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1.10. The articles of agreement betweene the regent and the lords of the reformed religion.

The articles of agreement betweene the regent and the lords of the reformed religion.

1 _FIrst, that all the souldiers of the reli|gion, and such as did belong to them, Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10 pag. 553. Buchanan. lib. 16. should depart from Edenburgh, and leaue the same to the gouernement of the queene: with this prouiso, that the citizens should either remaine, or depart at their pleasure.

2 Item, that those of the religion should restore vnto the magistrats wholie and trulie all such sums of monie, or other pretious things, which they had ei|ther priuatlie taken, or by open force spoiled from the magistrats.

3 Thirdlie, that the quéenes palace, which they of the religion did possesse, with all the furniture and or|naments thereof, should be deliuered vp againe to such as should be appointed therefore.

4 Fourthlie, that they of the religion should not depart, before they had committed the lord Ruthwen and Pettarrow (whome they promised to put in pled|ges for their credit and good dealing) to the keeping of such as were on the quéenes part.

5 Fiftlie, that all men should acknowledge the gouernement of the king and the quéene to be law|full, which before they had gainesaid by the pretense of religion: and that they should faithfullie obeie the regent, and the old lawes of the kingdome, except such decrees as perteined not to religion.

6 Sixtlie, that they should not by anie meanes trouble the catholike priests and ecclesiasticall per|sons, or hinder them from quiet gathering and inioi|eng their rents, tithes, and profits, vntill the fourth Ides of Ianuarie.

7 Seuenthlie, that they should not from hence|foorth violate or deface churches, religious houses, or anie other holie places.

8 Eightlie, that euerie man might at Eden|burgh professe and vse what religion he would, which they commonlie called the libertie of conscience.

9 Ninthlie, that the quéene regent should faith|fullie prouide, that the preachers of the reformed reli|gion should not be molested or hurt, either by hir, or by anie of the catholike gouernors. Both parties be|ing thus satisfied with these conditions, the French entered Leith.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Shortlie after this, the duke of Chatelerault, part|lie Duke Chate|lerault taketh part with the reformers of the churches. through persuasion of the earle of Argile his si|sters sonne, and the Westland lords, and partlie be|cause he vnderstood that his son the earle of Arrane was fled foorth of France to Geneua for the religion, he tooke part with the lords from that time foorth a|gainst the aduise of the bishop of saint Andrews, and diuerse other his friends. This yeere in Iune, Henrie King Henrie was hurt and died. the king of France, at the triumph of the mariages betwixt the king of Spaine and his daughter, and duke of Sauoie and his sister, was wounded in iusts at the tourneillis in Paris by the count Montgo|merie, and died of the hurts the tenth of Iulie next insuing, being the eleuenth day after he was woun|ded. Then Francis his sonne, that had maried the Francis the Dolphin suc|céeded his fa|ther. quéene of Scotland, was crowned king at saint De|nis, and annointed at Reimes in September fol|lowing.

Fr. Thn. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 554. In the moneth of September, Croke a noble man of France was sent to the regent, to comfort hir in the kings name; declaring vnto hir that an ar|mie was preparing to come into Scotland, vnder the leading of the marquesse of Albufe or Elbufe (as saith Buchanan) and that in the meane time with all spéed some troopes of men should shortlie be there with monie, and other defenses of warre. And to the end that nothing should want to further hir, the king would shortlie send certeine noble men into Scot|land, which should counsell hir in these troublesome affaires. Besides which, he brought letters out of France from the king and the queene, to the prior of saint Andrewes, in which they rather sought to in|cline his mind by courtesie to obedience, before that they would inforce him therevnto by warre. Which letters being by Lesleus turned out of French into Latine are by me thus deliuered in English, with the answer of the prior to the same.

1.11. Francis king of France to Iames prior of the monasterie of saint Andrewes.

Francis king of France to Iames prior of the monasterie of saint Andrewes.

_AFter that I vnderstood by certeine let|ters, Lesleus lib. 11. pag. 554. & by the common report of all (my coosine) that Scotland did flame in euerie part with tumults and seditions, it is strange to sée how greatlie I was astonied thereat. But when I heard that you (to whome my dead fa|ther, my déere wife, and my selfe, haue giuen so manie large benefits) should be forgetfull of them all liberallie bestowed, and become the author, head, and nourisher of this fire of contention and bralles; I could not be persuaded that you would so farre di|gresse from that office and dutie of pietie, which you haue alwaies made shew to beare vnto the quéene.

But if the thing were so, as the common fame dooth report of you, I did verelie thinke that the pro|mises and flattering woords of others had intised you to this deceipt, onleie to take the fault vpon you; for whose EEBO page image 368 whose cause (when they had discharged themselues thereof) the offense would seeme to be either none, or verie small, after that you had taken it vpon you. Which my opinion of you, if it be true it shall be as ioifull to me, as that which should be most ioifull: for by this meanes I wish that some part of my displeasure (into which I would haue you think that you are woorthilie fallen) were quenched, in that you haue (as I heare) but onelie deceiued the good hope which we conceiued of your pietie towards God, and your faithfull seruice towards me.

Wherefore, sith nothing is more deere or acceptable vnto me, than that (controuersies appeased) all things without anie tumult maie be knit togither by the law of good order: and sith the same (as it seemeth to me) maie best be doone by your trauell, I doo admonish you by these letters, and (for the good will I beare you) doo earnestlie request you, that you will returne to your owne profit and fidelitie, from which you haue most shamefullie fallen, to the end that I maie by the same more plainlie vnderstand what you carie an other mind than that which shall then fullie appeere to me, if at length you so bend all your force, that all things disordered in those parts, maie by your diligence be called backe to the commonwealths ancient, sound, and holie forme of obedience, which you know is due to God and me.

Otherwise I would haue you persuaded that I will shortlie subdue you, and all those which shall cleaue or minister helpe vnto you, in taking iust punishment vpon you, which I will bitterlie execute. The charge of declaration whereof, and the further large expressing of my mind, I haue committed to this bearer, whome I would haue you credit as much as my selfe. I praie God (coosine) to keepe you in health. Paris the sixteenth kalends of August.

Subscription, Francis

A little beneath that: De Laubespine.

With which letters also the queene of Scots directed other letters in this forme, as here followeth.

Marie, queene of Scots, and Dowager of France, to Iames the prior of the monasterie of Saint Andrewes.

I cannot (coosine) but greatlie woonder, that you which are not onelie neerest to vs by bloud, but are also (as you know) greatlie benefited by vs with manie liberalities, should be either of that malice or boldnes, that you would with one fault ouerthrow the maiestie of God, and violate the authoritie of me and the king my husband. For it is a thing woorthie of great admiration, to consider how it might happen that you who being present, did open to me the names of the duke of Chatelerault, and of manie others, which seemed to you to diminish my authoritie, should now being absent (as a leader and head of all other seditious persons) hurt my dignitie, and that in matters of greatest weight, in which the honor of God is lessened, and my authoritie clearlie taken awaie: all which I should more easile haue beleeued of anie other my subiects, than of you.

Trulie most grievouslie (as I ought) I beare this, that you haue falsified that faith to me: which had a speciall hope of your fidelitie: though as yet I can scarce be persuaded to thinke you to be so farre from truth and reason, that you would be caried awaie into such blind errors. All which I desire to fall out to be as true, as true maie be, requesting also of God so to giue you his light, that returning into the right waie, you maie shew your selfe a good man, and obedient to our lawes, by dooing contrarie things to that which you haue alreadie performed. Wherefore, by these letters I admonish, and with intreatie as earnestlie as I can, desire you to recompense your former euill with following good deeds, and that the anger (which I and the king my husband haue bitterlie conceiued against you) maie by that meanes be pacified. Otherwise trulie I would haue you vndertstand, we will execute such punishment vpon you, that you shall for euer be mindfull thereof. The which doubtlesse if you compell vs by your deedes to performe, it shall be to you a most greeuous thing. I praie God keepe you from all danger. Paris the 9 kalends of August.

Subscription: Your good coosine Marie.

Iames Steward the prior of saint Andrewes (whome prosperous successes had before aduanced) did in reading these letters of the king and queene so frie in anger and hatred, that he could not forbeare but must needes returne an answer, expressing the same (after confirmed by his deedes) though now somewhat smoothed with good woords. The effect of which letters were in this sort: That he was grieued in his mind as much as he might, because he was so farre fallen into the mislike and displeasure of those princes, whome he reuerences with great dutie, that they should bitterlie obiect vnto him in their letters that he was a seditious person, noted of ingratitude, fraught with malice, and defiled with heresie.

Touching which notes of these wickednes, sith they were imputed to him by the nobilitie of Scotland (meaning such as stood against the reformed religion) he with faire speeches requested the princes, that they would not attribute more to the malice of his enimies in accusing him, than to his vprightnes in purging himselfe: and that they should not thinke anie thing to be spoken by his enimies, but that which fauoured of malice, enuie, and hatred, especiallie sith they did not onelie go about to diminish his fame abroad amongest the princes, but also at home did openlie laie wait for his life and liuing.

But he would so labor, that all men should well perceiue his good mind (towards the princes) fullie laied abroad anie veile of dissimulation, whereby his aduersaries should be ashamed to haue laied such open reproch against him, and the king & queene should mislike that they had so easilie credited his enimies. Wherefore he desired that hereafter they should rather beleeue anie thing of him, than that he was an vnthankefull man, as they had obiected vnto him. From the detestable spot whereof (being all the verie woorst, sith nature abhorreth the same) he would keepe himselfe, and rather die by anie kind of torment, than to suffer the least spot of such a vice to swell in his name, especiallie in the affaires of that king and queene, whereof he had found the first most courteous, and the second most bountifull.

And thereforem as he had with all dutie hitherto prosecuted their fauour, so he (would during his life) contend, that his trauell, diligence, and faith, should neuer want in performing or defending their affaires, so that they would not burthen him with that which might be a detriment to the cause of God and religion: for if either of them were in hand, neither the fraudulent counsels of his striuing aduersaries, neither the bitter woords of the sharpe threats of the king or queene, should make him leaue off, or represse the EEBO page image 369 their woorthie force in taking vpon him in the defense of those things.

Wherefore he would not haue the king or quéene to thinke that their authoritie is touched, when he la|bored to pull awaie the deuises of the papists. From which onelie thing sith he supposeth the honor of God, the glorie of the king and queene, and the helpe and health of his countrie to be conteined therein) he will not be withdrawne by the force of anie man, nor be in [...] for all the threats of the king and queene, untill be haue wholie c [...] awaie the branches of su|pr [...]on, and vtterlie pu [...]ed vp the roots thereof.

Cr [...]kes had scarse performed his ambassage for which he came, as before you haue heard) in deliue|ring these letters: but foorthwith al [...]ded at Leith [...] a Frenchman, with foure troops of soul|diers, with a great masse of monie, & other furniture needfull for the warres: whome after a [...] daies the regent sent backe againe into France, to require of the king, that foure other companies of souldiers might be sent ouer, which might with those (a [...]die now in Scotland) supplie the number of twentie en|signes: to whome also it were expedient to ioine a hundred horsmen, which number she affirmed would s [...]ce to pacific all the tu [...]ts in Scotland, so that foure ships well appointed might alwaies lie in the hauen of Leith, to watch the port. Of all which if the Scots were prouided, by the benefit of the king) and that the comming of hir brother the marquesse of Albu [...]e were haste [...]ed, she promised then to bring all things to an end.

Besides which, she did also signifie vnto the king, that the Scots of the reformed religion, for the in|crease of their fa [...]tion, had secretlie growen in league with some of the no [...]litie of France, who did dail [...] send letters and messengers to the Scots, to incou|rage them not to leaue off from their attempts; pro|mising also vnto them that they would [...]inder (by all the meanes they could) that no great ar [...]ue should be made out of France against them: and moreouer, in that the Scots had sent ambassadors to Germanie, and into Denmarke, for religions cause, to require aid from thence, but their chiefest and prin|cipall hope did rest [...]as saith Lesleus [...] in England.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 During these things, the duke of Chatelerault and the lords of the congregation sent to the quéene [...]. whereof we will speake more héereafter, beseeching [...] to leaue off from making of forts within the realme. But she would not grant so to doo: wherfore they assembled their whole forces in Edenburgh, and besieged the towne of Leith in October: the quéene and Frenchmen, with the bishops of saint Andrews, [...]th besieged Glascaw, Dunfreis, the lord of Seton, and diuerse o|ther Scotishmen being within it. But the French|men of warre issued foorth of Leith, and met néere to the abbtie of Holie rood house, with the Scotish lords and their companie, where manie Scotishmen were The Scotish|men are van| [...]ed. staine, & the rest chased into Edenburgh: the French|men also following them vnto the gates of Eden|burgh, had entred, if those within the castell had not shot off the ar [...]llerie at them, to staie the slaughter and pursute.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the time of this siege, the yoong lard of Le|thington, secretarie to the quéene, being with hir in Leith left the towne, & secretlie departing, got him to the lords, and holpe greatlie afterwards to ob|teine aid out of England. After this, the quéene and The queene ca [...] to E| [...]gh. Frenchmen came to Edenburgh, which was peace|ablie rendred to them, where they remained all that winter. About the same time, Nicholas Pelue the bishop of Amiens, monsieur de la Brosse, & two do|ctors [...] men sent in [...] Scotland. of diuinitie, came to Scotland in September, and [...]a Brosse was made lieutenant of the French armie, monsieur Martigues coronell of the footmen. And with them came a great companie of French souldiers vnto the queene regent, so that then the French power was thirtie fiue hundred good man of warre, besides two bands of Scotish souldiers, vnder the leading of capteine Anthon [...]e Kenedie, and Iames Steward of Cardonald.

[...]. The Frenchmen being thus entered France, [...] of the chiefest of the nobilitie were assembled at Edenburgh, of whome there was a day required of bearing to be giuen to la Brosse, and to the bishop, affirming that they were sent thither as ambassa|dors. To whome it was answered,

that they did not seeke peace (as they did dissemble) but threaten war: for otherwise to what end were i [...] to bring armed sol|diers to dispute thereof: For the Scots were not se ignorant of the state of things, that they would com|mit them selues to that deciding of matters, in which they might be compelled to accept conditions an|swerable to the mind of the aduersarie. But if a|mongest weapons it pleased them to make peace, they would also prouide, that they would not rather seeme to be drawne there vnto by compulsion, than quietlie led by reason. For if they did trulie & from their heart require that in déed which they séeme in w [...]ds, they would discharge those strange souldiers, and meet (as they haue often d [...]e in other places) vnarmed, as to a thing that by woords and reason is to be decided, and not by swoords the strength to be compassed. And thus much for the ambassadors.

Now you haue heard before of the battell of Leith, the besieging and the regaining of Edenburgh; tou|ching which, because it is omitted before in the reci|ting of the things doone in those places. I thinke it not a [...]sse (though it come a little out of course) to set it downe [...]as Buchanan hath placed the same [...] n [...]t after the spéeches vsed to those ambassadors.
Thus therefore he writeth touching the defense of Leith. [...].
These noble men [...]meaning those at Edenburgh [...] did write to the queene much after this maner, That they did greatlie maruell, that the regent prouoked with no iniuries, did so soone depart from the former couenants; and expelling the ancient inhabitants of Leith, and placing there a colonie of strangers, she would in that place build a castle to the destruction of the lawes and liberties of the realme, and to the danger of the liues of them all. Wherefore they did earnestlie intreat [...]ir. that she would desist from this thing rashlie attempted [...]against the faith of hir promise, the publike commoditie, and the laws and li|berties of the kingdome) least she inforce them by necessitie to praie in aid of the whole people.

Besides which also, they which were assembled at Edenburgh, did write to the same effect, about a moneth after that they had dispatched the other let|ters, adding these petitions to the same last letters; That ouerthrowing the new fortresses, she would command all the strangers and hired people to de|part out of the towne, to the end that it might be frée for all men (according to iustice) there to traffike and vse their mutuall trade of buieng & selling one with an other. The which if she refused to doo, they would take it for a sure token, that she ment to bring this kingdome into seruitude; against which euill they would prouide all whatsoeuer remedie that they could. Within thrée daies after, the quéene sent Ro|bert Forman chiefe herald to answer the matter, with instructions and commandements deliuered to him in these words.

First of all, you shall shew vnto them, that no|thing could happen vnto vs more contrarie to our opinion, than that there should be anie other hauing authoritie here, besides my daughter and hir hus|band my sonne in law, vpon whome all our authori|tie dooth depend; that the former acts of the nobeli|tie, EEBO page image 370 and this present request, or rather commande|ment dooth well declare, that they acknowledge no other superioritie; and that their demands (or rather threatnings) with what shew of words soeuer they be cloked, are sufficientlie enough knowen vnto vs, as no new things. Againe, you shall require of the duke of Chastelerault, that he call to mind what he hath promised to vs by his words, and to the king by his letters. Which was, that he would not onelie hear|ken to the kings commandement; but also woorke, that his sonne the earle of Arrane should not at all ioine with those tumults of the countrie, and whether the things which he now dooth, are the performance of his promises.

To their letters also you shall answer; that we haue openlie shewed our indeuor to bring things to quiet; that we will grant to anie thing, which maie not resist the pietie due to God, and dooth not fight with their duetie towards their king and quéene, and that I did neuer so much as once thinke of the ouer|throw of their lawes and libertie; and much lesse, so|much as dreame of conquering the kingdome by violence. For to whome, or for whome should I séeke the kingdome, when my daughter dooth alreadie possesse it? Touching the defense and fortifieng of Leith, you shall aske them this; whether that we at anie time haue attempted anie thing that waie, be|fore that they with manie assemblies, and at length with conspiracie among themselues, did openlie shew that they would shake off the lawfull gouerne|ment, and before that they at their pleasure troubled the whole publike state (vnknowledge to vs, who held the place and authoritie of the chiefest gouernor) strengthened their factions with strong cities, and made league and couenants with our ancient eni|mies?

And to omit other things, what cause can they (in the end) bring foorth, whie it was lawfull for them to reteine an armie at Edenburgh, to inuade the go|uernors of those affaires? And that it is not lawfull for vs at Leith for our owne defense and safetie, to haue anie other gard about vs? Truelie they séeke this therin, that we should labor to shun their furie (as hitherto we haue doone) by continuall and dailie change of places. Is there anie thing in their let|ters that mentioned their dutie to the right magi|strate? Dooth there lie open anie waie for the resto|ring of concord? Or doo they shew anie token that they would haue these seditions pacified, and that they would all things should be reduced to their for|mer state?

Let them cloke this with what colour they will of publike commoditie; yet it is manifest that they thinke and seeke nothing lesse. For if they had one|lie staied vpon a concord, we haue often shewed them a waie therevnto. Neither are they ignorant that these French had (by the commandement of their king) béene long before dispatched out of Scot|land, vnlesse their dooings had béene the cause of their staie. Wherefore, if they will yet now offer anie honest conditions which may induce vs to hope; and that (the maiestie of the gouernement alwaies saued sound) maie declare that they will modestlie and obedientlie obeie their superiors: we will re|fuse no means to restore a concord & quiet amongest them and vs, nor omit anie thing that maie tend to the publike commoditie.

Neither are we alone so affected towards them, but also their king and quéene; who hath sent vnto them a woorthie knight of the order of the scallop shell, and one of the chiefe of the ecclesiasticall order, with letters and commandements touching the same: whome they did so contemne, as that they would not vouchsafe them answer, no not so much as hearing. Wherefore, you shall demand, and command the duke, the nobilitie, and all others of what condition soeuer, that they depart in sunder; or otherwise, that they shall not be kept togither, vnlesse it be by strength of armes. To all this the next day, which was the thrée and twentith of Oc|tober, the nobilitie answered after this order.

We easilie vnderstand by your letters and com|mandements sent by the herald, how obstinatlie you be euillie minded against pietie towards God, the publike commoditie of the realme, and the com|mon libertie of vs all: all which things we must & doo defend, as of right we ought. Wherefore, from hencefoorth we doo suspend and forbid your gouerne|ment, in the name of the king and quéene, or by what other name or title you doo vsurpe the publike administration of the kingdome; as persons cer|teinlie knowing, that those things which are now doone by you, doo with the mind of those princes fight against the publike safetie of this realme.

And as you doo not estéeme vs lawfull subiects of those princes & of this kingdome, to make a publike senate or councell: so we doo not acknowledge you for a regent to execute supreme authoritie; speciallie sith the gouernement (if you haue anie such commit|ted vnto you by the princes) is for most iust & weigh|tie causes forbidden you: and that in the name of the same princes, whose councellors we are borne to be, chiefelie in matters which perteine to the safetie of all the people. And although we haue determi|ned not to flee anie danger, in deliuering of that towne, in which you haue placed strange and hired souldiers against vs: yet for the reuerence which we beare vnto you, as vnto our quéene mother; we earnestlie with all faithfull intreatie beséech you, that you depart from thence; whilest the cause of publike commoditie dooth inforce vs to recouer that towne by weapons

Besides which, we further request, that you will leade them out of the towne with you, within foure and twentie houres; if there be anie which doo chal|lenge vnto themselues the names of ambassadors, either to decide controuersies, or to gouerne the af|faires. For it is but equitie that we prouide for the safetie, and willinglie spare the bloud of all those hired souldiers, aswell for the ancient amitie which hath béene betwéene the French and the Scots, as for the mariage of our quéene with their king: which friendship we would rather should be increa|sed than diminished. The same day also, the said herald declared at his returne to the regent, that the day before it was persuaded in an assembled coun|cell of the nobles and the other commons; that all the déeds and saiengs of the regent did onelie tend to verie tyrannie.

Herevpon, there was a decree made to take the gouernement from hir: so that the whole com|panie subscribed, as to a most iust matter: and that there they did forbid anie ambassage, giuen or sent to hir by hir sonne in law and hir daughter: further, commanding hir to execute no gouerne|ment, vntill the generall assemblie of a parlement to be appointed by them in such place as they should thinke conuenient. The fiue and twentith daie, the lords of the religion sent an herald to Leith, to will all the Scots to depart the towne within foure and twentie houres, and to separat themselues from the subuerters of publike libertie.
Thus much Bucha|nan of this doone about the state of Leith, before the nobilitie besieged the same (as is before set downe.) And so againe to the order of the historie.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lords of Scotland, perceiuing the French|men The lords s [...]d for aid vnto the quéene of England. incresed, so that they by their owne forces onlie were not able to resist them, sent William Metel|lan EEBO page image 371 to Elizabeth the quéene of England for assi|stance, to expell the Frenchmen. Which the queene of England granted, not onelie for to serue the Sco|tishmens turne; but speciallie for the suertie of hir owne realme and state, which as then was thought to stand in danger of trouble, in case the French|men were suffered to remaine in Scotland: consi|dering the euill dealing of the French king and his councell in some points alreadie shewed. The queene of England therefore sent the duke of Norffolke to Berwike, whither came to him the earle of Argile, They had their request gran [...]ed them. 15 [...]. B [...]ch. 1559. Lesle. the prior of saint Andrews, Harris the maister of Marwell, Robert Carnegie, and the yoong lord of Lethington, secretarie, & made agréement to haue aid of England, to the effect aforesaid.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And for sure kéeping hereof, the Scotish lords deliuered pledges into England, there to remaine during the life of the king of France, and one yéere Pledges sent into England after his deceasse. The pledges were these: Dauid Hamilton, sonne to the duke of Chatelerault; an o|ther called Colme Campbell, cousine to the earle of Argile; Robert Dowglas, brother to the prior of S. Andrews; and the lard of Lochleuin, and a sonne of the lord Ruthwen. About the same time, Iames Lord Hamil|ton taketh part with the er [...]e of Argile. Hamilton earle of Arrane, eldest sonne to the duke of Chatelerault, and capteine of the Scotish compa|nie of men of armes and archers in France, being fled for religion secretlie to Geneua, from thence came by the conuoie of maister Randall English|man into England: which at his comming into Scotland he performed, and ioined himselfe with the earle of Argile, and other lords in the cause afore|said.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke of Chatelerault, the earles of Argile, Arrane, and others, came to the towne of Glasow, The towne of Glascow is taken. and caused the images & altars to be taken downe, seizing the bishops liuing into their hands, and tooke the castell of Glascow perteining to the bishop, and put certeine gentlemen into it to kéepe it. Whereof the Frenchmen being aduertised, marched forward to Glascow, to the number of fiue thousand men: the bishop of Glascow, the lords Sempill, Seiton, Ros, and diuerse others with them, tooke the castell againe, and staieng one night of the towne, returned on the next morrow to Kirkintulloch, and from thence to Lithquo and Edenburgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After their returne from Glascow, a certeine number of Frenchmen went to Striueling, and pas|sing by the bridge ouer the water of Firth, came in|to Fife, in purpose to haue gone vnto saint An|drews, and to haue fortified the towne. But they be|ing in Kingcorne, there assembled togither in Fife the earles of Arrane, and Rothes, the prior of saint Andrews, the lord Ruthwen, the master of Lindsie, and diuerse other, hauing with them no great num|ber: but yet they dailie skirmished with the French|men, Certeine Frenchme [...] [...]ine. and would not suffer them to come from the sea side; where diuerse Frenchmen were slaine, and one of their capteins, with thirtie of his souldiors, and few Scotishmen, or in maner none: except that the earle of Southerland, who chanced to be with them at the pricking, was sore hurt and maimed in the arme with the dredge of a caléeuer shot.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 As the Frenchmen were in their progresse, at the mouth of the water of Leuin in Fife, there arriued [...]60. Lesle. in their sight a nauie of ships: which at the first ken|ning they tooke to be French ships, but shortlie after perceiuing them to be the English nauie, they retur|ned with great diligence to Burnt Iland, where they passed the ferrie of Kingcorne in botes and craiers The towne Burnt Iland [...] fortified. to Leith, and instantlie began to fortifie that towne, casting great trenches about it, and making great blockehouses for their defense, as preuenting such perils as otherwise might haue befallen them, and vsing remedies in due time, by warl [...]ke policie of present deuise, to prouide against afterclaps. The English ships came to the rode of Leith, where they An English na [...]. cast anchors, the fourth Ides of Ianuarie.

Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 563. 1560. Fr. Thin. In the meane time, whil [...]st th [...]se of the religion had almost destroied all m [...]nasteries, certeine ba|rons of Merne, partlie for hatred to the catholike religion (as the Romish cleargie tearmeth it) and partlie blinded with desire of pr [...] (as in all assem|blies of battell there will be some) ouerthrew the monasterie of the Carmelite friers in Aberden. Who going about also to haue spoiled the monaste|ries of the Trinitie, and of the friers Min [...]s, were hindered thereof by the lord Lesle, and the baron of Buchquhane, at the commandement of the earle of Huntle [...]e. Notwithstanding which, they could not be so sufficientlie repressed, but that they went to old Aberden (for so they call that place in that towne, which is beautified with the bishops palace, the ca|nonrie, and the vniuersitie) and would haue assaulted the magnificent and statelie church thereof. But to This Lesle is now called bishop of Ros and compiled an historie of Scotland in Latine, prin|ted at Rome. kéepe them from the same, the bishop, & Iohn Lesle (the officiall of that place, the one by counsell, the o|ther by preaching, and both by the aid of the earle of Huntleie) did their indeuor, at what time the Leslées put them besides their purpose.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The queene regent hearing of the arriuall of the English, sent vnto the viceadmerall of that fléet, named maister Winter, requiring to know of him, for what cause he was come into those waters. This gentleman addressing himselfe to accomplish the commandement imposed and laid vpon him, came face to face to the said viceadmerall, and with coun|tenance, wherein appeared tokens of inward cou|rage, put foorth his demand as he was inioined. The viceadmerall answered, that he had beene abroad on the seas seeking after pira [...]s, and in case anie of them came thither, he was ar [...]iued there in the Forth to wait on them: where as the principall cause in déed was to impeach, that no Frenchman should land there in case anie came foorth of France, and also to kéepe them that laie in Inskith from vit|tels, and that no Frenchman should passe by sea forth of Leith.

Lesleus lib. 1 [...]. pag. 564. Fr. Thin. Wherevpon the quéene regent did send No|ualle the king of Frances orator in that realme, to request the queene of England, that she would call hir ships home againe, and that she would not send aiding souldiers to the lords of the religion (whome Lesleus neuer tearmeth by anie other name than sectaries and seditious persons) whereby the peace might be broken with the French, and so occasion of warre giuen. Wherevnto hir maiestie answered (with no lesse care of hir kingdome than became the maiestie of so good a mother to haue of hir children) that she had no such mind as to make warre. But bi|cause that she certeinlie vnderstood, that great troops of Frenchmen did dailie land and increase in Scot|land, for what cause she knew not: she could doo no lesse than place souldiers in diuerse forts and ha|uens, which might defend the English from the ma|lice or hurt of such strangers, if they should attempt anie thing. Neither would she suffer that hir people should set foot in Scotland, vnlesse that they were prouoked there vnto by iniuries offered them.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About the same time, the quéene regent, hearing A Scots he|rald sent to the duke of Norffolke. that the duke of Norffolke was come to Newcastle as generall lieutenant of the north, sent an herald with a letter to him, in which letter it was signified that the herald had credit to declare further matter than was conteined in the same letter. But when hée was demanded what he had to say, he denied to haue anie credit at all. Wherfore William Flower, then Chester herald, and now N [...]rreie king of armes, EEBO page image 372 was sent vnto the quéene, who comming to Holie An English herald sent to the quéene of Scots. rood house néere to Edenburgh, was receiued by sundrie heralds, & so was had to one of their houses, and there kept for that night. The next day after hee had dined, he was brought to the court, and at his entering within the gates, there were a number of harquebussiers readie with their péeces that dischar|ged and shot off the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At his comming to the presence of the quéene, he with dutifull obeisance deliuered his letters, and af|ter the same had béene read, he was demanded what credit he had to vtter. Wherevpon he declared, that the duke of Norffolke, being the quéenes maiesties lieutenant in the north parts of England, maruelled greatlie that she would send an herald with letters, and write therein how she had giuen credit to him; and yet when he was demanded to vtter his credit, he should confesse that he had none. The quéene herewith called for the herald, to vnderstand whether he had credit or not: who denied to haue anie at all. Wherwith the queene séemed to be somwhat abashed, but neuerthelesse she brake foorth and said, that she maruelled greatlie that the queene of England should send hir ships into hir riuer, without giuing hir knowledge aforehand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Chester answered thereto, that where it was cer|teinlie knowne, that the French king had prepared to send a power of men of warre into Scotland, without aduertising hir thereof; she could not but thinke that dealing verie strange, and therefore had in verie déed sent certeine of hir ships, with vittels for prouision to be laid within hir townes and castels on the frontiers. Which ships by tempest being dis|persed, might happilie be driuen into the riuer there, albeit he had not spoke with anie of them since there comming forth. But yet (as he had heard by others) they had béene verie vncourteouslie vsed: for com|ming in after that maner for succor, the canon had béene bent against them. Herewithall the count Martigues a forward cap|teine, but an vntrue pro|phet. Martigues standing by, began to speake verie stout words vnto Chester, alleging that where it was per|ceiued well inough, that the queene of England ment to make war against his maister the French king, he trusted she should gaine as little thereby, as his sister had doone in breaking with hir father Hen|rie the late French king. Chester herevnto answe|red, that he thought to haue found but one regent in Scotland, to whome he should need to make an|swer: wherevpon Martigues was commanded to silence.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All this while the quéene had talked with Chester in the Scotish toong. And bicause he did not so well vnderstand hir, he began to speake in the French language: whereat the quéene séemed greatlie to re|ioise, & so began againe to discourse with him of hir griefs; and he on the other part made hir answer as fell best to purpose. And at length, when he was de|manded what further credit he had; he declared, that where she had requested a safe conduct for monsieur le Brosse to passe through England into France, if she would sée him safelie conueied to Berwike, he durst assure hir of a sufficient safe conduct for his safe passage through she quéene his mistresse realme: but at length, there was another gentleman com|mended to him, in lieu for la Brosse, that was his cousine. And now when Chester shuld take his leaue, he declared that he had not beene courteouslie dealt with: for since his comming thither, he could not be suffered to passe anie where abroad out of his chamber, but at meale times. And therefore if anie of hir messengers should come into the quéene his mistresse dominions, he would procure (if he might) that they should tast of the like interteinment. But the queene seemed not to vnderstand that he had bin in anie wise so hardlie dealt with, she wing that shée was not well contented therewith; and so Chester tooke his leaue, and returned backe into England, without anie reward for his paines taken in that iournie, at the hands of the Scotish quéene: how so euer she liked of his message.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, there was an armie prepa|red 1560. An English armie. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 565. in England, of seuen or eight thousand men, who were sent into Scotland; the lord Greie of England being appointed generall, who came to the linkes, beside the towne of Leith, on saturday the sixt of Aprill. Before they pitcht downe their field on the said linkes, monsieur Martigues, coronell of the French armie, issued foorth of Leith with nine hun|dred They were backed with 500 pikes which kept aloofe. harquebussiers of Frenchmen, to a little knoll called the Halke hill, where a sore, continuall, and hot skirmish was begun betwixt the Englishmen and Frenchmen, with hagbuts, caléeuers, and pistolets, which skirmish continued fiue or six houres, in the which there were manie slaine on both parties, and diuerse hurt. At length Martigues was forced with his companie to retire backe to the towne of Leith, and the Englishmen pitched downe their campe, and planted their ordinance beside the said hill.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lord Greie being in Muskelburgh, sent to the The lord Greie sent vnto the quéene. quéene regent, that laie as then in the castell at E|denburgh, desiring an abstinence of warre for foure and twentie hours, that in the meane time he might send some of his councell to declare to hir the cause of his comming with that armie, and to commune of such things as might stanch the shedding of bloud. The queene granted herevnto, and sent an herald to Leith, to cause the said assurance to be taken: but yer he came to the towne, the skirmish aforesaid was begun with forwardnesse inough of both sides.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane time, the lord Greie sent sir George Men are sent to speake with the queene mother. Howard, and sir Iames Crofts to the castell of E|denburgh, to speake with the quéene to that effect: who had long conference with hir vpon the blocke|house at the vtter gate of the castell, during the time of the skirmish; where they declared, that the occasi|on of the comming of the armie, was for the cause aboue mentioned, desiring the queene to procure the The French|men to depart the realme. Frenchmen to depart the realme of Scotland: and they promised in that case to returne againe into their owne realme, and neither to disquiet French|men nor Scots. Whervpon the quéene tooke time to be aduised till the next day, that she might consult with the principall personages within the towne of Leith, requiring that it might be lawfull for hir to send to them to that effect, which was granted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next day she sent one Drummond a trum|petter, or herald (as saith Lesleus) with a letter to monsieur de la Brosse, to the effect aforesaid, direc|ting him to passe to the English campe, and to get a guide with him to go to the towne of Leith, as was agreed: and there was one appointed to go with him. But immediatly after his departing from the Eng|lish campe, he was suddenlie called backe againe, and his letters taken from him, was commanded to repaire to the castell of Edenburgh to the queene, The English are desirous to reuenge the iniuries doone vnto them. and to declare to hir that they would not haue anie talke, but would be reuenged on the Frenchmen, for the slaughter of their men the night before. Thus the parlée ceassing, the siege was inforced with right sharpe pursute, and strong defending on either part.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Englishmen cast trenches vpon the south|east side of the towne, and raised a litle mount which they called mount Pellam after the capteins name, and placed their ordinance aloft thereon: but bicause it was so farre from the towne, they did not so much scath thereto as they intended. The lord Greie, lieu|tenant A trench c [...]t to little pur|pose. of the English armie, lodged (during this EEBO page image 373 siege) within the towne of Lestalrike, in the deanes house, and the most part of their demilances and o|ther horssemen laie in the same towne. The footmen with their capteins lodged in hales, tents, and paui|lions, vpon the south and southeast side of the towne of Leith, and diuerse Scotish lords incamped with them in the fields, as the earles of Argile, Arrane, Morton, and Glencarne; the lords Boid, Ogiltree, the prior of saint Andrews, the maister of Maxwell, and others. The duke of Chatelerault, and diuerse with him remained in Holie rood house: and with the queene in the castell, the bishop of S. Andrews, the bishop of Dunkeld, the earle Marshall, the lord Erskin capteine of the castell, maister Iames Mac|gill clearke of the register, the prouost of Dunglas, called maister Abraham Chreichton, and diuerse others.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 On Easter éeuen, capteine Wood, and capteine Dethicke, seruing on the sea vnder maister Winter the English admerall there, were appointed by him to passe vp the riuer to Blackenesse, who with their bands going aboord into a barke prepared for that purpose, sailed forward: and on Easter day in the morning, presenting themselues before the castell, it was yéelded to them by certeine Frenchmen that The castell of Blackenesse woone. were within, and therevpon it was deliuered to the kéeping of Iames Hamilton, an ancient gentle|man; and capteine Wood, being set on shore, came to the campe before Leith by land. On blacke Mon|day, the Frenchmen, issuing foorth of Leith, set vpon the Englishmen in their trenches, and did much harme: as in the English historie it further appea|reth. Sée more hereof in England. During the siege thus afore Leith, the quéene regent was sore vexed with sickenesse, but neuerthe|lesse, she continued to labor for agréement, not ceas|sing Lesleus. lib. 10. The quéene laboured for an agréement. to send to the lords for to haue the matter taken vp. And for the better accomplishing of hir desire, she procured the earle of Huntleie to come foorth of the north, who tooke vp his lodging in Edenburgh, and tooke great paines to treat betwixt the quéene and lords for some agréement: but when he perceiued his trauell to be in vaine, hée returned into the north againe, and left the siege lieng still as hee found it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane while, the Englishmen, lodging on the southside of the towne beside mount Pellam, battered with their great artillerie at the parish Saint An|thonies stéeple [...]aten downe. church of Leith, and at saint Anthonies steeple, in which the Frenchmen had laid certeine péeces of ar|tillerie, and at length beat it downe: but perceiuing they could not doo anie great hurt to the walles on that side, they cast new trenches vpon the south and southwest side of the towne, and raised a mount there, naming it mount Summerset, & placed there|on Mount Summerset. certeine péeces in batterie, and so beat the wals, that a great part thereof was ouerthrowne, and a breach made. Wherevpon the Englishmen & Scots on a morning came with their ladders, and presen|ting themselues to the assault, found the breach no|thing reasonable; so that although they egerlie prea|sed forward to enter the towne, yet they were fierce|lie beaten backe with great slaughter and bloudshed They are bea|ten backe. on both parts, but namelie of the assailants.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Englishmen, perceiuing that they were too rash in assaulting the towne, being not assaultable, deuised other shifts to obteine their purpose, raising an other mount of earth on the west side of the wa|ter of Leith, and named it mount Falcon. Aloft on Mount Fal|con. this mount, when it was brought vp vnto a great heigth, they planted their great artillerie, which con|tinuallie beat into the towne, sore annoieng them within, but speciallie beating the houses and places by the shore side, so that none might go vp nor downe the towne on that part, without danger to be slaine with shot from that mount. The Frenchmen, during the time of the siege, manie times issued foorth to|wards the sands, and sometimes towards the tren|ches, so that sundrie sore skirmishes chanced betwixt the Englishmen and them, with the slaughter of di|uerse, both of the one part and the other. Amongest other of them within, there were slaine two Scotish men of name, to wit, capteine Kenedie, and yoong Henrie Drummond: and of them without, there was slaine a Scotish gentleman, called the lard of Cleisch.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The English armie was throughlie furnished with vittels foorth of all parts of the realme, and that vpon reasonable prices: but the French within the towne The towne of Leith vnpro|uided of vit|tels. could get none, more than they had prouided before the comming of the English armie, which when it be|gan to faile them, they were constreined to eat their owne horsses, whose flesh seemed to them in that ne|cessitie more delicious, than before that time anie maner of venison. Those within Inskeith also were in great necessitie of vittels: but yet neither they within the one place, nor they within the other, would render their strength, looking still for aid foorth of France. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 568. Whilest these things were doone in Scot|land, the French king, to shew how he fauoured the pope, and how farre he maligned the reformed lords of Scotland sent his ambassadors Iohn Babone a Burdseie knight, and that eloquent man Anthonie Muret of France to pope Pius the fourth of that name, to yéeld all the dominions of France & Scot|land at the popes commandement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, the quéene regent, perceiuing hir sicknesse so to increase, that she looked for present death, sent for the duke of Chatelerault, and all the The quéene sent for the lords. lords of Scotland that were in the towne of Eden|burgh, and in the campe: who came vnto hir altogi|ther into the castell of Edenburgh, where

she made The quéenes oration vnto the nobles. vnto them a graue and pithie exhortation, persua|ding them to vnitie and concord with their ancient friends of France; and now more stedfast to them than at anie time before, by reason of the mariage of the quéene their good souereigne, with the king of France. And héerewith she brake out into certeine woords, to dissuade them from the amitie contracted with the Englishmen, declaring that the English|men aided them not for anie other respect, than for their owne turne and commoditie. Moreouer, for hir owne part she said, that she fauoured the weale of the realme of Scotland, as much as France; conside|ring she had the honor to be queene and regent there|of, and hir daughter heritable quéene of the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

Furthermore she said, that if she had attempted anie thing that séemed or appéered to the noble men contrarie therevnto; the same came to passe rather for lacke of wisedome and iudgement, than for want of anie good will: and if it pleased God to prolong hir daies, she would be glad to amend that had beene doone amisse: and if he called hir to his mercie, she praied them most hartilie to acknowledge their dutie vnto the queene their souereigne, and to mainteine their ancient amitie with the king and realme of France, & to make some good accord with the French that were within the towne of Leith, who would gladlie accept the same, to the end that as well they as the Englishmen should depart this realme. For A mistrustfull mind. she feared greatlie (as she said) least if the French|men departed, the Englishmen would still remaine, and subdue the land to their obedience: and therefore she besought all good Scotishmen to haue respect to the libertie and weale of their countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After she had talked thus a good while with manie teares, she desired the lords to forgiue hir in anie thing wherein she had offended anie of them, during the time of hir being in Scotland, which they gladlie EEBO page image 374 seemed to doo: and on the other part, she forgaue them with all hir hart (as it appéered) all offenses which they had committed against hir: and thus diuerse of them wéeping, she tooke euerie of them by the hand, and so they taking leaue of hir, departed, and retur|ned The quéene taketh hir leaue. into Edenburgh, and to their campe. Whilest the siege thus laie before the towne of Leith, diuerse great troubles rose in sundrie parts of the realme, and speciallie betwixt the earle of Huntleie, and the The earle of Huntleie and Atholl are at variance. earle of Atholl, so that there was taking of priso|ners, and ouerthrowing of houses on either part, and great preparation made, and armies put in a readi|nesse to inuade either others countries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But this businesse was pacified by the trauell and The matter is pacified. good mediation of maister Alexander Gordon, then postulat of Gallowaie, maister Iohn Lesle officiall of Aberden, and William Lesle the yoong lard of Buchquhan, who agreed them for all matters in con|trouersie, & caused them to go to either others house. [During which siege of Leith also, the earle Both|well, Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 571. and Sarlalouse, then capteine of the souldiers, and gouernor of the castell of Dunbar, did at Dun|bar with manie light excursions intercept manie of the English and Scots going to Leith, whome they ransomed for a great summe.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At the same time, one maister Donald Frasher, archdeacon of Rosse, tooke the bishops castell of the The castell of Rosse taken. canonrie of Rosse, and kept the same against mai|ster Henrie Sincler, then bishop there, and the chie|fest men of authoritie in that diocesse, as Machenzée, Balnagoun, Foulis, and the shiriffe Tramercie, who assembled about the same, and besieged the castell, where great force was vsed, both by them without to The castell is besieged. win it, and of them within to defend it. The bishop be|ing then resident in Cromercie castell, hearing that the house wold not be gotten without great slaugh|ter, thought it against his conscience, his profit, and honor, to win it in that manner: and therefore sen|ding for maister Iohn Leste, officiall of Aberden, and maister Alexander Dunbar, subchantor of Mur|reie, by their labour and diligent treating in the mat|ter, the bishop by reasonable appointment recouered his castell of them that held it against him. The castell was restored againe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The French king, vnderstanding in what distresse his men remained that were besieged within Leith, and perceiuing himselfe not able to send an armie to succour them within the time that their necessitie re|quired, thought good to trie if the matter might be taken vp: and to that effect sent two ambassadors, the earle of Randon, and monsieur Monluc bishop of Ambassadors sent. Monsieur Monluc bi|shop of Ua|lence. Ualence, who declared to the quéenes maiestie of England, the cause of their comming; which was, to desire hir to retire hir armie foorth of Scotland, vpon some such reasonable conditions as might be agréed vpon. And heerewith they declared that they were sent to the quéene, and not vnto the subiects of Scot|land: for it was not méet that the king should send to his owne subiects (as they were by the mariage of their quéene) to require peace, or to condition with them for agreement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The quéenes maiestie of England therefore sent sir William Cecill knight, hir principall secretarie, An ambassage sent by the quéene of England. and doctor Wotton deane of Canturburie and of Yorke, one of the priuie councell, with the French ambassadors into Scotland. Whilest they were yet vpon their iournie, the quéene regent (whome they thought to haue found aliue, and to haue vsed hir helpe as an instrument to haue furthered the treatie to some good end) consumed partlie through melan|cholie, thought, and grieuous displeasure, and partlie with long and incurable sicknesse, departed this life in the castell of Edenburgh the tenth of Iune, in the yéere of our Lord 1560. The Scotish quéene mother departed. Fr. Thin. Hir bodie was first con|ueied into France, to the monasterie of Feschampe, which is in Normandie, from whence it was caried Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 569. 1560. The praise of the queene Dowager. to the abbeie of S. Peter at Rhemes in Champaig|nie (whereof hir sister was then abbesse) in which it was after most honorablie buried.] She was a wise and verie prudent princesse, and in hir time had lear|ned good experience of the nature and inclination of the nobilitie and people of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 During the time that she was regent, she kept good iustice, and was well obeied in all parts of the realme in Orkeneie, and the westerne Iles. And if she had to hir owne experience ioined the councell of the nobles and wise men of the realme of Scotland, without following the aduise of strangers, there had béene neuer question nor debate betwixt hir and the nobilitie, as some deemed. But because that others, and namelie, monsieur Doisell, and Rubée, were ad|ioined to hir by the estates of Scotland, who dailie pressed hir to deuise new alterations of lawes, im|positions, taxations, and such things as were not in vse in Scotland: therefore the estates and people of the land did grudge, although not for anie misliking they had of hir, who suerlie deceassed, to the great griefe and lamentation of the whole number of the estates and people of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The death of that noble princesse made the French men within Leith, and also the ambassadors more dis|couraged than otherwise they would haue béene. The ambassa|dors came to Edenburgh. But neuerthelesse these foure ambassadors of Eng|land and France comming to Edenburgh, entered in conference among themselues, vpon articles pro|poned as well for reliefe of the Scotishmen, as for the weale and suertie of the quéene of England and hir subiects. Wherevpon certeine lords of Scotland were admitted to talke with them also: and after They haue conference. Peace is con|cluded. 1559. Buch. long treatie, a peace was concluded the tenth of Iu|lie, in the yéere of God 1560, with certeine articles touching as well Scots and French, as English|men. The effect whereof heere insueth.

1.12. Articles of the peace.

Articles of the peace.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _FIrst, it was agréed, that all the French|men Articles of the peace. should depart foorth of the realme of Scotland by sea into France, & to that effect should imbarke and make saile French soul|diers depart the realme. within the space of twentie daies next following: and because the Frenchmen had no ships, the Eng|lishmen should lend them ships, and certeine of the Frenchmen remaine as pledges in England, till the same ships were returned.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Item, that they should render the towne of Leith they should render it. Leith, and the Frenchmen to haue their munition, bag, and baggage, to conueie awaie with them at their pleasure, and that the wals of the towne should be throwne downe and demolished.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 3 Item, they should cause monsieur Charlebois The sort be|fore Dunbar to be raced. The English men should depart also. capteine of Dunbar, to demolish and race the fort which they had built before the castell there.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 4 Item, that the Englishmen should raise their siege and depart foorth of Scotland: after the depar|ture from thence of the Frenchmen, and racing of the wals of Leith and Dunbar.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 5 Item, that there should be made an act of obli|uion, An act of ob|liuion to be made. in which the queene of Scotland, with consent of the French king hir husband, should forget and burie in obliuion all attempts made by the lords of Scotland against their authoritie, from the tenth day of March 1558, to the first day of August in the yéere of Grace 1560. And for confirming thereof, a parlement should be holden in Edenburgh, in the moneth of August next insuing, in which parlement the same should be ratified and allowed by the aduise of the estates of the realme of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 6 Also it was agréed, that there should be a com|mission A parlement to be kept. EEBO page image 375 sent from the French king and the quéene of Scotland, to hold the same parlement to the effect a|foresaid.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 7 Item, that the quéene of Scotland and king of France should cause to blot out and put awaie To put awaie the armes and claime of England. the hearing of the armes of England out of their scutchens.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 8 Item, it was agréed, that there should remaine still in the Ile of Inskith thrée score Frenchmen, and Possession to be kept with souldiers. as manie in the castell of Dunbar, to kéepe (as it were) possession to the queenes vse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The whole number of the Frenchmen (a few ex|cepted that passed through England) went aboord the English ships in Iulie, and sailed into France, and The French|mẽ depart out of Scotland. in companie with them went the bishop of Glascow and the lord Seton. The Englishmen departed also, and in their way caused the fort of Dunbar to be raced, as by the agréement of the peace it was ap|pointed. A parlement was holden in August, and the A parlement. act of obliuion ratified by the states, & a confession of faith published in the same: it was concluded also A confession of faith publi|shed. to send ambassadors into England, which was doone. And shortlie after, the lords summoned the princi|pall learned men of the realme foorth of the vniuer|sities Learned men called. of saint Andrews, Aberden, Glascow, and other parts, to giue a reason of their faith.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And amongest other of Aberden that tooke vpon A disputation. them to dispute with Iohn Knox, Iohn Wullocke, and maister Goodman [were Iohn Lesle (doctor of Fr. Thin. both lawes, chiefe iudge of the diocesse of Aberden called officiall; who shortlie after was senator of Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 574. the high court, and of councell to the quéene of Scots, and lastlie made bishop of Rosse) Patrike Mirton the treasuror, Iames Straquhine canon, and Alexander Anderson a verie graue diuine. At what time these Roman prelats behaued themselues so well, that they were commanded not to depart the towne; but to be present at the sermons of the ministers.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the winter, the lords of the councell gaue facul|ties of benefices to diuerse of their friends, who put Liuings be|stowed. foorth the prelats, and receiued the fruits. The earle of Argile disposed Dunkeild and Dunblan. The earle of Arran had the ordering of the bishoprikes of saint Andrews, also of the abbasies of Dunferm|ling, and Melrosse, and other small benefices. The like was vsed by other noble men, through all parts of the realme. Shortlie after, Francis the French king, husband to the quéene of Scotland, departed this life in December, and Charles his brother was crowned in his place. The quéene being then wi|dow, and Dowager of France, departed from Or|leance (where the court lay when hir husband deceas|sed) and went to the towne of Reimes in Cham|paigne, where she remained till the fifteenth daie of Aprill following.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And then purposing to returne into Scotland, she tooke hir iournie towards Ianuille, and so into Lorraine, there to take leaue of hir kinsfolke by hir The Scotish quéene went into Lorraine. mothers side. The bishop of Glascow, and the ab|bat of Dunfermling Scotishmen, were still atten|dant on hir in this iournie. There were with hir al|so the cardinals of Lorraine and Guise, the duke Daumale, and the marquesse Dalbeuf hir vncles. Fr. Thin. Amongst whom there had béene great disputation touching the quéene of Scotlands returning into hir Buch. lib. 17. owne realme, wherevnto hir vncles were verie wil|ling; although some did séeme to staie the iournie, whose spéeches tended to this effect as followeth.

That the iournie was dangerous, especiallie be|cause the quéene of England did not greatlie fauor it; then that she should come to men by nature bar|barous & seditious, which would not easilie obeie the gouernement of a man. Whereof she had fresh ex|amples before hir eies, of hir father, and of hir mo|ther, whome (when they either could not or durst not openlie oppresse) they forced to a desperation of things with their manie deuises, sith they dailie liued by them in danger of honor or of life.

On the contrarie part, they which would haue the Dowager of France returne to hir naturall coun|trie, and were skilfull of the affaires of Scotland, did allege that those seditions were rather occasio|ned by the default of the kings & gouernors, than of the subiects; whilst they striued to reduce that king|dome (which from the beginning had alwaies béene free) to infinit bondage, and to the frée power of the lawes: which that nation (being more warlike than welthie) could not indure. When contrarilie, they did not onelie defend all their gouernors (which did not attempt the ouerthrow of their liberties) from the outward enimie, and from the inward tumults of the people: but they also made them (through loue and dutie towards their kings) inuincible ouer their enimies, and famous amongest strange nations.

And that the chiefest meane at this time to paci|fie all those troubles in Scotland, was not to make alteration of anie thing in Scotland, from the state wherein euen now it standeth. Wherevpon she resol|ued to come spéedilie into Scotland, whereof more shall be said hereafter; vntill which, we will intreat of other matters doone in Scotland. The quéene of Scots hauing hir mind still setled vpon hir returne into Scotland; Noalius a senator of Burdeaux landed, before this in Scotland (whither he was sent) a little after the end of the publike parlement, for which cause he was staied and turned ouer to the next assemblie of parlement, which was appointed the twelfe kalends of Iune.

But when at that time also the nobilitie assem|bled did not sit in councell, because they were yet vn|certeine of the quéenes mind; in the meane time Iames Steward returned out of France, and brought with him a commission, which gaue them authoritie to hold a parlement, therein to treat and conclude of matters touching the common-wealth. Wherevpon in the end there was audience giuen to the ambassador, the effect of whose legacie was, to renew the old league with France, to vndoo the league with England, and that priests should be re|stored to their liuings, out of which they had beene thrust by violence.

To these things it was answered, that concer|ning the league of France, they were not anie waie guiltie of the breach thereof; and contrarilie that the French had manifoldlie neglected the same; but spe|ciallie of late, in seeking the authoritie of their pub|like libertie, in that they would haue brought the people (their friends and giltles of anie euill) vnto miserable seruitude. For the league with England, they could not by anie meanes dissolue that, except they should be counted most vnthankefull, recom|pense so great a benefit with great wickednes, & con|spire against the defendors of their liberties. And as touching restitution for such as they called priests, they did acknowlege that they had not anie office, vse, or authoritie in the church.

In this councell also it was decréed, to ouerthrow all the monasteries of moonks, for which cause di|uerse were sent out into all places of the realme to execute the same. By occasion whereof, the quéene being in France, and desirous to haue peacefull landing in Scotland; would not for this present meddle with religion, but dissembled the same: al|though Dureus abbat of Ferline, and Iohn Sin|clere latelie appointed bishop of Brechine, did vehe|mentlie persuade and labor hir to the contrarie.

EEBO page image 376 In this yeare also on the ninth of March, was the Fr. Thin. 1560. Abbridged out of the printed booke thereof. election of superintendents at Edenburgh, which was published to serue for the election of all other ministers in this forme following (Iohn Knox be|ing the minister thereof.) First was made a sermon, in which these parts were intreated; principallie the necessitie of ministers and superintendents. Se|condlie the crimes & vices that might vnable them of the ministerie. Thirdlie the vertues required in them. Fourthlie & lastlie, whether such as by publike consent of the church were called to such office, might refuse the same.

The sermon finished, it was declared by the same minister Iohn Knox (the maker of that speech or sermon) that the lords of the secret councell had giuen charge and power to the churches of Louthi|an, to choose maister Iohn Spotswood superinten|dent, & that sufficient warning was made by publike edict to the churches of Edenburgh, Luithithgue, Striueling, Treuent, Hadington, & Dunbar, as al|so to earles, lords, barons, gentlemen and others, which haue or might claime to haue voice in the elec|tion to be present that daie at the same houre. And therefore inquisition was made, who were present, and who were absent.

After this was called the said maister Iohn Spots|wood, who answering to his name, the minister Knox demanded, if anie man knew anie crimes or offenses of the said Spotswood, that might disable him to be called to that office. Which thing thrise de|manded, Euerie nation is to haue his peculiar go|uernement in religion, as is best liking to the godlie disposers of the religi|on of that countrie, sith vulgus monstrũ multorum capi| [...]um. there was after question mooued to the whole multitude; if there were anie other whome they would put in election with the said Spotswood. Then the people were asked whether (if they admit|ted the said Spotswood for their superintendent) they would honor and obeie him as Christes minister in euerie thing perteining to his charge.

Wherevnto the people answered that they would, which thus granted, there were further questions and matters touching the articles of the apostles creed, and concerning the state of religion propoun|ded to the superintendent, intended to be created. Wherevnto, when he had answered affirmatiuelie, the people were againe demanded for his allow|ance; which they easilie granted with the consent of the nobilitie. These things thus performed, and a certeine praier (to obteine the spirit of God to be powred into this new elect vessell) finished, the rest of the ministers (if there be anie) and elders of the church present, in signe of their full consent, shall take the elected by the hand.

And so the chiefe minister giuing an especiall be|nediction (the forme whereof is there set downe, with the exhortation which they must also vse to the elected) this election is wholie finished (without anie imposition of hands on his head) and he sufficientlie created a superintendent minister; of whose elec|tion of elders, deacons, excommunications, and o|ther ecclesiasticall regiment, I meane not to speake anie more (as matter impertinent to my discourse, though not to the nature of an ecclesiasticall historie) sith I haue onelie here in hand the politicall and temporall gouernement, and not the discourse of re|ligion and essentiall forme thereof.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Before this, in the beginning of the winter this Ambassadors sent into England. yeare, the lords sent the earle of Morton and Glen|carne, and the yoong lard of Ledington secretarie, ambassadors into England; to giue thanks to the queens maiestie of England, for the aid which they had receiued of hir, to expell the Frenchmen. The earle of Murreie passed through England into France. He departed from Edenburgh the eigh|teenth 1561. of March, and in Aprill came to Uitrie, as hereafter shall appeare; where he found the quéene, meaning to submit himselfe. But the day before he came, maister Iohn Lesle officiall of Aberden was come thither, who was sent from the earle of Hunt|leie, and other the lords spirituall and temporall of the north parts; he tooke ship in the rode of Aberden, and landing at Brule in Holand, passed through the lowe countries in post till he came to Paris, and from thence vnto Uitrie aforesaid [the eightéenth Fr. Thin. kalends of March] where he found the quéene, whom he most dutifullie saluted.

This is he which before is called the earle of Mur|reie that went into France but not right|lie, for he was not earle vn|till long after this time. After which (being most courteouslie receiued of hir) he opened vnto hir the effect of his ambassage, which consisted speciallie vpon these parts; to admo|nish the queene that she should not suffer hir selfe to be blinded or deceiued with the flattering words of Iames the prior of saint Andrews (hir bastard bro|ther) for his onelie drift was, that he (hauing no French aid with him into Scotland) might obteine of the queene the whole gouernement of the king|dome, vnder the colour whereof he might more easi|lie teare & cleane ouerthrow the catholike religion; which he did assault by all meanes possible.

Wherefore Lesle did with all the firmest aduise and counsell which he might, vrge the queene not to yéeld to his cloked words. For the obteining of which demand from the quéene, he did fitlie ad to his per|suasions, that Iames did rather aspire to the king|dome, than that he fixed his mind and eie vpon the ouerthrow of religion. Wherefore, if she had anie care of hir owne and the realms affaires; she must prouide that this Iames should remaine in France, vntill she were arriued in Scotland, & had pacified all the tumults there.

But if she would not doo so, that yet at least she should take order, that she with hir nauie should land in the north parts of Scotland, & first go to Aberden: for by that meanes she might prouide, that the set|led lords of the religion might soone be pacified, and the rest which were yet wauering, might more fréelie and willinglie be brought againe to the catholike re|ligion. For there was an other order to be vsed in Scotland, than that which the French obserued, whilest they gouerned there; at which time vndoub|tedlie the Scots were hopelesse euer to haue inioied the presence of the queene.

But now, sith that the Scots doo vnderstand, that their quéene (contrarie to their hope) will re|turne vnto them, hir presence will (like the rising sun) so cause the clouds of all tumults to vanish out of the minds of all hir subiects, that they will easilie incline to the mind of the quéene, whatsoeuer she shall thinke, attempt, set downe, or decree, in resto|ring of religion. For the Scots are of that mind towards their princes, as they will in all things o|beie their vpright gouernors; and are accustomed with no lesse mind to resist tyrants, if they vsurpe vpon them in exaction of authoritie.

Wherefore Lesleus did earnestlie persuade the queene in the name of the earle of Huntleie, and the other nobilitie, that she should not giue hir selfe (as vanquished) into the hands of the enimies, and espe|ciallie of Iames Steward hir brother, from whome (as from a founteine) all their seditions haue had beginning. For Iames Cullen (kinsman to the erle of Huntleie, an expert seruitor in the warres by sea and land) was sent foorth with Lesle (as capteine of that iournie) to bring hir safe to Aberden. For all the nobles of the north prouinces will soone be readie with twentie thousand men to gard hir to Eden|burgh, and to defend hir against all the counsels, de|ceipts, and forces of all men.

Which message being thus ended from the mouth of Lesle, the queene commanded him not to depart from hir, vntill she returned into Scotland; and EEBO page image 377 further gaue in charge, that letters should be writ|ten to the péeres and nobilitie of Scotland, to let them vnderstand of hir comming into Scotland, & to be a witnesse of hir good will vnto them. The next day after came to the quéene at Uitrie, in Cham|paigne, Iames Steward (which is touched a little be|fore) the prior of S. Andrews. Who after he had in re|uerence doone his dutie, bound himselfe with all fi|delitie, trauell, and diligence, most religiouslie vn|to hir; faithfullie further promising, that he would prouide that the Scots should willinglie obeie hir, without anie forren powers to be brought by hir in|to Scotland.

For it was thought that he went into France for that purpose, to dissuade the quéene that she should not bring any power of the French with hir. But in the end, vttering his mind more fullie, and putting awaie all suspicion of deceit, he did with more fami|liaritie request the quéene to honor him with the erl|dome of Murreie. Wherevnto the queene did cour|teouslie answer, that she would satisfie his request when she came into Scotland. Wherefore, when this Iames perceiued that the queene was somewhat well bent towards him, and that she credited his words, he attended on hir vnto Ianeuille, and there remaining with hir a certeine space, did after go in|to Scotland (as is before said) to prepare the minds of the people, that they might receiue the quéene comming into the realme, with good consent and du|tifull honor; who passing through England, came in|to Scotland in the kalends of Maie.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The duke of Chatelerault, the earles of Hunt|leie, Atholl, Marshall, and all other the noble men The nobles assemble at Edenburgh. of the realme, aduertised of the quéens comming, assembled at Edenburgh with all possible diligence. In the meane time, whilst the quéene was preparing to take hir iournie, and to come into Scotland, the queene of England set foorth some of hir great ships to the seas, to watch & gard the coasts of hir realme. Whereof they being aduertised in France, sent the abbat of saint Colmes Inch to the quéene of Eng|land, Ships wait in the narrow [...]as. to desire of hir a safe conduct, in case by wind or tempest she chanced to land in England. But be|fore he was returned to Calis therewith, as he was appointed; the quéene and hir retinue were safelie [...] safe conduct required. landed in Scotland, neuerthelesse, the English ships tooke some of the Scotish lords, as the earle of E|glenton his ship, and others, which were brought in|to Certeine ships taken. England, and staied for a time; but were after re|leased, and sent home into Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The quéene also, by the aduise of the K. of France, sent monsieur Doisell into England, to passe Mans [...] Doisell, through the same into Scotland before hir cõming, there to haue receiued the forts of Dunbar and Ins|keith, of monsieur Charlebois, and to haue kept the same till hir comming. But he was staied, and pas|sed no further than to London: for it was thought that his going into Scotland would turne to no great benefit of that realme: because that he & mon|sieur Rubeie were the principall authors of all the troubles in Scotland, betwixt the queene regent, and the nobilitie there. She was attended on from Pa|ris The quéene was co [...]ied into Calis. vnto Calis with manie noble men; namelie hir six vncles, the dukes of Guise, and Daumall, the cardinall of Lorraine and Guise, the grand prior, and the marquesse Dalbeuf, also the duke de Ne|meurs, and other of hir friends and kinsmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There were two gallies prepared, and certeine other ships to go with hir into Scotland, and there She taketh [...] in|to Scotland. went with hir three of hir said vncles, the duke Dau|mall, the grand prior, and the marquesse Dalbeuf: also monsieur Danuille the constables sonne, and diuerse other. She arriued at Leith the twentith day The queene [...] at L [...]th. of August, in the yeare of our Lord 1561, where she was honorablie receiued by the earle of Argile, the lord Erskin, the prior of saint Andrews, and of the burgesss of Edenburgh, and conueied to the ab|beie of Holie rood house. For (as saith Buchanan) Fr. Thin. when some had spread abroad hir landing in Scot|land, the nobilitie and others assembled out of all Buchanan, lib. 17. parts of the realme, as it were to a common spec|tacle.

This did they, partlie to congratulat hir returne, & partlie to shew the dutie which they alwaies bare vnto hir (when she was absent) either to haue thanks therefore, or to preuent the slanders of their enimies; whereof not a few by these beginnings of hir reigne did gesse what would follow; although in those so va|riable motions of the minds of the people, euerie one was verie desirous to sée their queene offred vn|to them (vnlooked for) after so manie haps of both fortunes as had fallen vnto hir. For when she was but six daies old, she lost hir father among the cruell tempests of battell, and was by great diligence brought vp by hir mother (being a chosen and woor|thie person) but yet left as a preie to others, by rea|son of ciuill seditions in Scotland, and of outward warres with other nations, being further laid abroad to all the dangers of frowning fortune, before she could know what euill did meane.

For leauing hir owne countrie, she was nouri|shed as a banished person, and hardlie preserued in life from the weapons of hir enimies, & violence of the seas. After which, fortune began to flatter hir, in that she honored hir with a woorthie mariage, which in truth was to this quéene rather a shadow of ioie, than anie comfort at all. For shortlie after the same, all things were turned to sorrow, by the death of hir new yoong husband, and of hir old and gréeued mo|ther; by losse of hir new kingdome, and by the doubt|full possession of hir old inheritable realme. But as for these things she was both pitied and praised; so was she also for gifts of nature as much loued and fauored; in that, beneficiall nature (or rather good God) had indued hir with a beautifull face, a well composed bodie, an excellent wit, a mild nature, and good behauior; which she had artificiallie furthe|red by courtlie education and affable demeanor. Whereby at the first sight, she wan vnto hir the hearts of most people, and confirmed the loue of hir faithfull subiects.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Being thus come out of France, she brought in|to Costlie iewels Scotland manie rich and costlie iewels of gold worke, pretious stones, orient pearls, & such like, as excellent and faire as were to be found within Eu|rope, with rich furniture of houshold, as hangings, carpets, counterpoints, and all other necessaries for the furnishing of hir princelie houses. The chiefest part of the hangings and other furniture of house|hold, Hir houshold stuffe. was shipped at Rone, and arriued at Leith in the moneth of October next following. After the quéene of Scots had remained the space of foure or An act made concerning religion. fiue daies at Holie rood house, the duke of Chatele|rault, the earle of Argile, and diuerse other of the no|bilitie being present, there was an act made by the lords of the councell [in which none of the cleargie (as Fr. Thin. saith Lesleus lib. 10. pa. 580) were present] with con|sent of the queene, that to remooue all causes of trouble in time to come for the matter of religion, it was ordeined, that no alteration of the estate of re|ligion publikélie standing within the realme, at hir arriuall in the same, should be made; & that nothing should be attempted, either publikelie or priuatlie to the contrarie, vpon great paine, which was put foorth and published through all parts of the realme with great diligence.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, there were eleuen temporall lords, and Some appoin ted to be of the quéenes councell. one bishop chosen to be of thé queenes secret councell, EEBO page image 378 by whose aduise she should rule and gouerne things, Secretarie. Comptroller. Lords of the priuie councel. six of them to remaine continuallie with hir in roome of officers, as the secretarie, comptroller, and others. The lords of the priuie councell were these, the duke of Chatelerault, the earle of Huntleie chan|cellor, the earle of Argile, the earle of Atholl, the earle Marshall, the earle of Glencarne, the earle of Mor|ton, the earle of Montrosse, the earle of Erroll, mai|ster Henrie Sinclar bishop of Rosse, and the lord Erskin, with the prior of S. Andrew. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 16. But among these reioisings of the queenes interteinment into hir kingdome, there happened a light fault, but such as did deepelie enter into the minds of both the fac|tions, of the catholikes (forsooth) and of the reformed religion.

For where it was agréed by the quéene and the nobilitie, that no alteration should be had of religi|on in the publike state, yet was masse permitted to hir and to hir familie priuilie to be vsed. For the preparation wherof whilest the vestments and other things were caried through the hall into the chappell, one of the companie snatched awaie the wax candels and brake them: by occasion whereof (if some of the houshold had not come betwéene to helpe in that ac|tion, and ended the same) all the other furniture had béene throwne downe. Which matter was taken of people diuerslie, some blaming it as a most sawcie part; others interpreting it, that it was onelie doone to trie the patience of the priest; and some iudged and said that the priest was woorthie to be punished with that paine which the scripture appointeth to ido|laters.

Which matter in the verie beginning was appea|sed by Iames the quéenes bastard brother, not yet created, but in expectation earle of Murreie. For which cause he would not offend the quéene, as I suppose, though afterward he not onelie offended hir, but deposed hir, and set vp hir sonne; as more plainlie shall hereafter appeare. At the quieting of this matter (saith Buchanan) George Gordon was greatlie grieued, being a man bent to all occasions of troubles, who thinking now to win fauor to him thereby, did say to the quéenes vncles that were pre|sent, that he would reduce the countrie beyond Ca|lidon vnto the old religion. The which being indéed suspected of manie, and feared by such as had heard manie other things of his wit; they caried the same to the quéenes brother, by meanes whereof this little sparke in the beginning was the occasion of all the long ciuill dissention in Scotland, as I am led to iudge by manie reasons.

But now although the gouernment (as before is Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 587. touched) was appointed to twelue before named, or at lest to six, which by turnes should be assistant to the quéene: yet the whole déed of ruling did in effect de|pend vpon hir bastard brother Iames, by reason of the fauor that the queene especiallie did beare vnto him. Wherefore this Iames, vsing the queenes au|thoritie at his pleasure, did bestow manie liberall gifts vpon his fellowes. Which the nobles so much misliked, that in the end manie of them began eger|lie to beare his authoritie, as hereafter shall be more touched.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The duke Daumall, after he had remained with Daumal went with the two gallies into France. The rest went through Eng|land into France. the quéene a certeine time, tooke his leaue of hir, and with the gallies returned into France. The grand prior and monsieur Danuille taried somewhat lon|ger, and passed through England into France. The marquesse Daulbeuf taried in Scotland all the next winter, till the spring of the yéere, and then returned into France through England. The towne of E|denburgh prepared great and costlie triumphs for A preparation of triumphs. the quéenes entering, which shée made into that towne in the moneth of September. After this, she passed vnto Striueling, and from thence to The qu [...] visited the townes. Perth, and then to Dundee, and also to saint An|drews, into which townes she was receiued with great honor and triumph. From saint Andrews she returned vnto Edenburgh, where she remained all the next winter. In December there was a great assemblie of all the principall lords, spirituall and An assemblie of the lords. temporall of the realme; where it was demanded of the prelats, to grant the third part of the fruits of their benefices to the quéene, towards the bearing of The third part of the spi|rituall [...]ngs demanded. hir charges for the maintenance of hir traine, and to susteine the ministers, till some order were taken to mainteine hir houshold, and a gard to tend on hir, by the aduise of the estates.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The prelats agréed for the quéenes pleasure to support hir with the fourth part of the fruits of their benefices, for one yéeres space onelie, to helpe to beare hir charges, and to susteine hir gard; and in the meane time order might be taken by the aduise of the whole estates for the same. But notwithstanding the refusall of the prelates to paie the third part, the lords of the priuie councell made an act, and set foorth letters, that all the prelats and beneficed men should An act for the cleargie. be charged to paie yéerelie to the quéenes comptrol|ler and his collector, the whole thirds of all fruits of their benefices: and that it should be lawfull to the comptroller and his deputies, to take the third of what part of euerie benefice where he best pleased, and to deale therewith at his pleasure: also to haue to doo with the rents of brotherhoods of common churches, and such like. This order hath béene obser|ued euer since, not without great grudge of the pre|lats, and other beneficed men of the realme, and their friends, as well those that professed the reformed re|ligion, as others.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 1 [...].Whilest these things were in dooing, William Mettellan the yoonger was sent ambassador into England, to salute the queene of that realme (as the maner is) & to declare the good mind that the quéene of Scots bare vnto hir, & the desire that his mistresse had to haue peace and vnitie preserued betwéene them. Besides all which, and manie other demands touching Scotland (which I suppresse for manie rea|sons, bicause (as Salomon saith) Corregis inscrutabile, & the mysteries of princes gouernment are not to be laid open to common eies and eares) this am|bassador deliuered letters to the queene of England from the nobilitie of Scotland. In which there was a courteous remembrance of hi [...] former fauor and of their good will. Requesting further that the quéene of England would shew a publike and priuat li|king and friendship to their quéene, to the end that the quéene of Scots prouoked by hir benefits, might not onelie remaine stedfast in the amitie alreadie begun: but might also (if it were possible) be dailie more and more fast bound vnto hir: and they for their parts would not omit anie occasion with all good will and diligence to continue this amitie.

To which ambassador the quéene of England made no lesse honorable than wise answer: the effect whereof, because it concerneth matter of great im|portance, & is long and largelie alreadie set downe by Buchanan, in hir maiesties singular commenda|tion to the whole world in the Latine toong, I thinke it not necessarie héere to repeat: and therefore I doo purposelie omit the same, least I might seeme by flat|terie to intrude my pen into the eloquent spéech of hir maiestie: and not being able to deliuer it with such grace as both she spake it, and Buchanan pen|neth it, I might dishonor hir, & ouerthrow my selfe, like vnto Phaeton. For as he, taking vpon him to rule the chariot of the sunne, was by his insufficien|cie therefore consumed with the heat and glorie ther|of; so should I in presuming with vnskill to pen the EEBO page image 379 tale of such a woorthie prince, consume my credit, in misordering or defacing the maiestie, grauitie, wise|dome, and life of hir singular wit and eloquence. For which cause, leauing the same, we doo in this sort bring backe our pen to the continuance of the histo|rie of Scotland.

The quéene of Scots had a brother called Iohn, a man desirous of authoritie, but yet not so seuere in [...]. [...]. 17. mind as was Iames the other brother. This Iohn easilie persuading himselfe to obeie the quéene in all things, was the more déere vnto hir, and most fit for hir, desirous (as saith Buchanan, but how trulie I know not) to confound all things. With this Iohn (in absence of the other brother Iames) she did con|sult to hier a companie of souldiers to be about hir, the cause whereof was this. In the night there was a tumult or stur, as though the earle of Arran would, in the absence of the nobilitie, secretlie set vpon the queene, and by strength haue labored to carie hir to his castell, which was fouretéene miles from thence. All which séemeth likely to be but a tale, either for the queenes mind that was estranged from him, or for the immoderat loue which he bare vnto hir: both which were sufficientlie knowen to the common peo|ple. Which tumult being spred abroad, these souldiers after they had all night scowred the fields, riding vp and downe hither & thither, they shewed themselues the next day before the court gates, to the offense of some, and the iest of others.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The sunday before Shrouetuesdaie, being the eight day of Februarie (as some write) Iames Steward 1562. Iames Ste|ward made earle of Mur|reie. Fr. Thin. then prior of saint Andrewes, and earle of Mar, base brother to the quéene, was made earle of Murreie, [in place (as saith Buchanan) of the earledome of Mar, which belonged to Iohn Areskin] by the quéens speciall gift, and was maried the same day vnto Ag|nis Keith, daughter to the erle Marshall, with great feasts and triumphs, lasting thrée daies. Fr. Thin. Buchanan lib. 17. In which mariage he did so much exceed, that he greatlie of|fended the minds of his friends, and ministred mat|ter to his enimies to speake euill of him; and that the more vehementlie, because he had before time in all his life behaued himselfe far more temperatlie than he did at this time.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The quéene of England desirous to haue a mée|ting betwixt hir and the quéene of Scots hir coosine, The quéene of England desi|rous to speake with the quéene of Scotland. sent diuerse messengers with letters, desiring hir most instantlie to come to Yorke, where she would méet hir, to talke with hir of diuerse matters, that might make to the confirmation of the amitie and friendship which nature had knit betwéene them, by coniunction and affinitie of bloud. And after consul|tation had with hir councell, the quéene of Scots a|gréed thereto: and so they were appointed to méet at Yorke in the moneth of Iulie next following. But when things were prepared and put in a readinesse for the iournie, the queene of England sent woord to the quéene of Scots, that she could not keepe the ap|pointment made for their méeting, desiring hir to The méeting tune was dis|appointed. haue hir excused for that time. Which message was accepted, and so the iournie staied.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 17.Much about this time, or rather somewhat be|fore, as in truth I suppose it was, Iames Hamilton being duke of Chatelerault, and father to the earle of Arran, first wrote to the quéene, then after went he vnto hir to saint Andrewes, and with manie praiers requested hir that she would vpon sufficient pledges deliuer to him the earle Bothwell, and Gawen Ha|milton, but he could not obteine anie thing therein at hir hands. At what time also the quéene went to Dunbreton (which Hamilton held since the time that he was gouernor) to demand the deliuerie of the same into hir hands, which was accordinglie deliue|red vnto hir.] Shortlie after, the quéene of Scots tooke hir iournie towards the north parts of Scot|land, The quéene made h [...]r pro|gresse into the north parts of Scotland. Lord Ogil [...] and Iohn Gordon fight togither. and set from Striueling in the moneth of Au|gust.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 About this time it chanced that the lord Ogil [...], and Iohn Gordon of Finnater, sonne to the earle of Huntleie, met on the [...] of Edenburgh & fought, where (after manie blowes and stripes giuen and ta|ken) the lord Ogiluie and his companie were hurt. Wherefore Iohn Gordon was taken, & put in ward at the tolbuith of Edenburgh, out of which he esca|ped, Iohn Gordon breaketh pri|son. after he had remained prisoner therein about twentie daies and tooke his waie northward: where|vpon followed great trouble shortlie after to the house of Huntle [...]. The quéene accompanied with the earles of Argile, Murreie, and Morton, the lord Er|skin, and others, passed forwards in hir iournie to|wards the north part, and caused Iohn Gordon of Iohn Gordon is summoned by the qu [...]. Finnater to be summoned to appéere and answer the law at Aberden, for breaking prison, and hurting the lord Ogiluie. The quéene comming to the towne Gordon is [...] with a [...]. of Aberden, was honorablie receiued with diuerse orations, and Latine enterludes, before the gram|mar schoole and college.

Fr. Thin. Buchanan lib. [...]. These things thus doone at Aberden, as the quéene determined to go further, she was intreated by Iohn Le [...]e a noble man, and follower of the Gor|dons, to vouchsafe his house in hir waie, being 12 miles from the towne: to which she granted, & went vnto the same. This place, because it was no com|mon place of resort, was thought verie conuenient for the execu [...]on of the earle of Murreie, whose death was conspired (as after shall appeere.) Where vpon Le [...]e, who was not ignorant of this secret counsell, besought the queene that she would not laie such a note of infamie vpon him and his familie, that he should seeme to haue betraied the chiefest brother of the quéene, no euill man, and one that was not his enimie, whereby he might come vnto his death at his house. Wherevpon it then ceassed, and the next night was also quietlie passed ouer at Rothmie, a towne of the Abernethians, because the next day the quéens was determined to go to Strabogie.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Where vpon the earle of Huntleie, hauing before heard that his sonne was thus summoned, assembled the principall earles, lords, barons, and gentlemen of the north, who came with him to Aberden, to helpe his son at the law day appointed for his appéerance, which was in September. The earle came vnto the quéene himselfe, and at length it was agreed, that his sonne the said Iohn Gordon should returne to prison Gordon is commanded to Striueling cast [...]. againe in Striueling castell, there to remaine du|ring the quéenes pleasure. But he following the euill counsell of s [...]e yoong heads that were with him, neither fulfilled the quéenes pleasure, nor his fathers He disobeied. appointment, but attempted to reuenge his extreme handling (as he tooke it) vpon the earle of Murreie, whome he put most in blame for the rigor shewed a|gainst him, but his enterprise tooke not effect. Now the quéene aduertised of his disobedience, went not to Strabogie, notwithstanding there was great pre|paration made for hir in that place, for the receiuing of hir and hir traine: but she went vnto Balwanie, the earle of Athols place, and from thence to Kin|los, to Tarnewaie, and so came to Inuernesse, and there lodged.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In this meane while, the earle of Huntleie, purpo|sing to attend on the queene at Inuernesse, caused prouision to be made in the castell for his lodging. The quéene suspecting his dealing, least this should The quéene suspected the earle of Hunt|leie. be doone vpon some policie, commanded the kéepers of the castell to render the same to one of hir heralds: but it was not deliuered till the next day, and there|fore the capteine of that castell called Alexander Gor|don, Alexander Gordon was hanged. for refusing to deliuer it, was hanged vpon the EEBO page image 380 towne bridge. The lord Gordon & his brother Iohn Gordon of Finnater came that night within a little space distant from the towne of Inuernesse, which caused great feare in the towne, so that there was a diligent watch all that night. The earle of Huntleie being come to Kinlosse, and hearing that the castell of Inuernesse was commanded to be giuen vp into the hands of an herald, sent with all diligence to the kéepers, that they should deliuer it, & returned him|selfe to Strabogie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 The quéene remained in Inuernesse the space of foure or fiue daies, where the principall capteine of the clanes of the countrie came to hir, and with a great companie [of the ancient Scots (as hath Bu|chanan) Fr. Thin. whereof the chiefe were the Fraisers and Murreies, valiant families in those parts] conueied hir to Spine, where she was informed that the earle of Huntleie had gathered an armie to come against hir, and made their assemble at Spaie. Héerevpon, they tooke with them all the artillerie ouer Spine, and caried the same in carts, and all other kind of munition, and passed forward to Bamf that night. The earle of Huntleie all this while came not foorth of Strabogie. The quéene as she passed forward; rode to the place of F [...]nater, and there in hir owne pre|sence, caused the kéepers thereof to be charged to de|liuer it, which they refused to doo. From Bamf the quéene rode to the lard of Geichtis place, called Geicht, and the next day there was great preparation for hir entrie into the new towne of Aberden. She lodged one night in the bishops palace, and the next She came to Aberden. day she was honorablie receiued, and lodged in the prouosts house of the towne, where she remained all the time of hir abode in Aberden.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 After this, the lord Iohn prior of Coldingham, with diuerse gentlemen, was sent against the earle The earle of Huntleie is sent for. of Huntleie to Strabogie, but he was escaped be|fore they approched. The ladie Huntleie receiued them verie courteouslie, and gaue them good inter|teinement, and so they returned. There was charge giuen to Louthian, Fife, Angus, Stratherne, the Merns, and to the shire of Aberden, to come to A|berden quarterlie, euerie countrie to remaine there fiftéene daies; and so they did, during the time of hir abiding there. The earle of Huntleie sent his wife in message to the quéene and councell, but she was The ladie Huntleie is sent vnto the quéene. not admitted to come within a mile of them, but commanded to returne. After this, he sent a messen|ger, offering to enter in ward till his cause might be tried by the whole nobilitie: but this was refused. In the meane time all the principall of the Gordons that The Gordõs are impriso|ned. were landed men, were charged to enter into ward. About the same time Iames Hepborne earle of Bothwell, who (vpon displeasure conceiued against The earle Bothwell escaped out of prison. him about a quarell betwixt him and the earle of Arrane, had béene committed to prison in Easter wéeke last before past) escaped out of Dauids tower in Edenburgh at a window.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 17. The earle of Huntleie, vnderstanding by his friends at the court how things passed, determined to flie to the mounteins: but after (trusting to the pro|mises of his friends) he determined to abide battell in a place of some strength. Wherevpon in October he came with his armie to Cornethie in Mar. By reason whereof the earle of Murreie, who at the first had scarse a hundred horssemen with him, began with Iames Dowglasse earle of Moorton, and Pa|trike Lindseie, to lead an armie against his eni|mies, and gathered a greater number of eight hun|dred people of the regions adioining. Wherefore he first placed souldiers about the water passages, to kéepe all those places, that Huntleie should not es|cape, and with the rest went forward on a soft pase, to méet his enimie: whose comming Huntleie did a|bide, with thrée hundred men, kéeping their places, al|though not a few of that companie were fled from the Gordons the night before.

When the earle of Murreie was come to the side of a hill, from whence he might sée all the marishes a|bout him, he incamped there in a slender order of battell. At length the armies met, at what time ma|nie on the earle of Murreie his side did flée awaie, hauing before giuen a signe to the enimie. But the earle Murreie, which saw there was no succour in fléeing, stood to it valiantlie, called his men togither, set vpon the enimie, caused them (which before fol|lowed his men fleeing awaie) now to flie as fast backe as they came forward. Which change of for|tune when the traitors that before fled did perceiue, they came afresh and pursued the Huntleies, and (to cleare them from the first fault) committed all the slaughter that was doone that daie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There was killed of the part of Huntleie a hun|dred and twentie, and a hundred taken: but on the o|ther side not one. Amongst such as were taken, was the earle Huntleie himselfe, and his two sons, Iohn and Adam. But the father being old and short brea|thed by reason of his grossenes, was slaine betweene the hands of such as tooke him, and the rest were late in the night brought to Aberden.] The quéene séemed sorie for the earles death. But in Nouember Iohn Gordon was beheaded in Aberden, and shortlie af|ter Iohn Gordon is beheaded. the quéene returned southwards, leauing foure commissioners in Aberden, the treasuror, maister Iames Macgill, maister Iohn Spens of Cundie, and the lard of Pettarrow, to compound for the es|chets of them that were in the field with the earle of Huntleie. Great summes of monie were taken and leuied of them for that trespasse. Fr. Th [...]. Buchanan. lib. 178. The earle Bothwell was commanded the fift kalends of De|cember by an herald to yéeld himselfe againe to pri|son, but because he would not, he was declared a pub|like enimie.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lord George Gordon, eldest sonne to the earle The lord Gordon is ta|ken prisoner. 1563. Buch. 1562. of Huntleie, was taken by the duke of Chatelerault his father in law, at Cumernoull, and brought to E|denburgh, where he was put in the castell, and after by a iurie conuict, forfalted, and condemned to die, and sent to Dunbar castell, there to remaine in ward, where he continued till the yéere of God, 1565. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 17. At this time was a monie mulct set vpon such as did eat flesh in the time of Lent. The setting foorth thereof was not so much for religion, as for publike commoditie, by the iudgement of Buchanan. The archbishop of saint Andrewes, because (after an edict made therefore at the quéenes comming into Scotland) he did not absteine from hearing and sai|eng masse, was committed prisoner to the castell of Edenburgh, and the rest that were found in such acti|ons were fined, with promise of a greater punish|ment to be laied vpon them, if they were found of|fending againe in that sort.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The quéene held a parlement in Edenburgh, where 1563. A parlement. the earle of Huntleis dead bodie was brought pre|sent before the estates in the tolbuith, and forfalted. The earle of Sutherland George Gordon was for|falted The act of ob|liuion ratified. also, and diuerse other of their friends. And in this parlement the act of obliuion was ratified and approoued, and diuerse other new acts made. This The quéene goeth on pro|gresse. yeere in August, the quéene went on progresse into Argile. This yéere deceassed diuerse councellors or se|nators of the college of Iustice, as maister Iohn Stephanson chancellor of Glascow, and the prouost of Corstrophine. In place of the first, maister Iohn Le|sle, New officers. officiall of Aberden, was promoted; and in the prouosts place maister Iames Baulfour succéeded. There came an ambassador from the king of Swe|den, 1564. Ambassadors from Swed [...] to treat of a mariage to be contracted with she EEBO page image 381 quéene; but his message was not regarded. The se|cond of Iulie, Henrie S [...]cler bishop of Rosse ship|ped at Leith to passe into France, to procure some The bishop of Rosse went [...]to France. [...] of his disease. He was cut of the stone in Pa|ris, and died the second of Ianuarie next after. There succéeded to that bishoprike of R [...]sse, maister Iohn Lesle, [...]arson of Oue [...], being then one of the sena|tors of the session and college of iustic [...].

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the moneth of August, the quéene passed into A [...] in progresse, and from thence to Badzenocht, The qu [...]nes progresse. to Inuernesse, and to the [...] of Rosse, and re|t [...]ned through Murreie to Ga [...]ie, Aberden, Dunnoter, and so to Edenburgh, where she remai|ned the next winter. In the moneth of October, the earle of Lennox came into Scotland, and for his The earle of Lennox came into Scot|land. cause there was a parlement holden in December, in which he was restored to all his [...] [...]nors, and dignities, within that realme. In December also, the bishop of Dunblane d [...]eassed, and after him succée|ded maister William Chesiholme his brothers [...]. In Ianuarie, the quéene tooke hir iourneie through Fife, and in manie gentlemens places was banket|ted. A progresse. In which time, Henrie Steward, lord Da [...]leie, Lord [...] into Scotland. [...] goodlie man of personage, and sonne to the earle of Lennox, came into Scotland, where he came to the quéenes presence in the Weames, the ninth day of Februarie. The quéene so well liked him, that she as|sembled all the temporall lords togither at Striue|ling, 156 [...]. A parlement. in the moneth of Aprill, and there obteined of them their consents, that she might marrie the said lord Darneleie. After this, he was made earle of Lord Darne|leie is made lord of Rosse. Rosse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time, the quéene of England sent sir Nicholas Throckmorton into Scotland, to vnder|stand The quéene of England dis|suaded that ma [...]age. the proceedings in the quéenes mariage with the lord Darneleie, and for other affaires, who came to the assemblie at Striueling to that effect. The quéene of Scots sent maister Iohn Haie abbat of Balmerinoch into England to the quéene, to miti|gat hir displeasure towards the lord Darneleie, and to obteine hir consent to the mariage; who answered, that she ment to send an ambassador of hir owne in|to Ambassage sent into Scotland. Scotland for that and other causes, and (according to hir promise) she sent one. Shortlie after, certeine capte [...]s & men of warre in saint Andrewes, Dun|d [...]e, and saint Iohns towne, receiued monie about The earle of Murreie a [...] vnto the quéene. the same time of the earle of Murreie, to take part with him, for the which they were after punished. Af|ter the assemblie at Striueling, the queene séemed not to like of the earle of Murreie so well as she had doone before: wherevpon he departed the court, and repaired to saint Andrewes, where (through the coun|sell of certeine persons) he sought waies to stop the mariage.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The quéene neuerthelesse sent the bishop of Dun|blane to Rome for a dispensation to marrie with the Dispensation had from Rome for to marrie. lord Darneleie, being hir coosine in the second degrée of consanguinitie, which he obteined, & sent it home shortlie after. The quéene was then principallie counselled by the earles of Atholl, and Lennox, the lord Ruthwen, and their friends. In the meane time, the earle of Murreie persuaded the duke of Chatele|rault, the earle of Argile, and sundrie other, to méet at Consultation to stop the ma|riage. Striueling, where they made a bond to stop the ma|riage, alledging the same to be made for mainte|nance of the religion. The queene aduertised there|of, released the lord Gordon foorth of prison, wherein he had béene kept within the castell of Dunbar, and Gordon is created earle of Huntleie. Bothwell is sent for. [...]r. Thin. restoring him to his fathers lands, created him earle of Huntleie. She also sent for the earle of Bothwell to returne home, who was banished, and was then in France [and the earle of Southerland to returne out of Flanders.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the moneth of Iulie, the lord Darneleie earle Lord Darne [...] of Rosse was made duke of Alban [...]e. And on satur|daie [...] is made duke of [...]. Lord [...] is procla|med king. The quéene is maried. at euen, the eight and twentith daie of the same moneth, before the mariage, he was proclamed king by the quéenes commandement at the market crosse of Edenburgh. And on the nine and [...]ntith daie of the same moneth, he was married to the quéene in the chappell of Holie rood house, at fiue of the clocke in the morning. Shortlie after, the duke of Chatele|rault, the earles of Argile, Murreie, and their com|p [...]ces Certein lords refuse to ap|peere before the queene. were summoned to appeere before the queene and hir councell within six daies; & because they re|fused so to doo, they were put to the [...]orne.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 17. The king and queene therevpon assemble their power, and by a herald demand the deliuerie of the castell of Hamilton. But (he returning without the effect of his message) they addresse themselues to warre.

At what t [...]e the lords of the congregation were at some variance amongest themselues, as se|uered into diuerse opinions: for the Hamiltons that were of greatest power in those places, did affirme, that they should haue no firme conditions of peace, except the king and quéene were made awaie: [...]or so long as they were in health, they could hope for [...] thing but new warres, new deceipts, and dissembled peace; a thing farre more dangerous than open war.
For though manie times the iniuries of priuat per|sons maie be laied downe by trauell and persu [...]sion, Wicked coun|sell alwaies woorst to th [...] giuer. and maie be recompensed againe with great com|modities: yet there is no waie to appease the displea|sure of kings, but by taking them awaie.

Upon which bad speech, the earles of Murreie and of Glencarne (which well vnderstood that the Ha|miltons did not séeke the publike commoditie, but their owne priuat riches as persons that were next to the crowne after the queens death) did abhor the slaughter and gouernement of the Hamiltons, whom of late they had felt to be both cruell and coue|tous: and did therefore giue more mild and sound counsell,

saieng that this dissention being ciuill, was not yet come to be bloudie: in which hitherto they had onelie contended with words & not with swords, being not yet so far, but that (if it were possible) the same might be ended with honest conditions.

To the persuasion whereof, he said that there were manie in the camps of the two princes, which gréedilie desired to heare of peace, & would not faile to further their endeuor therein, nor to defend them|selues & their cause with néedfull weapons: all which did perchance foresée that the king and quéene (by reason of their youth) had not yet faulted so greatlie, as that it turned to the vtter ouerthrow of the com|mon-wealth; & if they haue faults (as who hath not) they were such as were rather to their owne priuat reproch than otherwise, and therefore they ought not to be punished with flat death: but rather to be cu|red with easier remedies. For he did remember it to haue alwaies beene obserued heretofore, that in the life of kings, we should alwaies couer their se|cret vices, we should mildlie interpret their doubt|full faults, and we should with patience beare their knowne euils: so that they did not by them bring vtter destruction to the common-wealth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 When this opinion was pleasing to most of the hearers, the other Hamiltons (except Iames, which was head of that familie) determined to rest in qui|et; but he accompanied with sixtéene horsses remai|ned with the lords. Who being now so weakened of their power, that they could neither wage battell, nor safelie passe to their owne; did giue place to the time, and went that night to Hamilton.] The quéene assembled an armie, and went to Glascow to pur|sue them [at what time (as saith Buchanan) the earle of Lennox was made warden of the eas [...] marches, and the duke and earles with other of their compa|nie EEBO page image 382 came to Edenburgh, where the castell shot off at An armie ga|thered against them. The lords went vnto D [...]nfreis. them, and therefore they departed towards Dun|freis, and were receiued by the lord Heris.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The quéene hearing thereof, by aduise of hir coun|cell assembled foorth of all the parts of the whole realme an armie, appointing the same to be at Beg|gar, in the beginning of October, to pursue the re|bels. In the meane time, she hearing that the towns Certeine townes are punished. of saint Andrews, Dundée, and saint Iohns towne, had helped the lords to raise men of warre for their support, passed thither hirselfe, and tooke inquisition thereof, giuing order in those townes, that no such thing should afterwards be put in practise. But there were none that suffered death for that matter; but diuerse were committed to prison in the north parts of the realme, as the prouost and bailzzeis of saint Andrews: also certeine of the towne of Dundée, and saint Iohns towne, and other were banished; and diuerse barons, as Lundie, Lango, and Bal|ward, were sent to Aberden, and to other parts, where they remained the winter following.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 About this time, the quéene tooke the castell of Tantallon from the earle [...]f Morton, because he was suspected to fauor the rebels. The kéeping there|of was giuen to the earle of Atholl. The quéene re|turning A great armie [...] to Edenburgh in September, prepared all things necessarie for the armie, and departing from Edenburgh, came to Beggar, where all the noble men with their retinues were assembled the eight of October. From thence they passed forward to Dun|freis. In the meane time, the duke of Chatelerault, the earles of Murreie, Glenearne, Roths, the lord Ochiltre, the abbat of Kilwinning, the lards of Grange, Cuningham, Herdie, Pettarrow, maister Iames Haliburton tutor of Petcur, and others, hearing of the quéens comming with an armie, fled into England & came to Caerleill, where they were The lords fled into Eng|land. receiued, the earle of Bedford at that time being lord lientenant of the north.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The lord Heris then maister of Maxwell conuei|ed them to the water of Sulweie, and afterward re|turned to Dunfreis to the quéene, where (of hir cle|mencie) he got pardon of his offense; and the lards T [...]ir con| [...]rs not their pardon. of Lochinwar and Drunlanrig likewise. After the armie had taried certeine daies, putting direction for obseruing of good order in the countrie, the quéen The quéene retned a|gaine into Edenburgh. The quéene sent into France for aid. returned to Edenburgh, where she remained all the next winter. The queene sent the maister Dauid Chalmer chancellor of Rosse into France to the the king, with letters for his assistance against hir rebels. And shortlie after, the French king sent a gentleman called monsieur Maluoiser into Scot|land, with verie friendlie letters vnto the quéene, promising his helpe & assistance against the rebels; which message was most thankefullie receiued, and the said Maluoiser honorablie at his departure re|warded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke of Chatelerault, and the other lords with him departed from Caerleill to Newcastell vpon The lords send to the quéene of England. Tine, and from thence sent the earle of Murreie, and the abbat of Kilwinning to the queene of Eng|land, making sute to hir grace for aid to be restored to their countrie againe. The quéens maiestie promi|sed them, that she would send a gentleman to the quéene hir sister, and moue hir in their fauors, as she The quéene of England sent to the quéene of Scots. did; and so they returned to Newcastell, where the duke of Chatelerault, perceiuing no other helpe ap|pearing, sent the abbat of Kilwinning into Scot|land to the quéene with letters, submitting himselfe to hir graces will, and so he obteined pardon for him and his friends, with licence to passe into France, there to remaine the space of fiue yeares, and short|lie after he passed through England, and so ouer in|to France, according to his appointment.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The king passed the most part of that winter in the The king went a haw|king. countries of Fife, Stratherne, Striuelingshire, & Louthian, spending his time in hawking. The queene remained at Edenburgh with the nobilitie, and because she was conceiued with child, trauelled little abroad Fr. Thin. About this time was a new order ta|ken for placing the king and quéens name in all their writings and patents. For where, vntill this Bucha. lib. 17. time, the kings name was set before the queens: now quite contrarie, the name of the quéene was written before the kings: besides which, afterward the quéene hir selfe would onelie set hir name to the writings in place of hirs and his; and Dauid the se|cretarie was appointed in his place to haue a stampe of the kings name, to vse when néed required.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the meane time a parlement was called, to be A parlement. holden in the moneth of March next insuing, and summons decréed against the earle of Murreie, The lords that were exiled are summoned. and the other lords that remained in England, and also against the earle of Argile, lieng then in his countrie of Argile to heare them forfalted. The French king sent monsieur Rambeueullet into The king re|ceiued the or|der of saint Michaell. Scotland, as ambassador from him to the quéene, with commission, to make the king hir husband knight of the order of S. Michaell. Which with great solemnitie and reuerence was accomplished in the 1566. chappell of Holie rood house the tenth of Februarie, being sunday: after the which, the said Rambeueul|let returned into France, being highlie rewar|ded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From that time that the parlement was procla|med, and the summons also published, the earle of Murreis friends being in Scotland, neuer ceassed to séeke all the waies and means they could deuise to staie the same: in so much that the earle of Mor|ton, They per|suade with the king. the lord Ruthwen, and the lord Lindseie, secret|lie persuaded the king to staie the parlement, and al|so to consent to the restoring of the erle of Murreie and his complices, making to him faithfull promise, that if he would follow their counsell, he should be made & crowned king of Scotland absolutelie, and The king soone persu [...]|ded. the quéene so to haue lesse to doo with the gouerne|ment afterwards, where through he agréed to them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And so after the parlement was assembled, the lords of the articles being chosen the seuenth day of March, they perceiuing the forfalture like to procéed, and iudgement thereof to be giuen, the eleuenth of March next following, the king with the assistance of the said earle of Morton, the lords Ruthwen, and Lindseie, entred into the quéens priuie chamber a|bout eight of the clocke in the night, being saturday, and the ninth of March; where being arriued in war|like, The king to entred into the quéens priuie cham|ber. manner, the lord Ruthwen declared vnto the queene, that they would not suffer hir anie longer to haue the gouernement of the realme, to abuse the same by the counsell of strangers, as she had doone; and therefore pulled violentlie out of hir chamber Dauid Richeo an Italian, that was one of hir se|cretaries, Dauid Ri|cheo is slaine. crieng pitiouslie, Iustitia, Iustitia: and in hir vtter chamber they suddenlie slue him with great crueltie. The king himselfe was also present, and his dagger was likewise found sticking in the dead bodie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The quéene was shut vp within hir chamber, and certeine appointed to attend hir, and to kéepe all the doores and gates about the palace. The earles of The earle of Huntleie is fled and the residue also. Huntleie and Bothwell escaped by a backe window foorth in their chamber, wherof the king and his com|panie were right sorie. The erle of Atholl and others being with him, departed in the night season by a ferrie ouer the Forth, called the quéenes ferrie, and went to S. Iohns towne. On the morow being sun|day (the quéene being secretlie kept) proclamation was made, that all the lords that had voice in parle|ment, EEBO page image 383 st [...]id depart out of the towne of Edenburgh: [...]. and after noone the same day, the earles of Murreie and Rothes. with other of their companies that came foorth from Newcastell the saturday before, came to the abb [...]e of Ho [...] rood house about fit of [...] clocke in the after noone, where they were thank|ful [...] rece [...]ued by the king and his companie. They [...]ake also with the quéene, who had no great comfort of their comming.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The morrow following being monday the earle of Murreie, and the other that were summoned, pas|s [...]d to the tolbuith of Edenburgh, & made their pro|t [...]station there, that they were readie to answer in [...]. parlement, and none appeared to accuse them. After [...]. it was concluded to keepe the queene in streict ward. But by hir politike demeanor, their purpose in [...] behalfe was broken: for by secret conference with the king, she persuaded him to thinke, that hee [...]. had [...]omed himselfe with those that would be his de|struction, if it happened with hir otherwise than well; as was no iesi [...] to [...]e doubted by reason of the high displeasure that she had taken being quicke with child: through the which persuasion, and other mis [...]|king of things, he departed secretlie with hir in the [...]. [...]ght season, accompanied onlie with two men, and first came vnto Setton, and afterward from chence to Dunbar.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Thither the earles of Huntle [...]e and Bothwell [...] repa [...]red, by whose counsell and others then [...]. with hir, she caused proclamation to be made in di|uerse parts of the realme, charging all manner of men in feats of warre, to come vnto hir to Dun|bar [...]. & to passe from thence vnto Edenburgh within f [...] daies after. She also sent letters to the same ef|fect vnto diuerse noble men of the realme, who pre|pared themselues with great diligence to meet hir. The earle of Murreie and the rest of the lords being with him, hearing the preparation that was made against them, and perceiuing themselues not able to resist, thought good euerie of them to seeke some particular meane to obteine remission at the quéens hands. Which they obteined all of them, except the [...]: ear [...]e of Morton, the lords Ruthwen, Lindseie, and such other as were with them at the murther of Da|uid Rich [...]. Wherevpon they d [...]sparing of pardon, f [...]d into England; where the lord Ruthwen died at [...]. [...] after; as in place ye shall heare.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The earle of Lennor, being partaker with them, came to Dunbar, and got pardon: the earle of Glen|carne [...] and the lard of Cunningham head came thi| [...] also, and were pardoned. Likewise the earle of Rothes purchased his pardon at the same t [...]e. The earles of A [...]gile and Murre [...]e, and the lord Bold, be|ing at L [...]thquo, sent to the quéene for their pardon, and ab [...]ned it, being commanded neuerthelesse to [...] Argile, and to remaine there during hir graces pleasure, which commandement they obeied. The eightéenth of March, the quéene well accom|pan [...]d came to Hadington towards night: and on [...]. the ninteenth day, the bishop of saint A [...]ws, and the [...] met hir at Muskelburgh, and so like|wise did the lords Leuingston, Fleming, Hume, Borthwike, and manie other noble men, and con|u [...]ed hir vnto Edenburgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 She lodged in the bishop of Dunkelds lodging, [...] there a certeine space, hauing with hir the [...] of Huntle [...]e, Atholl, Bothwell, Crawford, Mar|sh [...]ll, Southerland, Cathnes, the bishops of saint An|drews and Rosse; the lords Leuingston, Fleming, and diuerse other noble men, by whose counsell order was taken for redressing of the state of the realme, whereby the same was shortlie brought to great quietnesse. After this, the quéene perceiuing hirselfe to draw neere the time of hir deliuerance, went to the castell of Edenburgh, there to remaine till shée were deliuered of hir birth. In the moneth of Ma [...]e, Thomas Scot shiriffe, deputie of Perth, & a pr [...]est called sir Henrie Yair, seruant to the lord Ruthwen. [...] murthe [...]. were apprehended for being dooers in the [...]aughter of Dauid, and were hanged and quartered. Their heads were set aloft, the one on the tower in the ab|beie, and the other on the nether bow.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the moneth of Aprill this yeere, the bishop of Brechin president of the session, deceassed, and in his roome succeeded to that bishoprike, a friend and cousine to the earle of Argile, called Campbell. In the end of Aprill, the queene, willing to haue the earles of Argile and Murreie ioined with the rest of the councell, sent for them to come to the castell of Edenburgh, Th [...] [...] a [...] the [...] where all griefs and controuersies that rested betwixt them on the one side, and the earles of Huntleie, Atholl, & Bothwell on the other side, were referred to the queene, who agreed them, and they all remained with hir the residue of the summer. The queene hearing that the earle of Morton, the lord The queen [...] [...] su [...] to th [...] que [...] [...]. Ruthwen, and the other their assistants were receiued in England, and remained at Newcastell; shee sent maister Iames Thornton chantor of Murreie, with letters to the queene of England, and also to the king of France, and other hir friends there; declaring by the tenor of the same letters the abuse and presumptuous attempts of certeine hir subiects against hir, desiring them not to receiue them within their realmes or dominions.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Shortlie after the queene of England sent a gen|tleman The que [...] of England hir answer. called Henrie K [...]grew into Scotland, with letters and message to the queene, promising to cause them to depart foorth of hir realme of England: and withall sent vnto them warning to depart betwixt that present time, and midsummer then next insuing. But in the meane time the lord [...] Ruthwen repe [...]ted. Ruthwen departed this life at Newcastell, with great repentance of his former life: giuing God thanks, for that he had lent him time to call to him for mercie and forgiuenesse, whereof he did assure himselfe. And from thencefoorth the earle of Morton, and the maister of Ruthwen, remained secretlie neere to Anwike, and other places of the borders, till they obteined pardon, and were restored. About this time there came from the king of France a wise a|ged A [...] ambassa [...] from the king of France. gentleman, named mons [...]eur is Crocke, as his ambassador, and remained in Scotland all the win|ter following.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the moneth of Iune the quéene perceiuing the time of hir deliuerance to approch wrote vnto all the principall noble men of hir realme, to come and re|maine within the towne of Edenburgh, during the time of hir deliuerance, where they assembled: and the king hir husband, with the earles of Argile, Mur|reie, Atholl, and Mar, remained with hir in the ca|stell; and the earle of Huntle [...]e, Bothwell, and the [...]ant of the lords lodged in the towne. And vpon the nintéenth day of the same moneth of Iune, be|twixt 10 and 11 of the clocke before noone, hir grace was deliuered of a goodlie man-child, to the great A prin [...] borne. comfort of hir highnesse, and all hir subiects, whereof the nobilitie did greatlie reio [...]se. And incontinentlie all the artillerie in the castell was sh [...]t off, and all the lords and people came togither in the church of saint Giles, to giue thanks to almightie God for his great and beneficiall goodnes shewed to them, in gi|uing to them a prince, and withall made their hum|ble praiers vnto his diuine maiestie, to indue him with the feare of God, with vertue and knowledge to gouerne the realme and subiects thereof, when so|euer the same should fall into his hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The same night at seuen, there were great fires for ioy made in the towne of Edenburgh, and in all EEBO page image 384 the countrie about, and likewise through all the whole realme, as by aduertisements were certified therof. The queene remained still in the castell of E|denburgh all the moneth of Iulie following, till shée had recouered hir health and strength. In the begin|ning of August, she passed vp the water of Forth to Allowaie, where she remained certeine daies, the earles of Murreie and Mar being of companie with hir, and there the king hir husband came to visit hir. The same time monsieur Maluoisir came into Scot|land from the king of France, bringing letters to the quéene, who was conueied by the bishop of Rosse to Allowaie, where he was ioifullie receiued, courte|ouslie interteined, and highly rewarded. The queene of England sent maister Henrie Killegrew to the quéene with the like message, reioising for hir safe and happie deliuerance, who likewise was receiued in most thankefull maner, and well rewarded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Here is to be noted, that shortlie after she was The princes godfathers & godmothers. brought to bed, she sent one of hir gentlemen called monsieur Clarimoich, with letters to the king of France, and to the duke of Sauoie: desiring them to send ambassadors, which in their name (as godfa|thers) might receiue hir son at the baptisme. More|ouer, she sent Iames Meluine to the quéene of Eng|land with the like message, desiring hir maiestie to be godmother [who by hir ambassador Francis earle of Bedford, sent a present to the quéene of Scots, Fr. Thin. I. Stow pa. 1131 in quart. (as I. Stow hath noted) a fount of gold curiouslie wrought & inamelled, weieng 333 ounces, amoun|ting in value to 1043 pounds 19 shillings of Eng|lish monie.] These princes were glad hereof, and promised to send ambassadors to that effect, as after|ward they did. In the later end of August, the quéene accompanied with the king hir husband, the erles of Huntleie, Murreie, Bothwell, and diuerse other, went into Meggat land, there to passe the time in hunting, where they remained certeine daies: and returning to Edenburgh, caused the prince to b [...] conueied vnto Striueling castell, where he was committed in kéeping to the lord Erskin, after erle of Mar, and his ladie. And from thence the quéene went on progresse into Glen Arkeneie.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 17. The king as a solitarie person goeth to Striue|ling, after which the quéene determineth to go to Ied|worth to assemble a parlement. About the beginning of October, Bothwell prepareth a iournie into Lid|disdale, where he was hurt with a caleeuer by a base théefe. Whervpon with vncerteine life he was ca|ried to the castell of Hermitage, to which the quéene (hearing of his mishap) came, attended with a small traine from Bothwike, and from thence hauing séene Bothwell, did in short time after returne to Bothwike, whither shée caused Bothwell to bée brought: after whose comming thither, the quéene fell so grieuouslie sicke, that she was in danger of hir life, at what time the king came thither vnto hir.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In Ianuarie the king came to Glascow, where he fell sicke, and remoouing from thence went to E|denburgh, 1567. and the quéene accompanied him. She lodged at Holie rood house, but hée was lodged at a house within the towne, néere to the Kirke a field, within the which, on the tenth of the moneth of Fe|bruarie in the night he was shamefullie murthered, togither with one Wiliam Parat. He was cast in|to The king murthered. 1566. Stow. an orchard, and herewith the house was blowne vp with gunpowder. [Some giue report of his death, but touch not the maner thereof, onelie sai|eng that he was shamefullie murthered in a mor|ning (a heauie breakefast) by his owne (but vnnatu|rall and rebellious) people, whose innocent blood cri|eth out for vengeance at the hands of God, who in iustice will (when he séeth due time) giue them their portion with malefactors agréeable to their merits.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Bothwell was euen at the first vehe|mentlie The earle of Bothwell murthered the king. suspected to be the principall offendor in this most heinous and detestable murther. But the mat|ter was so handled, that he was not onelie acquit by an assise, as they call it; but also shortlie after maried the quéene. By reason wherof, the suspicion that men had alreadie conceiued, that she should be also priuie to the murther, was nothing diminished. But as I haue not to deale in that matter, so yet it is mani|fest, that some of the Scotish nobilitie, sore repining and maligning at such the speedie aduancement of Bothwell, who (as euerie man persuaded himselfe, was the principall author of the murther) got them to armes on the sudden, before the quéene or Both|well were aduertised of their meaning, they being The lords get them to armes. then at Borthwike castell, eight miles distant from Edenburgh.

Fr. Thin. Thus leauing the lords awhile at Edenburgh, we will say somewhat out of Buchanan, of things doone by Bothwell & the quéene, before that she was taken by these noble men of the congregation, ha|uing at that time taken armes against hir. After Bucha [...]. li. 17. the death of hir husband, whome she had caused to be buried not farre from Dauid Richeo hir secretarie, slaine (as was thought) by the meanes of the king of Scots: the queene (I say) after that, and also after the clearing of Bothwell from the murther of hir husband, was forceablie taken (as she was on hir iournie) by the earle Bothwell, and caried to his ca|stell, where she remained not long, but yet honora|blie interteined. Which fact of his bred great mislike in the peoples minds, and brought him in danger of his life, had not the queene (of hir clemencie) pardo|ned him the same.

This doone, there was à consultation had for a mariage to be solemnized betwéene hir and the earle Bothwell, which (after a diuorse had betwéene this earle and his then wife Katharine Gordon, granted by the iudges spirituall & temporall; and after the so|lemne bands asked betwéene the said earle Iames Hepborne, and the quéene Marie Steward) was with great solemnitie of the nobilitie (by their hands in writing consenting therevnto) consummat at E|denburgh. Against which onelie the bishop of Orke|nie was found to resist; and at which monsieur de Crocke the French ambassador then in Scotland would not be present: being a thing which did greatly occasion the Edenburgers to mislike of the queene.

Which mariage bréeding some euill opinion of the said quéene of Scots, not onelie in hir owne realme, but in the mouths of forreine nations, shee wiselie consulteth with hir friends, how she might establish hir power, and prouide to saue hirselfe and hir kingdome from tumults and insurrections. Wherevpon, first she determineth to send an ambas|sador into France, to reconcile the minds of the king, and of the Guises, offended with this mari|age. Which office of ambassage was laid vpon Wil|liam bishop of Dunblane, with this charge (as saith Buchanan) almost word for word.

First, you shall excuse to the king, and to our vn|cles, that our mariage (to be consummate) came to their eares, before that we had opened our counsell touching that matter by anie messengers. This ex|cuse (as it were to a foundation) dooth leane to the true exposition of his whole life, and chief [...]ie to the offices and duties of the duke or capteine of the Or|cades towards vs, euen vnto that day in which it sée|med good to vs to take him to husband. For the ope|ning of the historie whereof you shall take occasion to treat from the beginning of the last times of his adolescencie (youth, or yéeres of discretion, as wée terme it) in this sort.

That when he first began to manage his owne af|faires EEBO page image 385 (being from the death of his father one of the chiefe of the nobilitie) he did wholie dedicate himselfe to the dutie and seruice of the princes and kings of Scotland, as one borne of a famous familie for his ancient nobilitie, & of great reuenues in this king|dome which he possesseth by right of inheritance. At that time also he did especiallie and altogither con|secrate himselfe to our mother, whilest she had the gouernement of the realme.

In which dutie towards hir, he did so constantlie perseuere, that although the greater part of the no|bilitie, and almost all the townes were fallen from hir obedience (vnder the colour of religion) yet hée would neuer decline from hir authoritie, as a per|son that could not be woone by anie promises or be|nefits, or feared with anie threats, or losse of his li|uings, to neglect his dutie in anie part vnto hir: but that he wold rather suffer his principall house, which was the head of his patrimonie, with his plentifull and pretious store of furniture thereof to be taken from him, and all his other lands to be left for spoile to the enimie, than violate his faith to our mother. Besides which, being destitute of helpe both of vs and our people (when the English host was brought by our domesticall enimies into the bowels of our kingdome, which directed their weapons to none o|ther marke, than that our now husband at that time earle Bothwell, should by force be inforced to flie) he fled into France, forsaking all his patrimonie, where he honored me with all dutie and seruice (that hée might) vntill my returne into Scotland.

Neither are those exploits to be omitted, which were doone by him in the warres against the Eng|lish before my returne into mine owne countrie, where he shewed such parts of warlike valure and graue wisedome, that he was iudged (being then ve|rie yoong) méet to haue the gouernment of ancient persons, to be made chiefe capteine of the armie of the countrie, & also to be chosen or substitute depu|tie and chancellor: as in truth he was. In which of|fice he did not deceiue the hope and expectation which men conceiued of him. For (by his affaires valiant|lie atchiued) he left a singular praise and fame of him, as well amongst his owne people, as amongst the enimies.

After our returne into Scotland, he emploied all his indeuor to the inlarging of our authoritie, and spared not to put himselfe in danger, in subduing those rebels which dwell about the borders of Eng|land. The dispatch wherof being shortlie performed, and they brought to great quiet, he was appointed to doo the like in all the other parts of the kingdome. But as enuie dooth alwaies accompanie vertue, so the Scots repining thereat, and desirous of innoua|tion, did labor to diminish our fauour towards him (for his great labors imploied in our behalfe) in mis|construing his good deeds.

By which in the end they wrought so much with me, that we committed him to prison; partlie to sa|tisfie the minds of such as were emulous against him, and could not brooke the increase of his follow|ing honor and greatnesse; and partlie to appease such seditions as were likelie then to breake foorth to the destruction of the whole kingdome. But he (escaping out of prison) got him into France, to giue place to the power of his enimies, where he remained almost two yéeres next following. At what time the authors of the former sedition, forgetting my clemencie to|wards them, and their dutie towards vs, did raise warre, and tooke weapons against their quéene.

From thence was he called backe into Scotland, & being restored to his former honors & possessions, he was againe made generall of all the armie: by whose helpe our authoritie began afresh so to florish, that all the rebels (suddenlie forsaking their coun|trie) were inforced to flie into England, vntill part of them vpon humble submission were receiued a|new into our fauour. But how traitorouslie I was handled by the rest that were restored (and especiallie such, whose ancestors I had with benefits most pro|moted) our vncle is not ignorant, and therefore we will touch that no more.

Neither is it to be ouerpassed in silence, with what diligence he deliuered me from the hands of such as deteined me prisoner, and with what speed (and singu|lar prouidence of his) I did both escape from prison, and recouered my former authoritie: after that I had dispersed the factions of the coniurators and se|ditious persons. In which trulie I am inforced to confesse, that his dutie and diligence at that time shewed towards me, was so acceptable vnto me, that I could neuer after forget it. These things al|though they be great of themselues, yet he hath hi|therto incresed them with such diligence and careful|nesse, that we cannot desire greater dutie, or wish more assured trust in anie man, than we haue found in him; vntill these last times which followed the de|ceasse of our husband.

But from that time, as his thoughts did séeme to tend higher, so his actions did after a sort séeme to be more insolent. And although the matter went so far, that we were to take all things in the best part: yet these things did then most greeuouslie offend me; but especiallie his arrogancie, in that he thought that there were not other sufficient abilities in vs, to re|compense his deseruings, vnlesse we gaue our selfe to him in mariage. Touching which, at the first he v|sed secret reasons and counsels: but in the end, when he saw them not to succeed after his mind, at length, shewing an open contempt of my authoritie, he fled to the benefit of violence, and vsed force (to the end his attempt might not want due effect) to bring me vnder his gouernement.

Wherefore all this course of his life maie be an example, to shew how craftilie they can contriue their drifts (in attempting great things) vntill they haue obteined their purpose. For I did suppose, that all this his continuall dutie and carefulnesse in spée|die obeieng of my commandements, had not issued from anie other founteine, than of a vehement desire to shew his obedience and good will towards me: neither did I hope that a litle more fauourable coun|tenance (which we are accustomed to vse to the more woorthie persons, to the end to win their minds to be more obedient to vs in dutie) should so haue raised his stomach (more than anie others) that he would promise to himselfe anie larger good will to procéed from me towards him, than he had before.

But he taking aduantage of all haps, & drawing all things (that chanced) to the furtherance of his purpose, and kéeping all his counsels secret from me, did still shew his accustomed dutie, nourished my old fauour to him, & secretlie attempted a new thing by the helpe of the nobilitie. Which he brought to passe with such spéedie diligence, that (vnknowen to me) he obteined of the péeres of the realme (in the assem|blie of the parlement héere) a writing with all their hands set therevnto, for the more credit of the same. In which writing was conteined, that they did not onlie assent vnto the mariage; but that they also fur|ther promised to spend their life and goods (offered to all dangers) in the executing thereof, and that they would be vtter enimies to all such as should labor to hinder it. For the more easie obteining of whose con|sents in this sort, he had persuaded the said nobilitie, that the same was not doone against my mind and consent. At length, when he had purchased this wri|ting from them, he began by litle and little (with ear|nest EEBO page image 386 intreaties & flatteries) to obteine our consent. But when at the first our answers did not content his desire, he began to laie before me almost all those things, which are accustomed to happen in the at|tempt of such matters.

First, the outward tokens of our good fauour to|wards him, the reasons by which our friends or his e|nimies might hinder the same, & manie other things which being obiected or willinglie happening, might frustrate his hope, or change the minds of such as had before subscribed. At length (fortune fauouring him therein) he determined to pursue the matter, & in one instance to hazard his hope and life about the same. Wherefore, when he had determined with himselfe, with all importunitie to attempt the successe of his determination, he foure daies after hauing conue|nient time and place therefore in the high waie, set vpon me with a strong band, as I was comming from séeing of my déere sonne, and with great spéed caried me to Dunbar.

Which euill déed how gréeuouslie we tooke (espe|ciallie doone by him, from whome all our subiects ne|uer looked to haue such things to procéed) euerie bo|die maie easilie consider. For there I did vpbraid him, with what fauour I haue alwaies vsed him, what honorable opinion I haue had of him and of his conditions in my spéech vsed to others, and of his vnthankefulnesse to me therefore; with all other things that might deliuer me out of his hands. These matters I laied against him with bitter words. But his answers therevnto were more mild, and tempe|red with gentler spéeches, in this, that he would still vse all honor and dutie towards vs, and labor by all means to haue our good will, whom he would not of|fend.

As touching this, that he had against our will cari|ed vs into one of our own castels, he humblie craued pardon therefore (in that he was inforced therevnto) although in the same he had forgotten that reue|rence and dutie, which euerie subiect owght vnto vs. Wherevnto he added, that he did the same for our safetie and defense. At which time also he began to re|peat vnto me the whole course of his life, lamenting his fortune, to haue them (whome he neuer hurt) so gréeuouslie offended with him, that their malice had not ouerpassed anie occasions vniustlie to hurt him withall.

But especiallie in this, that their great enuie had burdened him with the murther of the king, and that his power was vnequall to resist the secret conspira|cies of his enimies, whome he could not know; be|cause they did in shew and spéeches dissemble their friendship: & not knowing them, there was no waie for him to foresée and auoid their deceipts. Whose ex|treme hatred was now growen to such height, that he could not liue in safetie in anie place, or at anie time, except he might be assured of the quéenes vn|changeable fauour towards him. Which certeintie of hir fauor could not be shewed but by this one meane, to persuade hir selfe to receiue him into the mariage bed. At what time he did most holilie sweare, that he gaped not after anie extraordinarie gouernement, or that he would leape to the highest step of supreme rule thereby; but onlie to reape this fruit thereof, that he might serue and obeie hir as long as he liued, in such sort as he did before. Whervnto he added the de|lights of such spéeches as that matter required.

But in the end, when he saw that we could not be mooued therevnto, either with praiers or promises, he shewed vnto vs what he had doone with the whole nobilitie, and the chiefe of the parlement, and what they againe had promised vnder their hands. Which being suddenlie and vnhoped for laied against vs, whether it did with iust cause greatlie astonish vs, we leaue to the consideration of the king, the quéene, our vncles, and the rest of our friends. Wherefore, when I perceiued my selfe a prisoner vnder the power of an other man, farre from the helpe of all those whose counsell I did and should haue vsed; yea and that I saw them before my face, in whose former faith and wisedome I did repose my selfe; whose strength did defend our authoritie, and without which our power was but small or none: when (I say) I had seene all these to haue vowed themselues to serue his de|sire, and that I was alone left a [...]reie for him, I did with my selfe in my mind consider manie things, but could bring none of them to effect.

Besides which, he gaue to vs but short time to take anie aduise, but incontinentlie and importunatlie did still vrge the same vnto me. At length, when I saw no waie to escape by flight, nor anie person of all our kingdome which had anie care of our libertie (for we well perceiued by their hands giuen, and by their deepe silence at that time, that they were all drawen to take his part) I was compelled (after that I a lit|tle pacified mine anger & displeasure against him) to refer my selfe to the discusse and consideration of his demands, & to laie before my selfe his dutie in times past, and the hope which we had of the following con|tinuance of the same towards vs.

And further, how gree [...]ouslie our people would suffer a strange king, and hea [...]lie receiue one vnac|quainted, and not invred with their lawes and cu|stoms, that they would not suffer me long to liue vn|maried, and that the people (being by nature facti|ous) could not be kept in obedience, except our au|thoritie were supported and practised by a man which could equall them in bearing labor, and were able to bridle the insolencie of rebels in the administration of the common wealth: the weight of which charge, our power (being weakened and almost brought to nothing by continuall tumults and rebellions, since, our comming into Scotland) was not able anie longer to susteine. For by reason of these seditions, we were inforced to appoint foure or more deputies in diuerse parts of our realmes, which afterward al|so did (vnder the colour of the authoritie which they were permitted to vse vnder vs) inforce our owne subiects to take armes against vs.

For all which causes, when we well perceiued that if we labored to preserue the dignitie of kinglie ma|iestie, that they would inforce me to mariage, that our people could not abide a forren prince, and that a|mongest our owne subiects, there was not anie which for the nobilitie of his familie, for his wisdome and valure, or for other vertues of bodie and mind, might be preferred before or equalled vnto him, I commanded my selfe to ioine with the whole con|sent of the parlement, and assemblie of the nobilitie before mentioned. After that my former constant de|termination was thus somewhat mollified by these and other reasons, he did wring from me partlie by force, and partlie by intreatie, a promise to him of mariage.

Which doone, we could not yet by anie meanes and persuasion obteine of him (fearing an alteration in our mind) that the time wherein this mariage should be performed, might be deferred so long, as that we might participat the same with the king and quéene of France, and such other friends as we had remai|ning in those parts. For he beginning with a bold at|tempt (after that he had once thereby atteined the first step of his desire) did neuer after that ceasse to ioine importunat praiers to his persuasions and ar|guments of reason, vntill he did without violence inforce vs to set end to the woorke begun, and that at such time, and after such order, as seemed most con|uenient vnto him for the execution of his determi|nation. EEBO page image 387 In which matter I cannot dissemble, but that I was otherwise intreated by him, than either I would or had deserued.

For he was more carefull to satisfie them, by whose consent (shewed at the beginning) he thought himselfe to haue obteined his purpose (though he did both deceiue them and mée) than to gratifie me, or to weie how méet it were for me, being brought vp in the precepts and rites of our religion; from which, neither he nor anie man liuing, whilest I did liue, could draw me awaie (aliue) by anie action. In which thing trulie, though we doo acknowledge our error, yet we willinglie desire, that the king and quéene his mother, our vncle, or anie friend of ours, doo not ex postulat with him, nor anie waie laie the fault vn|to his charge.

For sith things be now so ended, as that they cannot be againe vndoone, we take all things in the best part: & as he is in déed, so he is to be accounted our husband, whome from henceforwards we haue determined both to loue & reuerence. Wherefore all they which professe themselues to be our friends, must also shew the like to him which is ioined vnto vs with an indissoluble knot. And although he hath in manie things behaued himselfe lesse diligentlie, & almost ouer-rashlie, which we willinglie impute to his immoderat affection towards vs; yet we desire the king, the quéene, our vncle, and the rest of our friends, no lesse to loue and fauor him, than if all things had till this day béene doone after their aduise and determination; in the behalfe of which our hus|band, we promise that he shall in all things (which shalbe required of him hereafter) alwaies grati|fie them in what he maie.

These remedies being found to defend the quéens credit amongst forren princes, other remedies were to be sought for defense of hir owne person against hir owne subiects. Wherefore (after that the earle of Murreie was appointed to remaine as banished be|yond the seas in France, whither he tooke his iour|nie through England) the quéene (deliuered of such a feare as he was to hir, & therfore better able to rule, or at least to make better shift, with such other as were coniured, to vse Buchanans word, against hir) vsed what diligence she might to gather forces, espe|ciallie in the Mers and east Louthian.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 And thinking that the enterprise of the lords had The quéene gathereth for|ces. beene broken and disappointed, they marched from Dunbar on saturdaie the fourth of Iune, first to Hathington, & there resting till the euen, set forward to Gladismore, and taking there deliberation in the matter; they lodged that night at Seiton, and in the morning marched in order of battell towards Carbarrie hill. Carbarrie hill, an [...] there chose foorth a plot of ground of great aduantage, appointing to fight on foot, be|cause the power of the lords in number of horsse|men, was stronger than the quéens, and of greater experience. There were with the quéene and Both|well, the lords Setton, Yester, and Borthwike; al|so the lards of Wauchton, Bas, Ormiston, Wea|derburne, Blackater, and Langton. They had with them also two hundred harquebusiers waged, and The number of the quéens power. of great artilleric some field péeces. Their whole number was estéemed to be about 2000: but the more part of them were commons & countriemen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The earles of Morton, Atholl, Mar, Glencarne, the lords of Hume, Lindseie, Ruthwen, Sempill, Sauquhar; the lards of Drumlangrid, Tulibar|den, The power of the lords. Grange, and yoong Sesford, were assembled togither at Edenburgh with a power like in num|ber to the quéens, but for the more part consisting of gentlemen, although not furnished with anie num|ber of harquebusiers, except a few of the townsmen of Edenburgh, that willinglie ioined with them in that quarrell. Upon the fifteenth of Iune, they came foorth of the towne, and approched their aduersaries. But there was monsieur la Croque, the French kings ambassadour, who tooke great paine, in tra|uelling betwixt the parties to reduce them to some a|gréement. Fr. Thin.

Who by his interpretor laid before them how carefullie he had studied for the commoditie & tranquillitie of the publike state of Scotland before Bucha. lib. 18. this; and that now also he caried the same mind with him. Wherefore he did vehementlie desire (if it were possible) that the matter might be so taken vp, for the commoditie of both parties; that it might be ended without force or bloudshed. For the compas|sing whereof, he would imploic all his trauell, sith the quéene also did not refuse to heare the counsell & persuasion of peace. For the more certeintie wherof, he did at that time promise them pardon and vtter forgetfulnesse of all things passed before time; & did with great holinesse there pledge him selfe, that no hurt should fall vnto anie man there, for taking weapon against the highest gouernor.

After that the interpretor had deliuered these things, the earle of Morton answered, that he did not take armor against the quéene; but against him that had killed the king. Whome if the queene would deliuer to punishment, or separat him from hir; she should well vnderstand, that they & the rest of hir sub|iects held nothing more déere vnto them, than tocon|tinue in their dutifull obedience: without which gran|ted to them, there could be no agréement made; be|cause they came not thither to craue pardon for anie offense which they had committed (wherevnto the earle of Glenearne added) but rather to giue pardon to such as had offended.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Wherfore the ambassador Croque returned backe to Edenburgh, and the quéens part began to de|crease, diuerse shrinking awaie from hir; so that af|ter it began to grow towards the euening, Both|well fled to the castell of Dunbar. But the quéene desirous to talke with William Kircadie the lard of Grange, went to him, accompanied onelie with one The quéene commeth to the lords. capteine, and after some talke with him, she passed to the lords, who tooke hir with them to Edenburgh, [she being in a short garment, base, & worne, com|ming Fr. Thin. a little beneath hir knees (as saith Buchanan) of which lords she requested that they would suffer hir to depart, & not to keepe hir in that sort.] The Ha|miltons were on the waie comming to assist the queene, with seuen or eight hundred horssemen; but before they could reach to the place, the queene was in the hands of the lords, and so they returned.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lard of Cragmiller [then prouost of Eden|burgh] Fr. Thin. and sir Iames Balfure also the capteine of the castell, were ioined in this confederacie with the lords, as shortlie after it appeared. The quéene after this was conueied ouer the Forth, and brought to The quéene is sent to Lochleuin. Lochleuin, where she was appointed to remaine in ward vnder the safe kéeping of William Dowglas lard of that place. The earle Bothwell, escaping to Dunbar, found meanes to flée into Denmarke, where he was staied and committed to prison, where|in at length he died. Diuerse persons afterwards were apprehended as parties to the murther of the king, and therevpon condemned, were executed, confessing the said earle to be the principall executor of the same murther. Fr. Thin. Leauing the quéene therfore in this miserable plight, we will not yet forget (for the honor she once had) to set downe certeine verses made by Alexander Seton a Scot, in the commen|dation of hir ancestors, and of hir; who in the first yeares of hir gouernement vsed hir selfe to the good liking of all hir subiects. In which verses Seton dooth further meane, that Lesle should hereafter set foorth hir gouernement, as he hath doone that of the EEBO page image 388 other king before hir. The verses be as followeth.

Clara atauis, genus antiquo de sanguine regum, Lesleus be|fore the pre|face of his eight booke.
Nympha Caledonij gloria rara soli,
Maiorum hic laudes, totos quos insula ab orbe
Diuisit, toto cernis ab orbelegi.
Hoc illis peperere decus, non gloria regni,
Non genus, aut diues gaza, fauórque virum:
Sedpietatis honos, fidei constantia, morum
Integritas, belli gloria, pacis amor;
Queis tua maiores superet quum viuida virtus:
Quae tamen meritis laus fuit aequa tuis?
Vnum hoc Lesleo superest, tua fortia facta
Scribere, consilijs multa peracta suis.
Et mihi sunt verbis saltem tua facta canenda:
A proauis ne sim degener ipse meis.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 THe ninetéenth of Iulie, Charles Iames the yoong prince of Scotland, after a sermon made Iames the sixt. by Iohn Knox, was crowned king of the Scots in Sterling church, where were read certeine letters of commission and procuration, with the quéens priuie seale at them for the establishing of the same coro|nation. The first, for hir resignation of the crowne and gouernement of the yoong prince hir sonne. The second, to authorize the earle of Murreie to be regent during the kings minoritie. The third, to giue au|thoritie and power to seuen other ioining with the said earle of Murreie, in case he should refuse to ex|ercise the same alone; that is to say, the duke of Cha|telerault, the earls of Lennox, Argile, Atholl, Mor|ton, Glencarne, and Mar. The tenors of which let|ters of commission and procuration doo héere insue, as we find them imprinted at Edenburgh by Ro|bert Lekpreuic printer to the king of Scots, the sixt of Aprill 1568, among the acts of parlement begun and holden at Edenburgh, the fiftéenth of December, in the yeare 1567, by Iames earle of Murreie lord Abernethie, &c: regent vnto the said king.

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