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3.2. The summons giuen to the castell of Edenborough.

The summons giuen to the castell of Edenborough.

_SIr William Kircawdie, sometimes of Grange knight, forsomuch as the queens maiestie my souereigne ladie, vpon the ernest request of hir deere cousin the king of Scots your souereigne lord made to hir highnes by his regent, nobilitie, & estates of Scotland, after all good meanes vsed to haue reduced you to a duti|full obedience of his authoritie by treatie, which hi|therto you haue not dulie harkened vnto, to the on|lie hinderance of the vniuersall peace in this realme, by withholding that his highnesse castell, meaning (as it séemeth) to reserue the same for a receptacle of foren forces, to the manifest dangers both of this realme and of my souereigns; and therefore neces|sarie to remoue so perilous a danger to both the realmes. For which consideration hir maiestie hath sent hir aid and succors, men, ordinance, and muniti|on vnder my charge and leading, for the expugnati|on and recouerie of the said castell to the said kings vse and behoofe. And therefore, according to hir ma|iesties commandement and commission; this shall be in due maner to warne, require, and summon you, that you render and deliuer the said castell with the whole ordinance, artillerie, munitions, iewels, hous|hold stuffe, and such other implements within the same to me, and to the vse and behoofe of the king your souereigne and his regent in his name, imme|diatlie after this my letter of summons or know|ledge of the same shall come to you. Which if you o|beie, as of dutie you ought; then shall I in hir maie|sties name interpone my selfe to trauell with the re|gent, councell, and nobilitie here for the safetie of your liues, &c: otherwise, if you continue in your for|mer obstinacie, abiding the canon, then no further to looke for grace or fauor; but you and the rest with|in that castell, to be pursued to the vttermost, and holden as enimies to hir maiestie, your owne soue|reigne, and countrie. Giuen at Edenborough by me sir William Drurie knight generall of hir ma|iesties forces now in Scotland, this fiue and twen|tith daie of Aprill, in the yeare of Christ 1573.

This letter by the lord Grange capteine of the cas|tell thus in due sort receiued, he not regarding the contents thereof, nor considering the mild dispositi|on of such as went about to spare their bloud, did vt|terlie denie the surrender of the castell, and with all force determined to defend themselues. Wherewith the English generall greatlie grieued, did inconti|nently redeliuer such answer to the said lord Grange as wrought an vtter discontent and mislike in the man. By meanes of which the pioners attending their charge, with expedition applied the casting of trenches and erecting of mounts or fortresses to plant the artillerie therevpon against the castell. After which euerie one hastening the cause of his comming, & ioining their force togither, began to in|uiron the towne, & to laie siege to the castell in fiue seuerall places, where were fiue seuerall fortresses e|rected for that cause, intituled by these names. The first mount allotted to the regent, had the name of the kings mount, the second the generall thereof the English sir William Drurie did possesse, the third was in charge of sir George Carie, the fourth was called sir Henrie Leies mount, and the fift fell to the gouernement of Thomas Sutton maister of the or|dinance in the north parts of England. The whole number of which armie vnder paie was two thou|sand, wherof fiftéene hundred were English, and the other fiue hundred Scots: besides the nobilitie and gentlemen with their companie, and the citizens of Edenborough defended with thirtie péeces of artille|rie conteining six canons, nine demicanons, nine culuerings, and six sacres. Whilest the armie with|out was thus preparing for to assaile the companie within, the capteine of the castell (to hinder their worke) liberallie saluted the pioners & other soldiors with such artillerie as they had within the castell, and vpon and about the walles thereof; whereby ma|nie were hurt, some slaine, but more hindered before the trenches and mounts might be brought to their due perfection, for defense of the assailants, and offense of the assailed. In which action also the ad|uerse part forgot not to requite the castillians, but mostlie after that the pioners and laborers had fini|shed EEBO page image 413 the mounts. At what time they gaue vehement and sharpe assault to the castell, although that the ex|treame heat thereof began not vntill the seauen|téenth daie of Maie following. In which siege on the said seauentéenth daie of Maie, the castell was most roughlie assailed by thirtie shot of canon discharged against the same. At what time those peeces so well performed their parts against Dauids tower, that the force of the English canons was easie to be then and long after seene therein. Which assalt continued vntill the one and twentith daie of Maie following, on which daie the whole batterie began not againe as before against part, but wholie round about on ech side of the castell. For vntill then Dauids towre was onelie the marke of the enimie: but after that daie they laid out their power in euerie place, offen|ding and defending ech others soldiors, as well with|in the castell as within the mounts and trenches, in that sharpe conflict hurting and killing manie of the English and Scots. Wherevpon the diligence of the English began to be so great, that they forthwith dis|placed the ordinance in the castell, and stroke one of their greatest péeces iust in the mouth: whereby the same was broken, and the castillians force somewhat abated.

After this, on the six and twentith daie of the said moneth of Maie, there was a fresh assault giuen at seuen of the clocke in the morning to the Spurre (a place of defense or blockehouse before the said castell) which by the assailants was taken, & forthwith vpon the entrance therin was the banner of the generall displaied and set vp, to declare who possessed the same, to the great discomfort of them in the castell. For although before they had lost the vse of one of their great péeces, that their walles were battered, that some of their men were slaine, & that they had almost all their water taken from them: yet would they not yéeld, neither did anie whit begin to despaire of kéeping the castell, or repelling the enimie; vntill such time as the English had now gotten the posses|sion of the Spurre.

Now, during the time that these gaue the assault to the Spurre, there was an other band of English|men and Scots, that had in charge to make shew of a fresh assault, at the west part of the castell; to the end that such as laied batterie to the Spurre, might with more ease to themselues, and lesse suspicion of the aduerse part, obteine the said Spurre. But this last named band, ouer hastilie putting themselues in aduenture beyond the limits of their charge, were repelled and driuen to the recoile, with the hurt and losse of thirtie persons, or thereabouts. All which notwithstanding, the castillians (perceiuing their chiefest defense the Spurre to be lost, and not great|lie reioising of this small victorie ouer those which assailed them on the west side) did the same daie by a drumme demand parlee: which they obteined with truce of peace from that daie, vntill the eight and twentith of Maie next following. For which cause the lard of Pittadrow was let downe by a rope from the castell, and after him the lard of Grange, capteine of the said castell, with Robert Meluine; all which came to haue conference with the generall sir William Drurie, & such other persons as were cho|sen to accompanie him about the same. In the end, vpon much conferrence had betweene the Scotish lards and the generall, the castell was the same eight and twentith daie (in which the truce ended) deliue|red vp into the hands of the said sir William Dru|rie, which he kept in his possession for a certeine time; during whose abode in the castell, he set vp and spred his ensignes and banners vpon sundris parts of the wals of the same.

This doone, the generall (after quiet possession had, not determining to reteine it vnto his mistresse vse, sith he was onelie appointed by hir to aid the king of Scots, and such of the nobilitie as tooke his part) did after (according to his commission) deliuer ouer the same castell to the vse of the yong king of Scots; for which cause not meaning vtterlie to spoile the ca|stell, he gaue but part of the spoile to the vse of the soldiers, leauing the canons and other artillerie to the kings pleasure. For before the surrender of the castell, it was agréed, that if the Englishmen had by force taken it, as they obteined it by composition, that then they should wholie haue inioied the full spoile by the space of thrée daies, the artillerie onelie excepted, which should be carried awaie by the Eng|lish. But sith for these causes following, the same could not abide anie long siege, but must of necessi|tie yéeld it selfe, there was euerie part of the said spoile giuen vnto the souldiers vpon the deliuerie of the same castell to sir William Drurie. The causes of which surrender were manie.

First, for that they were depriued of water, bi|cause the well within the castell was choked with the ruines of the castell wals; & the other well without could not serue them, bicause there was a mount made to hinder them. An other water there was (which was vnknowne to such as were without the castell) and was taken from them by the losse of the Spurre, out of which they were woont to haue a pint a daie for euerie souldier. The other causes of surrender were these.

Secondlie, diuerse persons were sicke, especiallie thorough drinke of the water of saint Margarets well without the castell on the north side, which had béene poisoned by some of their enimies.

Thirdlie, diuerse others were hurt.

Fourthlie, not manie to mainteine the castell, and they not able to take anie rest, being so plied and dailie wearied with batterie.

Fiftlie, diuerse of the souldiers diuided in opi|nions.

Sixtlie, some were no souldiers at all.

Seauenthlie, that no aid was to be looked for by the waie of France.

The eight and chiefe cause was, that the regent and his forces planted in the strengths round about, and the horssemen dailie and nightlie watching and riding, which held and tooke from them all vittels, and had brought them to great scant of food before the siege began. All these eight causes mooued the said surrender of the castell.

After that the castell was thus gotten, the sixtéenth daie of Iune following, the prisoners were deliue|red by the said sir William Drurie, in the presence of sundrie Scots & Englishmen, vnto the regent; and that doone, the same daie sir William Drurie departed with his power to Berwike. The names of the prisoners were these; sir William Kircaw|die lard of Grange, and capteine of the castell of E|denborough, the lord Hume, William Metellan, lord of Lethington secretarie, the lard of Pittadrow constable of the castell, the countesse of Argile, the ladie of Lethington and the ladie of Grange, with o|thers. But yet the priuat soldiers & others of meaner sort were suffered to depart with bag and baggage.

Thus was the castell of Edenborough woone, as you haue heard, which by the common opinion of men was impregnable, and not to be taken by force; insomuch as manie thought it tooke the name of the maiden castell, for that it had not béene woone at any time before except by famine or practise. Which opini|on being common is so much the falser, in that the common sort doo imbrace it, for that they iustlie in|cline to common fables. For this castell was not sur|named the maiden castell, bicause it was neuer ta|ken EEBO page image 414 by force: but bicause the princes children were there nourished, as maie well appeare by that which I shall set downe touching the antiquitie of this towne & the name thereof; of which there be diuerse opinions. For some will haue it to be built by Ebo|racus, of some called Ebrancus king of Britaines, called also in British Castle mynid Agnes, the ca|stell of saint Agnes hill, afterward the castell of vir|gins. But Lesleus will haue it built long after the time of H. Lhoid, by the space of six hundred foure Humfred. Lhoid. in b [...]. Brit. I. Stow. score and foure yeares, for thus he writeth. Chrut [...]us Camelodunum primariam Pictorum vrbem & Agnedam postea Ethinburgum ab Etho quondam rege dictam, cum puel|larum Lesleus lib. 2. pag. 84. castro, vbi regis & nobilium Pictorum filiae dum nup|tui darentur, seruar [...], & praeceptis ad humanitatem & virtu|tem informari solebant, condidit. A little before which, the Campdenus in Scotia saith ab Ebranco Britan|no aut ab Hetho Picto Edinbur|gum deducere quid aliud est quàm seriò [...] said Lesleus writeth that Fergusius died Anno ante Christi in carnem aduentum 305, & that Hoc tempore Es|dadus Britonum & Chrutnaeus Camelonus Pictorum imperi|um tenebant. Now this king Chrutneus that built Agneda, liued before Christ three hundred and fiue yeares by the Scots account, and Eborac or E|branke liued nine hundred foure score & nine yeares before Christ: so that the Englishmen make this towne more ancient than the Scots. But as Les|leus hath mistaken himselfe, following Boetius, to place Camelodunum in Scotland: so hath he ap|pointed Edenburgh to be built by the Scots, being built by the Britaines. But true it might be that E|borac first builded it, & that being in the space of six hundred foure score and foure yeares wasted and vtterlie decaied, the same was afresh erected by Chrutneus, and after repared by Ethus. The castell of which towne, being sometime appointed for the bringing vp of the daughters of the noblemen of the Picts, vntill they were mariageable, was for that cause (and not bicause it was neuer woone by force) called the maiden castell, as the said Lesleus affir|meth. But after, when christianitie came into Scot|land, it was called (as I coniecture) Agneda, bicause it was the castell that stood on saint Agnes hill, & not before the comming of Christ so called Agneda, as hitherto it hath béene set downe, but not rightlie; as I maie with reuerence speake vnder correction of such as by better authoritie can disprooue that I saie.

But here let vs a little leaue the countrie so [...]e of Scotland, and such things as were there then 1574 The tragicall historie of the warres of the low countries lib. 3. doone; and talke somewhat of the persons of that realme, who performed matter of valure in for|ren countries. Whilest the towne of Leiden was stronglie besieged (in the moneth of Iune) and that the townesmen (hauing a néedfull and héedfull care) were altogither imploied about making of prouision of all such things as were déemed necessarie for the defense of the same towne; the principall part of the commandators armie arriued in Bommell quar|ters, Gorcun and Lowiestein. Howbeit the prince and the estates of the low countries made no great account therof, by reason that Bommell (which was well furnished of all things necessarie for the wars) was vnder the custodie of capteine Baufoure, coro|nell of the Scotishmen, who had there attending on The Scots repelled their enimies at Bommell. him the number of seauen Scotish ensignes. Which Scots desirous to performe some matter of value, dailie sallied out of the towne with some of the citi|zens and gentlemen Hollanders; in which often issu|ing they valian [...] [...]ished with the enimies. Whereby in the end amongest their sundrie conflicts there were manie warlike exploits performed by the Scots, [...] deserued not to be forgotten: as well for that they often repelled the enimie, and kept their strength togither; as for that they being few in number aduentured (beyond the hope of good hap, by incountering with a greater troope of such as came against them, than they were themselues) either to returne victors, or to loose their liues.

After which also the same Scots, continuing in those low countries, performed manie other mat|ters of martiall exploits, which I will set downe in 1576 The Scots denie their [...]urtherance to the writing of the annales of Scotland. this place. For [...]th I haue béene denied of some of the Scots (whom these annales chiefelie concerne) such things as might supplie the default of sufficient matter of Scotland to furnish the same; and for that I haue béene defrauded of the performance of pro|mise made vnto me by manie others of that nation, who for dutie vnto that countrie ought, and for clea|ring some sinister opinion conceiued against them of their actions in their owne countrie should haue sought to further me in these my labours: I must leaue things done in Scotland, and turne my pen to other places; producing matter to helpe my bar|ren discourse, which inforced therevnto dooth deliuer an action performed by the Scots in the same low countries; where they which were then in seruice a|gainst the Spaniards, vnder the paie of the prince of Orenge, did that which deserueth not to be forgot.

These Scots therefore remaining in those coun|tries, seruing vnder the conduct of their coronell sur|named Baufoure, did in Ianuarie set foorth & meet The tragicall historie of the warres of the low countries lib. 4. with the Spaniards at a place called the Footbale, distant not much more than a mile frõ Leige, where was a long and sharpe conflict betwéene these two nations. In which by the successe of battell (for the most part yéelding victorie vnto the stronger side) a great multitude of them were left dead in the place, and the rest driuen to saue themselues by flight from The Scots put to flight besides Leige. their enimies: who yet felt not this ouerthrow so swéet and gainefull, but that they lost manie of their people before the Scots were put to the worst.

But leauing these Scots in the midle of the wars of these countries vnder the prince of Orenge, we are to come to other matters following by successi|on of time, which hath deliuered to vs that Marga|ret the daughter & heire of Archibald Dowglasse 1577 earle of Angus, died in England the tenth of March in the yeare of our redemption 1577, beginning the yeare at the A [...]ntiation of the virgin. Which ladie being borne at Harbotell castell in England Some part of the life o [...] Margaret Dowglas. in the yeare of Christ 1515, was afterward brought vp in England; and then being priuslie assianced in the eight and twentith yeare of king Henrie the eight, being the yeare of Christ 1536, to Thomas Howard yoongest brother to the duke of Northfolke, she was that yeere committed prisoner to the tower; but after set at libertie the last of October, in the nine and twentith yeare of king Henrie the eight, in the yeare 1537, & maried to Matthew Steward earle of Lennox by the consent of Henrie the eight king of England, in the yeare of our saluation 1544. After which, being tossed with both fortunes, sometime in aduersitie, & sometime in prosperitie, she was notwithstanding alwaies honorablie inte [...]tei|ned in England, as both hir birth in respect of hir kinglie bloud, and hir calling in respect of hir place, did worthilie deserue. In the end, to cut off all hir o|ther aduersities, and to draw to things falling in mine owne knowledge, she was on the two and twentith of Aprill in the yeare 1565 (vpon the ma|riage of hir sonne Henrie Steward lord Darneleie vnto Marie Steward quéene of Scots) commanded by the quéene of England first to kéepe hir chamber in the Whitehall the princes court and palace, where I. Stow. she remained vntill the two and twentith daie of Iune next insuing; and was then by sir Francis Knolles (one of the priuie councell and vice cham|berleine to the queene of England) and by some o|ther of the gard conueied to the fowre of London by wa [...]er; in which place she remained prisoner vntill EEBO page image 415 that hir sonne the said Henrie Steward was mise|rablie and traitorouslie slaine by the earle Both|well and his complices (as some affirme, but how trulie I know not) vpon the twentith of Februarie one thousand fiue hundred three score & six. In which yeare, on the two and twentith of the same moneth, the said ladie Margaret was discharged out of the towre and set at libertie, who still remaining in En|gland did (as before is said) in the thrée score & second yeare of hir age, and in the sixt yeare of hir widow|hood, surrender hir soule to God, being most honora|blie buried & answerablie to hir calling in the great chapell of Westminster (built by Henrie the seuenth king of England) among the kings of that realme in an inward chapell standing on the right & the southside of the said great chapell. The yeare before whose death hir sonne Charles Steward earle of Lennox (hauing before maried Elisabeth the daugh|ter of sir William Candish, by whome he had issue Arbella) did also depart this life. Ouer the bodies of both which persons, Thomas Fowler executor to the said ladie Margaret, did with the goods of the said ladie erect a costlie and statelie toome of rich stone and curious workemanship, with the picture of that ladie, as liuelie, and as well coloured as art might afford it, about which monument is grauen this me|morable epitaph declaring hir nobilitie, as insueth.

At the head of the toome is set downe Memoriae sacrum.

Margaretae Dowglasiae, Matthaei Stuarti Leuiniae comitis vxori, Henriciseptimi Angliaeregis exfilia nepti, potentiss. regibus cognatione coniunctissimae, Iacobi sexti regis auiae, matronae sanctiss, moribus, & inuicta animi patientia, in|comparabili P.

Obijt Martij decimo Anno Domini 1577.

On the right side of which toome is this ingrauen.

Margareta potens, [...]irtute potentior, ortis
Regibus ac proauis nobilitata suis:
Inde Calidonijs australibus, inde Britannis
Aedita principibus, princibúsque parens:
Quae mortis fuerant soluit laetissima morti,
Atque Deum petijt, nam fuit ante Dei.

Henrie second sonne to this ladie and father to Iames the sixt now king. This Henrie was murde|red at the age of one and twentie yeares, Charles the yoongest sonne was earle of Lennox father to the late Arbell. He died at the age of one and twentie yeares, and is here intoomed.

On the left side of the toome is this ingrauen.

This ladie had to hir great grandfather king Ed|ward the fourth, to hir grandfather king Henrie the seuenth, to hir vncle king Henrie the eight, to hir coo|sine germane king Edward the sixt, to hir brother king Iames of Scotland the fift, to hir sonne king Henrie the first, to hir grandchild king Iames the sixt; hauing to hir great grandmother and grandmo|ther two quéens both named Elisabeth, to hir mo|ther Margaret quéene of Scots, to hir aunt Marie the French queene, to hir cousines germane Marie and Elisabeth quéens of England, to hir neece and daughter in law Marie queene of Scots.

At the foot of hir toome is this written.

Here lieth the noble ladie Margaret countesse of Lennox, daughter and sole heire to Archibald Dow|glasse earle of Angus, by Margaret quéene of Scots his wife, that was eldest daughter to king Henrie the seuenth, which bare vnto Matthew earle of Len|nox hir husband, foure sonnes and foure daughters.]

Which honourable toome, with these super|scriptions, was erected for the said ladie, and finished in the yeare of our redemption 1578, being begun and almost perfected in the life of the said ladie Mar|garet. This ladie being (as before is shewed) coun|tesse of Lennox and Angus, it will not be amisse to declare in this place, what became of both the said earledoms, as well in hir life, as after hir and hir sonne Charls his death. Touching Angus, this ladie Margaret, vpon the mariage of hir son Henrie lord Darneleie, which was solemnized the nine and twen|tith daie of Iulie 1565, to Marie queene of Scots, did giue the said earledome with all the rights and members thereof vnto the said queene Marie, to dis|pose as fell best vnto hir liking. Wherevpon the said quéene bestowed that honour and earledome vpon Archibald Dowglasse cousine to the said ladie Mar|garet: who being exiled, was here in England at the writing hereof. The earledome of Lennox, after the slaughter of Matthew earle of Lennox (husband to this Margaret) which was in Sterling the fourth of September, in the yeare of our redemption 1571, but 1572 as hath Lesleus, was inuested in Charles Iames the sixt king of Scotland, heire in bloud to the said Matthew earle of Lennox, father to Henrie lord Derneleie (that maried the queene) father to the said Iames the sixt. Wherevpon the yoong king, mindfull of the aduancement of his vncle Charles sonne to the said Margaret, did inuest the said Charls with the honour of the said earledome of Lennox, which Charles died in the life of his mother Marga|ret without heire male, by reason whereof the said earledome reuerted to the crowne.

But here leauing the title and succession of the earles of Lennox to an other place following (sith I am entered into the discourse of such of the earles & countesses of Lennox as be dead) I thinke it better in this place, than not at all, to mention the epitaph of Matthew earle of Lennox slaine at Sterling (as is before touched) in the yeare of Christ 1571. For al|though the same matter would more aptlie haue béene placed before at the end of the historie of Scotland, written by Holinshed, or at the begin|ning of my continuance of the annales of that countrie, when I mention the death of the said earle: yet sith the note of that epitaph came not vnto my hands, vntill I had thus farre proceeded in the histo|rie; and the same also at that time passed the print (whereby I could not set it downe in due place) I will here (hauing so good occasion therfore) intreating of the toome of his wife (whose charge also wanted not in erecting of this toome of hir slaine husband, and for that this dooth also touch some part of hir epi|taph) insert the same in this place after this maner, as it is written vpon the statelie toome of the said Matthew Lennox, and now standing in the chapell within Sterling castell, being as hereafter foloweth.

The epitaph of Matthew earle of Lennox.
Lo here a prince and potentate, whose life to vnderstand,
Was godlie, iust, and fortunate, though from his natiue land
His enmies thrice did him out thring, he thrice returnd againe,
Was lawfull tutor to the king, and regent did remaine:
Where he with rigor rebels rackt, the right for to defend,
Till enmies old through tyrans trackt, did worke his fatall end.
Lo thus respects the death no wight,
When God permits the time,
Yet shall the vengeance on them light that wrought that curssed crime.

Besides which also on the same toome are these heroicall verses set downe, declaring his name, his descent, his mariage, his issue, his offices, and such o|ther EEBO page image 416 matters belonging vnto him, as followeth.

Behold herein interred is, Matthew of Lennox earle,
Who long of late in Britaine soile, did liue a pearlesse pearle.
And as he was of roiall bloud, by roiall progenie,
From Stewards stocke of ancient time, princes of Albanie:
His fortune was euen so to match, with passing vertuous wight,
Whose race deriued from famous kings, of wide renowmed might.
His mother queene of Scotland was, and eldest daughter deare,
Of Henrie seuenth English king, a princelie mirror cleare.
Hir father earle of Angus was, she ladie Margaret hight,
The onelie heire of Angus lands, and all his fathers right.
Thus did king Brutus bloud conioine, for both by grace diuine
Are come of Northwales princes hault, which were of Troians line.
And diuerse goodlie imps there were, that issued from them twaine:
Charls Iames now king, and This was Charles earle of Lennox bu|ried in the toome which his grandmo|ther the ladie Margaret Lennox before mentioned who liued af|ter the death of this Mat|thew his grandfather. Charls the earle of them dooth still remaine,
King Henrie father to this king, their first begotten sonne:
Oh cruell fates! the which so soone, his vitall thred vnsponne,
By whose deuise the grandsire came, lord regent in this land:
And noblie bare the regall sword of iustice in his hand.
Whereby he did in tender age of the kings maiestie,
This realme protect with fortitude, prudence and equitie.
But now dame fame with flickering wings withouten anie let,
Shall spread abrode this worthie man, and through the world him set.
And tearing time shall not consume, nor weare the same awaie,
But with the worthiest reckned be, vntill the latter daie.
After which time, eternitie dooth triumph then by right.
Where he with angels shall reioise, in Gods eternall sight.

Besides which English epitaph these verses were also composed by Buchanan vpon the same earle of Lennox, wherein is not onelie set downe (as before) the honourable birth of the man, but also some of the places of his education, with other things which right fortunatlie happened vnto him in this sort.

Regis auus, regis pater, alto èsanguine regum
(Imperio quorum terra Britanna subest)
Matthaeus, genuit Laeuinia, Gallia fouit,
Pulso Anglus thalamum rém decús dedit.
Caepi invicta manu, famam virtute refelli,
Arma armis vici, consilió dolos.
Gratus in ingratos: patriam iusté pié
Cùm regerem, hostili perfidia cecidi.
Chare Iames the sixt king of Scots. nepos, spes vna domus, meliore senectam
Attingas fato, caetera dignus auo.

Thus setting end to the liues & deaths of this Mat|thew Steward erle of Lennox, of Margaret Dow|glasse his wife, to their honourable epitaphs, and to their sumptuoous sepulchres, we will come backe a|gaine to such others, either generall or speciall, acci|dents as haue fallen in the kingdome of Scotland, and which will touch the vniuersall gouernement, or the particular occurrents as well of Scotish as of o|ther forren affaires managed by them at home, or in other countries, therwithall ioining the discourse of such things as haue béene performed by other na|tions in that kingdome. Amongst which accidents in Scotland this rarelie happened, that the earle Mor|ton surrendered his protectorship or regentship of the king and kingdome of Scotland. Which I maie worthilie count rare, sith men in so great authoritie of commanding all persons, can hardlie be brought to giue ouer such honour, and to yéeld themselues to the commandement of others, bicause Qui primatus Gl. super ill ec|cles. 23 meli [...] e [...]t vt filij. sui authoritatem perdit, in despectionem & angustiam se mit|tit: qui autem locum suum sapienter custodit, se ac suos ad pro|fectum dirigit. And Bias the philosopher knew, that it was a most hard thing of all other, and onelie sauou|ring of great magnantmitie and wisdome, Fortiter ferre mutationes rerum in deterius. But he being verie wise, feared not the alteration of his estate, but ra|ther desired to be rid thereof, considering the weigh|tinesse and danger which depended therevpon, and re|membring that notable saieng of Gregorie in his Morals, declaring the singular good of such, which doo shun the gouernement of temporall things, in these words. Quasi quodam iugo seruitutis premunt prospera, dum appetuntur; premunt aduersa dum formidantur. At si quis se|mel dominationem desideriorum temporalium à collo mentis excusserit, quadam iam etiam vitae libertate perfruitur, & dum nullo desiderio foelicitatis afficitur, nullo aduersitatis errore co|arctatur.

This earle Morton (I saie) surrendred his of|fice (as before is touched) in the moneth of March, in The earle Morton sur|rendred his regentship. this yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred seuentie & seuen, at what time also Robert Bowes esquier was then in Scotland for hir maiestie of England. Upon the remouing of which erle Morton there were no more regents in that countrie, but the king tooke vpon him to rule the realme by him|selfe & by such curators as he shuld appoint therfore. For the king now about the twelfé yéere of his age thought he might aswell take vpon him the gouern|ment of the countrie by himselfe, and such as he ap|pointed at those yeares, as manie of his ancestors had doone before in their yoong yeares; notwithstan|ding the opinion of manie of the better sort of the presbiterie, which mainteine that he cannot absolute|lie rule, or perfectlie establish anie thing by the cu|stomes The kings of Scotland take on them to rule the realme with|out procura|tors being within age. of their countrie, vntill he come to the age of fiue and twentie yeares. But we find in their owne histories of Scotland, written euen by men of best iudgement, that Iames the second of that name king of Scots, did in the fouretenth yeare of his age, in the seuenth yeare of his reigne, and in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred fortie and foure, put Alexander Leuinstone knight from his regentship, and tooke vpon himselfe the absolute gouernement of the kingdome, of whom thus wri|teth Lesleus. Gubernatoris cancellarijque concilio & iussu Lesleus li. 8 pag. 295. factum est, vt omnium ordinum comitijs Striueling indies diceretur. An. Dom. 440, mense Ianuarij, omnium assensu est constitutum, vt rex suum regnum lustrans, contentiones so|piat, causas decidat, concrouersias dirimat, reliquá reipubli|cae negotia praesens procuret. Multi nobiles sese comites itine|ris adiungunt, qui in illius societatemse penitus immergentes, odij cancellarij ac gubernatoris elati, persuadent regi, vt alio|rum seruitutise premi diutius non sinat: sed vt omni iug [...] excusso, ipse sibi reipublicae gubernandae partes assumat. I [...] iu|uenili quodam regnandi ardore incensus, illorum voces tan|quam Syrenum cantum in suas aures effluere liberalissimè patiebatur. Decimum iam quartum annum agens, in regium solium praeceps irruit, ac vt publicis comitijs solus praeesset, om|nes ordines Striueli [...]gum voct, 4 Nouembris 1444.

EEBO page image 417 After which, about fiue yeares following, the same Iames, to shew his absolute and sufficient gouernement, did in the yeere of Christ 1449, in the nineteenth yeare of his age, and the twelfth yeare of his gouernement create Alexander Seton lord Gourdon earle of Huntleie, and George Lesle a baron earle of Rothesie. Iames the fourth of that name king of Scotland, being but sixteene yeares of age when he came to the crowne, in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred foure score & eight, administred the realme by himselfe without any procurator, as I gather out of Lesleus. Iames the first the king of Scots, in the yeare of our Lord one thou|sand fiue hundred twentie and eight, in the seuen|teenth yeare of his age, & about the fifteenth yeare of his gouernment, remoued the earle of Angus from the [...]ship, and tooke vpon himselfe the gouern|ment of the kingdome. And Marie the mother of the now liuing king of Scots, did in like sort in the yeare one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and two, in the tenth of hir age, and as much of hir gouernment of Scotland appoint procurators to gouerne the realme, whilest she remained in France with the French king hir husband. But enough of this, sith Lesleus in his 9. booke pag. 4 [...]9, and also in his 10. booke pag. 5 [...]7, hath liberallie argued on both parts, at what yeares the kings of Scotland may assume to themselues the gouernement of the kingdome, after that they haue atteined to the crowne in those yeares, which are ouer tender and vnfit to dispose of the sword and scepter. Wherefore to passe ouer the same, I thinke it not vnméet in this place, sith we haue mentioned this Morton which was the last regent, geuernour or protector of the kingdome, to set downe a catalog of all such regents and gouer|nours of that realme, as haue come to my know|ledge, after the same sort as I haue doone in Eng|land at the end of the gouernement of the duke of Summerset, who was the last protector of that realme: into the discourse whereof I enter as fol|loweth.

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