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1.11. Francis king of France to Iames prior of the monasterie of saint Andrewes.

Francis king of France to Iames prior of the monasterie of saint Andrewes.

_AFter that I vnderstood by certeine let|ters, Lesleus lib. 11. pag. 554. & by the common report of all (my coosine) that Scotland did flame in euerie part with tumults and seditions, it is strange to sée how greatlie I was astonied thereat. But when I heard that you (to whome my dead fa|ther, my déere wife, and my selfe, haue giuen so manie large benefits) should be forgetfull of them all liberallie bestowed, and become the author, head, and nourisher of this fire of contention and bralles; I could not be persuaded that you would so farre di|gresse from that office and dutie of pietie, which you haue alwaies made shew to beare vnto the quéene.

But if the thing were so, as the common fame dooth report of you, I did verelie thinke that the pro|mises and flattering woords of others had intised you to this deceipt, onleie to take the fault vpon you; for whose EEBO page image 368 whose cause (when they had discharged themselues thereof) the offense would seeme to be either none, or verie small, after that you had taken it vpon you. Which my opinion of you, if it be true it shall be as ioifull to me, as that which should be most ioifull: for by this meanes I wish that some part of my displeasure (into which I would haue you think that you are woorthilie fallen) were quenched, in that you haue (as I heare) but onelie deceiued the good hope which we conceiued of your pietie towards God, and your faithfull seruice towards me.

Wherefore, sith nothing is more deere or acceptable vnto me, than that (controuersies appeased) all things without anie tumult maie be knit togither by the law of good order: and sith the same (as it seemeth to me) maie best be doone by your trauell, I doo admonish you by these letters, and (for the good will I beare you) doo earnestlie request you, that you will returne to your owne profit and fidelitie, from which you haue most shamefullie fallen, to the end that I maie by the same more plainlie vnderstand what you carie an other mind than that which shall then fullie appeere to me, if at length you so bend all your force, that all things disordered in those parts, maie by your diligence be called backe to the commonwealths ancient, sound, and holie forme of obedience, which you know is due to God and me.

Otherwise I would haue you persuaded that I will shortlie subdue you, and all those which shall cleaue or minister helpe vnto you, in taking iust punishment vpon you, which I will bitterlie execute. The charge of declaration whereof, and the further large expressing of my mind, I haue committed to this bearer, whome I would haue you credit as much as my selfe. I praie God (coosine) to keepe you in health. Paris the sixteenth kalends of August.

Subscription, Francis

A little beneath that: De Laubespine.

With which letters also the queene of Scots directed other letters in this forme, as here followeth.

Marie, queene of Scots, and Dowager of France, to Iames the prior of the monasterie of Saint Andrewes.

I cannot (coosine) but greatlie woonder, that you which are not onelie neerest to vs by bloud, but are also (as you know) greatlie benefited by vs with manie liberalities, should be either of that malice or boldnes, that you would with one fault ouerthrow the maiestie of God, and violate the authoritie of me and the king my husband. For it is a thing woorthie of great admiration, to consider how it might happen that you who being present, did open to me the names of the duke of Chatelerault, and of manie others, which seemed to you to diminish my authoritie, should now being absent (as a leader and head of all other seditious persons) hurt my dignitie, and that in matters of greatest weight, in which the honor of God is lessened, and my authoritie clearlie taken awaie: all which I should more easile haue beleeued of anie other my subiects, than of you.

Trulie most grievouslie (as I ought) I beare this, that you haue falsified that faith to me: which had a speciall hope of your fidelitie: though as yet I can scarce be persuaded to thinke you to be so farre from truth and reason, that you would be caried awaie into such blind errors. All which I desire to fall out to be as true, as true maie be, requesting also of God so to giue you his light, that returning into the right waie, you maie shew your selfe a good man, and obedient to our lawes, by dooing contrarie things to that which you haue alreadie performed. Wherefore, by these letters I admonish, and with intreatie as earnestlie as I can, desire you to recompense your former euill with following good deeds, and that the anger (which I and the king my husband haue bitterlie conceiued against you) maie by that meanes be pacified. Otherwise trulie I would haue you vndertstand, we will execute such punishment vpon you, that you shall for euer be mindfull thereof. The which doubtlesse if you compell vs by your deedes to performe, it shall be to you a most greeuous thing. I praie God keepe you from all danger. Paris the 9 kalends of August.

Subscription: Your good coosine Marie.

Iames Steward the prior of saint Andrewes (whome prosperous successes had before aduanced) did in reading these letters of the king and queene so frie in anger and hatred, that he could not forbeare but must needes returne an answer, expressing the same (after confirmed by his deedes) though now somewhat smoothed with good woords. The effect of which letters were in this sort: That he was grieued in his mind as much as he might, because he was so farre fallen into the mislike and displeasure of those princes, whome he reuerences with great dutie, that they should bitterlie obiect vnto him in their letters that he was a seditious person, noted of ingratitude, fraught with malice, and defiled with heresie.

Touching which notes of these wickednes, sith they were imputed to him by the nobilitie of Scotland (meaning such as stood against the reformed religion) he with faire speeches requested the princes, that they would not attribute more to the malice of his enimies in accusing him, than to his vprightnes in purging himselfe: and that they should not thinke anie thing to be spoken by his enimies, but that which fauoured of malice, enuie, and hatred, especiallie sith they did not onelie go about to diminish his fame abroad amongest the princes, but also at home did openlie laie wait for his life and liuing.

But he would so labor, that all men should well perceiue his good mind (towards the princes) fullie laied abroad anie veile of dissimulation, whereby his aduersaries should be ashamed to haue laied such open reproch against him, and the king & queene should mislike that they had so easilie credited his enimies. Wherefore he desired that hereafter they should rather beleeue anie thing of him, than that he was an vnthankefull man, as they had obiected vnto him. From the detestable spot whereof (being all the verie woorst, sith nature abhorreth the same) he would keepe himselfe, and rather die by anie kind of torment, than to suffer the least spot of such a vice to swell in his name, especiallie in the affaires of that king and queene, whereof he had found the first most courteous, and the second most bountifull.

And thereforem as he had with all dutie hitherto prosecuted their fauour, so he (would during his life) contend, that his trauell, diligence, and faith, should neuer want in performing or defending their affaires, so that they would not burthen him with that which might be a detriment to the cause of God and religion: for if either of them were in hand, neither the fraudulent counsels of his striuing aduersaries, neither the bitter woords of the sharpe threats of the king or queene, should make him leaue off, or represse the EEBO page image 369 their woorthie force in taking vpon him in the defense of those things.

Wherefore he would not haue the king or quéene to thinke that their authoritie is touched, when he la|bored to pull awaie the deuises of the papists. From which onelie thing sith he supposeth the honor of God, the glorie of the king and queene, and the helpe and health of his countrie to be conteined therein) he will not be withdrawne by the force of anie man, nor be in [...] for all the threats of the king and queene, untill be haue wholie c [...] awaie the branches of su|pr [...]on, and vtterlie pu [...]ed vp the roots thereof.

Cr [...]kes had scarse performed his ambassage for which he came, as before you haue heard) in deliue|ring these letters: but foorthwith al [...]ded at Leith [...] a Frenchman, with foure troops of soul|diers, with a great masse of monie, & other furniture needfull for the warres: whome after a [...] daies the regent sent backe againe into France, to require of the king, that foure other companies of souldiers might be sent ouer, which might with those (a [...]die now in Scotland) supplie the number of twentie en|signes: to whome also it were expedient to ioine a hundred horsmen, which number she affirmed would s [...]ce to pacific all the tu [...]ts in Scotland, so that foure ships well appointed might alwaies lie in the hauen of Leith, to watch the port. Of all which if the Scots were prouided, by the benefit of the king) and that the comming of hir brother the marquesse of Albu [...]e were haste [...]ed, she promised then to bring all things to an end.

Besides which, she did also signifie vnto the king, that the Scots of the reformed religion, for the in|crease of their fa [...]tion, had secretlie growen in league with some of the no [...]litie of France, who did dail [...] send letters and messengers to the Scots, to incou|rage them not to leaue off from their attempts; pro|mising also vnto them that they would [...]inder (by all the meanes they could) that no great ar [...]ue should be made out of France against them: and moreouer, in that the Scots had sent ambassadors to Germanie, and into Denmarke, for religions cause, to require aid from thence, but their chiefest and prin|cipall hope did rest [...]as saith Lesleus [...] in England.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 During these things, the duke of Chatelerault and the lords of the congregation sent to the quéene [...]. whereof we will speake more héereafter, beseeching [...] to leaue off from making of forts within the realme. But she would not grant so to doo: wherfore they assembled their whole forces in Edenburgh, and besieged the towne of Leith in October: the quéene and Frenchmen, with the bishops of saint Andrews, [...]th besieged Glascaw, Dunfreis, the lord of Seton, and diuerse o|ther Scotishmen being within it. But the French|men of warre issued foorth of Leith, and met néere to the abbtie of Holie rood house, with the Scotish lords and their companie, where manie Scotishmen were The Scotish|men are van| [...]ed. staine, & the rest chased into Edenburgh: the French|men also following them vnto the gates of Eden|burgh, had entred, if those within the castell had not shot off the ar [...]llerie at them, to staie the slaughter and pursute.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the time of this siege, the yoong lard of Le|thington, secretarie to the quéene, being with hir in Leith left the towne, & secretlie departing, got him to the lords, and holpe greatlie afterwards to ob|teine aid out of England. After this, the quéene and The queene ca [...] to E| [...]gh. Frenchmen came to Edenburgh, which was peace|ablie rendred to them, where they remained all that winter. About the same time, Nicholas Pelue the bishop of Amiens, monsieur de la Brosse, & two do|ctors [...] men sent in [...] Scotland. of diuinitie, came to Scotland in September, and [...]a Brosse was made lieutenant of the French armie, monsieur Martigues coronell of the footmen. And with them came a great companie of French souldiers vnto the queene regent, so that then the French power was thirtie fiue hundred good man of warre, besides two bands of Scotish souldiers, vnder the leading of capteine Anthon [...]e Kenedie, and Iames Steward of Cardonald.

[...]. The Frenchmen being thus entered France, [...] of the chiefest of the nobilitie were assembled at Edenburgh, of whome there was a day required of bearing to be giuen to la Brosse, and to the bishop, affirming that they were sent thither as ambassa|dors. To whome it was answered,

that they did not seeke peace (as they did dissemble) but threaten war: for otherwise to what end were i [...] to bring armed sol|diers to dispute thereof: For the Scots were not se ignorant of the state of things, that they would com|mit them selues to that deciding of matters, in which they might be compelled to accept conditions an|swerable to the mind of the aduersarie. But if a|mongest weapons it pleased them to make peace, they would also prouide, that they would not rather seeme to be drawne there vnto by compulsion, than quietlie led by reason. For if they did trulie & from their heart require that in déed which they séeme in w [...]ds, they would discharge those strange souldiers, and meet (as they haue often d [...]e in other places) vnarmed, as to a thing that by woords and reason is to be decided, and not by swoords the strength to be compassed. And thus much for the ambassadors.

Now you haue heard before of the battell of Leith, the besieging and the regaining of Edenburgh; tou|ching which, because it is omitted before in the reci|ting of the things doone in those places. I thinke it not a [...]sse (though it come a little out of course) to set it downe [...]as Buchanan hath placed the same [...] n [...]t after the spéeches vsed to those ambassadors.
Thus therefore he writeth touching the defense of Leith. [...].
These noble men [...]meaning those at Edenburgh [...] did write to the queene much after this maner, That they did greatlie maruell, that the regent prouoked with no iniuries, did so soone depart from the former couenants; and expelling the ancient inhabitants of Leith, and placing there a colonie of strangers, she would in that place build a castle to the destruction of the lawes and liberties of the realme, and to the danger of the liues of them all. Wherefore they did earnestlie intreat [...]ir. that she would desist from this thing rashlie attempted [...]against the faith of hir promise, the publike commoditie, and the laws and li|berties of the kingdome) least she inforce them by necessitie to praie in aid of the whole people.

Besides which also, they which were assembled at Edenburgh, did write to the same effect, about a moneth after that they had dispatched the other let|ters, adding these petitions to the same last letters; That ouerthrowing the new fortresses, she would command all the strangers and hired people to de|part out of the towne, to the end that it might be frée for all men (according to iustice) there to traffike and vse their mutuall trade of buieng & selling one with an other. The which if she refused to doo, they would take it for a sure token, that she ment to bring this kingdome into seruitude; against which euill they would prouide all whatsoeuer remedie that they could. Within thrée daies after, the quéene sent Ro|bert Forman chiefe herald to answer the matter, with instructions and commandements deliuered to him in these words.

First of all, you shall shew vnto them, that no|thing could happen vnto vs more contrarie to our opinion, than that there should be anie other hauing authoritie here, besides my daughter and hir hus|band my sonne in law, vpon whome all our authori|tie dooth depend; that the former acts of the nobeli|tie, EEBO page image 370 and this present request, or rather commande|ment dooth well declare, that they acknowledge no other superioritie; and that their demands (or rather threatnings) with what shew of words soeuer they be cloked, are sufficientlie enough knowen vnto vs, as no new things. Againe, you shall require of the duke of Chastelerault, that he call to mind what he hath promised to vs by his words, and to the king by his letters. Which was, that he would not onelie hear|ken to the kings commandement; but also woorke, that his sonne the earle of Arrane should not at all ioine with those tumults of the countrie, and whether the things which he now dooth, are the performance of his promises.

To their letters also you shall answer; that we haue openlie shewed our indeuor to bring things to quiet; that we will grant to anie thing, which maie not resist the pietie due to God, and dooth not fight with their duetie towards their king and quéene, and that I did neuer so much as once thinke of the ouer|throw of their lawes and libertie; and much lesse, so|much as dreame of conquering the kingdome by violence. For to whome, or for whome should I séeke the kingdome, when my daughter dooth alreadie possesse it? Touching the defense and fortifieng of Leith, you shall aske them this; whether that we at anie time haue attempted anie thing that waie, be|fore that they with manie assemblies, and at length with conspiracie among themselues, did openlie shew that they would shake off the lawfull gouerne|ment, and before that they at their pleasure troubled the whole publike state (vnknowledge to vs, who held the place and authoritie of the chiefest gouernor) strengthened their factions with strong cities, and made league and couenants with our ancient eni|mies?

And to omit other things, what cause can they (in the end) bring foorth, whie it was lawfull for them to reteine an armie at Edenburgh, to inuade the go|uernors of those affaires? And that it is not lawfull for vs at Leith for our owne defense and safetie, to haue anie other gard about vs? Truelie they séeke this therin, that we should labor to shun their furie (as hitherto we haue doone) by continuall and dailie change of places. Is there anie thing in their let|ters that mentioned their dutie to the right magi|strate? Dooth there lie open anie waie for the resto|ring of concord? Or doo they shew anie token that they would haue these seditions pacified, and that they would all things should be reduced to their for|mer state?

Let them cloke this with what colour they will of publike commoditie; yet it is manifest that they thinke and seeke nothing lesse. For if they had one|lie staied vpon a concord, we haue often shewed them a waie therevnto. Neither are they ignorant that these French had (by the commandement of their king) béene long before dispatched out of Scot|land, vnlesse their dooings had béene the cause of their staie. Wherefore, if they will yet now offer anie honest conditions which may induce vs to hope; and that (the maiestie of the gouernement alwaies saued sound) maie declare that they will modestlie and obedientlie obeie their superiors: we will re|fuse no means to restore a concord & quiet amongest them and vs, nor omit anie thing that maie tend to the publike commoditie.

Neither are we alone so affected towards them, but also their king and quéene; who hath sent vnto them a woorthie knight of the order of the scallop shell, and one of the chiefe of the ecclesiasticall order, with letters and commandements touching the same: whome they did so contemne, as that they would not vouchsafe them answer, no not so much as hearing. Wherefore, you shall demand, and command the duke, the nobilitie, and all others of what condition soeuer, that they depart in sunder; or otherwise, that they shall not be kept togither, vnlesse it be by strength of armes. To all this the next day, which was the thrée and twentith of Oc|tober, the nobilitie answered after this order.

We easilie vnderstand by your letters and com|mandements sent by the herald, how obstinatlie you be euillie minded against pietie towards God, the publike commoditie of the realme, and the com|mon libertie of vs all: all which things we must & doo defend, as of right we ought. Wherefore, from hencefoorth we doo suspend and forbid your gouerne|ment, in the name of the king and quéene, or by what other name or title you doo vsurpe the publike administration of the kingdome; as persons cer|teinlie knowing, that those things which are now doone by you, doo with the mind of those princes fight against the publike safetie of this realme.

And as you doo not estéeme vs lawfull subiects of those princes & of this kingdome, to make a publike senate or councell: so we doo not acknowledge you for a regent to execute supreme authoritie; speciallie sith the gouernement (if you haue anie such commit|ted vnto you by the princes) is for most iust & weigh|tie causes forbidden you: and that in the name of the same princes, whose councellors we are borne to be, chiefelie in matters which perteine to the safetie of all the people. And although we haue determi|ned not to flee anie danger, in deliuering of that towne, in which you haue placed strange and hired souldiers against vs: yet for the reuerence which we beare vnto you, as vnto our quéene mother; we earnestlie with all faithfull intreatie beséech you, that you depart from thence; whilest the cause of publike commoditie dooth inforce vs to recouer that towne by weapons

Besides which, we further request, that you will leade them out of the towne with you, within foure and twentie houres; if there be anie which doo chal|lenge vnto themselues the names of ambassadors, either to decide controuersies, or to gouerne the af|faires. For it is but equitie that we prouide for the safetie, and willinglie spare the bloud of all those hired souldiers, aswell for the ancient amitie which hath béene betwéene the French and the Scots, as for the mariage of our quéene with their king: which friendship we would rather should be increa|sed than diminished. The same day also, the said herald declared at his returne to the regent, that the day before it was persuaded in an assembled coun|cell of the nobles and the other commons; that all the déeds and saiengs of the regent did onelie tend to verie tyrannie.

Herevpon, there was a decree made to take the gouernement from hir: so that the whole com|panie subscribed, as to a most iust matter: and that there they did forbid anie ambassage, giuen or sent to hir by hir sonne in law and hir daughter: further, commanding hir to execute no gouerne|ment, vntill the generall assemblie of a parlement to be appointed by them in such place as they should thinke conuenient. The fiue and twentith daie, the lords of the religion sent an herald to Leith, to will all the Scots to depart the towne within foure and twentie houres, and to separat themselues from the subuerters of publike libertie.
Thus much Bucha|nan of this doone about the state of Leith, before the nobilitie besieged the same (as is before set downe.) And so againe to the order of the historie.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lords of Scotland, perceiuing the French|men The lords s [...]d for aid vnto the quéene of England. incresed, so that they by their owne forces onlie were not able to resist them, sent William Metel|lan EEBO page image 371 to Elizabeth the quéene of England for assi|stance, to expell the Frenchmen. Which the queene of England granted, not onelie for to serue the Sco|tishmens turne; but speciallie for the suertie of hir owne realme and state, which as then was thought to stand in danger of trouble, in case the French|men were suffered to remaine in Scotland: consi|dering the euill dealing of the French king and his councell in some points alreadie shewed. The queene of England therefore sent the duke of Norffolke to Berwike, whither came to him the earle of Argile, They had their request gran [...]ed them. 15 [...]. B [...]ch. 1559. Lesle. the prior of saint Andrews, Harris the maister of Marwell, Robert Carnegie, and the yoong lord of Lethington, secretarie, & made agréement to haue aid of England, to the effect aforesaid.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And for sure kéeping hereof, the Scotish lords deliuered pledges into England, there to remaine during the life of the king of France, and one yéere Pledges sent into England after his deceasse. The pledges were these: Dauid Hamilton, sonne to the duke of Chatelerault; an o|ther called Colme Campbell, cousine to the earle of Argile; Robert Dowglas, brother to the prior of S. Andrews; and the lard of Lochleuin, and a sonne of the lord Ruthwen. About the same time, Iames Lord Hamil|ton taketh part with the er [...]e of Argile. Hamilton earle of Arrane, eldest sonne to the duke of Chatelerault, and capteine of the Scotish compa|nie of men of armes and archers in France, being fled for religion secretlie to Geneua, from thence came by the conuoie of maister Randall English|man into England: which at his comming into Scotland he performed, and ioined himselfe with the earle of Argile, and other lords in the cause afore|said.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke of Chatelerault, the earles of Argile, Arrane, and others, came to the towne of Glasow, The towne of Glascow is taken. and caused the images & altars to be taken downe, seizing the bishops liuing into their hands, and tooke the castell of Glascow perteining to the bishop, and put certeine gentlemen into it to kéepe it. Whereof the Frenchmen being aduertised, marched forward to Glascow, to the number of fiue thousand men: the bishop of Glascow, the lords Sempill, Seiton, Ros, and diuerse others with them, tooke the castell againe, and staieng one night of the towne, returned on the next morrow to Kirkintulloch, and from thence to Lithquo and Edenburgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After their returne from Glascow, a certeine number of Frenchmen went to Striueling, and pas|sing by the bridge ouer the water of Firth, came in|to Fife, in purpose to haue gone vnto saint An|drews, and to haue fortified the towne. But they be|ing in Kingcorne, there assembled togither in Fife the earles of Arrane, and Rothes, the prior of saint Andrews, the lord Ruthwen, the master of Lindsie, and diuerse other, hauing with them no great num|ber: but yet they dailie skirmished with the French|men, Certeine Frenchme [...] [...]ine. and would not suffer them to come from the sea side; where diuerse Frenchmen were slaine, and one of their capteins, with thirtie of his souldiors, and few Scotishmen, or in maner none: except that the earle of Southerland, who chanced to be with them at the pricking, was sore hurt and maimed in the arme with the dredge of a caléeuer shot.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 As the Frenchmen were in their progresse, at the mouth of the water of Leuin in Fife, there arriued [...]60. Lesle. in their sight a nauie of ships: which at the first ken|ning they tooke to be French ships, but shortlie after perceiuing them to be the English nauie, they retur|ned with great diligence to Burnt Iland, where they passed the ferrie of Kingcorne in botes and craiers The towne Burnt Iland [...] fortified. to Leith, and instantlie began to fortifie that towne, casting great trenches about it, and making great blockehouses for their defense, as preuenting such perils as otherwise might haue befallen them, and vsing remedies in due time, by warl [...]ke policie of present deuise, to prouide against afterclaps. The English ships came to the rode of Leith, where they An English na [...]. cast anchors, the fourth Ides of Ianuarie.

Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 563. 1560. Fr. Thin. In the meane time, whil [...]st th [...]se of the religion had almost destroied all m [...]nasteries, certeine ba|rons of Merne, partlie for hatred to the catholike religion (as the Romish cleargie tearmeth it) and partlie blinded with desire of pr [...] (as in all assem|blies of battell there will be some) ouerthrew the monasterie of the Carmelite friers in Aberden. Who going about also to haue spoiled the monaste|ries of the Trinitie, and of the friers Min [...]s, were hindered thereof by the lord Lesle, and the baron of Buchquhane, at the commandement of the earle of Huntle [...]e. Notwithstanding which, they could not be so sufficientlie repressed, but that they went to old Aberden (for so they call that place in that towne, which is beautified with the bishops palace, the ca|nonrie, and the vniuersitie) and would haue assaulted the magnificent and statelie church thereof. But to This Lesle is now called bishop of Ros and compiled an historie of Scotland in Latine, prin|ted at Rome. kéepe them from the same, the bishop, & Iohn Lesle (the officiall of that place, the one by counsell, the o|ther by preaching, and both by the aid of the earle of Huntleie) did their indeuor, at what time the Leslées put them besides their purpose.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The queene regent hearing of the arriuall of the English, sent vnto the viceadmerall of that fléet, named maister Winter, requiring to know of him, for what cause he was come into those waters. This gentleman addressing himselfe to accomplish the commandement imposed and laid vpon him, came face to face to the said viceadmerall, and with coun|tenance, wherein appeared tokens of inward cou|rage, put foorth his demand as he was inioined. The viceadmerall answered, that he had beene abroad on the seas seeking after pira [...]s, and in case anie of them came thither, he was ar [...]iued there in the Forth to wait on them: where as the principall cause in déed was to impeach, that no Frenchman should land there in case anie came foorth of France, and also to kéepe them that laie in Inskith from vit|tels, and that no Frenchman should passe by sea forth of Leith.

Lesleus lib. 1 [...]. pag. 564. Fr. Thin. Wherevpon the quéene regent did send No|ualle the king of Frances orator in that realme, to request the queene of England, that she would call hir ships home againe, and that she would not send aiding souldiers to the lords of the religion (whome Lesleus neuer tearmeth by anie other name than sectaries and seditious persons) whereby the peace might be broken with the French, and so occasion of warre giuen. Wherevnto hir maiestie answered (with no lesse care of hir kingdome than became the maiestie of so good a mother to haue of hir children) that she had no such mind as to make warre. But bi|cause that she certeinlie vnderstood, that great troops of Frenchmen did dailie land and increase in Scot|land, for what cause she knew not: she could doo no lesse than place souldiers in diuerse forts and ha|uens, which might defend the English from the ma|lice or hurt of such strangers, if they should attempt anie thing. Neither would she suffer that hir people should set foot in Scotland, vnlesse that they were prouoked there vnto by iniuries offered them.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About the same time, the quéene regent, hearing A Scots he|rald sent to the duke of Norffolke. that the duke of Norffolke was come to Newcastle as generall lieutenant of the north, sent an herald with a letter to him, in which letter it was signified that the herald had credit to declare further matter than was conteined in the same letter. But when hée was demanded what he had to say, he denied to haue anie credit at all. Wherfore William Flower, then Chester herald, and now N [...]rreie king of armes, EEBO page image 372 was sent vnto the quéene, who comming to Holie An English herald sent to the quéene of Scots. rood house néere to Edenburgh, was receiued by sundrie heralds, & so was had to one of their houses, and there kept for that night. The next day after hee had dined, he was brought to the court, and at his entering within the gates, there were a number of harquebussiers readie with their péeces that dischar|ged and shot off the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At his comming to the presence of the quéene, he with dutifull obeisance deliuered his letters, and af|ter the same had béene read, he was demanded what credit he had to vtter. Wherevpon he declared, that the duke of Norffolke, being the quéenes maiesties lieutenant in the north parts of England, maruelled greatlie that she would send an herald with letters, and write therein how she had giuen credit to him; and yet when he was demanded to vtter his credit, he should confesse that he had none. The quéene herewith called for the herald, to vnderstand whether he had credit or not: who denied to haue anie at all. Wherwith the queene séemed to be somwhat abashed, but neuerthelesse she brake foorth and said, that she maruelled greatlie that the queene of England should send hir ships into hir riuer, without giuing hir knowledge aforehand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Chester answered thereto, that where it was cer|teinlie knowne, that the French king had prepared to send a power of men of warre into Scotland, without aduertising hir thereof; she could not but thinke that dealing verie strange, and therefore had in verie déed sent certeine of hir ships, with vittels for prouision to be laid within hir townes and castels on the frontiers. Which ships by tempest being dis|persed, might happilie be driuen into the riuer there, albeit he had not spoke with anie of them since there comming forth. But yet (as he had heard by others) they had béene verie vncourteouslie vsed: for com|ming in after that maner for succor, the canon had béene bent against them. Herewithall the count Martigues a forward cap|teine, but an vntrue pro|phet. Martigues standing by, began to speake verie stout words vnto Chester, alleging that where it was per|ceiued well inough, that the queene of England ment to make war against his maister the French king, he trusted she should gaine as little thereby, as his sister had doone in breaking with hir father Hen|rie the late French king. Chester herevnto answe|red, that he thought to haue found but one regent in Scotland, to whome he should need to make an|swer: wherevpon Martigues was commanded to silence.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All this while the quéene had talked with Chester in the Scotish toong. And bicause he did not so well vnderstand hir, he began to speake in the French language: whereat the quéene séemed greatlie to re|ioise, & so began againe to discourse with him of hir griefs; and he on the other part made hir answer as fell best to purpose. And at length, when he was de|manded what further credit he had; he declared, that where she had requested a safe conduct for monsieur le Brosse to passe through England into France, if she would sée him safelie conueied to Berwike, he durst assure hir of a sufficient safe conduct for his safe passage through she quéene his mistresse realme: but at length, there was another gentleman com|mended to him, in lieu for la Brosse, that was his cousine. And now when Chester shuld take his leaue, he declared that he had not beene courteouslie dealt with: for since his comming thither, he could not be suffered to passe anie where abroad out of his chamber, but at meale times. And therefore if anie of hir messengers should come into the quéene his mistresse dominions, he would procure (if he might) that they should tast of the like interteinment. But the queene seemed not to vnderstand that he had bin in anie wise so hardlie dealt with, she wing that shée was not well contented therewith; and so Chester tooke his leaue, and returned backe into England, without anie reward for his paines taken in that iournie, at the hands of the Scotish quéene: how so euer she liked of his message.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, there was an armie prepa|red 1560. An English armie. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 565. in England, of seuen or eight thousand men, who were sent into Scotland; the lord Greie of England being appointed generall, who came to the linkes, beside the towne of Leith, on saturday the sixt of Aprill. Before they pitcht downe their field on the said linkes, monsieur Martigues, coronell of the French armie, issued foorth of Leith with nine hun|dred They were backed with 500 pikes which kept aloofe. harquebussiers of Frenchmen, to a little knoll called the Halke hill, where a sore, continuall, and hot skirmish was begun betwixt the Englishmen and Frenchmen, with hagbuts, caléeuers, and pistolets, which skirmish continued fiue or six houres, in the which there were manie slaine on both parties, and diuerse hurt. At length Martigues was forced with his companie to retire backe to the towne of Leith, and the Englishmen pitched downe their campe, and planted their ordinance beside the said hill.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lord Greie being in Muskelburgh, sent to the The lord Greie sent vnto the quéene. quéene regent, that laie as then in the castell at E|denburgh, desiring an abstinence of warre for foure and twentie hours, that in the meane time he might send some of his councell to declare to hir the cause of his comming with that armie, and to commune of such things as might stanch the shedding of bloud. The queene granted herevnto, and sent an herald to Leith, to cause the said assurance to be taken: but yer he came to the towne, the skirmish aforesaid was begun with forwardnesse inough of both sides.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane time, the lord Greie sent sir George Men are sent to speake with the queene mother. Howard, and sir Iames Crofts to the castell of E|denburgh, to speake with the quéene to that effect: who had long conference with hir vpon the blocke|house at the vtter gate of the castell, during the time of the skirmish; where they declared, that the occasi|on of the comming of the armie, was for the cause aboue mentioned, desiring the queene to procure the The French|men to depart the realme. Frenchmen to depart the realme of Scotland: and they promised in that case to returne againe into their owne realme, and neither to disquiet French|men nor Scots. Whervpon the quéene tooke time to be aduised till the next day, that she might consult with the principall personages within the towne of Leith, requiring that it might be lawfull for hir to send to them to that effect, which was granted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next day she sent one Drummond a trum|petter, or herald (as saith Lesleus) with a letter to monsieur de la Brosse, to the effect aforesaid, direc|ting him to passe to the English campe, and to get a guide with him to go to the towne of Leith, as was agreed: and there was one appointed to go with him. But immediatly after his departing from the Eng|lish campe, he was suddenlie called backe againe, and his letters taken from him, was commanded to repaire to the castell of Edenburgh to the queene, The English are desirous to reuenge the iniuries doone vnto them. and to declare to hir that they would not haue anie talke, but would be reuenged on the Frenchmen, for the slaughter of their men the night before. Thus the parlée ceassing, the siege was inforced with right sharpe pursute, and strong defending on either part.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Englishmen cast trenches vpon the south|east side of the towne, and raised a litle mount which they called mount Pellam after the capteins name, and placed their ordinance aloft thereon: but bicause it was so farre from the towne, they did not so much scath thereto as they intended. The lord Greie, lieu|tenant A trench c [...]t to little pur|pose. of the English armie, lodged (during this EEBO page image 373 siege) within the towne of Lestalrike, in the deanes house, and the most part of their demilances and o|ther horssemen laie in the same towne. The footmen with their capteins lodged in hales, tents, and paui|lions, vpon the south and southeast side of the towne of Leith, and diuerse Scotish lords incamped with them in the fields, as the earles of Argile, Arrane, Morton, and Glencarne; the lords Boid, Ogiltree, the prior of saint Andrews, the maister of Maxwell, and others. The duke of Chatelerault, and diuerse with him remained in Holie rood house: and with the queene in the castell, the bishop of S. Andrews, the bishop of Dunkeld, the earle Marshall, the lord Erskin capteine of the castell, maister Iames Mac|gill clearke of the register, the prouost of Dunglas, called maister Abraham Chreichton, and diuerse others.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 On Easter éeuen, capteine Wood, and capteine Dethicke, seruing on the sea vnder maister Winter the English admerall there, were appointed by him to passe vp the riuer to Blackenesse, who with their bands going aboord into a barke prepared for that purpose, sailed forward: and on Easter day in the morning, presenting themselues before the castell, it was yéelded to them by certeine Frenchmen that The castell of Blackenesse woone. were within, and therevpon it was deliuered to the kéeping of Iames Hamilton, an ancient gentle|man; and capteine Wood, being set on shore, came to the campe before Leith by land. On blacke Mon|day, the Frenchmen, issuing foorth of Leith, set vpon the Englishmen in their trenches, and did much harme: as in the English historie it further appea|reth. Sée more hereof in England. During the siege thus afore Leith, the quéene regent was sore vexed with sickenesse, but neuerthe|lesse, she continued to labor for agréement, not ceas|sing Lesleus. lib. 10. The quéene laboured for an agréement. to send to the lords for to haue the matter taken vp. And for the better accomplishing of hir desire, she procured the earle of Huntleie to come foorth of the north, who tooke vp his lodging in Edenburgh, and tooke great paines to treat betwixt the quéene and lords for some agréement: but when he perceiued his trauell to be in vaine, hée returned into the north againe, and left the siege lieng still as hee found it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane while, the Englishmen, lodging on the southside of the towne beside mount Pellam, battered with their great artillerie at the parish Saint An|thonies stéeple [...]aten downe. church of Leith, and at saint Anthonies steeple, in which the Frenchmen had laid certeine péeces of ar|tillerie, and at length beat it downe: but perceiuing they could not doo anie great hurt to the walles on that side, they cast new trenches vpon the south and southwest side of the towne, and raised a mount there, naming it mount Summerset, & placed there|on Mount Summerset. certeine péeces in batterie, and so beat the wals, that a great part thereof was ouerthrowne, and a breach made. Wherevpon the Englishmen & Scots on a morning came with their ladders, and presen|ting themselues to the assault, found the breach no|thing reasonable; so that although they egerlie prea|sed forward to enter the towne, yet they were fierce|lie beaten backe with great slaughter and bloudshed They are bea|ten backe. on both parts, but namelie of the assailants.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Englishmen, perceiuing that they were too rash in assaulting the towne, being not assaultable, deuised other shifts to obteine their purpose, raising an other mount of earth on the west side of the wa|ter of Leith, and named it mount Falcon. Aloft on Mount Fal|con. this mount, when it was brought vp vnto a great heigth, they planted their great artillerie, which con|tinuallie beat into the towne, sore annoieng them within, but speciallie beating the houses and places by the shore side, so that none might go vp nor downe the towne on that part, without danger to be slaine with shot from that mount. The Frenchmen, during the time of the siege, manie times issued foorth to|wards the sands, and sometimes towards the tren|ches, so that sundrie sore skirmishes chanced betwixt the Englishmen and them, with the slaughter of di|uerse, both of the one part and the other. Amongest other of them within, there were slaine two Scotish men of name, to wit, capteine Kenedie, and yoong Henrie Drummond: and of them without, there was slaine a Scotish gentleman, called the lard of Cleisch.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The English armie was throughlie furnished with vittels foorth of all parts of the realme, and that vpon reasonable prices: but the French within the towne The towne of Leith vnpro|uided of vit|tels. could get none, more than they had prouided before the comming of the English armie, which when it be|gan to faile them, they were constreined to eat their owne horsses, whose flesh seemed to them in that ne|cessitie more delicious, than before that time anie maner of venison. Those within Inskeith also were in great necessitie of vittels: but yet neither they within the one place, nor they within the other, would render their strength, looking still for aid foorth of France. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 568. Whilest these things were doone in Scot|land, the French king, to shew how he fauoured the pope, and how farre he maligned the reformed lords of Scotland sent his ambassadors Iohn Babone a Burdseie knight, and that eloquent man Anthonie Muret of France to pope Pius the fourth of that name, to yéeld all the dominions of France & Scot|land at the popes commandement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, the quéene regent, perceiuing hir sicknesse so to increase, that she looked for present death, sent for the duke of Chatelerault, and all the The quéene sent for the lords. lords of Scotland that were in the towne of Eden|burgh, and in the campe: who came vnto hir altogi|ther into the castell of Edenburgh, where

she made The quéenes oration vnto the nobles. vnto them a graue and pithie exhortation, persua|ding them to vnitie and concord with their ancient friends of France; and now more stedfast to them than at anie time before, by reason of the mariage of the quéene their good souereigne, with the king of France. And héerewith she brake out into certeine woords, to dissuade them from the amitie contracted with the Englishmen, declaring that the English|men aided them not for anie other respect, than for their owne turne and commoditie. Moreouer, for hir owne part she said, that she fauoured the weale of the realme of Scotland, as much as France; conside|ring she had the honor to be queene and regent there|of, and hir daughter heritable quéene of the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

Furthermore she said, that if she had attempted anie thing that séemed or appéered to the noble men contrarie therevnto; the same came to passe rather for lacke of wisedome and iudgement, than for want of anie good will: and if it pleased God to prolong hir daies, she would be glad to amend that had beene doone amisse: and if he called hir to his mercie, she praied them most hartilie to acknowledge their dutie vnto the queene their souereigne, and to mainteine their ancient amitie with the king and realme of France, & to make some good accord with the French that were within the towne of Leith, who would gladlie accept the same, to the end that as well they as the Englishmen should depart this realme. For A mistrustfull mind. she feared greatlie (as she said) least if the French|men departed, the Englishmen would still remaine, and subdue the land to their obedience: and therefore she besought all good Scotishmen to haue respect to the libertie and weale of their countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After she had talked thus a good while with manie teares, she desired the lords to forgiue hir in anie thing wherein she had offended anie of them, during the time of hir being in Scotland, which they gladlie EEBO page image 374 seemed to doo: and on the other part, she forgaue them with all hir hart (as it appéered) all offenses which they had committed against hir: and thus diuerse of them wéeping, she tooke euerie of them by the hand, and so they taking leaue of hir, departed, and retur|ned The quéene taketh hir leaue. into Edenburgh, and to their campe. Whilest the siege thus laie before the towne of Leith, diuerse great troubles rose in sundrie parts of the realme, and speciallie betwixt the earle of Huntleie, and the The earle of Huntleie and Atholl are at variance. earle of Atholl, so that there was taking of priso|ners, and ouerthrowing of houses on either part, and great preparation made, and armies put in a readi|nesse to inuade either others countries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But this businesse was pacified by the trauell and The matter is pacified. good mediation of maister Alexander Gordon, then postulat of Gallowaie, maister Iohn Lesle officiall of Aberden, and William Lesle the yoong lard of Buchquhan, who agreed them for all matters in con|trouersie, & caused them to go to either others house. [During which siege of Leith also, the earle Both|well, Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 571. and Sarlalouse, then capteine of the souldiers, and gouernor of the castell of Dunbar, did at Dun|bar with manie light excursions intercept manie of the English and Scots going to Leith, whome they ransomed for a great summe.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At the same time, one maister Donald Frasher, archdeacon of Rosse, tooke the bishops castell of the The castell of Rosse taken. canonrie of Rosse, and kept the same against mai|ster Henrie Sincler, then bishop there, and the chie|fest men of authoritie in that diocesse, as Machenzée, Balnagoun, Foulis, and the shiriffe Tramercie, who assembled about the same, and besieged the castell, where great force was vsed, both by them without to The castell is besieged. win it, and of them within to defend it. The bishop be|ing then resident in Cromercie castell, hearing that the house wold not be gotten without great slaugh|ter, thought it against his conscience, his profit, and honor, to win it in that manner: and therefore sen|ding for maister Iohn Leste, officiall of Aberden, and maister Alexander Dunbar, subchantor of Mur|reie, by their labour and diligent treating in the mat|ter, the bishop by reasonable appointment recouered his castell of them that held it against him. The castell was restored againe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The French king, vnderstanding in what distresse his men remained that were besieged within Leith, and perceiuing himselfe not able to send an armie to succour them within the time that their necessitie re|quired, thought good to trie if the matter might be taken vp: and to that effect sent two ambassadors, the earle of Randon, and monsieur Monluc bishop of Ambassadors sent. Monsieur Monluc bi|shop of Ua|lence. Ualence, who declared to the quéenes maiestie of England, the cause of their comming; which was, to desire hir to retire hir armie foorth of Scotland, vpon some such reasonable conditions as might be agréed vpon. And heerewith they declared that they were sent to the quéene, and not vnto the subiects of Scot|land: for it was not méet that the king should send to his owne subiects (as they were by the mariage of their quéene) to require peace, or to condition with them for agreement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The quéenes maiestie of England therefore sent sir William Cecill knight, hir principall secretarie, An ambassage sent by the quéene of England. and doctor Wotton deane of Canturburie and of Yorke, one of the priuie councell, with the French ambassadors into Scotland. Whilest they were yet vpon their iournie, the quéene regent (whome they thought to haue found aliue, and to haue vsed hir helpe as an instrument to haue furthered the treatie to some good end) consumed partlie through melan|cholie, thought, and grieuous displeasure, and partlie with long and incurable sicknesse, departed this life in the castell of Edenburgh the tenth of Iune, in the yéere of our Lord 1560. The Scotish quéene mother departed. Fr. Thin. Hir bodie was first con|ueied into France, to the monasterie of Feschampe, which is in Normandie, from whence it was caried Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 569. 1560. The praise of the queene Dowager. to the abbeie of S. Peter at Rhemes in Champaig|nie (whereof hir sister was then abbesse) in which it was after most honorablie buried.] She was a wise and verie prudent princesse, and in hir time had lear|ned good experience of the nature and inclination of the nobilitie and people of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 During the time that she was regent, she kept good iustice, and was well obeied in all parts of the realme in Orkeneie, and the westerne Iles. And if she had to hir owne experience ioined the councell of the nobles and wise men of the realme of Scotland, without following the aduise of strangers, there had béene neuer question nor debate betwixt hir and the nobilitie, as some deemed. But because that others, and namelie, monsieur Doisell, and Rubée, were ad|ioined to hir by the estates of Scotland, who dailie pressed hir to deuise new alterations of lawes, im|positions, taxations, and such things as were not in vse in Scotland: therefore the estates and people of the land did grudge, although not for anie misliking they had of hir, who suerlie deceassed, to the great griefe and lamentation of the whole number of the estates and people of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The death of that noble princesse made the French men within Leith, and also the ambassadors more dis|couraged than otherwise they would haue béene. The ambassa|dors came to Edenburgh. But neuerthelesse these foure ambassadors of Eng|land and France comming to Edenburgh, entered in conference among themselues, vpon articles pro|poned as well for reliefe of the Scotishmen, as for the weale and suertie of the quéene of England and hir subiects. Wherevpon certeine lords of Scotland were admitted to talke with them also: and after They haue conference. Peace is con|cluded. 1559. Buch. long treatie, a peace was concluded the tenth of Iu|lie, in the yéere of God 1560, with certeine articles touching as well Scots and French, as English|men. The effect whereof heere insueth.

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