|ming to the citie. plash downe trées, breake downe bridges, kéepe watches and wards in euerie place; so that no man could passe to or from the citie without their sufferance. The markets are stopped, vittels are kept from it, and all dealings and intercourses shut and cut off: and hauing (as they bragged) penned and shut vp the townesmen in a coope or mew,The rebels plant their ordinance against the citie & break [...] vp the condu [...] pipes, and burne one of the gates. they plant their or|dinance against euerie gate, and in all other such places as best to serue their turne, and to hurt them within: they burnt the gates, they brake vp the pipes and conduits, aswell for the taking awaie of the water comming to the citie, as also to haue the led to serue for their shot and pellets. But for the bur|ning of the gates, there followed rather a benefit than a hurt thereof:The gates of the citie wer [...] kept open con|tinuallie and rampired within side, as also fiers kept burning all night in the same. for foorthwith there were made certeine rampiers within the gate, which were farre stronger and of more defense than the gates, as also there were fiers continuallie kept euerie night be|twéene the rampiers and the gates: and as for wa|ter, the citie so standeth vpon a little hill, that it is full of springs in euerie quarter within the same, and by that means full and plentifull of euerie good and swéet waters.The citie be|ing full of wa|ter springs they want no water. The citie wals at the west gate were vnder|mined, but [...] countermi|ning the [...] was preuen|ted. Also they in sundrie places did vnder|mine the wals, minding thereby with gunpowder and with other matters fit for fier to haue blowne vp the wals, and so to haue entered in that waie: but herein they were also preuented by this means and in this maner.

The citie it selfe (as is before said) is set vpon a little hill, and lieth verie stéeping towards two of the gates. And at one of these named the west gate, the said rebels had vndermined on the one side, and filled the place with certeine barels of powder, pitch, and other stuffe, méet and apt to receiue fier, and had ap|pointed the night when the same should be set on fier, and so to haue blowne the wals vp. At the same time there was a certeine tinner in the citie, whose dwel|ling was at Teingemouth, named Iohn New|combe, who depended much vpon the goodwill and fréendship of maister William Hurst one of the al|dermen of the citie; and he vnderstanding of such an vndermining to be in working, aduertised the same to maister Hurst, and maketh him priuie how he would preuent the same, which was doone in this ma|ner. For whereas he by a noise vnder the ground did suspect the vndermining to be in working, he tooke a pan of water, & did put the same on the ground, & by shaking of the water in the pan, he by remoouing the pan from place to place, came at length to the verie place, whereas the miners were working, and foorthwith he countermined against the same,The vnder|minings of the wals how it was [...]ound and destroi [...]d. and wrought so néere vnto it, vntill that he might and did sée & looke into it. That [...]oone, he caused all the wals and tirpits in the citie towards euerie stréet, hauing a fall that waie to be drawne at one time, and euerie man to fill therewith a great tub of water at his foredoore; which being [...], he caused them all at one instant to be cast out and emptied, which water run|ning in great abundance towards the said west gate, was conueied into the place countermined, & so entered and drowned the place, which before was EEBO page image 1019 mined: at which time also by the goodnesse of God, there fell a great showre, as the like for the time had not beene séene manie years before, and which at that instant greatlie serued this turne.

The rebels perceiuing themselues disappoin|ted of their purpose, gaue ouer to deale anie further in those attempts: howbeit otherwise they left no|thing vndoone which might be to annoie the citizens. For sometimes they made alarums, as though they with all might and maine would haue giuen the scale: and indeed they had prouided ladders for the same purpose. Sometimes they by policies would séeke to come to the gates to burne them, and herein they vsed this stratagem. They prouided carts la|den with old haie,Aprettie stra|tagem of the rebels. & driuing the whéeles before them would come to the gate without danger, and so set fier in the gate. But notwithstanding they escaped not scotfrée, for both at the west gate and at the south|gate, their commings being perceiued, the great port péeces were charged with great bags of flint|stones and haileshot: and as they were approching vnto the gates, the gates were secretlie opened, and the said port péeces discharged, and so they were spoi|led diuerse of them, & by that means they had small pleasure to follow those deuises; as also the citizens to preuent the same, did from thensefoorth kéepe the gates open.The citie gates kept al|waies open. Likewise they would kéepe themselues close in sundrie houses, in the suburbs neere the wals, and would so watch the garrets, that if anie within the citie would looke out at the garrets, was in the danger of their shot, and some thereby were killed, and manie hurt. Upon which occasion the citi|zens set some part of the suburbs on fier,The suburbs burned and the houses beaten downe. and some part which was next to the wals they beat and brake downe, and so draue the rebels out of those holes. Be|sides this, they had in sundrie places their great or|dinance, so set and placed, that in certeine stréets and places none could go but in perill and danger of their shot, which their deuises were choked, by ma|king of certeine mounts to shadowe the streets from the same. Diuerse other deuises they practised to the continuall annoiance of the citie, which though they were greeuous and dangerous, yet not to be compared vnto the perils which were within the walles among themselues, and whereof had insued the confusion of the whole citie, had not the Lord God of his goodnesse kept and preserued the same. For the serpent of diuision,The citie di|uided within it selfe into two factions of religion. and the fier of malice, was ente|red into the citie, manie being inuenomed with the one, but more scaulded with the other.

In the citie there were two sorts of people, the one and the greater number were of the old stampe, and of the Romish religion. The other being of the lesser number were of a contrarie mind and dispositi|on, for they wholie relied themselues to the reformed religion, and to the kings procéedings, and indeuou|red themselues to obeie and follow the same. The first were so addicted to their owne fantasies, and their bottels were so far [...]e seasoned with the old wines,The affection and dispositi|on of the Ro|mish faction. that they cannot abide to heare of anie other religion, than as they were first nuzled in. Wherfore to kéepe and obserue that, was their onelie endeuor, and in respect whereof they regarded not king nor Keisar, passed not for kin nor fréendship, regarded not countrie nor commonwealth, but were wholie of the opinion of the rebels, and would haue no refor|mation in religion; and how so euer all other things fared, that must néeds remaine as in times past had beene vsed.

The discreti|on and great ci [...]cumspecti|on of the ma|gistrates.The magistrates and chéefeteins of the citie, albe|it they were not as yet fullie resolued and satisfied in religion, yet they not respecting that, but chéefelie their dutifulnesse to the king and commonwealth, nothing like the rebellion, nor beare with the same, but they doo all things to defend the citie and them|selues against their rebellious attempts, and like|wise doo their best indeuour to keepe their owne citi|zens in peace and quietnesse. Wherevpon the fauou|rers of the old Romish religion, being inwardlie gréeued, that they could not haue their will, nor ob|teine to haue the gates to be opened,The secret conferences of the papists. that those good and religious men (as they termed them) might come in, they vsed priuat conferences with them, sometimes by secret conferences ouer the wals, som|times by priuat letters priuilie conueied too and fro, by messengers lurking and attending for the same, sometimes by open spéeches in times of truce, and manie times by bils and letters bound fast about ar|rowes, and so shot to and fro: and by these and other such like means they discouered ech one to the other their purposes and wicked deuises and practises: all which tended to this effect, to betraie the citie, and to set vp the religion.

Howbeit, these things were not so secretlie doone, but the same were knowne, & manifest arguments and proofes thereof did appeare. And among sundrie some one of them being one of good credit and coun|tenance, and of the number of the common coun|cell, whose name was Iohn Wolcot a merchant, was so farre inchanted herein, that vpon a certeine daie he being (as his course came about) a cap|teine for the daie and to ward one of the gates that daie, presuming that partlie by reason of his charge that daie,A fond enter|prise of an ex|pert citizen. and partlie for that he was one of the com|mon councell, he might doo more than in déed did ap|perteine to him, he vpon his first comming to the west gate in the morning met with certeine of his confederats, and after conference had with them, went suddenlie out at the wicket of the gate (which gate as then was not rampired) and carrieng the keies with him, went vnto the rebels, and had a long conference with them. But it tooke small effect, for he promised (as it after appeared) more than he could performe, which turned to his great discredit: both for that he himselfe verie hardlie escaped their hands who were bent to haue kept and reteined him, as they did the two others, who went out with him: as also when he came in, was both checked and blamed for his dooings.

At an other time the maior vpon an occasion as|sembled all the commoners vnto the Guildhall, e|uerie man being in his armor, and the papists being then the greater number, some one of them named Richard Tailor a clothier,This Tailor died after in prison for [...] thinking by making of a tumult or an vprore they should be too hard for the o|thers, and so atteine to their purposes, hauing his bowe bent, did nocke his arrow, minding to haue striken the man to whom he leuelled the shot: but ga|ging his hand, and missing his marke, he stroke his owne and best fréend Iohn Peter the kings custo|mer, a gentleman of good countenance and credit,What man purposeth God disposeth who had died thereof, had not the arrow lighted vpon one of his rib bones: a great muttering was like to haue bred a tumult, but the matter knowne it was appeased. Also at an other time there was a practise made with the souldiers,A wicked practise to re|ceiue the re|bels into the castell. who had the charge and cu|stodie of the castell, that they should receiue in at the posterne of the said castell, a certeine number of the rebels; wherevnto the said souldiers through corrup|tion had giuen their consent. The daie and time were appointed for the same: but whether the same by se|cret aduertisement were discouered, or whether the matter were mistrusted, or whether it pleased God to mooue the harts of certeine men to take the view of the castell, & of the maner of the souldiers vsages there: it is most certeine that by the repaire & resort of certeine men, vnder the colour to walke and sée the trecherie, it was espied, and the practises discoue|red, EEBO page image 1020 and their whole deuises preuented. Likewise ma|nie times, and often there were truces made, and sundrie parlees and conferences had with the rebels, which were procured to the onlie end that they might compasse their deuises. And this was a common pra|ctise with them, that when soeuer the parlée was ap|pointed, there should be hostages or pledges put in on both parties: and they as men vpon whom the grea|test weight of the matter did depend, would require to haue the best and most chosen citizens, to be hosta|ges with them,The chiefest rulers & cap|teins among the commons were the worst men. in stéed and for the safetie of those which they would send to the parlée for them, who for the most part were the reffuse, the scumme, and the rascals of the whole countrie, and yet such they were in this case, as who ruled the rost and bore the whole or chiefest swaie; and the worsse the man, the greater his authoritie among them, which was good inough for so wicked a matter taken in hand, according as the common adage is: Dignum patella operculum, Like lips like lettice.

But during the time of these truces and parlées, there being then a time and scope of libertie to talke and conferre with them euerie man at his pleasure, there wanted no deuises vnder colour of freendlie conferences,Great practise vsed to pro|cure the citi|zens to ioine with the re|bels. to deuise how to compasse their in|tents: howbeit it pleased the eternall God, so to car|rie and rule the hearts of the magistrats, that albeit being nuzled in the Romish religion they were af|fected therevnto; yet they so much respected their du|tie to their prince, and the safetie to their common|wealth, that they openlie professed they would neuer yéeld the citie so long as they liued, and were able to kéepe and defend the same.

For the maior himselfe maister William Hurst, maister Iohn Buller, maister Iohn Britnall, mai|ster William Periam, & others of the ancientest of the citie, were by sundrie means, waies, deuises, and reasons, persuaded to conioine themselues in this rebellion with the commoners.The faithfull and flat deter|mination of the citizens to refuse the cõ|ioining with the rebels. They all with one mind and one voice gaue a flat answer that in the ci|tie they had béene brought vp, there they had gotten their liuings, there they had sworne their fidelitie and allegiance to their king and prince, there they had faithfullie hitherto serued him, and there would so continue so long as they could to the vttermost of their powers, all which their promises & auowries (the Lord be praised) they performed.

But to the matter. Sundrie other trecheries & de|uises were practised, which particularlie to recite were verie tedious & to no purpose. The last but the most perillous practise was this.The last and perilous prac|tise of the re|bels. When these male|contents saw themselues to be preuented in all their deuises, which before they had but secretlie and priuatlie practised, now they conioining themselues togither doo openlie shew and declare themselues, being persuaded that bicause they were the greater number, and that also the most part of the poore peo|ple were wearie, and for want of vittels would not indure to be pinned in anie longer, that therefore manie would ioine against a few, and that the game would go on their side.

And so on a sundaie, being but two dais before the deliuerie of the citie, about eight of the clocke in the forenoone, a companie of them in euerie quarter of the citie,A pestilent practise. hauing their consorts in a readines to ioine & serue with them (if need so required) get into the streets, walking with their weapons and in their ar|mour, as to fight with their enimies, and crie out;

Come out these heretikes and twopenie bookemen; Where be they? By Gods wounds & bloud we will not be pinned in to serue their turne; We will go out and haue in our neighbors, they be honest, good, and godlie men.
Their pretense and meaning being then, that if anie of the contrarie side had come out, they would haue quarelled with them, and haue taken oc|casion to set vpon him and so raise a new tumult.

But by the prouidence and goodnesse of God it so fell out, that some being in their houses, and some at their parish churches, the maior and magistrates were first aduertised herof, before the others heard a|nie thing of the matter: and they according to their wisedoms pacified the matter, and [...] Iohn Uin|cent, Iohn Sharke, and others the belwedders of this flocke vnto their houses. [...] in the south gate stréet and at the south gate, there was a little stur, which being soone stopped there insued no hurt therof, other than a broken pate or two: for as it fell out, the warders of that gate at that time were a|gainst them and of the greater companie.The papists were disap|pointed of their pur|poses. These and manie other like practises were dailie and continu|allie vsed on the one side, which in the end came to no effect, bicause the Lord kept the citie.

The others on the other side being altogither bent to honor God, obeie the king, and to serue in their commonwealth, were fullie resolued to kéepe and defend the citie, whose cause being iust and good,The determi|nation of the honest & good citizens. was sufficient of it selfe to kéepe them in that mind: and yet their courage was the more, for that they saw the good bent of the maior and magistrates; who, howso|euer they were affected otherwise in religion, yet they were wholie bent and determined to kéepe and defend the citie: and therefore they seeing the indu|strie, carefulnesse, seruice and painefulnesse, of these men, doo fauour, incourage, and countenance them, and (to saie the truth) by the industrie and good seruice of them, the citie was cheeflie kept and preserued.

For there was no seruice to be doone within, nor exploit to be aduentured without vpon the enimie (as manie times there were sallies giuen) but these were the chiefest and commonlie the onelie doo|ers: for which cause the contrarie side maruelouslie maligned at them, and sought by all means how to impeach and indanger them. Which thing being dai|lie perceiued more and more by sundrie arguments, and as wise men séeking how to preuent the same,The best citi|zens con [...]de|rated. did manie and sundrie times confer among them|selues herein, and in the end made a couenant and a faithfull promise among themselues (being then a|bout the number of one hundred persons) that they would stand firmelie and faithfullie to the defense and kéeping of the citie to their vttermost powers.

And if it so fell out, that the rebell and enimie should haue accesse and entrie into the citie, that then they should all méet at the lord Russels (now the earle of Bedfords) house, and there to issue out at the po|sterne of the garden, and to giue the aduenture to passe and to escape awaie, as also if they were resisted that then they to stand togither to their defense. And for this purpose they had then named some one man to be their capteine for this enterprise. And in the meane time, to doo all things circumspectlie for the preseruation of the citie, & by a particular couenant among themselues, did take order, that during the whole beseeging of the citie and their aboad therein,The careful|nesse of the good citizens. a certeine number by course and besides the ordina|rie set watch, should watch, ward, and walke about continuallie both by daie and night, by which means no sleight nor treacherie could be practised, but that they should haue an inkeling and vnderstanding thereof, and which indéed stood and came to such effect that it was the chiefest (if not the onelie) cause of the preseruation of the citie for that time. For there was no seruice, no diligence, no care, nor anie thing wan|ting or left vndoone, which by these men was not doone.

Howbeit the diuell, the author of all diuision and strife, who cannot abide anie vnitie, concord and a|gréement in good causes, did here also hurle in a bone EEBO page image 1021 among these men, whereof had insued a great detri|ment to the common state, and an ouerthrow to themselues, had it not in due time beene preuented. There were two gentlemen within this citie, and both of this companie,A variance between Iohn Courtneie & Barnard Duffeld. the one was borne of a hono|rable house and parentage, named Iohn Courtneie a yoonger sonne to sir William Courtneie of Pore|derham knight, and a man of verie good knowledge and experience in seruice. The other also was a man of verie good seruice, practise, and experience, his name was Barnard Duffeld, & seruant to the lord Russell, and kéeper of his house in Excester. Both of these were verie forward and carefull in this present seruice against the rebels. But there fell an emulati|on betwéene them, which albeit it be verie commen|dable in good things, & he praise woorthie who can best excell therein: yet when the same shall tend to a di|uision of a publike state, the dissolution of a com|monwealth, the breach of common societie, or the maintenance of anie euill, it is vtterlie to be shun|ned and lamented.

It happened vpon an occasion offered, that cer|teine of this companie vpon a time issued out at the forsaid posterne and made a sallie vpon the enimies,A sallie made vpon the re|bels. and had such good successe, that some of them they slue, some they tooke prisoners, as also spoiled them of their goods, and brought awaie with them some of their ordinance, namelie basses and slings: howbeit they all scaped not scotfrée, for some of them were ta|ken, some also were hurt, as namelie Iohn Drake, who the yeare before was the receiuer of the citie was shot through the chéekes with an arrow, which he brought into the citie with him, and one Iohn Si|mons a cooke was so hurt that he died thereof.

But among them all one Iohn Goldsmith being of that companie and seruant to Richard Helierd of the same goldsmith, and a Fleming borne, had the best successe: for in the same skirmish he was taken prisoner by one of the rebels, who offered in taking of him with his bill to haue slaine him. With that this Iohn Goldsmith fell downe & yeelded himselfe, hauing then in his hand his péece or handgun char|ged, & suddenlie the other not mistrusting nor mar|king the same, he discharged into his verie bellie and so slue him, tooke the spoile of him, and brought the same into the citie with him.

This skirmish though it were not cléere gaines to this companie, yet it so incouraged them, that from time to time they consulted, and in the end determi|ned to make a fresh sallie and to giue a new aduen|ture: wherevpon there fell and grew a disagréement betwéene the two foresaid Iohn Courtneie & Bar|nard Duffeld, the one affirming that the same was not to be permitted in anie fort or citie, which stood vpon defense or gard, without a verie speciall order of the generall or chéefe capteine, or some vrgent ne|cessitie, especiallie in that present distresse and ex|tremitie, wherein the citie as then did stand. But Barnard Duffeld being verie loth to loose anie part of his credit, or to desist from that he with others had determined, could by no meanes be persuaded to the contrarie, but plainelie affirmeth that what he had determined should be performed.

Wherevpon the foresaid Iohn Courtneie resor|teth to the maior, [...] broile towards. aduertiseth vnto him the matter, & dealeth so fullie and with such persuasions with him, that the maior assembleth his brethren, and sendeth for the foresaid Duffeld: who being come, the mat|ter was at full debated and discoursed, and in the end concluded that it was verie hurtfull and dange|rous to that present state, that anie such issuing out should be granted or permitted: and therefore praied the said Duffeld to staie his determination, and to be contented. But he being vnpatient, & thinking his credit to be stained, if he should be debarred or de|nied to doo that which he had faithfullie promised, did vtterlie refuse to yéeld to this the maiors request, as also by continuing of talkes, fell out in foule and dis|ordered speaches. Wherevpon to auoid a further in|conuenience, he was commanded to ward. The daughter of this Duffeld, whose name was Fran|cis, hearing that hir father was in ward, and taking in greefe that so great an iniurie (as she tearmed it) should be doone to hir father, came more hastilie than aduisedlie vnto the maior, somewhat late in the eue|ning, & required to haue hir father out of the ward. Which thing being denied vnto hir, shée waxed so warme, that not onelie she vsed verie vnseemelie tearmes and speaches vnto the maior, but also con|trarie to the modestie and shamefastnes required in a woman, speciallie yoong and vnmarried,Francis the daughter of Barnard Duffeld strake the maior in the face. ran most violentlie vpon him, and strake him in the face. This was taken in so euill a part, and fearing that it had beene a set match of some further inconueniences, the common bell was foorthwith roong out: and al|so a rumour spread that the maior was beaten, or killed.

The whole commons immediatlie in great troops, & the most part in armor, ran to the Guildhall, where the maior was, who though he was safe, yet were they so gréeued with this iniurie, that they would in all hast haue run to the lord Russels house, where she was then gone, and haue fetched hir out: but the ma|ior forecasting what inconueniences might insue, and respecting the necessitie of the present state, was not onlie contented patientlie to wrap vp these iniu|ries, but also earnestlie requested the commoners to doo the like: who being so pacified, he went home, and they conducted him into his owne doores. The cha|nons of the cathedrall church which at that time were resident in their houses within the close there, name|lie archdeacon Pollard, treasuror Southron, chan|cellor Luson, and master Holwell, with others of the said church, who ioined with the maior and citizens in this seruice for the safegard of the citie, and did kéepe both watches and wards, and their men readie at all times to serue in euerie alarum and skirmish: they at the hearing of this disordered part were verie much greeued therewith, and they likewise forthwith assembled all their men, and being well armed and appointed, they went to the maior, who was then gone home to his house, and then and there verie friendlie did comfort him, and offred to stand by him and to assist him in all the best seruice they were able to doo for his defense, and safetie of the citie.

The said archdeacon offered, that in proper per|son he would herein stand in his behalfe against all persons whatsoeuer, that would attempt or offer to doo him anie wrong. And in the end, after sundrie friendlie and good speaches, they departed to their homes. And the said archdeacon, euerie daie after, would either come or send to the maior. This maior being a merchant, and onelie exercised in that trade, had small reach in matters of policie or martiall af|faires: he was maior of the citie thrée times, and in euerie yeare there grew some troubles in the citie, but he had such a speciall care & regard to his charge and gouernment, that he would neuer attempt nor doo anie thing therein, but by the aduise and counsell of wise, graue, and expert men: and God so blessed him that he prospered and had good successe in all his dooings.

Besides these and sundrie other former perils, the which the citie manie and oftentimes stood in, and by the goodnes and prouidence of God still ouercomed, there befell and happened a third one, which excéeded all the rest, and where of the greatest danger and pe|rill was feared: and this was famine, or penurie, EEBO page image 1022 which of all other turmoils and perils is most dange|rous, & no other plague to be compared to it. For no force is feared, no lawes obserued, no magistrate o|beied, nor common societie estéemed, where famine ruleth. For as the poet saith: Nescit plebs ieiuna ti|mere. The store of vittels within the citie, for want of prouision in due time,Uittels wax scant within the citie. and by reason of the restreint of the markets, vpon a sudden was verie slender and small, and the same in verie short time spent and consumed. And albeit there were good store of drie fish, rise, prunes, rasins, and wine, at verie reasonable prices, yet bread which as the prophet saith, Confirmat cor hminis, Strengtheneth mans hart, that wanted: neither was anie to be had. And in this extremitie the bakers and housholders were driuen to séeke vp their old store of puffins and bran,Bread made of bran and of puffins. wherewith they in times past were woont to make horssebread, and to feed their swine and poultrie, and this they moulded vp in clothes, for otherwise it would not hold togi|ther, and so did bake it vp, and the people well conten|ted therewith. For (as Plutarch writeth) Fames reddit omnia dulcia, nihíl contemnit esuriens: Hunger maketh all things swéet, and the hungrie bellie shunneth no|thing.

But when this also was spent, and nothing now left, and the common people being not acquainted with so hard a diet as famine prescribeth, were ve|rie vnpatient to indure the continuall barking of their hungrie bellies, and therefore they were verie soone & easie to be persuaded, or rather of themselues contented to yéeld vnto the enimie, to be fed for a time with the stollen fat of his flesh pot, than to abide for a short time a little penurie in hope of a deliuerie, and then to be filled with saturitie and plentie. But the magistrats and graue senators, who in all other causes had shewed themselues wise, carefull and dis|creet; and who hauing receiued sundrie iniuries, did yet without rigour, reuenge or malice, wrap the same vp, respecting rather the common state than their owne priuat cause; so in this matter also being of a great importance doo verie wiselie & politikelie deale with the said people:The godlie and politike dealings of the magistrates with the poore. The poore are wéekelie libe|rallie relieued. who the poorer they were, the better they were considered, and the more care|fullie prouided for. First, there was a generall collec|tion set and rated throughout the whole citie for their reliefe, and therby they were liberallie euerie weeke considered: which thing being some increase to their stocke and store,All vittels [...]etched into the citie were distributed a|mõg the poore. was the better to their content. Then all such vittels as were to be had within the citie, they either had it freelie, or for a verie small price.

Besides this, manie times when anie cattell came néere vnto the walles of the citie, some shift was made to haue them, or by skirmishing & issuing out for them, or by some other means. And this also what so euer it was, was altogither diuided among them. And as for the prisoners fast fettered in the gaols, they had also their portions, as farre as it would stretch: notwithstanding in the end, for want they were fed with horsseflesh,The prisoners in the gaole did and were driuen to eate horsses. The gentle intreating of the poorer sort. which they liked and were well contented withall. For as the prouerbe is, Hun|ger findeth no faults but all things are swéet. Be|sides, if anie wrong were offered or iniurie doone to anie of them, it was foorthwith vpon complaint re|dressed: but if anie of them did disorder themselues, it was borne withall, and they in all gentle and cur|teous meanes intreated: as also from time to time persuaded with good words patientlie to abide and be contented: not mistrusting but that God shortlie would send a deliuerance.

And thus, and by these means, in hope almost against hope,The lord Russ [...]l [...] after that the citie had béene be|sieged fiue wéekes tur|neth to this citie up [...] [...] sixt of [...] and deliuer [...] [...] the same. they continued dutifull and obedient, from the second daie of Iulie 1549, vntill the sixt daie of August then folowing, the same being fiue whole wéekes, vpon which daie they were deliue|red by the comming and entrie into the citie of the lord Russell: and which daie in memoriall for euer to endure is kept for a high and holie feast amongst the citizens yearelie vpon the sixt daie of August. Im|mediatlie vpon which deliuerance of the citie, the first care that euerie man had, was to shift and to make prouision for vittels, wherof some hungrie bel|lies were so gréedie, that ouercharging their emptie stomachs too hastilie, they died therewith.

Thus hauing declared something of the state of the citie, and of the dooings therein during the time of this rebellion, though much more might be therein said, let vs now returne to the lord priuie seale, who after the departure of sir Peter Carew to the court, remooued from George Henneton, and came to Honiton, minding from thence to haue passed vnto Excester, if waie had béene open. But being aduerti|sed that the citie was besieged, and that all the waies leading thitherwards were stopped, he remained still in Honiton. Sir Peter Carew in the meane time, according to the former order betwéene them taken,Sir Peter Carew ad|uertiseth the king & councell of the rebelled. was ridden to London, and being before the king, declareth the whole matter at large. Which the king, not liking the disloialtie of his people, promised to séeke a spéedie remedie: and so commanded him to the counecli for the same: and being before them, and hauing at full discoursed the state of the matter, the duke of Summerset being much greeued with the matter, would haue reiected the whole on sir Peter,The duke of Summerset charged sir Peter Carew of the rebelliõ. charging him that by reason he had caused the houses to be burned at Crediton, it was the onelie cause of the commotion. But therevnto he answered the ne|cessitie of that seruice, as also declared that he had doone nothing but by a good warrant, and therewith shewed foorth the kings letters vnder his hand and priuie signet.

The lord Rich then lord chancellor replied and said,The king his letters vnder his priuie sig|net counted to be no sufficiẽt warrant. The stout an|swer of sir Peter Carew Sir Peter Carew being promised of helpe retur|neth home. that the kings letters were no sufficient warrant, vnlesse he had his commission vnder the brode seale: and therefore if he had right, he should by the lawes be hanged for his dooings. But to this sir Peter an|swered so stoutlie, and charged the duke so déepelie, that in the end he was willed to returne into the countrie, being promised that sufficient helpe both of men & monie should be with spéed sent downe into the countrie. And to this effect he had both the kings and the councels letters vnto the lord priuie seale, and so tooke his iournie backe againe into the coun|trie, and deliuered his letters to the said lord Russell, who in hope of the supplie promised, staied and remai|ned somtimes at Mohonesotre, but most common|lie at Honiton, still looking for that supplie and furni|ture that was promised.The lord Russell is almost l [...]ft forsaken. But hauing long looked for the same in vaine, he was dailie more and more for|saken of such of the common people, as who at the first serued and offered their seruice vnto him. And hauing but a verie small gard about him, he liued in more feare than he was feared: for the rebels dailie increased, and his companie decreased and shrunke awaie, and he not altogither assured of them which remained.

Wherefore distrusting himselfe, & by a false rumor being aduertised that the citie was taken, & in the possession of the rebels; as also how that there was a new sturre or rebellion begun about Sarisburie; he tooke aduise and counsell of the gentlemen and such as were with him what were best to be doone. The gentlemen of Dorsetshire were of the mind, and gaue him aduise, that it were best for him to returne into Dorsetshire, and there to remaine for a time; because it was a place of a more safetie, vntill such time as he were better prouided. And accordinglie the next daie following he tooke his iournie, & rode backe againe with the said Dorsetshire gentlemen. EEBO page image 1023 Sir Peter Carew then being at Mohorosoton, and aduertised hereof,The lord R [...]ssell distru|ting himselfe, i [...] vpon his departure from out of Deuon; but by sir Peter Carew is [...] backe againe. tooke his horsse and came against the said lord Russell, & met him vpon Blacke downe, where was a long conference betweene them both: and in the end he so persuaded the lord, and with such pithie reasons he caried him, that leauing his former determination, he dooth returne againe into Ho|niton; & where he continued thenceforth, sauing one night spent at Oterie saint Marie, where as it fell out he was in more feare than perill. At his being in Honiton, and dailie waiting and looking for the promised helpe and supplie which came not; he was in an agonie, & of a heauie chéere: not onelie for the want of the men & monie which he had long in vaine looked for, but also because he had spent all that he had brought with him, and could not tell how other|wise to helpe and prouide to supplie his present need: but as it fell out all happened for the best.

For it chanced that there were then three mer|chants of the citie, following and attending vpon him;The mer|chants of Eron procure and borow monie to helpe the lord Rus|sel. Thomas Prestwood notlong before maior of the citie, Iohn Bodlie, and Iohn Periam, men of great wealth. These men vnderstanding of the heauinesse and griefe of his lordship, make their resort vnto him, and promise to helpe and relieue his agonie and want: and forthwith did procure vpon their credit from the merchants of Bristow, Linne, Tawnton, and elsewhere, such a masse of monie, as which when he had receiued, his griefe was eased. For forthwith he so prouided and furnished himselfe with such necessaries, and with a greater number of men; that he was now in the better safetie, as also the better able to incounter with the enimie: and it was not long after, but that he had a further supplie from the king, euen to his content. And being now somewhat reuiued, newes was brought vnto him, that the rebels vnderstanding of his distressed state, were comming, and marching toward Honiton to assaile him; and were come as far as Fenington bridge, which is about thrée miles. Wherevpon, he tooke aduise with sir Peter Carew, sir Gawen Ca|rew & others what were best to be doone. And in the end, after manie spéeches, it was concluded that they should march towards them, and giue the onset vp|on them,The lord Russell mar|cheth towards Fenington bridge. & accordinglie, without further delaies or much talke, it was doone out of hand. For vpon the next morning being a holie daie, they set forth, and came to the bridge aforesaid, where the rebels were indéed: some at the bridge, but the greatest companie in a medow beneath the bridge: who, as soone as they perceiued the lord Russell and the gentlemen with all their troope to be come, they make them|selues readie to the fight. But the riuer & the bridge being betwéene them, the lord Russell vseth all the policies that he can, how to recouer the bridge; which by bold aduenturing he did in the end: but with the hurt of sundrie of his companie, amongst whome sir Gawen Carew was one,Sir Gawen Carew is hurt at Fe|nington bridge. being hurt with an arrow in the arme.

And hauing recouered the bridge, and the riuer, all the rebels (such as were escaped) were gathered togither in a medow néere adioining in the lower side of the bridge, vpon whome they so fiercelie fol|lowed, and gaue the onset; that though not without good store of blowes and bloudshed, they in the end gaue the enimie the ouerthrow, and had the vpper hand.The rebels are ouer|throwne at Fenington. And thinking that the victorie was cleere with them, and that the enimie was cleane gone, the soul|diers and seruingmen gaue themselues all to the spoile; and being in the middle of their game, and they nothing thinking lesse than of anie more eni|mies to be comming towards, euen suddenly march towards a new crue of Gornishmen, to the number of two hundred, or two hundred and fortie persons, vnder the conduct of one Robert Smith of saint Germans in Cornewall gentleman;The Cornish rebels giue an onset, and are ouerthrowne at Fenington; their capteine flieth awaie. and who ta|king these spoilers napping, manie of them paied deerelie for their wares. The lord Russell forthwith setteth all his companie in good araie, as the others did the like, and gaue the onset vpon them: betwéene whome the fight for the time was verie sharpe and cruell. For the Cornishmen were verie lustie and fresh, and fullie bent to fight out the matter: ne|uerthelesse in the end they were ouerthrowne, and their capteine, whose combe was cut, sheweth a faire paire of héeles and fled awaie. In these two fights there were reported to be slaine about thrée hundred rebels, which were verie tall men, lustie, and of great courage; and who in a good cause might haue doone better seruice.

The lord Russels companie followed the chase neere thrée miles, & he himselfe then throughlie min|ded and bent to haue passed through to the citie. But one Ioll his foole, who was then in hast come from Honiton, and where he had heard, as also by the waie as he came did heare bels ringing in sundrie parish churches, and supposing the same to be alarum, came with a foule mouth to my lord, and cried that all the countrie behind him were vp, and comming vpon him. Which his report (considering the cruell fights past) was credited, and thought that a new companie was in preparing to follow the for|mer quarels. Wherevpon they all retired and retur|ned againe to Honiton; and from thense his lordship sent his comfortable letters secretlie by a boy apoin|ted and accustomed for the same, vnto the maior of his successe, as also aduertising him of his determi|nation that he would be shortlie with him for the de|liuerance of the citie. Which letters (the citie being then but in a doubtfull and dismaied estate) came in verie good season; and yet in the end scarselie cre|dited by some men, because his comming was not so spéedie as was looked for.

Within verie short time after this ouerthrowe was giuen,The lord Greie and Spinol [...] come with a supplie to the lord Russell. the lord Greie of Wilton with a crue of horssemen, and one Spinola an Italian with three hundred shot, came to my lord; who being aduerti|sed of the ouerthrow of the enimie, and that there were slaine about three hundred persons of them, they were in a great chafe, and much bewailed their euill lucke, that they had not come sooner to haue béene partakers of that seruice. My lord being now of a verie good comfort & courage, aswell for the good successe which he had ouer the enimie, & that his long looked supplie was come, sendeth his other letters to the maior, comforting him, as also as before pro|mising him to be with him verie shortlie; willing him that he should now take but a little patience for a little time. And accordinglie about six daies after,The lord Russell mar|cheth towards Excester for their deliue|rance. on saturdaie the third of August, in good order he set foorth out of Honiton, and marched towards Ex|cester, his companie being aboue a thousand of good fightingmen; and leauing the direct high waie, draweth ouer the downs towards Woodburie, and there lodged and pitched his campe that night, at a windmill apperteining to one Gregorie Carie gen|tleman. Which when the rebels of saint Marie Clift heard of, forthwith,The rebels are ouer|throwne at the windmill. with all their force and power came forth, and marched onwards, vntill they came to the foresaid mill where they offer the fight: and notwithstanding they were of verie stout sto|machs, & also verie valiantlie did stand to their t [...]c|kels, yet in the end they were ouerthrowne, and the most part of them slaine.

Where after the victorie thus gotten, one Miles Couerdale then the preacher,Miles Co|uerdale pre [...]|cher. and attending vpon my lord in this iournie made a sermon, and caused a generall thanksgiuing to be made vnto God: but EEBO page image 1024 before all was ended, there began a new alarum; and forthwith euerie man to horsse & to harnesse againe. The rebels which remained in the towne of saint Marie Clist, hearing of the euill successe befallen to their neighbours, and they doubting that their turne would be next to receiue the like; doo spread abroad the newes, and request to be aided and assisted. Wherevpon, forthwith in great troopes resorted vnto them a number of their companions out of e|uerie quarter, to the number (as it was said) of six thousand men: and in all hast, they make them|selues and all things in a readinesse to abide the brunt. Upon the next morning being sundaie, my lord minding to follow on his course,The kings armie mar|cheth towards bishops Clist. commandeth the trumpet to sound, & euerie man to make readie to march forwards. And about nine of the clocke in the same morning, they come to Clist; where the armie is diuided into three parts, and in thrée seuerall pla|ces doo appoint to make entrie into the towne. For in so manie places they had fortified the towne, and made great rampires for their defense.

These rampires were after some bickering reco|uered,Sir William Francis first entreth the rampire. and sir William Francis of Summerset|shire was named to be the first that gaue the aduen|ture, & made the entrie. The commons being dri|uen from the said rampires, ran all into the towne; and there ioine themselues togither to abide the pulse. And as the kings armie was in good order marching into the towne, one of the chiefe cap|teins of these rebels, named sir Thomas Pomeroie knight, kept himselfe in a furze close, and percei|uing the armie to be past him, and hauing then with him a trumpeter, and a drum [...]lade, commanded the trumpet to be sounded, and the drumme to be stricken vp. At which sound, the lord priuie seale, and his companie were amazed, supposing verelie that there had beene an ambush behind them to haue in|trapped and inclosed them. Wherevpon, they forth|with retire backe in all the hast they may: which when they in the towne perceiued,The kings armie reti|reth. they follow af|ter, and neuer staied vntill they came to the wagons then being in the high waie; & which now by flieng and retiring of the armie, are the formost and next to the towne.The rebels take the kings wa|gons, muni|tion and trea|sure. And these being laden with munition, armour, and treasure, they take and bring into the towne, where they rifle as much as they could, sa|uing the péeces of the ordinance, which with the shot and pouder they bestowed in places conuenient, and emploied the same against my lord and his compa|nie.

The armie hauing recouered the hill, did there pause a while, and finding themselues to be decei|ued, march backe againe towards the towne: but before they came thither, it was aduertised vnto my lord, that the towne and euerie house therein was fortified and full of men, and that it was not possible for anie to passe that waie without great perill and danger, except the towne were set on fire. Where|vpon order was giuen, that as they passed and ente|red into the towne, notwithstanding it was my lords owne, they should set the houses on fire. Sir William Francis being in the fore-ward was for|most,Sir William Francis slaine [...] and leauing the [...]aie which he tooke before, tooke now an other waie, [...] [...]hich waie was both deepe and narrow. The [...] being vpon the banks vpon euerie side of the waie, with their stones so beat him, that they stroke his headpéece fast to his head and whereof he died. The armie being come into the towne, they set fire on euerie house as they passed by.

Bishops Clist towne set on fire and burnt.

The rebels ouerthrowne to the towne.

But the rebelles conioining themselues in the middle of the towne, doo stand at their defense, where the fight was very fierce and cruell; and bloudie was that daie for some were slaine with the sword, some burned in the houses, some shifting for themselues were taken prisoners, and manie thinking to escape ouer the water were drowned: so that there were dead that daie one with an other about a thousand men.

The towne thus being recouered,The lord Greie passeth ouer the riuer into Clist heath. and the ouer|throw giuen, the lord Greie desireth to passe ouer the riuer, and to be in the open field, which is a great heath named Clist heath: & this he could not doo, but that he must passe ouer either the water or the bridge, both which were somewhat dangerous, for the water was somewhat mirie and muddie, as also at that time ve|rie deepe, by reason of the flowing of the seas, which causeth the same at euerie tide to swell. Howbeit one Iohn Yard a gentleman,Iohn Yard first giueth the aduenture and findeth waie ouer the water. and who had dwelled thereabouts, knowing the said water, gaue the first aduenture ouer, and found waie neere vnto a mill aboue the bridge; and after him others doo followe. But this was not for all the rest of the armie, who must needs passe ouer the bridge, which as then they could not doo, by reason that the same was so ouer|laid with great trées and timber, as also there stood the gunner with his péece readie charged.A proclama|tion, that who+soeuer recoue|reth first the bridge to haue foure hundred crownes. Wherevp|on proclamation was made, that whosoeuer would aduenture and make waie ouer the bridge, should haue foure hundred crownes for his labor. Then one foorthwith more respecting the gaine, than foreca|sting the perill, gaue the aduenture: but the gunner rewarded him, for he discharged his péece vpon him, and slue him.The bridge recouered. And then before he could againe charge his péece, one of the companie, who before was pas|sed ouer the water, came and entred the bridge at the further end, and comming behind him slue him; who foorthwith calleth companie vnto him, and casteth a|side all the trees and timber, and maketh the bridge cléere, and so the whole armie passeth ouer the bridge into the heath.

The lord Greie as soone as he was passed ouer the water, he rode foorthwith to the top of the hill, which is in the middle of the heath; and from thense did make a view of all the countrie about him: and looking backe towards Woodburie, he saw and espied vpon Woodburie hill a great companie as|sembled; & marching forward, & suspecting that they were a new supplie appointed to follow and come vp|on them, and aduertised the lord Russell therof.All the priso|ners before taken are committed to the sword. Wher|vpon it was concluded, that the prisoners whom they had before taken at the windmill and in the towne, who were a great number, and which if they were newlie set vpon, might be a detriment and a perill vnto them, should be all killed: which foorthwith was doone, euerie man making a dispatch of his priso|ners; and then the night approching, there they in|camped themselues for that night.

The rebelles, which were and laie about Excester, were aduertised out of hand of this the euill successe of their neighbors, wherefore they with as manie as they could get, in all hast came to Clist heath: and in the lower side thereof next to the high waie, doo intrench and fortifie a place fast by a hedge, and se|cretlie there, in the night, doo place their ordinance, & make themselues in readinesse to abide the brunt: and as soone as the daie light serued, discharge and shoot off their péeces vnto the armie incamped about the top of the hill. The lords and capteins to end the quarrell, doo determine to giue the onset vpon them; and according to the nature of warres, doo politike|lie diuide themselues into thrée parts, and euerie one hath his place assigned and order appointed vnto him.

The lord Russell, hauing no waie open before him, causeth his pioners to make waie ouer the hedges & inclosed grounds, and by that means dooth at length recouer vpon the verie backe of the enimies: and they were so intrapped on euerie side, that they could EEBO page image 1025 not by anie meanes escape, but must yeeld or fight. The one they would not, and in the other they preuai|led not. For notwithstanding valiantlie and stout|lie they stood to their tackle, and would not giue ouer as long as life and lim lasted:The rebelles [...] ouerthro|wen upon Clist heath. yet in the end they were all ouerthrowen, and few or none left aliue. Great was the slaughter, and cruell was the fight; and such was the valor and stoutnesse of these men, that the lord Greie reported himselfe, that he neuer in all the wars that he had béen in did know the like.

Sir William Francis bu|ried at Exces| [...]This fight being doone, and all things set in good order, the whole armie marched vnto Topsham, which was about a mile off, and laie in that towne all that night, and carried with them in a horslitter the bodie or corps of sir William Francis, and from thense carried it to Excester, where it was buried in martiall manner verie honorablie in the bodie of the cathedrall church of saint Peters. When the rebels who laie about the citie heard how their neighbors had sped,The rebels forsake the [...]ne. and from time to time had the worse side, and were still ouerthrowen: then as men despairing to preuaile, secretlie gaue ouer the siege and ran apase euerie man his waie. The gentlemen, which were kept prisoners in the churches and in other pla|ces about the citie, being now at libertie, came straight to the walles about midnight, & gaue know|ledge thereof to the watch; and they foorthwith did the like vnto the maior. The ioie and comfort wher|of was so great, and the desire of fresh vittels so much persed, that manie not abiding till the daie|light, gat and shifted themselues out of the gates, but more for vittels than for spoile, and yet they were glad of both: howbeit some did not long enioie the same, for manie being more gréedie of meat than measurable in féeding, did so ouercharge themselues in surffetting, that they died thereof.

The next morrow being tuesdaie and the sixt of August, the lord priuie seale thinking it long before he came to the citie, commanded the trumpets verie earlie to sound, and euerie man to make readie and to prepare awaie. And accordinglie all things being doone, he marcheth towards Excester, and about eight of the clocke being tuesdaie the sixt of August 1549 he came to the same, to the great ioy & comfort of the long captiuated citizens,The lord Russell com|meth to Ex|cester. who were no more glad of their deliuerie, than was his lordship and all good subiects ioyfull of his victorie. But at his com|ming he entred not into the citie: for being aduerti|sed from the maior that the citie was altogither vn|furnished of vittels, order was taken that no stran|ger, nor one nor other should enter into the citie, but lie in the campe for a time. Then his lordship pitched his tents without the wals in S. Iohns fields, next to Southing haie, & vpon the cities wals next to the posterne of his house was the kings standard of the red dragon set vp.The maior and his bre|thren salute the lord Rus|sell, and he embraceth them. As soone as he was entred into his tent, the maior & all his brethren in most séemelie & decent order went vnto him, who most louinglie embrased them, most thankefullie accepted them, and most highlie commended them for their truth, dutie, and seruice, which vpon his fidelitie and honor he did promise should be well considered by the kings maiestie,The king thankefullie accepteth the seruice of the [...], and libe|rallie rewar|deth the same. and which in the end was performed. For the king being aduertised thereof, he did not onelie thankefullie accept and highlie commend their ser|uices, but also rewarded and considered the same, both by confirmation of their charters, inlarging of their liberties, and augmenting of their reuenues, in giuing vnto them the manor of Exilond, which as was said was sometimes their ancient inheritance, but by power of the earles of Deuon by force taken, and by wrong and iniurie kept from them.

Immediatlie after his comming, sir William Herbert then master of the kings horsses, and after earle of Penbroke,The Welsh|men came too late to the fight, but soone inough to the spoile. came with a thousand Welsh|men: who though they came too late to the fraie; yet soone inough to the plaie. For the whole countrie was then put to the spoile, and euerie soldier sought for his best profit: a iust plague of the Lord vpon re|bels and disloiall persons. But the citie being as yet altogither destitute of vittels, and the Welshmen at their first comming séeing the same, they did by their speciall industries & trauels fraught & furnish the same within two daies with corne, cattels, and vittels, verie plentifullie, to the great reléefe and comfort of the people therin,The lord pri|uie seale ta|rieth at Exon rewardeth the good and puni|sheth the euill. Sir Peter Carew, sir Gawen Ca|rew, William Gibbes, re|warded with traitors lands. & to the benefit of them|selues. The lord priuie seale remained and continued in this citie aboue twelue daies before he remooued: setting all things in good order, rewarding the good & punishing the euill. To sir Peter Carew he gaue all Wineslades land, to sir Gawen Carew Hum|frie Arundels lands, to William Gibbes esquier Beries lands, and to manie others which had doone good seruices he gaue prisoners, both bodies, goods, and lands.

On the other side he commanded forches and gal|lowes to be set vp in sundrie places, as well within the citie as also in the countrie; and did command and cause manie to be executed and put to death, e|speciallie such as were noted to be chiefe and busie dooers & ringleaders in this rebellion. Among them all there was no one so exalted as was Welsh the vicar of saint Thomas neere the Exbridge at Exce|cester, who was preferred and presented to that bene|fice by the lord Russell patrone thereof. This man had manie good things in him, he was of no great stature, but well set and mightilie compact: he was a verie good wrestler, shot well both in the long bow as also in the crossebow, he handled his handgun and péece verie well, he was a verie good woodman and a hardie, and such a one as would not giue his head for the polling nor his beard for the washing, he was a companion in anie exercises of actiuitie, & of a cour|teous and gentle behauiour, he descended of a good honest parentage, being borne at Penuerin in Cornewall; and yet in this rebellion an archcap|teine and a principall dooer. He was charged with thrée principall crimes. The first was,Thrée things laid to the charge of the vicar of saint Thomas. that he did not onelie persuade the people to the contemning of the reformed religion, according to the kings procée|dings, and to keepe and obserue the Romish and po|pish religion: but also did erect, kéepe, and vse the same in his parish church. Secondarilie, he was a capteine and a principall dealer in the cause of the re|bellion, which was chieflie directed by him, his order, & aduise. Thirdlie,The rebels hang King|well. he caused one Kingwell a tinner of Chagford, and seruant to master Iohn Charels of Tauestoke to be hanged, bicause secretlie he had conueied letters betwéene my lord and his master, and was earnest in the reformed religion, which was then termed the kings procéedings, & an enimie to the popish state. And being a sharpe inueier against the one, and an earnest mainteiner of the other, it procured vnto him great hatred and malice: when the rebellion was begun he sought by all the meanes he could how to escape awaie: but he was so nar|rowlie watched, that he could neuer haue anie opor|tunitie so to doo.

They vsed all the deuises they could to recouer him to their opinions, sometimes with faire words, sometimes with threatenings, and sometimes with imprisonments: but still he inueied against them, calling them rebels and traitors both against God and the king, and foreprophesied vnto them that de|struction and confusion would be the end & reward of their dooings. Thus when they could not reclame him to their disposition, then by the order and iudge|ment of this vicar Welsh, he was fetched out of the EEBO page image 1026 prison, and foorthwith brought foorth before Caiphas and Pilat, and condemned to be hanged: which was executed vpon him foorthwith, and he brought to an elme tree in Exilond, without the west gate of the citie, before the house of one Nicholas Caue, and there hanged. The like crueltie or rather tyrannie was doone at Sampford Courteneie, where when a certeine Frankelin a gentleman, named William Hellions, who comming to Sampford to haue some communication with them for the staie of their re|bellion, and for the pacifieng of them in their due obe|dience, was at the townes end taken prisoner, & ca|ried to the churchhouse, where he so earnestlie reproo|ued them for their rebellion, & so sharplie threatened them an euill successe; that they all fell in a rage with him, and not onlie with euill words reuiled him: but also as he was going out of the churchhouse & going downe the staires, one of them named Githbridge with a bill strake him in the necke, and immediatlie notwithstanding his pitifull requests and lamentati|ons, a number of the rest fell vpon him, slue him, and cut him into small péeces: and though they coun|ted him for an heretike, yet they buried him in the church-yard there, but contrarie to the common ma|ner, laieng his bodie north and south.

These things being called to remembrance and obiected against this vicar, although some men in re|spect of his vertues and good gifts did pitie and la|ment his case, and would haue gladlie beene sutors for his pardon: yet the greatnesse of his lewdnesse and follies considered, they left him vnto his deserts: & so was by order of the marshall law condemned to death. And yet this one thing by the waie I must speake in his commendation. There was among the rebels a stranger and an alien,The rebels appoint to set fire on the citie and to burne it. who was a verie skilfull gunner, & could handle his peece verie well, and did much harme vnto the citie, & among others slue one Smith standing at a doore in northgate street with a great shot from saint Dauids hill. This fellow tooke vpon him, that he would set the whole citie on fire, and it should be cleane burned within foure houres, doo they what they could. This his offer was so well liked, that the daie and time was appointed when this should be doone.

The vicar hearing thereof, assembleth vnto him as manie men as he could make and haue,The vicar of saint Tho|mas lette [...]h and will not consent to the burning of the citie. & came to this companie when this fire should be kindled, and was so hot and earnest against their attempts, that he would in no wise suffer so lewd an act and wicked a thing to be doone. For (saith he) doo you what you can by policie, force, or dint of sword to take the citie, I will ioine with you, and doo my best: but to burne a citie which shall be hurtfull to all men and good to no man, I will neuer consent therevnto, but will here stand with all my power against you. And so stout he was in this matter, that he stopped them from their further enterprising of so wicked a fact. But to the matter. The execution of this man was committed to Barnard Duffeld, who being no|thing slacke to follow his commission, caused a paire of gallowes to be made, and to be set vp vpon the top of the tower of the said vicars parish church of S. Thomas: and all things being readie and the stage perfected for this tragedie, the vicar was brought to the place, and by a rope about his middle drawne vp to the top of the tower:The vicar is hanged in chaines vpon the top of the tower with his popish trash and or|naments a|bout him. and there in chains hanged in his popish apparell, and had a holie water bucket and sprinkle, a sacring bell, a paire of beads, & such other like popish trash hanged about him, and there he with the same about him remained a long time. He made a verie small or no confession, but verie pa|tientlie tooke his death, he had béene a good member in his common-wealth, had not the weeds ouer|growne the good corne, and his foule vices ouercom|med his vertues.

The lord priuie seale remaining still in Excester was continuallie occupied in setting things in order, he was verie seuere and sharpe against suth offen|dors as were chiefe and principall ringleders of this rebellion: but to the common sort who were led and carried, and who did humble themselues, he was pi|tifull and mercifull, and did dailie pardon infinite numbers. And his lordship thinking verelie that all things were now quieted, & the rebels pacified, sud|denlie newes were brought vnto him that there as|sembled at Sampford Courtneie, both Deuonshire|men and Cornishmen,The rebels assembled at Sampford Courtneie. and who were fullie bent to mainteine their quarrell and abide the battell. These newes so troubled and tickled my lord, that all busi|nesse set apart, he commandeth foorthwith the trum|pet to be sounded, and the drumme to be striken vp, and all his armie to be foorthwith mustered: which was then the greater, by reason of the Welshmen and gentlemen of the countrie and of the commo|ners, who vpon submission had obteined pardon, and increased to the number of eight or ten thousand men, and foorthwith he marcheth towards Sampford Courtneie, where sir William Herbert requested to haue the fore-ward for that daie, which was granted him.

And being come thither, albeit the great compa|nie of so manie good souldiers and well appointed might haue dismaied them, being nothing nor in or|der, nor in companie, nor in experience, to be com|pared vnto the others: yet they were at a point they would not yéeld to no persuasions, nor did, but most manfullie did abide the fight: and neuer gaue ouer, vntill that both in the towne and in the field they were all for the most taken or slaine.The rebels ouerthrowne at Sampford Courtneie. At which time one ap Owen a Welsh gentlman, more boldie than aduisedlie giuing the aduenture to enter the rampier at the townes end, was there slaine by the rebels, and after carried backe to Exon, where after the ma|ner of wars he was honorablie buried in the bodie of saint Peters church, few of the kings side besides him then slaine: and so of a traitorous beginning they made a shamefull ending. Neuerthelesse manie escaped and they fled towards Summersetshire: af|ter whom was sent sir Peter Carew, and sir Hugh Paulet then knight marshall: with a great compa|nie attending vpon them,Sir Peter Carew pur|sueth the re|bels which fled to King Weston. and followed them as far as to King Weston in the countie of Summerset: where they ouertooke them and ouerthrew them, and also tooke one Coffin a gentleman their capteine pri|soner and brought him vnto Excester.

The lord Russell himselfe minding to make all things sure, taketh his iorneie,The lord pri|uie seale ta|keth his ior|neie into Cornewall. and marcheth into Cornewall; and following his former course, causeth execution to be doone vpon a great manie, and espe|ciallie vpon the chéefe belwedders and ringleaders: but the cheefe and principall capteins he kept as pri|soners, and brought them with him to Excester. And when this lord had set all things in good order,The lord pri|uie seale ta|keth his ior|neie towards London and is honoura|blie receiued he re|turned to Excester, & remained there for a time; but after departed towards London, where he was recei|ued with great ioy and thanks: and being come be|fore the king, he forgat not to commend vnto his ma|iestie the good seruice of this citie in this rebellion, which (as is before said) was liberallie rewarded and considered. After his departure, and according to his order and appointment, the chéefe capteins and prin|cipall heads of this rebellion,The chéefe capteins of the rebels are caried to Lon|don and there put to death whome he left in prison in the kings goale at Excester, were caried to Lon|don and commanded to the tower, and in their due time were afterwards executed to death, namelie Humfreie Arundell esquier, Wineslade esquier, Iohn Berrie and Coffin gentlemen, and Holmes yeoman; which Coffin and Holmes were seruants EEBO page image 1027 to sir Iohn Arundell knight. Of the number of them who were slaine, there is no certeintie knowne, but manie more be found lacke then numbred: howbeit it was accounted by such as continued in the whole seruice of this commotion to be about foure thousand men. But what number was of the contrarie side dispatched, nothing is reported, albeit it be well knowne that they escaped not scotfrée, and especial|lie the Burgonians, who were abhorred of the one partie, and nothing fauoured of the other. Thus much concerning the description of the citie, and of the sundrie inuasions and assaults against the same, and especiallie of the last rebellion or commotion in the yeare of our Lord 1549, wherein much more might be spoken, but this may suffice for this matter. And for as much as the cathedrall church of this citie, cal|led by the name of S. Peters, is a parcell of the citie, and compassed within the wals of the same, though in respect of certeine priuileges distinct from the iu|risdiction thereof; I thought it good to subnect here|vnto the description of the said church and of the an|tiquitie of the same.

21.2. The antiquitie, foundation, and buil|ding of the cathedrall church of saint Peters in Excester.

The antiquitie, foundation, and buil|ding of the cathedrall church of saint Peters in Excester.

_AFter that corrupt religion and super|stition was crept and receiued into the church, and the people become deuout therein, then began the erecting of re|ligious houses and monasteries in e|uerie countrie. And as this was vniuersall through|out all christendome vnder the gouernement of the Romane bishop: so also was it generallie doone throughout all England, in which generalitie this ci|tie was of a particularitie; for in this citie from time to time as opportunitie serued sundrie religious hou|ses and monasteries were erected and builded,The religi|ous houses within the [...] of the [...] of S. Peters. of which there were thrée within the site, circuit, and place now called the close of S. Peters, and which in time accrued and were vnited into one. The first was a house for women called moniales or nuns, which is now the deanes house or Kalendar haie. The other was a house of moonks, supposed to be builded by king Ethelred, the third sonne to king Ethelwolph, and these two were vnited by bishop Leofricus vnto the cathedrall church. The third was a house for moonks of the order of S. Benet, which was builded and founded by king Athelstane, about the yeare of our Lord 932: and this is that part of the cathedrall church now called the ladie chappell. For the said king, hauing driuen out of this citie the Britons then dwelling therein, and minding to make a full conquest both of them and of this their countrie which they then inhabited, did so fiercelie follow and pursue them euen into Cornewall, that in the end he con|quered them,King Athel| [...]ran builded the wals of the citie of stone. and had the victorie. After which he re|turned to this citie, and here staieng and soiourning for a time, did reedifie the citie, incompassed it with a stone wall, and founded the cathedrall church, which he then appointed for a monasterie for moonks of S. Benets order. For so is it written: Hanc vrbem rex A|delstanus primus in potestatem Anglorum, effugatis Britoni|bus redactam turribus muniuit, Ex pamphleto [...] S. Io|hannis Baptistae Exon. & muro ex quadratis lapidi|bus cinxit, ac antiquitùs vocatam Munketon nunc Exester vocari voluit: ac ibi sedens mansum quoddam dedit ad fun|dandum monasterium pro monachis Deo & sancto Petro fa|mulantibus.Ex chronica [...] cathred. [...]. Besides the charges which he was at the building of the said church, he gaue also lands and reuenues vnto them sufficient for maintenance and liuelihoods, whereof Morkeshull and Treasurors béere are parcell, and which now are appendant and apperteining to the treasuror of the cathedrall church.

After the time of king Athelstane,The Danes spoile the church of S. Peters. the Danes with great hostilitie and crueltie hauing ouerrun this whole land, they also came to this citie, and in spoiling the same, did also ransacke and spoile the said church, whose continuall inuasions the moonks being not a|ble to indure, fled and forsooke their house and home, and sought places of better safetie.The moonks forsake their monasterie. By which means this monasterie for sundrie yeares was left destitn|ted, vntill the time of king Edgar; who on a time made a progresse into these west parts, to visit his fa|ther in law Odogarus then earle of Deuon, Floreshistori|arum. and founder of the abbeie of Tauistoke, whose daughter he had married. And being come to this citie, did here rest and staie himselfe, where when he saw the distressed state of the said church, & pitieng the same,King Edgar restoreth the abbat and moonks to their house. caused search and inquirie to be made of the moonks which were scattered and yet left: and when he had gotten them togither, he restored them vnto their house and liuelihoods, and appointed Sidemannus who was afterwards bishop of this diocesse to be ab|bat of the same.Sidemannus abbat of this church, and after bishop of this dio|cesse. And from thensfoorth they continued togither (though sometimes in troubles) vntill that king Swanus or Sweno the Dane, with a mightie and a huge armie came to this citie, besieged, tooke, spoiled, and destroied it with sword and fier. Howbe|it not long after it was restored againe by king Cahutus or Canutus,K. Canutus restoreth both lands & priui|leges to the church. who being aduertised of the great cruelties which his father Sweno had doone to the said monasterie, did at the request of Atheldre|dus one of his dukes, make restitution vnto Athel|woldus then abbat of all their lands, liuings and pri|uileges: as dooth appeare by his charter dated in the yeare of our Lord 1019.

After this, about thirtie yeares, king Edward the Confessor came to this citie, and he by the aduise and at the motion of Leofricus bishop of Crediton, and who sometimes was lord chancellor of England vn|der the said king, and one of his priuie councell, partlie for the better safetie of the bishop and his suc|cessors, who lieng and hauing their houses in the countrie, were subiect to manie and sundrie perils, and partlie to prouide a more conuenient place for the moonks, did remooue the bishops sée from Credi|ton, and remooued the moonks vnto Westminster:The bishops sée remooued from Credi|ton to Exon. and he the king in his owne person, togither with quéene Edith his wife, did install the said Leofricus in possession of this his new church and sée. The bi|shop thus remooued from the old,Leofricus the first bishop of Excester. and placed in the new sée and church, dooth endow the same with all those lands and liuelihoods which he had of the gift of the said king, and which before did apperteine to his former church, and to reduce and make his sanctua|rie to his mind, pulleth downe the two monasteries néere adioining, the one being of moonks and the o|ther of nuns, and addeth and vniteth them vnto his owne church, and hauing brought all things to effect according to his mind, deuiseth and maketh lawes, orders, and ordinances for the good gouernment of his church and cleargie.

After the death of Leofricus, all his successors for the most part procure the augmentation and increase of this their new erected see and church, some in liue|lihoods, some in liberties and priuileges, some in buil|dings, and some in one thing, and some in another. William Warewest the third bishop of this church,The king at the request of William Warewest bi|shop, giueth Plimpton, Brampton, & S. Stephans to the church of Excester. who had sometimes béene chapleine to the Conque|ror, and to his two sonnes William and Henrie, was in such fauor and good liking with the Conque|ror, that at his request he gaue vnto him and to this his church. Plimpton, Brampton, and S. Stephans, in Excester, which gift his said sonnes being kings of England did ratifie and confirme. And then the said bishop, hauing the ordering and distributing EEBO page image 1028 thereof, giueth Plimpton to the regular moonkes there, for whom he had founded and builded a mona|sterie, and wherein he himselfe shortlie after leauing and yéelding vp his bishoprike, became and was a moonke. Brampton was reserued to the church, and which afterwards was annexed to the deanerie. And S. Stephans with the fee to the same apperteining, he reserued to himselfe and to his successors, & where|by they are barons and lords of the parlement. This bishop in the yeare of our Lord 1112, first began to inlarge his cathedrall,The founda|tion of the quier of S. Peters church. and laid the foundation of that part, which is now the chore or quier: for before that time it was no bigger than that, which since and now is called the ladie chapell. After him William Brewer the bishop made and established in the yeare of our Lord 1235,Bishop Wil|liam Brewer instituteth the deane & foure and twentie prebendaries. a deane and a chapter of foure and twentie prebendaries: and for the deane (whome he appointed, and whose name was Serlo) and for his successors, he gaue and impropriated Brampton and Coliton Rawleigh, and for the pre|bendaries he purchased lands, alloting and assign|ing to euerie of them Pro pane & sale the like portion of foure pounds.

Peter Quiuell the bishop finding the chancell of his church to be fullie builded and ended,The bodie of saint Peters church first founded. beginneth to found and build the lower part or the bodie of his church, in the yeare of our Lord 1284, from the chan|cell of his church vnto the west end of the said church. This man first appointed a chanter and a subdeane to be in his church.The chanter and subdeane first consti|tuted in this church. To the one of them he impropriated Paineton and Chudleie, and to the other the perso|nage of Eglosehaile in Cornewall. After him Iohn Grandisson,Bishop Gran|disson a great benefactor to the church. in the yeare of our Lord 1340, did in|crease the length of the bodie of the church from the funt westwards, as also vaulted the roofe of the whole church, and did fullie end and finish the same. And al|beit from the time of king Athelstane the first foun|der in the yeare of our Lord 932,The church of S. Peters was in buil|ding 437 yeares. vntill the daie of the death of this bishop Grandisson, which was in the yeare 1369, there were about 437 yeares di|stant, and in the meane time this church was conti|nued in building by sundrie persons: yet it is so de|centlie and vniformelie compacted, as though it had béene builded at one verie time and instant.

The successour of this Grandisson, who was na|med Thomas Brentingham, finished and ended the north tower of the church.The cloister builded. After this, about the yeare of our Lord 1400, and in the time of bishop Stof|ford, the cloister was added to the church, and builded at the most part of the charges of the deane and cha|piter. And not long after Edmund Lacie bishop began to build the chapiter house,The building of the chapiter house. which being not en|ded in his time, his next successor George Neuill, in the yeare of our Lord 1456, did fullie end and ab|solue the same: and which is a verie faire, beautifull, and a sumptuous worke. And thus much concerning the antiquitie, foundation, and building of this ca|thedrall church. Thus far Iohn Hooker.

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