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3.3. The protectors, gouernours, or re|gents of Scotland, during the kings minori|tie or his insufficiencie of gouernement, or during his absence [...]t of the realme.

The protectors, gouernours, or re|gents of Scotland, during the kings minori|tie or his insufficiencie of gouernement, or during his absence [...]t of the realme.

_COnanus was gouernor vnder Thereus about the yeare before the birth of Christ, Conanus. one hundred thirtie and seuen: for The|reus renouncing the kingdome and fli|eng to Yorke, where in the end he died, this Cona|nus during the exile of this Thereus, was regent or gouernour, of whom writeth Lesleus lib. 2. pag. 89. Conanus qui rempublicam Therei iam exulantis lo|co optimè administraret, interrex à nobilibus de|claratur. Nam Thereo viuo nullum alium regem substituere voluerunt, quo mortuo, Iosina eius frater suffectus est.

Cadallus liuing about the yeare before the birth of Christ, seuentie and nine, did pursue Gillus (the Cadallus. bastard of Euenus) hauing slaine the sonne of Eue|nus, and vsurping the crowne, of whom thus writeth Lesleus lib. 6, pag. 92. Tandem auctore Cadallo vi|ro fortissimo, qui interrex à regninobilibus interea constitutus est, quidam in illum (which was Gillus) conspirant, quem in Hiberniam profugam assecuti, inita prius pugna [...]apiunt, & statim capite plectun|tur.

Argadus earle of Argile, when Conar who began his reigne in the yeare of Christ one hundred fortie Argadus erle of Argile. and eight, was cast in prison for his euill life, was by the nobilitie chosen gouernour of Scotland, after which Ethodius the next king, whome this Argadus holpe vnto the crowne made him chiefe iustice of Scotland to him and his heires, which function at this date the earles of Argile doo inioie by inheritance.

Donald, Colollan, Mordacke and Conrade were [...] & [...]. made gouernors of the kingdome, for thus writeth Lesleus lib.4. pag.198. Senectutis tandem taedio illius (which was Elphine who began his reigne about the yeare of Christ, seuen hundred thirtie and three) vires ita debilitatae sunt, & cum regni oneri ferendo impar fuerit, quatuor sui regni regulos (in quibus praestans quaedam sed fucata virtutis species eluxit) delegit, quibus singulis singulas prouincias decreuit; Donaldo Argadiam; Colano Atholiam; Mordaco Gallouidiam; & Conano Morauiam.

William Fraiser bishop of S. Andrews, [...]: after [...]. the death of Alexander the third king of Scotland, which [...] in the yeare of our Lord, one thousand [...] hundred foure score and three, who died without [...], the nobilitie because it was not knowen to whome the kingdome did apperteine, sith there were manie which claimed the same, as Babell, Bruse, Ha|stings, and others agreed amongst themselues, and [...]hose si [...] regents or gouernors of the same, vntill a king were fullie known and established: the names of which si [...] were these, William Fraiser bishop of saint Andrewes, Duncane earle of F [...], Iohn Cumine earle of Buchquane, to whome the rule of the north parts were committed. The other thrée were Robert bishop of Glascow, sir Iohn Cumine, and Iames high steward of Scotland, who had the disposition of the south parts.

Hugh Cressingham an Englishman was made Hugh Cres|singham. gouernor of Scotland by Edward the first, who go|ing into France about the yeare of Christ one thou|sand two hundred ninetie and six, after that he had brought Scotland vnder his subiection, appointed the said Hugh (whom he had before made treasuror of Scotland) to haue the gouernment of that realme in his absence, whilest he was busied in the wars of France. But not long after, this Cressingham was flaine at Sterling by William Wallace (and such Scots as attempted by all the force they could to set themselues at libertie from the subiection of the English) in the ides of September, in the yeare of Christ, one thousand two hundred ninetie and seuen, at what time also Andrew Murreie was slaine, whose sonne did certeine yeares after (as hath Bu|chanan) Buchan. lib. 8. administer and gouerne Scotland for the king.

William Wallace after manie worthie exploits william wallace. doone in the behalfe of his countrie against the En|glish, was for the Scots chosen gouernor of the realme vnder Iohn Balioll, when the king bad for|saken the realme and was come into England, a|bout the yeare of Christ, one thousand two hundred ninetie and sir, who after that (as is before touched) did slea Cressingham the gouernor of Scotland vn|der the king of England, which Wallace did after in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred nintie and eight renounce his office of gouernor, and was in the end for his rebellion against king Edward the first king of England, and absolute lord of Scot|land, taken, brought to London, drawen, hanged and quartered, in the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred and fiue.

Iohn Cumine, after that William Wallace had Iohn Cu|mine. giuen ouer his office of gouernor, was chosen to be gouernor for the Scots, in purpose to trie with the Englishmen for their liberties, which being know|en to Edward the first king of England, he sent an armie into the countrie, and destroied it. Whervpon Iohn Cumine admitted Simon Fraiser sellow with him in the administration of the wars against EEBO page image 418 the English, and discomfited the English in the yere of our Lord God one thousand thrée hundred and two. After which, king Edward being againe a conqueror of the Scots, returned homewards, and left Odomare de Ualence his deputie in Scot|land.

Odomare de Ualence or Aimer de Ualence, vncle to king Edward the first king of England by Odomare de Ualence or Aimer de Ualence. the halfe bloud, was about the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred and foure, made gouernor of Scotland vnder Edward the first king of England, who before in the yeare one thousand thrée hundred & two, tooke William Wallace and sent him to Lon|don to king Edward, to be dealt withall as you haue heard before. After which Robert Bruse being crowned king of Scotland, was on the nineteenth of Iune in the yéere of Christ one thousand thrée hun|dred and six, at Mefen discomfited by the English ar|mie, and put to flight by the said Odomare de Ua|lence, who after banished all those which anie waie tooke part with king Robert Bruse. But in the end Robert Bruse recouering himselfe & more aid, draue all the Englishmen out of Scotland, gouerning the kingdome all his life, by himselfe & his substitutes, as by that which followeth maie well appeare.

Thomas Randolph earle of Murreie, much a|bout Thomas Randolph. the yeare of Christ one thousand three hundred and six and twentie, being about the 21 yeere of Robert Bruse, was made protector of the realme. For Robert Bruse being fallen into extreme sicke|nesse, whereby he could not wéeld the scepter to go|uerne as the state of that countrie required cõmit|ted the administration of the relme to erle Thomas Randolph, and to Iames Dowglasse knight, who ruled the same to their singular commendation, and the countries good about foure yeares, during the life of the said Robert Bruse, whose death happe|ned in the yéere of Christ one thousand thrée hundred twentie and nine. After the death of king Robert, when Dauid his sonne came to the crowne, being but seuen yeares old, this Randolph was againe ap|pointed to haue the administration of the kingdome as regent of the same, during the kings minoritie and insufficiencie of gouernement, who confirmed a new peace betweene England and Scotland. Short|lie after which the gouernor died of poison at Mus|cleborough, in the yere of our redemption one thou|sand three hundred thirtie and one, being about the second yeare of king Dauid, & was buried at Dun|fermling, hauing had two sons, Iohn erle of Mur|reie, and Thomas, both being persons woorthie of such a father.

Patrike Dunbar earle of March was made Patrike Dunbar. regent after this sort. After the death of earle Tho|mas Randolph, there was an assemblie of parle|ment of the three estates of the realme, in which in the said yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and one, and the second yere of the reigne of king Dauid, these two, Patrike earle of March and Dauid (whom Lesle calleth Donald) earle of Marre were chosen gouernors of the relme by com|mon consent. Whereof the first had the charge of that part of the relme which lieth on the south side of the Frith, & the other was appointed to gouerne all that on the north: which Donald in the yere of Christ one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and two was slaine sléeping in his bed at Duplin neere to the wa|ter of Erne, by such as followed and tooke part with Edward Balioll atteining the crowne, and expel|ling Dauid from the kingdome.

Andrew Murreie, a man of great power, and of no lesse possession, hauing performed manie ex|ploits Andrew Murreie. of warre for his countrie, was made gouer|nor after the death of the earle of Marre, and ioined in that office with Patrike of Dunbar earle of March. Shortlie after which this Andrew was ta|ken prisoner at Rocksborough, being yet in the end ransomed for a great summe of gold. After which he died of a vehement sicknesse, and was buried in Rose Markie, in the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and eight.

Archibald Dowglasse, after the decease of An|drew Archibald Dowglas. Murreie, was by one consent of the nobilitie chosen gouernor in the place of Andrew Murreie, whilest king Edward did besiege Berwike, who rai|sing a power of men entred England, and caused the king to remooue his siege of Berwike. After|ward this Dowglasse was slaine at the battell of Halidon hill, in the yeare of Christ one thousand three hundred thirtie and two (as some haue) but Hector Boetius and Buchanan refer it to the yeare of our Lord God one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and thrée, the ninetéenth of Iulie.

Dauid Cumine was made protector in this sort. Dauid Cu|mine. When that Edward the third king of England, in the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred thir|tie and six had entred Scotland with maine force by land and by sea; he afterwards hauing Edward Balioll the king of Scotland in his companie with 50000 men came by land to Glascow: but percei|uing no resistance against him, retired with Balioll into England, and left Dauid Cumine earle of A|tholl gouernor in his roome, to win such holds and strengths as were yet defended against him. Which Dauid tooke on him to be gouernor in the name of Edward Plantagenet king of England, and of Edward Balioll king of Scots, seizing into his hands all the lands which perteined to Robert Ste|ward, so that at one time there was chopping and changing of gouernors by each part which became stronger.

Robert Steward regent of Scotland possessed Robert Ste|ward. that place, at this time also when Dauid Cumine was gouernor for Edward Balioll; for this wri|teth Lesleus li. 7. pa. 234. Verùm ne patria guberna|toris imperio destituta, aduersariorum infidijs pa|teret magis, Robertus Stuartus omnem regni curam in se transtulit, quoad Dauid ex Gallia rediret, ipse tũc regni gubernacula suscepturus. By which words appeareth, that as Dauid Cumine was gouernor for Edward Balioll gone into England, so this Robert Steward tooke vpon him the regentship for king Dauid Bruse fled into France: the which he the rather did, because he would incounter Dauid Cumine which had spoiled him of all his liuings and patrimonie. Which Robert being thus procurator of the kingdome, granted sundrie priuileges to the inhabitants of Bute & Arrane, as amongst other things, to be frée from paieng of tribute of corne and graine. For this Steward togither with Iohn Iohn Ran|dolph earle of Murreie pro|tector. Randolph earle of Murreie, were by a councell as|sembled at Edenborough by generall voices elec|ted and confirmed to be gouernors of the realme, a|bout the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and foure, or one thousand thrée hundred thir|tie and fiue.

Robert Steward earle of Fife, second sonne to Robert Ste|ward. Robert Steward the first king of Scotland (by the name of Steward) and the second by the name of Robert, was (because his father became extreme old, and could not follow the affaires of the king|dome) made gouernor by the consent of the realme during the life of his father, about the yeare of our Lord God one thousand thrée hundred foure score and nine, being about the nineteenth yeare of the reigne of the said Robert the second: which office this Robert continued during the life of his father, dieng in the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hun|dred EEBO page image 419 & ninetie. After whose death, when Robert the third, being before called Iohn, came to the king|dome, and had by a fall from his horsse so br [...]sed him|selfe, that he was not able to follow the gouerne|ment of the kingdome, this Robert earle of Fi [...]e his brother was made gouernor of the kingdome. After which about the yeare of our redemption one thousand thrée hundred ninetie and eight, being a|bout the ninth yeare of Robert the third king of Scotland, the king created this Robert Steward duke of Albanie, being one of the first dukes which were made in Scotland. Besides which also, after the death of the same Robert the third, which fell in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred and six, this Robert duke of Albanie was by new election, or rather confirmation established in the of|fice of gouernor (as haue some Scotish chronicles) which duke of Albanie died in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred and ninetéene, the third of September, when he had béene gouernor fiftéene yeares after the death of Robert the third. Where|in it seemeth to me for this time that there is much difference of yeares, if the Scots haue truelie set the same downe: for those accounts can not stand to|gither, with the death of king Robert the third, and the yeares gouernement of the duke of Albanie, after the death of the king. But I passe it ouer, and rather impute the fault to the offendor, in mis|taking the figure of the number of yeares, than anie want of consideration in the writer of the histo|rie.

Mordacke Steward erle of Fife & Mentith, the Mordacke Steward. eldest sonne of Robert duke of Albanie, was after his fathers death made gouernor of Scotland, con|tinuing in that office by the space of foure yeares, vntill about the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred twentie and foure, in which yeare he found meanes to bring home Iames the right king of Scots, who had béene eightéene yeares deteined in England, and placed him in the kingdome of Scot, lend, by the name of Iames the first: at what time the crowne was set vpon the kings head with the hands of the said Mordacke the gouernor, & Henrie bishop of saint Andrews. This duke was in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred twentie and six, and in the second yeare of the reigne of Iames the first conuicted of high treason, and be|headed before the castell of Sterling. He had issue two sons, Walter Steward, and Alexander, which were also beheaded at the same place the daie before the death of their father.

Alexander Leuingstone knight was made go|uernor the daie after that Iames the second was [...]der [...]euingstone. crowned, in the yeare of our Lord God one thou|sand foure hundred thirtie & six: for the king being but six yeares old, the nobilitie did appoint the said Alexander Leuingstone of Calender knight to be gouernor of the realme: at what time the kings person was committed to the education and rule of William Creicton knight lord chancellor, who was William [...]reicton. then confirmed in his office. After this in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred fortie and foure, about the eight yere of Iames the second, they both (through dissention which had long continued betwéene them about their authorities) were put from their offices, remooued from the king all their friends, banished the court, and they themselues commanded to appéere before the king: which bicause they refused so to doo, they were both proclamed re|bels and put to the borne.

Marie the daughter of the duke of Guelderland [...]. & widow to Iames the second, was appointed with others to be gouernors: for after the death of Iames the second, which fell in the yeare of Christ one thou|sand [...] hundred and thrée score (then Iames the thi [...] [...] sonne was but [...] yeares old) the no|bilitie assembled at E [...]rough to prouide for the administration of the realme, because the king was so young. Wherevpon [...]ere were seuen regents ap|pointed for the gouernement both of the kings per|s [...]n, and also of the kingdome, which were Marie the [...] his mother. Iames Kennedie bishop of S. Andrews, being [...]ers sonne to Iames the first, the bishop of Glascow, the earles of Angus, Hu [...]leie, Argile, and Ork [...]nie. These so long as Kennedie liued, agréed well togither about the gouernment of the realme; but shortlie after his decease, or rather before, they fell at square, which we will more large|lie touch hereafter when we haue a little spoken of the death of this bishop, falling in the yeare of our redemption one thousand foure hundred thrée score and six, and in the sixt yeare of the reigne of king Iames the third, who being buried in the college of saint Sauior which he founded most sump [...]uouslie in the towne of saint Andrews, did in his lift time be [...]es his bishop [...]ke hold in his possession the com|mandrie of the abbeie of Pettinwen, which was worth vnto him 800 crownes by yeare: the gra|uitie and wisdome of which bishop occasioned Les|le [...]s in his commendation to set downe these few words.

Hic (which was this bishop of saint Andrews) prudentia consilióque ita valuit, vt quicquid la| [...]ebat in repub [...]ca insidiarum, apperi [...]et, vnde meritò potest dici, non armis regem, sed ingenio episcopum Douglassij superbiam fregisse, ac furo|rem retudisse. Tria confecit (quorum fabrica arti|ficio insigniter polita, & sumptu magnificè instruc|ta, omnibus admirationem sui faciebant) collegi|um sancti Saluatoris, in quo iuuentus ad eruditio|nem ac religionem informari possit; sepulchrum quo mortuus tegebatur, ac nauim onerariam in|gentis magnitudinis. Horum vnumquódque c|iusdem fuisse pretij vulgi sermone celebratum est. After his death, or rather (as hath Hector Boetius) in his life, in the second yeare of the reigne of king Iames the third, being in the yeare that the word became flesh one thousand foure hundred thrée score and two, there was discord kindled betweene quéene Marie the Dowager, and the archbishop Kennedie, who perceiuing that the woman did wholie séeke to vsurpe the gouernement vnto hi [...] selfe, withstood it in that behalfe; insomuch that it was doubted that the matter would haue broken foorth into some ciuill warre, if that the bishops of Glascow, Dunkeld, and Aberden, with certeine abbats had not taken in hand to trauell betwixt both the parties for attonement, who wrought so effectuouslie therein, that the matter was quie|ted in this maner. The queene mother was ap|pointed to haue the charge and custodie of the kings person, and of his brethren Alexander duke of Al|banie, and Iohn earle of Marre, and also of their two sisters. But as for the administration and gouernement of the realme of Scotland, she should leaue it to the péeres, wherefore by common con|sent there were elected as gouernors the bishops of Glascow, and Dunkeld, the earle of Orkenie, the lord Graham, Thomas Boid, and the chancel|lor.

Margaret the daughter to Henrie the seuenth Margare [...]. king of England was (after the death of hir husband Iames the fourth, and in the minoritie of hir sonne Iames the fift, being but a yeare and six moneths old when he was inuested with the king|dome) made regent of the realme, which she should gouerne by the counsell of Iames Betune archbi|shop of Glascow, the earles of Huntleie, Angus, and EEBO page image 420 Arrane, but shortlie after they falling out amongst themselues for the bestowing of benefices, the duke of Albanie was called out of France to performe that office.

Iohn duke, of Albanie being sent for out of France (where he accustomed to abide) to come in|to Iohn duke of Albanie. Scotland (to be tutor to the king and gouernor of the realme, as he which next of bloud to the king, and néerest to the crowne) was by vniuersall con|sent at saint Iohns towne admitted to those offices accordinglie, hauing the same confirmed vnto him by a parlement holden at Edenburgh in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and thirtéene, and the first yeare of the yoong king Iames the fift. Whereof intelligence being brought vnto the du [...] yet in France, be in the yeare of Christ one thou|sand fiue hundred and fouretéene, directeth dilato|rie and excusing letters of his acceptance of that charge. At that time, but in the yere following, being the yeare of Christ, one thousand fiue hundred and fifteene, and in the third of Iames the fift, on the se|uentéenth of Maie, he arriued at the towne of Aire in Scotland to execute his office of gouernor, who was honorablie interteined at sundrie places as he passed along by the sea coasts, before he came to E|denburgh. After which a parlement was made to be called at Edenburgh (being but the continuance of the former parlement, as my memorie serueth) in which this duke of Albanie was againe confirmed gouernor, the scepter and sword being deliuered vnto him, and an oth by him to the lords, and by the lords to him giuen, that ech of them should be faithfull to ech other, and euerie of them to their lord and king, &c. After this the duke of Albanie going into France in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and seuentéene, as saieth Lesleus, commit|teth the gouernement of the kingdome in his ab|sence to the archbishops of S. Andrews and Glas|cow, and to the earles of Huntleie, Argile, Angus, and Arrane. And least anie euill might happen to the kings person in his absence, he appointed the king to be brought into the castle of Edenburgh, there to be committed to the earle marshall, and to the lords Eschwine, Bothwike, and Ruthwéene, whereof two at the least should alwaies be present with him. The duke hauing thus beene about some three yeares in France, returned into Scotland a|bout the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and twentie, remaining still gouernor: but in fol|lowing time, which was the yere of Christ one thou|sand fiue hundred twentie and foure, and about the twelfe yeare of the reigne of king Iames the fift, the duke of Albanie left that office, and went againe in|to France.

Margaret the quéene, the mother of Iames the Margaret the quéene. fift, did (after the departure of the duke of Albanie into France, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twentie and foure, the six and twentith of Iulie) find meanes that the yoong king came from Sterling vnto Edenburgh: thrée daies after which the quéene tooke the whole gouernment vpon hir, and entred into the castle of Edenburgh with the king, making the lord Maxwell prouost of E|denburgh. Then the quéene appointing a parle|ment to be held the Februarie following, there were in the same parlement eight lords chosen to be of the kings priuie councell, to take on them the gouernment of the king and the realme, which were the archbishop of S. Andrewes and Glascow, the bi|shops of Aberden & Dunblane: the earles of An|gus, Arrane and Leneux, to whom the quéene was adioined as principall, without whose aduise no|thing should be doone. Which ordinance did not long hold, Archibald Dowglasse earle of Angus in the end fullie getting the whole gouernement into his hands.

Archibald Dowglas (after that the bishop of Dun|bane Archib [...] Dowglas. was dead, and the quéene gone vnto Sterling, leauing the king with the earle of Angus, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twentie and fiue, being about the thirteenth of Iames the fift) tooke the whole gouernement vpon him both of the king and kingdome, setting vp, remoouing, and pul|ling downe what officer it best pleased him: who for the more declaration of his authoritie and gouern|ment, made his vncle Archibald Dowglas treasu|ror of the realme, and bestowed all benefices and of|fices by the aduise of his brother George Dowglas and the earle of Leneur who assisted him. After which there was a diuorce had betwéene the queene and the earle, who falling in the kings disgrace in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twen|tie and eight, and the sixtéenth yeare of the same Iames the fift, was atteinted by parlement holden at Edenburgh in September, when the king had ta|ken the absolute gouernment into his hands in the seuentéenth yeare of his age, and the said sixteenth yeare of his said gouernement. Wherevpon the yeare following, this Archibald came vnto the king for to submit himselfe, but the king would not receiue him, by reason wherof he fled into Eng|land.

Iames earle of Arrane in the yeare of Christ one Iames earle of Arr [...]. thousand fiue hundred fourtie and two, when Marie (the daughter of Iames the fift) being but seuen daies old obteined the kingdome, was by authoritie of the nobilitie proclamed regent and protector of Scotland, notwithstanding all that Dauid Beton, fauoror of the French causes had without all reason vsurped the gouernment, vnder the pretense of a de|uised will and testament of Iames the fift, in which testament he was appointed gouernor. This earle thus made protector, appointed by the old quéenes consent a gouernor to the person of the yoong quéen, which was the lord Leuingstone capteine of Lith|quo. This protector in the yeare of Christ one thou|sand fiue hundred fortie and foure, being the second yere of quéen Marie, was by the French king made knight of the order of saint Michaell. About eight yeares after which, that is in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and thrée, being about the twelfe yeare of quéene Marie, this earle was in|forced to leaue his office of gouernor, and the quéene tooke the same into hir hands, appointing procura|tors to rule the same vnder hir: wherevpon the go|uernor in the yeare following, being one thousand fiue hundred fiftie & foure, was by the French king made duke of Chatelerault. The procurators which were appointed for and by quéene Marie, were (as hath Lesleus) Henrie king of France, Charles car|dinall of Loreine and the duke of Guise his brother, touching whom thus writeth the same Lesleus in Lesleus lib. [...]. pag. 517. these words: Hos (which was hir curators) sibi in Gallia delegerat regina nostra (being Marie the queene of Scots) matris suasu, Henricum regem Franciae, Carolum cardinalem Lotharingum, ac ducem Guisium eius fratrem, qui totam regni nostri molem reginae matri procurandam transtulerunt: &c. This duke had issue Iames Hamilton earle of Arrane after lunatike, and one Dauid Hamil|ton.

Marie descended of the house of Guise, the dowa|ger Marie dowa|ger of Scot|land. of Scotland, as widow to Iames the fift, and mother to the yoong quéene Marie, was in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and foure, being the twelfe yeare both of the age and reigne of the same quéene Marie, made regent of Scotland vnder hir daughter the same yoong quéene, which EEBO page image 421 office this regent tooke vpon hir hauing the same confirmed by parlement, continuing in that place about six yeares, & died in the castle of Edenburgh, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and thrée score, being vpon the point of the eightéenth yeare of quéene Marie, whose bodie (as hath Lesleus) was after caried into France, for thus he writeth: Fuit autem corpus in Gallia postea transuectum, Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 569. primùm ad monasteriũ Feckamense, quod in Nor|mania est, deinde ad coenobium S. Petri Rhemis in Campania, cui soror ipsius piè tunc praeerat, delatũ, honorificè condebatur.

Iames Steward bastard sonne to king Iames the fift king of Scots, and base brother to Marie Iames Steward. quéene of Scots now liuing and imprisoned, being prior of saint Andrews and earle of Mar, was in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred thrée|score and two, being about the twentith yeare of the reigne of the same quéene Marie, made earle of Murreie. About fiue yeares following, after that the nobilitie had conspired against quéene Marie, tooke hir, committed hir to prison, deposed hir, and vpon the same (on the ninetéenth daie of Iulie in the yeare a thousand fiue hundred thrée score & seuen, being the fiue & twentith yeare of the reigne of that quéene) aduanced hir sonne Charles Iames Stew|ard (being then about a yeare old) to the kingdome, by the name of Iames the sixt: this Iames earle of Murreie, was made regent and gouernor of the yoong king Iames the sixt, and of the kingdome: who vpon the office receiued, did by parlement abo|lish the popes authoritie and doctrine in Scotland: continuing that office of regent vntill his death, fal|ling about the time of thrée yeares after. For in the time of Christ one thousand fiue hundred thrée score and ten, being in the third yeare of the reigne of Iames the sixt, this regent as he was riding through Lithquo, was shot at with an harquebus by one Iames Hamilton, and so wounded, that he died of the hurt the next daie following, hauing be|fore in that yeare, in which he was created earle of Murreie, maried Agnes Keith daughter to the earle Marshall.

Matthew earle of Leneux being sent for out of England, where he had before long remained, was Matthew earle of Le|neux. after the death of the earle of Murreie, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred thrée score and ten, being in the third yeare of the reigne of Iames the sixt, made lord lieutenant or protector of Scot|land, in a conuention of the lords of Sterling. Af|ter which in August following, there was another conuention at Edenburgh, where by the consent of the thrée estates of the realme, the said earle was made regent of Scotland, at what time the earle of Huntleie tooke vpon him to be lord lieutenant of Scotland: for Marie quéene of Scots remaining then vnder custodie in England, which Huntleie in hir name summoned a parlement at Lithquo the 21 daie of September, wherevnto the earle of Leneux was summoned: to incounter which, the earle of Leneux caused a parlement likewise to be summoned in the kings name, at the same place, wherevnto the earle of Huntleie was warned at the same daie. But the earle of Huntleie comming no néerer at that time than Brechin, it was ordered by the regent Leneux and the nobilitie, to pursue him: wherevpon insued great warres betwéene the nobilitie of Scotland diuided into factions, some ta|king part with the deposed quéene Marie, and other with the yoong king in possession. During which turmoiles & warres, this carle of Leneux hauing bin regent about a yeare and more, was wounded at Sterling with a pistoll by capteine Cawder, whereof he shortlie after died, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred [...]ree score and eleuen, being about the fourth yeare of Iames the sixt.

Iohn Areskin earle of Mar was made regen [...] [...] after the death of the earle Leneux, as m [...]e a [...]re by that which I haue before set downe in th [...] conti|nuance of the annals of Scotland, after [...]ome [...]|céeded the earle Morton, of whome I haue a litte [...] Scotland before spoken, and of whome we will more intreat hereafter, when we come to speake of his beheading in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fourescore and one, falling about the fourtéenth yeare of Lewes the sixt, after that the said carle had continued that office about fiue yeares. For being aduanced to that place, about the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred thréescore and twelue, he con|tinued in the same, vntill he surrendered it, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred three score and seuentéene, as is before touched. Thus setting end to the discourse of the protectors of Scotland, let vs descend to other matters which haue succéeded.

Going therefore forward with that yeare one thousand fiue hundred thrée score and seuentéene, we saie that much about the time in the which the earle Morton gaue ouer his regentship, that the The l [...]d Glames chan|cellor slaine. lord Glames, who was then in office of the chancel|lorship, was trecherouslie slaine by his enimies at Sterling, with a shot of purpose discharged against him, as he was comming out of Sterling castell, & going to his owne lodging from the councell orpar|lement. Whereby it séemeth that this murthering by sudden shot began now to be a common thing: for there were three great persons in short time dispat|ched after that sort, which were the earles of Mur|reie and Leneux regents, & this lord Glames chan|cellor. The earle of Atholl made chancellor. After the death of which lord Glames, the earle of Atholl was aduanced to that place, and in|uested with the title of lord chancellor of Scotland. Wherefore, hauing so good occasion therefore at this time by talking of this earle of Atholl thus made lord chancellor to treate of that office: I thinke it not inconuenient in this place, nor disagréeable to the nature of the matter which I haue in hand, some|what by waie of digression, to discourse of the origi|nall of this office in Scotland, of the etymon of the name, and other circumstances belonging thereto.

This officer the chancellor had his first origi|nall The originall of the office of the chancellor. in Scotland by Malcolme the second of that name king of Scots, who beginning his reigne in the yeare of our redemption one thousand and ten, and gouerning thirtie yeares, departed the world in the yeare of C [...]rist one thousand and fortie. This man, during the time of his gouernment, ordeining manie necessarie lawes for the better rule of his countrie, and for the benefit of the crowne, did also first ordeine the honorable officers of the kingdome, as chancellor, conestable, marshall, chamberleine, and others, as appeareth by Lesleus in his historie of Scotland in these words: Foeliciter rem publicam Lesleus lib. 5. pag. 204. haud paucos annos administrauit (king Malcolme) multis & egregijs operibus illustris: intérque caete|ra municipialium legum volumen condidit, quas nostrates exinde in iudicijs ferendis seruarunt, nihil pene immutates, regiorum magistratuum iudicúm|que, quos licet mund [...]ús, magisque Latinè vocare possunt, vulgò tamen cancellarium, conestabilem, mariscallum, camerarium, iusticiariúmque vocitant, & qui a secretis, a thesauris, a cubiculo, a chartophy|laceo essent: cunctoiúmque ministrorum aulae an|nua salari [...], vt nostris diebus penduntur, quantúm|que regijs pro diplomatibus, ac caeteris literis, libel|lionibus, tabularijs, lectoribúsque soluendum foret, institu [...]. This officer being in Scotland before the time of Edward the Confessor séemeth also to me co|uettlie EEBO page image 422 to proue, that the same officer was in Eng|land before the time of the same king, sith it appea|reth, that the Scots for the most part haue alwaies taken their maner of gouernement, lawes, and cu|stomes from vs, as will be I doubt not sufficientlie proued, although it maie be that some will affirme that they might haue this officer from the French|men and Romans as other nations had: which as I doo not suppose, because the Romans had but little dooings amongest them, for as they neuer vsed anie such officer in this land whilest they gouerned here (for aniething that I can yet learne) so it may be, (because they will not séeme to haue borrowed anie order of their gouernement from vs) that they will suppose that they had the first ground of this officer from the French, with whome they haue alwaies béene in league euer since the time of their king A|chaius the first, who (beginning his reigne in the yeare of Christ seuen hundred fourescore and eight) did knit a perpetuall league with Charles the great. But leauing that to be as it will (sith it is no disho|nor for one nation to deriue their good lawes, bene|ficiall customes, or needfull officers from another, no more than it was for the Romans to fetch their lawes of the twelue tables from the Grecians) true it is, that this officer so ordeined by Malcolme amongst the Scots, was such an officer as was vsed amongst the Romans, touching the cause of whose name, the ciuilians affirme that he was cal|led Cancellarius à cancellando, cuius officium est re|scripta, vel responsa imperatoris, & mandata inspice|re, mala scripta cãcellare, & bene scripta cũsignaculo suo fignare, & sigillũ eis imprimere. Of which word chancellor is risen this name, Archicãcellarius quasi princeps cancellaiae, as is noted by Azo in summa.

This officer taking his name of Cancellando, (that is of defacing, blotting, or putting out of writings, did vse to adnull all writings, as we at this daie doo obserue in our chancerie, by drawing certeine strokes or lines made crosse one vpon an other ouer the writing, in forme of woodden latices, in Latine termed Cancelli, which are either such la|tices as we at this daie, and of antiquitie vsed in windowes, or such as were made to compasse a|bout the iudgement seats. For thus said the ciuili|ans touching that; Cancelli sunt ligna inter se mo|dicis interuallis in trasuersum connexa, quibus tri|bunalia, scaenae & fenestrae muniri consueuerunt. And Cicero saith in his first booke De oratore; Fo|rensibus cancellis circumscriptam sententiam, &c. From which word Cancelli, is deduced this word Cancellare. For thus doo some write thereof: Can|cello verbum videtur esse deductum à Cancellis, in quibus vt transuersaria nectuntur ligna, ita cum scripta expungenda sunt, transuerso calamo lineae inducuntur, quod propriè illinere, seu allinere est, vel litura: whervpon thus writeth Q. F. Horace the liricall poet in his tract called the art of poetrie:

—incomptis allinet atrum
Transuerso calamo signum, &c:
as who should saie, He dooth cancell and blot out the writing with lines drawne one ouer an other like latices, the ciuilians fullie agréeing to the same and saieng, that Cancellare est scripta transductis lineis Gl. in l. si quis, libertatem, de [...]t. haered. instar cancellorum delere. Beside which this word Cancellarius is also by some (whose curious ears and pens count the words of former ages to be barba|rous) taken scarselie for good Latine, and therefore saie that this officer more purelie ought to be called Scribarum praefectus, of which number Polydor Vir|gil is one, who in his admonition to the reader, at the end of his historie of England, setteth downe these words: Monitum te optime lector volo, per multa verba minùs Latina longo vsu non item ratio|ne iam primùm in consuetudiné quotidiani sermonis venisse, sic vt velimus nolimus ea i [...]erdum vsurpare cogamur, cuiusmodi sunt dux & comes, olim officij tantum at summae nuc dignitatis vocabula. I [...]em co|mitatus pro regione, cancellarius pro scribarum, ab|bas prior pro mon [...]chorum praefecto: and Leland calleth the chancellor Archigrammateus. Besides which there be some in our age, who searching after the originall & etymologies of names, affirme this word chancellor to be deriued from the Saxon toong, as it were a cleare or shining person or one excel|ling other men: compounding that word of these two parts, chance and clere, in which word this part clere dooth after the Saxon signifie in Latine Praee|minens, or clarus, and that part chance must note to vs a man. But how aptlie and trulie the same may stand to make the etymon of chancellor, I leaue to others to consider. This thus said for the originall and name of the officer called the chancellor, of whose succession we will talke hereafter, and will now returne to the matters of Scotland in this sort.

In the moneth of Iulie there was a parlement of the nobilitie assembled, where Robert Steward 1578 Robert Steward created earle of Leneux. great vncle to the king was created erle of Leneux, being girded with the sword of that earledome, after the death of Charles Steward, sonne of Matthew Steward erle of Leneux, wherof we haue before in|treated. But ouerpassing this Robert, being honou|red with a new title, not due to him by inheritance, for anie thing which I can yet perceiue, we will for a while take our leaue of the Scotish soile, though not of the Scotish persons, and remember to speake somewhat of the dooings of Steward, coronell of the Scots, which serued in the wars of the low coun|tries: where he behaued himselfe right valiantlie to his owne and his countries commendation. For when the warres were at the hottest in those low The tragica [...]l historie of [...] ciuill warres of the low countries. li 4. fo. 31. Church|yards choice. countries betwéene the states and king Philip (at what time the archduke Matthias was generall for the noblemen or states, and Iohn duke of Austria, the base sonne of Charles the fift, and like brother to king Philip, was gouernour of those parts for the same king Philip) the states gathered a puissant armie of all such nations as were there in seruice with them (as English, Scots, Germans, and their owne countriemen) vnder the conduct of the countie Bossue, with whome duke Iohn of Austria deter|mining to encounter, hoping by that one conflict to set end to all the warres, and to make a full pacifi|cation of the countrie: it happened that on the first of August, in this yeare that the armie of the duke of Austria comm [...]ng to visit the armie of the states (which laie then incamped in the field called Remi|nant) that in the armie (as I said before composed of diuerse nations both footmen and horssemen) there was amongst others one companie of Scots vnder the leading of Steward their capteine and countri|man, who being with his companie called foorth into the battell, was appointed to kéepe the streict on the left side, when the English should kéepe the like streict on the right hand After which the enimie ma|king towards the armie of the states, they were in|tercepted by the English, who interteined them with such sufficient skirmish, as that they forced Don Iohns men to giue ground and retire towards the strength of the Scots (which the same Steward had in charge) and that so farre, that in the same action the English brought themselues betwixt the enimie and the Scots, who mistaking the companie, and supposing them to be their enimies, gaue them from the hedge, where they laie such a volée of shot, that it made them to loose more ground than euer the eni|mie could haue doone.

The enimie in the meane time perceiuing that and EEBO page image 423 and being now fighting vpon the retreict came forward with great force and furie, hauing a new supplie of numbers of fresh souldiors to succour them. All which notwithstanding they could not for all that they might do, force them to abandon the streict which they had in charge, vntill such time as certeine Englishmen (that were left within the closes to disouer the enimie) brought word that the enimie had entred the streict vpon the Scots. Which thing was in deed verie true, for euen at that instant the fire was seene to arise in the village, and the whole forces which were to enter betweene the water and the English companies, retired themselues to the heath againe. The Scots then valiantlie making good their fight vpon the retreict, the lieutenant of the English was likewise driuen to the same: which if he had not doone, the enimie had cut betwixt him, his companie and the trenches. This being well perceiued by capteine Liggins, he presentlie aduanced himselfe, and was now come halfe the waie to the succour of the lieutenant, to preuent the enimie and to ioine with the forces of the same lieutenant, all who being gotten togither, doo retire to the church, and perceiuing that the enimie came on appase, the lieutenant of the English leaueth capteine Liggins to a reasonable ground of strength to interteine them, when he himselfe rideth backe to fetch releefe for capteine Liggins his retreict.

The enimie seein [...] the streict of the waie, and that their other forces preuailed more on the other streict forsooke anie longer to attempt the same against the English, and retired themselues all they might on the side ouer the closes, to ioine them with their o|ther forces, which had euen now passed the streict [...]ch the Scots had in gard, who all togither made hast vp to the hill, and so to the burnt house, then fired by the Scots, at that instant forsaking the field, and retiring them to the campe, after that they had ob|teined victorie against the Spaniards, by valiant resisting & pursuing the force of the enimie. At what time also maister Norris coronell of the English and the forenamed maister Steward coronell of the Scots, carried awaie the whole commendation of this victorie obteined by the men of these two nati|ons of England and Scotland. But leauing the Scots reioising of this goo [...] successe in those low countries, we will call backe our pen and resalute the countrie of Scotland, at this time in some ciuill dissentions amongst themselues, whereof these manie yeares, since the gouernment of this yoong king, it sée meth to me that it hath not long beene [...]0.

In the forenamed moneth of August, there grew secret dissention amongst the nobilitie at home, which still continued & fed the former vnkindlie fire of contention betwéene the two factions of the yoong king, and the imprisoned qu [...]ne: by occasion wherof the realme was diuided into three parts, some fol|lowing the king, some standing one the queenes si [...], & some assisting neither of both, all which by some were termed by three seuerall names; as the kings saction, the part of the male-contents, and the neu|trals, consisting of such as remained indifferent on both [...]s, neither saeking to vphold the one or to sup|p [...]esse the other. Amongst which on the kin [...]s part were m [...] earls, lords and bishops, as Dowglasse erle Morton admerall of Scotland, Dowglasse erle of Angus, Dowglasse earle of Buquha [...], Areskin earle of Marre, Steward earle Bo [...]well, Cuning|ham earle of Glenkarne, Le [...]eh earle of Wroth|ouse, Montgamerie earle of Eglington, Steward earle of Orkeneie, and Steward earle of Leneux, all which were in house with the king, and attendant vpon his person, with whome were confederat the lords Boid. Och [...]ltree Ruthwen treas [...]or of Scot|land, Harris, Marwell, Lindseie, Semple, and o|thers.

Besides these, bishops and abbats, that is to saie. Patrike [...]amsen archbishop of S. Andrews, Cun|ningham (kinsman to the erle of [...]lencarne) bishop of Abeiden, Boid (of bloud and kindered with the lord Boid) archbishop of Glascow, Dowglasse bi|shop of Ma [...]aw, Herburne bishop of Rosse, Ro|bert Petearne abbat of Dunfermeling, chefe secre|tarie of Scotland, Coluington abbat of Cow [...]ros. Richard Bedwell abbat of Holierood house, one of the councell, the abbats of Cambuskinnell and of Dribourgh, with Iames Maghill maister of the rolles, or clearke of the register, and one of the coun|cell. These noble persons thus aiding the king, the partie of the male-contents was supported by ma|nie other persons of the nobilitie: as Ca [...]erle erle of Argile, Steward earle of A [...]oll, Sincleare earle of Cathnesle, Gordon earle of Southerland, Gor|don earle Huntleie (who was verie yoong, of [...] yeares of age, and had his power with these earles) the earles of Mentros and Menteth (being both surnamed Grahams) and Kenedie earle of Cassel|les a child of t [...]ree yeares old, whose strength was also ioined to these male-contents. Besides which earles there was to assist those male-contents Crawford shiriffe of Aire, Kenedie lord of Kurgenie, Kene|die lord of Blachekichen, the lords of Marewell, Locheuar, Hume (being but six yeares old) which Hume lord of Colden Knolles (warden of the middle marche [...] of Scotland) Alexander Hume of Maund|stone, Care (lord Seford, and the lord Lindseie, with the Hebburns, which wholie depended vpon the lord Lindseie; vnto whom in like sort, as partaking of the same malecontentment, were added Alexander Are|skine, of Mar, vncle to the earle of Mar, & capteine of the castell of Edenburough, and Cunningham the lard of Drunwassell, capteine of Dunbritaine, with manie other persons of honour and strength.

The heads of these two factions thus set downe, it resteth now to declare who were the neutrals, who being but few, and as I can yet learne onelie thrée in number, so they were of no great power; aswell for that the one of them being Keth the earle Mar|shall, was a sickelie man; as for that the Hamil|tons were not beloued of the king, nor greatlie estée|med of the other factions: and the third, the Leuing|stons familie, wanting their head the lord of that house, being then in France, wherby they could not be of great power, which part soeuer they should sup|port. The ord [...]r of which diuision and procéeding in Scotland, comming afterward to the knowledge of the quéene of England, who had sent Robert Bowes a man of good seruice hir ambassador into Scotland, she did also (tendering the yoong king of Scots, and as a carefull neighbour and louing god|mother, fearing least that he might receiue iniurie, by the assemblie of these malecontents, whose power grew to be somewhat strong direct hir commis|sion to the earle of Huntington, president of the north in England, and to the lord Hunsdon capteine of Berwike, they both being of bloud and aliance vnto hir maiestie. In which commission, she willed them to leuie an armie of footemen and horssemen to be imploied in those warres. All which these Eng|lish lords should haue in a redinesse, against such time as the said maister Bowes (who as ye haue heard before, had beene sent into Scotland to paci|fic these troubles, and to establish a quiet peace and loue amongst them should gi [...] knowledge for their entrance into the Scotish dominions, order the conduct of the same lord of Hunsdon, against the power of those male-contents. Wherevpon the EEBO page image 424 lord Hunsdon (hauing a time appointed him accor|dinglie, and being in order set, well furnished with men and munition) setting forward to execute the force of his commission, threatned spoile to manie places of Scotland belonging to the borderers, and burnt the houses of the lords there inhabiting: if they ioined themselues with the male-contents, as they had fullie deliberated for to doo. By reason whereof, they leauing their former determination, and for that present refusing to ioine against the king: these male-contents (doubting the sequell of their attempt, and how they might performe that which they had taken in hand, being now in the field and in armes (against the other faction) began to hearken vnto a pacification, and were after recon|ciled to the king and the other lords, about the two and twentith of the same moneth of August, as I haue béene informed. Which matter being more largelie to be discussed, because it is knowne by the name of the battell of Faukirke, I must for this time passe ouer, determining hereafter more libe|rallie to intreat thereof. Wherefore, falling into other matter, we saie, that much about this time, Iohn Lesle bishop of Rosse (who had some yeares before been some certeine time imprisoned in the Tower of London in England, and had trauelled to Rome about the affaires of the imprisoned quéene of Scotland, where he labored to procure such aid for hir, as the princes which fauored hir faction would yéeld) did depart from Rome, and went from the pope to Randulph, as the second of that name now emperor. Which Lesle, taking his iourneie out of Italie, passed through the frontier townes of Ger|manie, and was staied at Phaltzburgh, otherwise called Palatinopolis, by George duke of Bauier, countie Palatine of Rhene, and earle of Ueldt|zens; in which citie, his cofers and other thinges were ri [...]ed and searched: at what time there were manie writings found, and amongst others cer|teine papers, in which did appeare what friends the quéene of Scots had of all the parts of Europe, what enimies, and what neutrals: with letters and other instructions of Philip king of Spaine.

All which notwithstanding (though they gaue the said George occasion to mistrust Lesle, as an eni|mie to his religion) this bishop of Rosse was after|ward dismissed, because he was furnished with the emperors pasport, or safe conduct to come vnto him. Wherefore the duke of Bauier for his better dis|charge, and to manifest to the world that they did nothing but that, which both the present estate of these troublesome times, and the dutie of a religi|ous prince required, did honorablie dismisse the said Lesle, bearing all his charges, restoring all his goods, and conueieng him out of his dominions with a goodlie companie of horssemen, after that he had caused the said bishop of Rosse to leaue a testimoni|all writing in the Latine toong vnder his owne hand, to shew that no iniurie was doone to the said bishop, in that his deteining and search for those causes; & that the bishop should not anie waie séeke anie reuenge thereof: the copie of which writing (as I receiued the same) I haue faithfullie and Verbatim set downe in this sort.

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