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1.7. King Iames his quarell vnto the earle of Surrie.

King Iames his quarell vnto the earle of Surrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _WHere it is alledged that we are come into England against our bond and promise, thereto we an|swer: that our brother was bound as farre to vs as we were to him, and when we sware last before his ambas|sadors in presence of our councell, we ex|pressed speciallie in our oth, that we would keepe to our brother, if our brother kept to vs, and not else. We sweare that our bro|ther brake first to vs, and of his breach we required him diuers times of amends: and latelie we warned him, as he did not vs yet we brake. And this we take for our quarell, and by Gods grace shall defend the same at your affixed time, which with Gods helpe we shall abide. ¶ Thus was the king verie desirous to trie the matter by battell, al|though the wisest sort of his nobles wished not that he should doo anie thing ouer rashlie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There chanced also manie things taken (as yée would say) for warnings of some great mischance Prodigious chances. to follow, which though some reputed but as vaine and casuall haps; yet the impression of them bred a certeine religious feare and new terror in his heart. For as he was in councell with his lords, to vnder|stand their opinions touching the order of his bat|tels, there was an hare start amongst them, which hauing a thousand arrowes, daggers, and other kind An hare. of things bestowed at hir, with great noise and show|ting, yet she escaped from them all safe and without hurt. The same night also, mise had gnawne in sunder the buckle and leather of his helmet where|with The buckle leather of his helmet gnawn with mise. The cloth of his tent of bloodie colour. he should fasten the same to his hed. And more|ouer, the cloth or veile of his inner tent (as is said) about the breake of the day, appeared as though the deawie moisture thereof had béene of a bloudie colour.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Herevpon the king keeping himselfe within his tent, the earle of Surrie constreined by necessitie to séeke all waies whereby to traine the king downe from the hill where he was lodged, remooued his campe towards the hils of Floddon, where the king The English campe remoo|ued by the earle. of Scots laie incamped [...] and on the ninth day of September passed the water of Till at Twisell bridge; the rereward going ouer at Milford, put|ting themselues as néere as they could betwixt the Scotish campe and Scotland. King Iames percei|uing the Englishmen to passe the water, iudged that they had ment to win an hill that laie betwixt them and his campe, and therefore to preuent them, he caused his field to be raised, and fier to be set on The Scots campe remoo|ued also. the litter & cabins which they had made of boughs, and so with all spéed remooued to the other hill, be|ing gotten thither yer the English men could per|ceiue him to be remooued out of his former lod|gings, bicause the smoke of the fiers which the Scots had made, couered all the countrie betwixt the two armies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane while were the Englishmen ad|uanced to the foot of Floddon hill, hauing thereby Aduantage gotten by the ground. gotten double aduantage: for the Scotish ordinance could not much annoie them in marching vpwards vnder the leuill thereof, and they againe might gall the Scots in shooting off at them, as they came downewards vpon them. For king Iames hauing King Iames his prectise. disappointed the Englishmen of the hill, thought ve|relie it should be an easie matter for him to ouer|throw them, which being put beside the place where they intended (as he thought) to haue camped, would neuer abide the countenance of his puissant armie, if he might atteine to ioine with them. Therefore the Scotish armie [after they had appointed the same into thrée wards, whereof (as saith Lesleus) the earle Fr. Thin. of Huntleie and the lord Hume led the right wing, the left had the earle of Crawford and Montrosse; and the king himselfe kept the middle ward, with the earles of Argile and Lennox] making downwards, incountered with the English host néere to the foot of the mounteine called Branxton, and first sir Ed|mund Haward leading one of the out wings of the English armie, hauing with him thrée thousand Sir Edmund Haward was fiercelie as|sailed. men, being fiercelie assailed by the Scots on foot, hauing speares and long weapons, and also by cer|teine horssemen, was in the end discomfited, and his people beaten downe and put to flight, so that being of them for saken, he was constreined to follow. But yet he and diuerse other which escaped, ioined them|selues to the next battell as well as they might. This so prosperous a beginning, who would thinke A good begin|ning had an euill ending. should haue turned to the losse of the Scots part, and aduancement of the English side. But so it came to passe, for king Iames no sooner saw that wing of the English host ouerthrowne and discomfited, but that he déemed how all the whole power of the English|men King Iames deceiued him|selfe and aligh ted from his horsse. had béene fléeing away: and therfore alighting beside his horsse, and commanding those that were a|bout him to follow, prepared himselfe to pursue the chase.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 His capteins did what they could by words to re|mooue The capteins good counsell not regarded. him from his purpose, declaring to him the dutie of a prince: which is not rashlie to enter the fight, but to prouide and sée that euerie thing be doone in order: and whereas comming to trie the matter by hand blowes, he can doo no more than another man; yet keeping his place as apperteineth to his person, he may be woorth manie thousands of other. The king nothing mooued with these exhortations, breaking his arraie of battell, with a companie of noble men, rushed forward into the fore ward, where The kings hardinesse marred all. accomplishing the office of a footman, he found the Englishmen not fléeing, but manfullie standing at EEBO page image 301 resistance, so that there was a right hard incounter, and manie arrowes shot on euerie side, and great hurt doone therewith.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At length sir Edward Stanlie with the reregard of the Englishmen came fiercelie downe from the Sir Edward Stanlie inua [...]d the backe of the rere|gard. hill of Branxton, vpon the backe of the kings armie, wherein they fought cruellie on both parts for a long space; but at length the victorie inclined to the Eng|lishmen. For the king himselfe was there beaten downe and slaine, with all that whole battell which first entered the fight. The other part of the Scotish King Iames [...]aine. host, whereof Alexander Hume lord chamberlaine had the gouernance, although he saw where the other The lord chamberlaine [...]ood still. Scotishmen were in danger, and closed in on euerie side, yet would he not once remooue one foot forward out of the place (where he stood) to aid them. Moreo|uer, the lacke of discretion in the king, which would needs run vpon his owne death, amazed the minds of all men, and brought them into such perplexitie, that they knew not what to doo; but looked one vpon another without stirring to or fro, as those that were in despaire now after the death of their king to reco|uer the victorie, which by so strange a chance séemed as it were slipped out of their hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit, the lord chamberlaine bare the most blame, for that he did not cause a new onset to be gi|uen. The lord chamberlaine beareth the blame. But it happened well for the Englishmen: for if king Iames had ordered himselfe wiselie in this battell, or that after he was slaine, a new furie had mooued the Scots to haue renewed the fight in re|uenge of the kings death, as had beene expedient, the victorie vndoubtedlie had béene theirs (as was thought by men of great vnderstanding.) Where|vpon the Englishmen remembring how manifest|lie The English men thanked God for this noble victorie. Gods goodnesse appeared towards them in this battell, confessed themselues long after bound to God for their safetie and deliuerance out of that pre|sent danger. The fight began about foure of the clocke in the after noone, and continued thrée houres, 5000. Buchan. 15000 men slaine. in the which fiftéene thousand men were slaine on both parts: and of that number a third part at the least was of Englishmen (as was crediblie repor|ted) but (as our English writers affirme) there died of Englishmen not past fiftéene hundred.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But yet the Scotishmen hold, that there died more of the Englishmen than of their nation at this field, and that manie thought it was not the bodie of king Iames which the Englishmen found in the field, and tooke it for his; but rather an other Scotish mans corps, called the lard of Bonehard, who was also slaine there. And it was affirmed by sundrie, that the king was seene the same night aliue at Kel|so: and so it was commonlie thought that he was liuing long after, and that he passed the seas into o|ther countries, namelie to Ierusalem to visit the ho|lie sepulchre, and so to driue foorth the residue of his daies, in dooing penance for his former passed offen|ses: but he appeared not in Scotland after as king, no more than Charles duke of Burgognie did ap|peare in his countries after the battell of Nancie, although his people had the like vaine opinion that he escaped from that discomfiture aliue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now to returne to the truth of the matter where we left. In the night folowing after this terri|ble battell, the residue of the Scotish armie retur|ned The Scotish men returne [...]ome againe. homewards the same way they came, wasting and spoiling the English borders as they passed. At their comming home, euerie man spake euill of them, for that as towards and naughtie persons, They were re [...]led of their [...]ne people. they neither sought to reuenge the death of their no|ble king, nor yet to succour their fellowes that were beaten downe and slaine before their faces. But namelie Alexander Hume lord chamberlaine was repr [...]ued, as cause of all that mischiefe, which beha|ued himselfe not as a capte [...]ne, but as a traitor or enimie to his countrie. Fr. Thin. Buchan. li: 13 Upon the honor of this victorie, Thomas Haward earle of Surrie (as a note of the conquest) gaue to his seruants this cog|nisance (to weare on their left arme) which was a white lion (the beast which he before bare as the pro|per ensigne of that house) standing ouer a red lion (the peculiar note of the kingdome of Scotland) and tearing the same red lion with his pawes.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Thus haue you heard how through rashnesse and lacke of skilfull order, the Scotish armie was ouer|come, and that worthie prince king Iames the fourth brought to his fatall end, on the ninth day of September, in the twentie and fift yéere of his reigne, and thirtie and ninth of his age, which was in the yéere from the incarnation 1513. For his poli|tike gouernment and due administration of iustice, which he exercised during the time of his reigne, hée deserued to be numbred amongest the best princes that euer reigned ouer the Scotish nation. All theft, reiffe, murther, and robberie ceassed in his daies, by The sauage people refor|med them|selues. such rigorous execution of lawes penall as he cau|sed to be exercised through all the bounds of Scot|land: insomuch that the sauage people of the out Iles sorted themselues through terror and dread of due punishment to liue after the order of lawes and iustice, where otherwise of themselues they are na|turallie inclined to sedition, & disquieting of each o|ther. To conclude, men were in great hope, that if it had pleased the hie determinate power of almightie God to haue lent to him longer life, he should haue brought the realme of Scotland to such a flouri|shing estate, as the like in none of his predecessors times was yet euer heard of.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There died with him in that infortunate battell, of noble men (beside others of the meaner sort) the archbishop of saint Andrewes his bastard sonne, the bishop of the Iles: the abbats of Inchaffreie and Kilwennie: the earles of Montrosse, Crawford, Ar|gile, Lennox, Glencar, Cathnes, Castelles, Both|well; Arrell high constable of Scotland, Addell, A|tholl, and Morton: the lords Louet, Forbois, Elue|ston, Roos, Inderbie, Saintcleare, Maxwell, and his thrée brethren, Daunlie, Sempill, Borthicke, Bogo|nie, Arskill, Blackater, and Cowin: knights and gentlemen of name, sir Iohn Dowglas, Cuthbert Hume of Fast castell, sir Alexander Seton, sir Da|nie, maister Iohn Grant, sir Dunkin Cawfield, sir Sander Lowder, sir George Lowder, maister Mar|shall, maister Key, maister Ellot, maister Cawell clerke of the chancerie, the deane of Ellester, Macke Kene, Macke Clene, with manie others.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 13. This Iames the fourth was of a firme bodie, of iust stature, of most comelie countenance, and of sharpe wit, but altogither vnlearned, as the fault of that age was. But he did diligentlie applie himselfe to an old custome of the countrie, cunninglie to cure wounds, the knowledge whereof in times past was a thing common to all the nobilitie, being alwaies vsed to the warres. He was easilie to be spoken vn|to, gentle in his answers, iust in his iudgements, and so moderat in punishments, that all men might easi|lie sée he was vnwillinglie drawen vnto them. A|gainst the detraction of the euill, and admonishment of the good, there was such woorthinesse of mind in him (confirmed by the quiet of a good conscience, and the hope of his innocencie) that he would not onelie not be angrie, but not so much as vse a sharpe woord vnto them. Amongest which vertues, there were cer|teine vices crept in by the ouermuch desire to please the people, for whilest he labored to auoid the note of couetousnesse (obiected to his father) and sought to win the fauour of the common sort (with sumptuous feasts, gorgeous shewes, and large gifts) he fell into EEBO page image 302 that pouertie, that it seemed (if he had liued long) that he would haue lost the fauor of his peopie (woone in old times) by the imposition of new taxes. Where|fore his death was thought to haue timelie happened vnto him.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 AFter the death of that woorthie prince king Ia|mes the fourth, slaine at Branxton (as before ye Iames the fift. haue heard) his sonne Iames the fift succéeded him: for after the returne of those that escaped from the said field, the queene assembled the lords and estates of the realme togither at Striueling, where the 21 An assemblie at Striueling 1513. day of September 1513, hir sonne the foresaid Iames the fift, a child of one yéere, fiue moneths, & ten daies of age, by vniuersall aduise and consent was crow|ned king, and his mother the quéene appointed re|gent The king crowned, and the quéene ap|pointed re|gent. of the realme, vsing the counsell of the reue|rend father Iames Beton archbishop of Glascow, the earles of Huntleie, Angus, and Arrane.* This gouernement the queene obteined by reason of hir husbands testament, who making his last will (be|fore that he went to the warres) did appoint thereby that the whole administration of all things should remaine with hir, so long as she continued a widow: the which though it were against the custome of the countrie (being the first example of a womans go|uernement amongest the Scots) yet it séemed tole|rable to most men (giuen to peace) especiallie since there were not men sufficient at that time for honor and experience to take that charge in hand, by occasi|on of the great slaughter of the nobles at Floddon field, which gouernement she did not long inioy.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For shortlie after they fell at variance amongest themselues, about the bestowing of those benefices which were vacant by the deaths of those persons A debate. which had béene slaine at the field; by reason whereof, some of them writ letters secretlie into France to The duke of Albanie is sent for. Iohn duke of Albanie, willing him to come into Scotland to be tutor to the king, and gouernor of the realme, as he that was next of bloud to the king, and neerest to the crowne, in case the kings children de|ceassed without issue. He therefore sent monsieur de la Bautie into Scotland, who in companie of the earle of Arrane, the lord Fleming, and Lion the Monsieur de la Bautie is sent into Scotland. herald (which long had béene in France) landed on the west coast the third of Nouember. And shortlie after, the said monsieur de la Bautie deliuered his letters to the queene and lords, who therevpon met at saint Iohns towne, and there by vniuersall con|sent it was accorded, that the duke of Albanie should An assemblie had at Stri|ueling. be admitted tutor and gouernor to the king & realme, and that the same should be confirmed in parlement by the thrée estates which should be kept at Eden|burgh, the thirtéenth day of March next, for the same intent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To rehearse the troubles and great disquietnesse that chanced, during the minoritie of this king, tho|rough The great disquietnesse reigning in Scotland du|ring the mi|noritie of Iames the fift. lacke of due administration of iustice, and by discord & variance dailie rising amongest the lords & péeres of the realme, a man might haue iust cause greatlie to woonder thereat, and in weieng the same throughlie, no lesse lament the oppression doone to the poore commons in that wicked and most miserable time, when iustice séemed to sléepe, and rapine with all the other sorts and rabble of iniurious violence inuaded hir emptie seat, triumphing ouer all as a conqueror. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 12. During the times of which disorder, there was (amongest those which preied and spoiled others) a great capteine of the same faction, called Macrobert Struan, who (ouerrunning Atholl and the adioining places) was accompanied for the most part with eight hundred théeues, and sometime more. Which Struan was at length (whilest he spoiled e|uerie man at his owne pleasure, and at that time re|maining with his vncle Iohn Creichton) taken by wait laied for him, and inforced to depart with his life.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The quéene sent louing letters vnto the king of England hir brother, requiring him of peace. Where|vpon a truce was taken betwixt the two realmes of England and Scotland, for the space of one yéere and a day. In the beginning of Februarie, the king of England, hearing that a parlement should be hol|den in Scotland, for the bringing in of the duke of The king of England wri|teth to his si|ster. Albanie to be tutor, wrote to his sister that she should in anie wise impeach and staie his comming thither; declaring how dangerous it was, not onelie for hir, but also for hir sonne to haue him gouernor, which was to succéed, if hir son were once out of the way. But the chiefest cause that mooued the king of Eng|land to labour, that the duke should haue nothing to doo in Scotland, was (as manie thought) for that he knew how the duke, in fauour of the king of France, would shew himselfe an enimie against England, with all the force he might make or procure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now shortlie after that the peace was concluded betwixt him and the king of France, he sent a letter also, requiring him not to suffer the duke to passe in|to Scotland, for the reason first alleged. But not|withstanding the labor that king Henrie made to The duke of Albanie con|firmed tutor by parlement. the contrarie, it was concluded by the states in par|lement assembled in Edenburgh, at the time prefix|ed, that sir Patrike Hamilton, and Lion king of armes should be sent into France, to procure the duke to come into Scotland, being now confirmed tutor and gouernor, according to the lawes of the realme in such cases prouided. Wherevpon, in Aprill then next following they tooke the seas, and passed into France, accordinglie as by the states had béene deuised.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This yéere came a legat into Scotland from the 1514. A legat from Rome. The quéene deliuered of hir second son Alexander. pope, with certeine priuileges granted to the king and realme. The thirtith of Aprill was the queene deliuered of a prince in the castell of Striueling, which was baptised by the postulat of Dunfirmling, and the archdeane of saint Andrewes, and instantlie confirmed by the bishop of Cathnesse, by the name of Alexander. During the time that the quéene lay in childbed, great discord fell out betwixt the lords of the west parts, and the other lords of the realme: but shortlie after the queene called an assemblie at E|denburgh the twelfth of Iulie, where they were all well agréed. And heerewith two of the cleargie were sent into England for peace. And the 28 of the same moneth, maister Iames Ogiluie abbat of Dri|burgh, and sir Patrike Hamilton, and Lion the herald came foorth of France with articles in wri|ting from the king there, and the duke of Albanie; by the which the dukes comming was excused, because the king could not want him, till some end were had touching the warres betwixt him and the king of England, which was concluded in October next in|suing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 This yéere, the sixt of August, the quéene maried The mariage of the quéene mother. The great seale taken from the bi|shop of Glas|cow. Archembald Dowglasse earle of Angus, and imme|diatlie after in saint Iohns towne tooke the great seale from the bishop of Glascow, that was chancel|lor of the realme. Whervpon the said bishop got him to Edenburgh, where manie lords assisted him, and kept out the quéene and hir new husband, so that they might not enter there: whereof great discord rose within the realme amongest the nobles and péeres of the same. In the peace contracted betwixt Lewes the twelfth of that name, king of France, and Hen|rie A peace con|cluded be|twixt Eng|land & France the eight king of England, no mention was made of the realme of Scotland: for the which the Scotishmen thought great [...]lt in the French king, seeing that for his cause the warre had béene attemp|ted betwixt them and England. The same yéere, a|bout EEBO page image 303 the twentie fift of October, William Elphing|ston The deceasse of the bishop of Aberden. bishop of Aberden; and lord kéeper of the priuie scale departed this life at Edenburgh. He had béene a faithfull councellor to Iames the third & to Iames the fourth, by whose helpe he founded and indowed the college in the old towne of Aberden, for the in|crease of learning & vertue, which hath florished with good wits of students euer since, till these our daies. The 20 of Nouember, Le sire de la Bautie receiued the castell of Dunbar in the name of the duke of Al|banie, Monsieur de la Bautie. at the hands of the deane of Glascow bróther to the bishop of Murrey, called Forman. Shortlie after, Iohn Hepborne the prior of saint Andrews then elect archbishop of that sée, besieged the castell of saint Andrews, and wan it by force from the kée|pers of it, which were appointed to defend it in the name of Gawin Dowglasse, wherewith the quéene and the earle of Angus were highlie offended. The twelfth of Ianuarie, being a verie darke & windie night, the earle of Lennox, and the maister of Glen|carne 1514. vndermined the nether groundsoile of the ca|stell gate of Dunbreton, & entered thereby into the castell, & so tooke it, putting out thereof the lord Er|skin. The castell of Dunbreton taken. Shortlie after (that is to say) the fiftéenth of that moneth, a great assemblie was made betwixt the earles of Angus and Arrane, the one to haue fought with the other, which was the cause and be|ginning of great trouble that insued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The same day in Edenburgh were the buls pub|lished, The popes buls publi|shed. 1515. Lesle. which Forman the bishop of Murrey had pur|chased at Rome, for the obteining of the archbishop|rike of saint Andrews, the abbasies of Dunfirme|ling, and Arbroeth, through supplication of the quéene and duke of Albanie. From which buls the prior of saint Andrews appealed, pretending title to the arch|bishops Contention about the in|ioieng of the see of saint Andrews. sée by election and generall gift of the lords of the realme; and her vpon got togither his friends in Edenburgh, as the maister of Hales and others. And on the other part, the lord chamberleine, and di|uerse of the bishop of Murreis friends got the kings letters, by vertue whereof they proclamed the said maister of Hales, and the prior of saint Andrews rebels, with all their assistants, putting them to the horne: wherevpon they were constreined to depart out of Edenburgh. And in Maie following, the pri|or went vnto Rome, there to iustifie his appeale.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The foure and twentith of Februarie, a parle|ment was assembled at Striueling; but because the lords could not agrée amongst themselues, it was proroged till the comming of the duke of Albanie, which was looked for to be in Scotland, in Aprill; or at the furthest in Maie next insuing, as he had sent word by sir Iohn Striueling of the Keir, that was latelie come from him with letters vnto the lords and péeres of the realme. The fiftéenth of Maie, truce was proclamed betwixt England and Scotland, to indure for three yeares, or three moneths (as saith Lesleus) but the same day at six of the clocke in the 1515. Truce be|twixt Eng|land and Scotland. afternoone, the Englishmen entered the borders of Scotland vpon the water of Rule, and forraied the countrie, dooing great hurt therein, notwithstan|ding the truce. The seuentéenth day of Maie, Iohn duke of Albanie, tutor and gouernor of Scotland, arriued at the towne of Aire, with eight ships well The duke of Albanie his arriuall in Scotland. appointed, and furnished with men and all kind of necessarie prouision for his estate.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From thence taking the sea againe, he sailed a|longst the coast till he came to Dunbreton, and there came on land, & on the next day passed foorth to Glas|cow, where all the westland lords receiued him with great semblance of reioising for his arriuall. The six and twentith day of Maie, he was receiued into The duke of Albanie recei|ued into E|denburgh. Edenburgh, a great number of lords méeting him on the way. The quéene also came from hir owne lod|ging and met him, to doo him honor. Sundrie con|ceipts, pageants, & plaies were shewed by the burges|ses, to honor his entrie in the best maner they could deuise. Shortlie after his comming to Edenburgh, there came thither foorth of all parts of the realme, the lords and barons, where they being assembled in councell, he tooke vpon him the gouernement of the realme, which he promised to vse by their aduise, so that they would assist him in setting foorth of iu|stice and good orders, which they vndertooke to doo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herevpon was the parlement, which had béene A parlement summoned. proroged till his comming, summoned to be kept at Edenburgh the twelfth of Iulie, in the which diuerse acts were concluded and made; and the lord Drum|mond was adiudged in the dukes mercie, for stri|king Lion king of armes. The duke pardoned him of life and honor, but his lands and goods remained in the kings hands: notwithstanding, he was after|wards restored to the same againe. In this parle|ment also, the duke of Albanie was confirmed by the three estates of the realme tutor and gouernor to the king, the scepter and sword being deliuered to him: his oth also was taken by the lords, and theirs giuen to him, that each of them should be faithfull to others, and namelie to their king and souereigne lord, and also should mainteine iustice to the vtter|most of their powers, for the aduancement of his honor, and suertie of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, whilest this parlement was in hand, the gouernor was aduertised that the king should haue béene conueied foorth of the realme se|cretlie into England: wherevpon he suddenlie de|parted in the night time from Edenburgh, with his men of warre in good order, & came to Striueling, where the king, with his brother Alexander, laie with the quéene; which castell, togither with the kings per|son, and the other within it, were deliuered to him The king de|liuered to the kéeping of cer|teine lords. the third day of August: wherevpon he committed them and the castell to the keeping of foure lords of the realme, whereof the earles of Eglenton and Montrosse were two. The lord Hume, because he had assisted the earle of Angus and the quéene a|gainst The lord Hume de|nounced a re|bell. the gouernor, was denounced a rebell; and the earles of Lennox & Arrane, with manie others, were sent to his houses to seize the same into the kings hands. In the castell of Hume was laid gun|powder by a traine, wherby diuerse of them that en|tered first into the castell were burned.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lord Hume himselfe got him into England, and sore disquieted the marches, so that no day of truce was holden, neither on the east nor middle marches. The twelfth of August, the quéene, the earle of Angus, and his brother George Dowglas, went from Temptallon vnto Berwike, and from thence passed to the nunrie of Caudstreame; where|vpon aduertisement being giuen to the K. of Eng|land, and his pleasure therein knowne, the six and twentith of that moneth she was receiued by the lord Dacres, & conueied to Harbottell castell, where she remained till she was deliuered of a daughter, called Margaret Dowglasse, afterwards maried to The birth of the countesse of Lennox. the earle of Lennox, as in place conuenient it shall further appeare. There was no Scotishman at this time receiued into England with hir. The gouernor perceiuing the rebellion of the lord Hume, passed to the borders with his Frenchmen, where the sixt of October, the said lord Hume came & submitted him|selfe to the gouernors pleasure, and his brother Alex|ander The lord Hume sub|mitted him|selfe. shortlie after did the same, and they were both deliuered to the earle of Arrane, who was appointed to keepe them in safetie within the towne of Eden|burgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the twelfth of October next insuing, the said earle of Arrane departed from thence in the night EEBO page image 304 season, with those his prisoners, stealing their waies The earle of Arrane stea|leth away. on foot. Herevpon, the gouernor causing the parle|ment to be holden that was summoned to begin the foure and twentith of October, the said lord Hume, maister William Hume, and Dauid Hume, were conuict of treason by all the states, to lose their liues, lands, and goods. This parlement was proroged till The lord Hume and o|ther conuic|cted of trea|son. fifteene daies after, within which time the earle of Arrane was appointed to make appearance, or else it was agreed that they should procéed against him in like maner. And in that meane space, the gouernor went to besiege the castell of Hamilton, where that noble aged ladie, the old countesse of Arrane, daugh|ter The old coun|tesse of Arrane purchaseth hir sons pardon. to king Iames the second, & mother to the earle of Arrane, and aunt to the duke by his fathers side, caused not onelie the castell to be surrendered at the dukes pleasure, but procured also the earle of Arrans peace, which earle, the twelfth of Nouember next in|suing, came with the bishop of Glascow vnto Eden|burgh, and there submitted himselfe to the dukes will.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the same time, certeine lords tooke part with the earle of Murreie the kings bastard brother, A commotion betwixt the earles of Murreie and Huntleie. and the earle of Erroll, against the erle of Huntleie, and raised a commotion; so that being got into E|denburgh, there was much adoo, & the towne great|lie disquieted. The gouernor lieng in the abbeie, came into the towne, and tooke the earles of Hunt|leie, Erroll, Murreie, and others; and committed them to ward within the castell, while he tried the cause: and finding that maister William Haie be|ing with the earle of Murreie had raised that sturre, he sent the same Haie into France, there to remaine during his pleasure, and foorthwith the said earles were set at libertie. Lion king of armes appoin|ted to go into England with letters to king Hen|rie, was stopped at Caldstreame by the lord Hume, who tooke his letters from him, and kept him priso|ner, till Alexander Humes moother, that remained prisoner in Dunbar, was exchanged for him. The Lion king of armes staied by the lord Humes. eightéenth day of December, Alexander duke of Rosseie the kings brother departed this life at Stri|ueling.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The seuentéenth day of Ianuarie, a truce was taken betwixt England and Scotland, till the feast A truce con|cluded be|twixt Eng|land & Scot|land. of Pentecost next. This truce was agréed vpon at Coldingham, by certeine commissioners, appoin|ted on either part there, to treat for peace. For the realme of Scotland were these: Monsieur de Pla|nes the French ambassador, archdeacon of saint An|drews, maister Gawin de Dunbar, and sir Wil|liam Scot of Baluerie knights. The Englishmen comprised for their part, the earle of Angus and the lord Hume within the compasse of this truce. In the meane time, the earle of Arrane departed from The earle of Arrane eft|soones reuol|teth from the gouernor. the gouernor againe, and repaired to the west parts, where he confederated himselfe with certeine lords, notwithstanding that sir Iames Hamilton, and the lord of Cauder remained pledges for his good de|meanor within the castell of Edenburgh. The earles of Lennox, Glencarne, and other caused the castell of The earle of Lenox furni|sheth Dunbre|ton. Dunbreton and diuerse other to be furnished, and tooke the castell of Glascow with the kings great ar|tillerie that laie within it, and spoiled the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The gouernor aduertised thereof, raised an armie & went to Glascow, where, by the labor of the bishop of that place, an appointment was taken, so that the castell was deliuered into the bishops hands. The earle of Lennox came in to the gouernor, and tooke a new respit, and about the beginning of March next following, the earle of Arrane and the lord Hume The earles of Lennox and Arrane take a respit. Forman re|signeth his ti|tle to the arch|bishops see. did the like. Forman the archbishop of saint An|drews, against whome the prior of saint Andrews did stand (as ye haue heard) for that same benefice, to the great disquieting of the realme, by such parta|kings as chanced thereabout among the lords, came now to the towne of Edenburgh, and resigned all the thrée benefices, whereof he had purchased buls of the pope, that is to say, the archbishoprike of saint Andrews, the abbasies of Arbroth and Dunfirme|ling in the gouernors hands, to bestow the same at his pleasure: who by the counsell of certeine lords, so satisfie such as claimed interest to the same, and pa|cifieng of all debates, bestowed them as followeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 First, the said archbishoprike he gaue to the said Forman with the abbasies of Dunfirmeling, and to maister Iames Hepborne he gaue the bishop|rike of Murrey, and benefices woorth a thousand Bestowing of benefices. marks by the yeare vnto the prior of saint Andrews for a recompense; the abbasie of Driburgh he gaue vnto maister Iames Ogiluie, and the bishoprike of Aberden (then vacant) vnto Alexander Gurdon, and to the archbishop of Glascow called Beton he gaue the abbasie of Arbroth, assigning to the earle of Murrey a large pension out thereof. One of the Fr. Thin. Hamiltons was made abbat of Kilwinning [and George Dundasse was made prior of the knights of the roads.] And thus he bestowed the benefices which had béene vacant euer since Floddon field, vnto diuerse lords, or to their kinsmen, that by such liberalitie vsed towards them, all debates and dis|cords might ceasse, which had happened amongest them, speciallie about the bestowing of the same benefices. This was doone in the moneth of Febru|arie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, the gouernor, by counsell of the 1515. lords, to the end the realme might come to a perfect quietnesse, and the noble men vnited togither, re|ceiued The earle of Angus and o|thers receiued into fauor. into fauor the earle of Angus, & maister Pa|trike Pantoun secretarie, who for his cause had béene kept as prisoner in Insche gaile. He likewise receiued the lord Hume, and his brother, pardoning them all their offenses past. And in parlement hol|den the fift of Maie, they were restored to all their lands, heritages, fées, and honors. About that time, the lord of Strawen in Atholl committed diuerse great offenses and crimes, for the which he was ta|ken by the earle of Atholl, and beheaded at Logi|raith by the gouernors commission.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All this while, the parlement was not dissolued The parle|ment began a|gaine. but vpon prorogation, and so the same began againe the first day of Iulie, at what time the king of Eng|land, at request of his sister the queene of Scotland, wrote letters to the lords now assembled in parle|ment, The king of Englands letters to the lords. requesting them to expell the gouernor foorth of the realme. But all the lords and states with vni|uersall consent sent Albanie the herald with letters to the said king, excusing them, that they might not in anie wise satisfie his desire therein, the same be|ing against reason and the lawes of their countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the moneth of September, the gouernor com|manded The lord Hume and o|ther arrested and commit|ted toward. the lord Hume, with his brother maister William Hume, and Dauid Kar of Fernihurst, to be arrested and bestowed in seuerall places, that bet|ter rule might be kept vpon the borders: but they lieng now in ward, sundrie informations were gi|uen vp against them: and therevpon, the eight of October, the said lord Hume and his brother were conuict of treason, for assisting and mainteining of the théeues vpon the borders, and other crimes; for the which he was beheaded: and on the morrow af|ter, his brother the foresaid William Hume was The lord Hume behea|ded. likewise beheaded, and their heads were set vpon the Tolbuith in Edenburgh: Dauid Kar was spared.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 14. Alexander lord Hume left yet three brethren in life, who were all by the iniuries of those times grée|uouslie afflicted with diuerse misfortunes. For George, being banished for the slaughter of a man, EEBO page image 305 remained in England amongest his friends. Iohn abbat of Iedwoorth was banished beyond Taie. Dauid the yoonger brother, which was prior of Col|dingham two yeares after the death of his brethren, was (by Iames Hepborne, the husband of his sister) slaine by a traine, vnder color of a meeting and par|lée, wherevnto he was called; whome all men did pittie, because he was a harmelesse yoong gentle|man, of a singular wit, and fowlie betraied by those of whom he ought not so to haue bin intrapped.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, the duke rode to Iedwoorth with a great companie of men, & staied the great robbing & The duke of Albanie visi|teth the bor|ders. Another par|lement. The duke of Albanie se|cond person of the realme. reauing which had béene vsed on the borders, & left there good wardens to kéepe good rule in those parts, and so returned to Edenburgh. The third of Nouem|ber, another parlement was holden, in which it was decréed, that the gouernor should be déemed and re|puted for second person of the realme, notwithstan|ding the claime made by his elder brother Alexan|der Steward, that was begotten on the daughter of the earle of Orkeneie, which was alleged to haue béene first maried to their father the duke of Alba|nie, before he was maried to the earle of Bullognes daughter, on whome he begot the gouernor. Where|vpon this Alexander made protestation to be heire to his father; but they were afterward agréed, and Alexander renounced his title in his brothers fauor, and was made bishop of Murreie, and abbat of Scone. At this parlement, the gouernor required licence to go into France, and to be absent there six The gouer|nor asketh li|cence to go in|to France. moneths: but this sute was not granted till Aprill following.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At the same time was the earle of Lennor put in ward within the castell of Edenburgh, till he had The earle of Lennox in ward. caused the castell of Dunbreton to be deliuered vnto one Alane Steward in the constables name, & then he was set at libertie. In the moneth of December, Monsieur de la Bautie was made warden of the Monsieur de la Bautie made warden of the mar|ches. east marches in stead of the lord Hume, and kept daies of truce: which procured such hatred, that it cost him afterwards his life. In the moneth of Ia|nuarie, the gouernor went to saint Iohns towne, and there held his seat of iustice, where the lord Fle|ming for the time was made great chamberlaine of Scotland, with all the fées thereof. In the yeare 1517, there came ambassadors from Francis the 1517. Ambassadors from France. new French king, to desire, that the ancient league might be renewed betwixt him and the king of Scot|land, their realmes, dominions, and subiects.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For this cause, all the lords of the realme were as|sembled at Edenburgh, where, by them it was con|cluded, that the gouernor himselfe should passe the seas into France; and also that the bishop of Dun|keild, An ambassage into France. the secretarie, and the maister of Glencarne as ambassadors should go thither: the which the thir|téenth of Maie, went a shipboord, and by the east seas sailed thither, and the gouernor tooke ship at New|marke beside Dunbreton the seuenth of Iune, ta|king his course by the west seas, and so passed into The gouer|nor goeth into France. France, where it was agréed, that he should haue remained but onelie foure moneths, he hauing ap|pointed the bishops of saint Andrews and Glascow, the earles of Huntleie, Argile, Angus, and Arrane, to gouerne in his place, whilest he was absent. Al|so he ordeined Anthonie Darcie, or Monsieur de la Bautie lieutenant of the borders.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He also had caused the king to be brought into E|denburgh Gouernors appointed to the kings per|son castell, within the which he should remaine in the kéeping of the earle Marshall, the lords Er|skin, Borthwike, Ri [...]en; of the which, two at least should be alwaies present. The quéene that re|mained as then in England, after she vnderstood that the gouernor was departed towards France, returned to Edenburgh the seuentéenth of Iune, but she was not suffered to sée the king till August fol|lowing: at what time, for feare of the pestilence to be crept into the castell, he was remooued to Crag|miller, The king re|moued. where the queene oftentimes came vnto him; but at length, through some suspicion conceiued, least The doubt which the Scots had in the queene. the quéene might conueie him away from thence in|to England, he was estsoones brought vnto the ra|stell of Edenburgh, in which he was kept after, ac|cording to the order taken in that behalfe.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 9. pag. 386. Much about this time in the which these things were doone, Iohn Gordon (the eldest sonne of that Alexander earle of Huntleie, which for the praise of his singular goodnesse obteined the surname of good) returning out of France (whither a little before he had sailed with the gouernor) was singularlie welco|med and interteined of all men, who going vnto his owne people (in the north parts) was vrged with such grieuous sickenesse that he died therwith, and by his father (to whom he should by course of nature execute the same office) shortlie after buried in the abbeie of Kilrosse, with a goodlie toome erected on him by his said father. The death of which Iohn gaue (for manie causes) manie griefes vnto manie persons: but a|mongst other the chiefest to his father, who liued not long after his sonne. Which Alexander when he died, left the said earledome to his nephue, sonne of his sonne Iohn; who bicause he was but ten yéeres old, was committed to the earle of Angus, to be instruc|ted in all goodnesse of maners answering to the ex|cellencie of that wit wherewith he was indued.

This earle Huntleie adorned with excellent swéet|nesse of maners and pleasantnesse of wit, the earle of Angus would neuer or verie hardlie suffer to de|part out of his companie. For which cause when the erle of Angus, for certeine suspicions of treson was banished Scotland into England, he attempted by all deuises and persuasions to intise the child to haue gone with him: but the yoong boie could not be allu|red with anie flatteries or persuasions to submit himselfe to the least note of reproch, in forsaking his king and countrie. Wherefore when the earle of Angus was departed into England, the child lifting vp his crauing hands to the king, did grant himselfe and all he had to the king and his countrie, whome the king receiued with all kind of humanitie; and prouided that he should be instructed in euerie sort of vertue and learning, that was to be desired in such a prince; bicause the said child was borne of his sisters mariage.

The lords and other nobles highlie offended (as Buchan. lib. 14 well for the death of the lord Hume, as for that they saw Anthonie Darcie lord Bautie the French ad|uanced to greater credit than themselues, and not onelie to be made warden of the marches, but also capteine of Dunbreton, the strongest fort of Scot|land) began to raise tumults in the land. For Wil|liam Cockborne (vncle of Comarch Lancton) who (expelling the gardians of the pupill) did keepe the ca|stell of Lancton, assisted with the helpe of Dauid Hume lord of Woodburne (whose sister the said Cokcborne had maried) first began a commotion in those parts. For when they saw that all means were taken from them openlie to reuenge the sàme, and to set vpon Bautie, they determined to performe the same (with some secret deuise) by lieng in wait for him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For the castell of Langton or Lancton, being Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 387. kept in the possession of Woodburne (and such as tooke his part against the king) he the said Wood|burne appointed subtill fellows secretlie to enter the castell, and to reteine it in the kings name. After which, this Woodburne feining a counterfeit anger (for he was a man full of all subtiltie) that this castell was so iniuriouslie taken from him, and kept to the EEBO page image 306 kings behoofe, he laid siege to the castell (as though he went about to recouer the same with all the power he could) to the intent that Bautie might be intised to come thither to raise the siege. For which cause Bautie (supposing in truth that the castell had bene kept to the vse of the king) hastening the rescue 1517. thereof, came foorth of the castell of Dunbar to as|semble the men of the countrie to raise the siege, as lieutenant of the borders, he was chased by the said lord of Woodburne and other so fiercelie, that in the Monsieur de la Bautie slaine by the lord of Wood|burne. Fr. Thin. end he was slaine, and foure Frenchmen with him: his head was cut from the shoulders, and set vp in the towne of Duns [vpon the castell of Hume] the nintéenth of Ianuarie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The lords regents were herewith meruelouslie offended, & chose the earle of Arrane to be warden of the borders in de la Bauties place, who was also chosen to be prouost of Edenburgh: wherewith the earle of Angus was highlie displeased. But the erle of Arrane, not séeming to passe much thereof, tooke George Dowglas the said earle of Angus his bro|ther, and Marke Kar, committing them to ward within the castell of Edenburgh, bicause of the fauor he bare vnto the said lord of Woodburne & his com|plices. Moreouer, for due punishment of the mur|ther of the foresaid de la Bautie, there was a parle|ment A parlement called. called the ninteenth of Februarie next, in the which, Dauid Hume lord of Woodburne, and his thrée brethren, William Cockborne & Iohn Hume, with diuerse other their partakers, were indicted for the besieging of the castell of Langton, the slaughter The lord of Woodburne indicted. of monsieur de la Bautie, and for the setting vp of his head, intercommuning with the Englishmen, and diuers other misdooings.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Immediatlie after the end of this parlement, the earle of Arrane came into the Mers, with a great The earle of Arrane com|meth into the Mers. armie, and hauing with him the kings great artille|rie, ment to haue besieged such places as would haue resisted him. But at his being in Lowder, the keies of the castell of Hume were brought vnto him, which on the next morrow he receiued, and put men within it to keepe it, as he did in Langton and Woodburne, which he receiued at the same time. The master of Hales was also sought for at that time, that hée The maister of Hales. might haue bene apprehended to answer the slaugh|ter of Dauid Hume, prior of Coldingham, whom he had slaine traitorouslie. A litle before this parlement, the bishop of Dunkeld was returned from the The bond of league be|twixt Scot|land & France Capteins Moores. French king with a bond of the league renewed be|twixt Scotland and France. And at that same time was one capteine Moores a Frenchman sent foorth of France, with a certeine number of men, to re|ceiue the castell of Dunbar into his kéeping, which accordinglie he did, the same béeing deliuered vnto him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The earle of Lennor, who had béene with the go|uernor in France, returned home into Scotland, & 1518. with him came a French herald from the king with letters, and maister Walter Steward abbat of Glenluce came likewise from the gouernor. And a|bout that time, bicause the queene and lords were ad|uertised The abbat of Glenluce. that the French king had contracted new bonds of peace and amitie with the king of Eng|land, without making mention of Scotland, they thought themselues euill vsed, being his confederat friends, and thervpon sent sharpe letters to the king The Scots euill vsed at the French kings hands. of France, and to the gouernor, by Albanie the he|rald: In the moneth of Iune, maister Gawen Dun|bar, archdeane of saint Andrews, and clearke of the register, was preferred to the bishops sée of Abber|den that was vacant by the death of Alexander Gourdon.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 This Gawen founded an hospitall in Abberden, and indowed the same with lands for sustenance of The bishop of Aberden a builder. twelue poore men, with a prouost to haue care ouer them. He also builded a faire bridge; with seuen ar|ches ouer the water of Dee beside Abberden, and purchased lands for the perpetuall vpholding there|of. He also builded two stéeples in the cathedrall church, with halfe of the crosse church, and a faire pa|lace for the small prebendaries, called the chapleins. Moreouer, he bestowed manie rich & pretious orna|ments vpon the same church of Abberden, as copes, chalices, and other such like things, which remained there long after. Manie right commendable works were accomplished by this diligent prelat, greatlie to his praise and high renowme; for he spent not the fruits of his benefice in vaine, but on such maner of buildings.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The seuentéenth of Iune, there rose great stur in Edenburgh, by the falling out of the earle of Contention betwixt the erle of Rothes and the lord Lindsey. Rothes, and the lord Lindsey, about the inioieng of the shiriffewike of Fife, by reason whereof, they were put in ward, the one in Dunbar, and the other in Dunbreton. About the beginning of August, the quéene remaining in Edenburgh, vnderstood that The cause of the hatred be|twixt the quéene and hir husband. the earle of Angus hir husband, as then soiourning in Dowglas dale, had taken a faire gentlewoman in those parts, and kept hir as his concubine; for the which act she conceiued such hatred against him, that there was neuer no perfect loue betwixt them after|wards. In the beginning of Februarie, there came a clearke as ambassador from the French king with 1519. Lesle. letters, concerning the concluding of the truce be|twixt Scotland and England, which message the lords made small account of, bicause the king had o|mitted to comprehend Scotland in the league which he lastlie made with England. The seuenth of Iune, 1519. A mad man. a mad man in Dundee slue in his mad fit a ladie of inheritance, a nun, with two other women, the one of them being great with child, and also two men.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The king of England wrote letters vnto the The king of England sée|keth to kéepe the duke of Albanie foorth of Scotland. French king, desiring him to staie the duke of Al|banie, that he might not come into Scotland; and furthermore, he laid ships of warre in the pase vpon the seas to watch for his comming, and to take him by the waie as he should passe. In September the king was remooued foorth of the castell of Eden|burgh vnto Dalkith, for doubt of the pestilence, which was suspected to be in the castell of Edenburgh. And The earle of Arrane. from Dalkith the erle of Arrane rode to Edenburgh to haue bin estsoones elected regent & prouost of that towne: but he missed his purpose, for the townesmen would not suffer him to enter, but repelled him backe, so that diuerse were hurt on both sides.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Herevpon, great dissention rose betwixt the said Dissention betwixt the earles of Ar|rane and Angus. earle of Arrane, and the earle of Angus, bicause of his repulse in that sute: whereby the whole realme was diuided into partakings, so that sundrie slaugh|ters thereof insued, as of the prior of Coldingham, and six of his men murthered, by the lord of Wood|burne at Lamerton, the sixt of October. About the same time, the king returned to the castell of Eden|burgh, and in the towne there were remaining at the same time the earles of Angus, Erroll, and Craw|ford; the lord Glames, and other; the bishops of saint Andrews, Abberden, Orkeneie, and Dublane, with diuerse abbats and other prelats. And in the towne of Glascow was the bishop of Glascows chancellor, with the earles of Arrane, Lennor, Eglenton, and Cassels; the lords Rosse, Sempill, the abbat of Pas|ley, the bishop of Galloway, and other noble men of the west. Thus the lords were diuided, and would not [...]ake anie order for the good gouernment of the com|mon-wealth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In December; monsieur de la Faiot, and a French Monsieur de la Faiot. clearke called Cordell, with an English herald cal|led Clarenetour, came from the kings of France EEBO page image 307 and England, with an ambassador also from the go|uernor, with a conclusion of peace taken for one yéere, betwixt Scotland and England: who com|ming to Edenburgh, were receiued by the earle of Angus, and the other lords there with him, the which sent for the chancellor & the earle of Arrane to come thither; but they would not come anie néerer than to Linlithgo. The ambassador therefore tooke in hand to persuade, that an assemblie might be had in Striue|ling: but the earle of Angus would not come there. Neuerthelesse, the said ambassadors went thither, where the earle of Arrane and his partakers, as the chancellor and others, receiued them thankfullie, and proclamed the peace, according to the treatie which The peace proclamed. they had brought, and so with courteous answer and great rewards licenced them to depart. But in their returne toward England, the earle of Angus with a great number of men met them at Carlauerok, re|proouing them sharpelie for their demeanor, and for taking their answer of the chancellor, so that they were not a litle afraid, least the earle in his displea|sure would haue vsed some outrage towards them, which otherwise than in woords it should appéere he did not.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Ianuarie, about the kéeping of a court at Ied|worth, there was raising of people betwixt the earle 1520. Uariance be|twixt the earle of Angus and the lord of Fernihurst. of Angus on the one part, and Andrew Kar the lord of Fernihurst; in whose aid, Iames Hamilton came with foure hundred Mers men: but the lord of Sesseford then warden, assisting the earle of Angus his part, met Hamilton at Kelso with a great com|panie, and when they were lighted on foot, and should haue foughten, the Mers men left sir Iames Ha|milton, the bastard of the earle of Arrane, in all the danger, with a few of his owne men about him, so that with much paine he was horssed, and escaped in great danger vnto Hume, with losse of foure of his seruants which were slaine: and on the other part, there was an Englishman slaine called Rafe Kar, that came in aid of the warden. On the morrow af|ter, the lord of Fernihurst, as baliffe to the earle of Arrane, of that regalitie, held his court at the princi|pall place of the forrest of Iedburgh, and the earle himselfe held his court likewise in an other part of the same land, thrée miles distant from the other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The thirtieth day of Aprill, the lord of Wood|burne, and maister William Dowglasse, newlie made prior of Coldingham, with their partakers in great numbers, came to Edenburgh to aid the earle of Angus, who was within the towne, against the earle of Arrane, and Iames Beton the chancellor, who were also there. But now by the comming of these succors, which entered by force at the neather bowe, and slue the maister of Mountgomerie, sonne of the earle Eglenton, and sir Patrike Hamilton knight; the earle of Arrane, and the chancellor, were constreined to forsake the towne, & to passe through the north loch. [To reuenge this contumelie, the Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 14. Hamiltons besieged the cell of Marnocke (which is the castell of Cuningham) but they shortlie returned backe without dooing anie thing against them.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The one and twentith of Iulie, the earle of An|gus being in the towne of Edenburgh, George Hume, brother to the late lord Hume beheaded, came thither with the abbat of Coldingham, brother to the earle of Angus, and Dauid Hume of Wood|burne, and a great companie of gentlemen, and others, and passed to the Tolbuith, where they remai|ned, till the heads of the lord Hume, and of his bro|ther William were taken downe beside the place The lord Humes head taken downe. where they were fastened on a [...]auill, and this was doone in presence of the prouost for the [...]me being. The next day they went to Linlithgo, and from thence to Striueling, in hope to haue found the chan|cellor, and some other of that faction there. But mis|sing of their purpose, they returned to Edenburgh a|gaine, and causing solemne funerall obsequies to be kept in the blacke friers, for them that owght those heads, with offerings and bankets, they afterwards returned home to their owne dwellings, without at|tempting anie other thing for that present.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Nouember, the duke of Albanie arriued in The duke of Albame re|turneth into Scotland. 1521. Buch. Scotland on the west parts, at an hauen called Gra|wrach, the nineteenth of the same moneth; and on the thrée and twentith he came to Edenburgh, accom|panied with the queene, the archbishop of Glascows chancellor, the earle of Huntleie, and manie other lords, knights, barons, and gentlemen; and within six daies after their comming thither, the prouost and The prouost & bailiffes of E|denburgh de|posed. A parlement summoned. bailiffes were deposed, because they had beene chosen in fauour of the earle of Angus, and other appointed in their roomes. Then was there a parlement sum|moned to be kept at Edenburgh, the six and twen|tith of Ianuarie next following; and on the ninth of Ianuarie, a generall summons of forfalture was proclamed at the market crosse in Edenburgh, wher|in were summoned the earle of Angus and his bro|ther, the prior of Coldingham, the lord of Wood|burne, 1521. the lord of Dalehousie, Iohn Summerwell of Cawdstreme, and William Cockborne of Langton, with their complices, to make their appeerance in the said parlement, to be tried for sundrie great offenses by them committed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Maister Gawin Dowglasse bishop of Dunkeld, Gawin Dow|glasse bishop of Dunkeld fléeth into England. hearing of this proclamation, fled into England, and remained in London at the Sauoie, where he depar|ted this life, and is buried in the church there. He was a cunning clearke, and a verie good poet: he transla|ted the twelue bookes of the Aeneidos of Virgill in Scotish méeter, and compiled also The palace of ho|nor, with diuerse other treatises in the Scotish lan|guage, which are yet extant. The earle of Angus fea|ring The earle of Angus fea|reth the sen|tence of for|falture. the sentence of forfalture to be laied against him at the parlement, procured his wife (although there was small liking betwixt them) to labor for his pardon to the gouernor. Wherevpon it was agre|ed, that the earle, and his brother George Dowglasse should passe out of the realme into France, and there He and his brother bani|shed. to remaine during the gouernors pleasure: and so they departed into France, and remained there all the next yéere following.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king of England, hearing that the duke of Albanie was arriued in Scotland, and had taken the rule vpon him, doubting least he should persuade the Scotishmen to assist the French king, against whome, by persuasion of the emperor he ment short|lie to make warre, sent his herald Clarencieux into Clarencieux an English herald sent in|to Scotland. Scotland, to require the duke to depart from thence, alledging, that it was promises by the king of France at the last enteruiew betwixt them, which chanced the summer before, that he should not come into Scotland. And moreouer, whereas the king of England was vncle vnto the king of Scots, he con|sidered with himselfe that by nature he was bound to defend his nephue, as he ment to doo; and therefore he thought it not reason, that the duke being next to The king of England dou|teth to haue the duke of Albanie go|uernor to the king his ne|phue. the crowne to succéed, if ought came to the yoong king, should haue the gouernement of him, least he might be made awaie, as other yoong kings had beene. He further complained, that the earle of An|gus should be sent out of the realme, so that he could not inioy the companie of his wife, sister vnto the same king of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Clarencieux had therefore commandement, that Warre de|nounced by Clarencieux against the duke of Alba|nie. if the duke refused to depart out of the realme of Scotland, he should intimate a defiance with open warre against him: which the said Clarencieux did, declaring his message vnto the duke from point to EEBO page image 308 point at Holte rood house, as he had in commande|ment. To whome the duke answered, that neither the The dukes answer. king of France, nor the king of England should staie him from comming into his countrie. And as touching the king, who was as yet yoong in yéeres, he loued him as his souereigne lord, and would keepe him, and defend both him and his realm [...] against all other that would attempt to inuade the same, accor|ding to his conscience, honor, and dutie. And as tou|ching the earle of Angus, he had vsed towards him all clemencie and mercie, notwithstanding his euill demerits, and that principallie for the quéenes cause, whome he would honor as mother to his souereigne lord. This answer being reported vnto the king of England, contented him nothing at all, and there|fore prepared to make warre.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The tenth of Aprill, there came seuen great ships into the Forth, vnto Inchkeith, to haue spoiled the 1522. ships, and inuade the coast there: but they were so stoutlie resisted and kept off, that they were not suf|fered to doo anie great exploit, and so they returned without preie or prise. In this season, Andrew For|man bishop of saint Andrewes deceassed, and bishop The death of the archbishop of saint An|drewes. Iames Be|ton succéeded him. Iames Beton archbishop of Glascow, chancellor of Scotland, was remooued to saint Andrewes, & made abbat also of Dunfirmling, and the archbishoprike of Glascow was giuen a yoong man one Gawin Dun|bar, that was the kings schoole maister. In the mo|neth of Maie, there was great adoo in Edenburgh, A stur in E|denburgh. by the falling out of the seruants of the earles of Murrey and Erroll, with the seruants of the earle of Huntleie, by reason whereof, the whole towne fell to partakings; but the duke comming suddenlie from the abbeie of Holie rood house, staied the matter, and committed she said earles vnto ward within the ca|stell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The emperor came into England, and persuaded the king there to mooue warres against the French The emperor commeth into England. Scots and Frenchmen banished foorth of England. The earle of Shrewesbu|rie inuadeth Scotland. king, and so not onelie the Frenchmen but also the Scots were commanded to auoid out of England, their goods confiscated, and they conueied foorth of the land, with a white crosse sowed vpon their vpper|most garment. In Iulie, the earle of Shrewesburie was sent by the king of England vnto the borders, with commission, to raise the power of the north parts to inuade Scotland, who vpon the sudden en|tered and came to Kelfo, where he burnt one part of the towne; but the borderers of the Mers and Teui|dale, not being halfe so manie in number as the o|ther, set vpon them, slue, and tooke manie prisoners, and so constreined them to returne into England with small honor.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 4 [...]. The gouernor after this (when he saw the Eng|lish ouerrun all the borders of Scotland) called a parlement at Edenburgh, the 9 kalends of August, to cure the same wound. Beside this, the French fea|ring them selues (because of a prepared and well fur|nished nanie of the English which did euerie waie couer and kéepe the sea) sent manie (and those wise and of excellent knowledge) vnto the gouernor, to re|quest him that he would either by counsell persuade, or by authoritie inforce his Scots to take armor a|gainst the English. After which (the matter being with great consultation and manie reasons tossed in argument to and fro) it was decréed by common consent of the parlement, that a chosen number of souldiers should be prepared, to defend the borders from the inuasion of the enimie, & (the more strong|lie to repell the English force) it was concluded, that the children of such as were slaine in that expedi|tion, should be freed from all charges or troubles that might light on them during their minoritie: and further, that the wiues of all such which had anie lands (during their liues & fell in that conflict) should after the death of their husbands kéepe the same for the terme of fiue yeeres.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke of Albanie, hearing of the great prepa|ration that the earle of Shrewesburie made, to raise an armie of foure score thousand men to inuade Scotland, he likewise (as it was before decréed) sent The duke of Albanie rai|seth an armie to inuade England. vnto all the earles, lords, and nobles of the realme, willing them to raise all such power as they could make in defense of their countrie; which they did. And so being assembled, the duke with a mightie armie of Scotishmen and certeine Frenchmen, with great artillerie, marched forward, till he came to the water of Eske ouer against Carleill: and perceiuing that the English armie came not then forward, he did what he could to persuade the noble men to enter in|to England: but as they were in councell togither about that earnest motion made to them by the duke, a certeine graue personage said to them in this ma|ner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

My lards, hither we be come by the commaunde|ment The woords of a councellor of my lard gouernor duke of Albanie, and albe|it we be readie to defend our awne natiue realme, contrarie the inuasioun of our auld enimies of Eng|laund, yet neuerthelesse it séemeth not guid, nor for the wéele of our realme of Scotlaund, to passe with|in Englaund with our armie to inuade the same at this time. And the earnest persuasiouns quhilk the go|uernor makes to vs to doo the same, procéedes ala|nerlie for the pleasure of France. It appéereth to be sufficient inough for vs so lang as the king our soue|reigne lard is within age to defend our awn realme, and not to inuade: otherwise, we may put the haile countrie and nobilitie thereof in hazard of tintsall: for king Iames the fourth brought the realme of Scotlaund to the best that it euer was, and by the war it was brought to the woorst almost that might be: for by that warre, was he and his nobilitie tinte, quhilk Scotlaund sare laments. Wherefore by mine aduise, let vs go to the gouernor, and know of him the cause why he wauld persuade vs to inuade Eng|laund.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

Then they all came to the gouernors tent, and the The earle of Arrane decla|reth to the go|uernor the mind of the lords. earle of Arrane, an auncient wise man spake for them all, and said: My lard gouernor, by your will and commaundement, héere is assembled the maist of the nobilitie of Scotlaund with their power, vp|on a pretense to enter within Englaund. My lards héere wauld know the cause and quarrell why this warre is begun, gif it might please your goodnesse, it should well satisfie their minds. The duke studied a little space, and said: This questioun wauld haif bin The dukes answer to the earle of Ar|rane. demaunded yer now; for well you know, that I for verie lufe I beare to the realme of Scotlaund (of the quhilk I haue my name, honor, and lignage) haife passed the seas from the noble realme of France, in|to this realme of Scotlaund. And great cause there was for me so to doo, to bring you to a vnitie, when ye ware in diuisioun, by reasoun whereof, your realme was like to haue bin conquered and destroi|ed. And also the king of Fraunce, by my suites and intercessioun, will ioine with you in aid against the English natioun: and when this warre was deter|minate in the parlement, you made me capteine, au|thorizing me to inuade Englaund with banner dis|plaied. Then was no demaund made of the cause or quarrell, and that I haif doone, is by your assent and agreement, and that I will iustifie. But to answer your demaund, me thinke you haif iust cause to in|uade Englaund with fire, swoord, and bloud, gif ye be not forgetfull, and without you will beare dishonor and reproch for euer. For ye know that this realme of Scotlaund is our inheritaunce, as a portioun of the world allotted to our natioun and auncessors whome we succéed. Then where may there be better warre, EEBO page image 309 than to mainteine this our naturall inheritance? Is it not dailie séene, the great inuasiouns that the Englishmen on vs make, the great manslaughters and murders, with thefts and spoiles that they doo dailie? Is not this one cause of warre? To defend the countrie is the office of a king, the honor of noble men, and the verie seruice of chiualrie, and the dutie naturall of the communaltie: for I thinke it a iust quarrell, gif we might conquer the realme of Eng|laund, and annex it to our owne realme, for the great iniuries and wrongs doone by that natioun to vs and our predecessors. For séene the begining of our habi|tatioun in this Ile of Britaine, the Englishmen and we haue euer bin enimies, and vs haif they euer ha|ted, and yet haue we euer withstand them. Suppose, we at the last battell of Floddoun field by chaunce lost our souereigne lard, & diuerse noble men, quhilk was rather by treasoun of the lard chamberlaine, than otherwise, who would not relieue the kings ar|mie when he might. And yet I thinke we wan the field, quhilk murder all we noble men ought to re|uenge. Therefore I wauld that you suld couragi|ouslie aduance your selues in this quarrell to get ho|nor, and to be reuenged.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then one wise man that was president of the councell, answered the gouernor, saieng:

My lard, 1522. The replie of a wise coun|cellor. fortune of weir is led by him that all leides, and he striks the strake, we can warke na meracles, & heare are the lards of Englaund readie to incounter vs. And gif we inuade their realme, suerlie they will fight, for their power sall increase dailie, and ours will diminish. And gif God graunt vs the victorie (as I trust he sall) yet haue we not woon the field, for readie comming is the earle of Shrewesburie sa mikell dread in Fraunce (as ye knaw well) with an great puissant armie, and there is na doubt, but the king of Englaund will send or bring another armie gif we suld chance to get the first battell. And gif we get the secound field, that will not be without great losse of manie nobles, by reasoun whereof, the realme shall be weaker. And gif we be ouercommen how manie suld be slaine, God knawes. They that flée are woorthie to be reputed as traitors to the king, and so by wilfulnesse and fule hardinesse, the realme may be in ieopardie to be vndoone. I say, while the king is within age, we aught to mooue na weir, least by weir we may bring him to destructioun.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then said the valiant gouernor:

Héere is an pu|issaunt The gouer|nors woords to the presi|dents replie. armie of Scotlaund, gif we returne, we sall incourage our enimies. Therefore séene you thinke it not gude to inuade, my councell is that we campe still on the bordures, while we sée what the English|men pretends to doo against our relme.
To the which the nobles consented, and laie still there in campe certeine daies after. After this conference had be|twixt the nobles and the gouernor, the quéene as then being not with them, but aduertised of all the procée|dings and determinations, sent woord to the gouer|nor, and desired him that there might be a treatie of peace had, and she promised to get the warden of the Means made for peace. English marches to come to the gouernors campe, vpon pledges, whervnto the gouernor condescended. Héerevpon, the lord Dacres, warden of the west The lord Da|cres. marches of England [with Thomas Musgraue] came vnto the gouernors campe, and thither also at that time was the quéene hir selfe come, and so vp|on the eleuenth of September, an abstinence of war was taken and couenanted, that in the meane time the duke and quéene should send ambassadors into England, to treat and conclude a resolute peace.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the moneth of October next insuing, there were thrée ambassadors sent into England, accor|ding to the agreement in the last treatie, but there were so hard and extreame conditions proponed on the king of Englands behalfe, that the same could not be accepted, as being contrarie to the honor and weale of the realme of Scotl [...]nd, as the Scotishmen tooke the matter. And so those ambassadors returned without agréement or conclusion of peace: wherevp|on followed great trouble betwixt them of the bor|ders of both realmes. The earle of Northumberland The earle of Northumber|land made lord Warden. was made warden of the whole marches, but shortlie after, he began to make sute to be discharged of that office, & ceassed not till he obteined it: and then was The earle of Surreie. The lord marques Dorset. The lord Da|cres. the earle of Surreie made generall warden, and the lord marquesse Dorset warden of the east & middle marches; the lord Dacres continuing still in his of|fice of wardenship ouer the west marches.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the sixt day of March, the said lords came to the borders, about which time, the duke of Albanie considering that the warres betwixt Scotland and England were irksome to the nobles of the realme, because the same wars were taken in hand chief [...]ie to serue the French kings turne, therefore he passed The duke of Albanie goeth ouer into France. His request. by the west seas into France. And in the beginning of March, where he was verie hartilie and gladlie re|ceiued of the king, his request was onelie to haue fiue thousand horssemen, and ten thousand footmen of Almains, to be transported into Scotland: and doubted not, if he might haue this granted, but that His vaine brag. with that power, and the assistance of the Scots, he should be able to ouerthrow the king of England in battell, or else to driue him out of his realme. But the French king neither beleeued this vaine brag, nor yet might spare anie such power, hauing warre at that time both against England, and the emperor: neuerthelesse, he promised him some aid, wherevpon the duke abode and waited for the same a long sea|son. In the meane while, the lords of Scotland cau|sed 1523. certeine noble men to lie vpon the borders mo|nethlie, in defense of the same against the English|men, dailie looking for support from France. Euerie The borders watched. companie remained their moneths, and then depar|ted home as the custome is, and thus they continued still till September following. Much hurt was doone on either part, and diuerse houses were ouerthrowne and destroied both in England and Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 During which time, the king of France prepared certeine ships, with men, and munition, to passe with the duke of Albanie into Scotland. But the king of England, to catch him by the way, had laid a great nauie of ships in the pase on the seas, as he should make his course. But the duke embarquing himselfe with his people at Brest in Britaine, sai|led The duke of Albanie re|turneth into Scotland. by the west parts of Scotland: and the one and twentith day of September landed at Kirkowbre in the west part of Scotland; he brought with him (beside a good number of Frenchmen) Richard de la Poole, a man of great parentage, borne in Eng|land, and banished his countrie. Whilest the duke was on the sea making saile toward Scotland, the earle of Surreie, with an armie of twentie thou|sand men, entered into Scotland, and comming to Edenburgh, burned the towne and the abbeie. [But Fr. Thin. Lesleus, lib. 9. pag. 407. saith it was Iedwoorth The earle of Surreie in uadeth Scot|land. which the earle burnt.] It was thought they ment to haue passed further, but the Scotishmen assembling themselues against their inuasions, they were con|streined to returne with losse (as some Scotishmen haue written.)

Fr. Thin. In this place, Buchanan (before he commeth to the parlement assembled by the duke of Albanie af|ter his returne out of France) writeth in this sort. Buchanan. lib. 14. We haue shewed (saieth he) how miserable the state of Scotland was the last summer (through the dis|sention which was amongest the nobilitie) by the English (with all kind of slaughter) spoiling the places bordering néere vnto them, and besetting EEBO page image 310 the sea on euerie side, whereby we might be out of hope of all forren aid. For the deuise of the enimie tended to compell the fierce minds of the Scots (a|bated with such euils) to conclude a league with him; wherewith the Scots were not behind (by reason of the French faction) that by the means of the quéene there might be a perpetuall truce taken betwéene them. For when the lord Hume was (by death) taken away, the Dowglasse banished, and all the rest of the nobilitie rather méet for compani|ons than leaders in battels; such as had withdrawen their mind from the French, applied themselues to the quéenes faction.

Wherevpon she (to gratifie hir brother, and to wrest all the gouernement into hir owne hands) did (dissembling hir gréedie desire to rule) persuade them, to deliuer their sonne (almost now past childish yeares) out of the hands of strangers, and them selues from the yoke of other mens bondage. For the queene did well foresée, that preparation and suc|cor was made, and did come against hir husband, whome before she had begun to hate extreamelie. The king of England also did commend and prefer to the Scots the counsell of his sister, by manie let|ters sent, and with faire promises offered; because he had none other mind, but that a perpetuall friend|ship might alwaies remaine betwéene the adioined kingdoms; the which, as he had at other times de|sired; so now he mostlie wished it, not for anie com|moditie to himselfe, but to the end that all men might well perceiue that he would imbrace, defend, and asmuch as rested within his abilitie, séeke the commoditie of his sisters sonne by all the means he might. And if the Scots would persuade themselues to breake the league with the French, and ioine in amitie with the English; they should shortlie well vnderstand, that the king of England did not seeke after souereingtie, glorie, power, or honor; but onelie studied for a concord amongst themselues, & a league betwéene their nations. For which cause, he would bestow his onelie daughter Marie vpon Iames the king of Scotland; by which mariage, the Scots should not be subiect to the gouernement of Eng|land; but contrarie, the English vnder the rule of the Scots. For by that means, besides the quenching of great hatred betweene the nations (and intercourse of merchandize, exchange of mutuall courtesies and ioinings in affinitie) there should be an indissoluble knot made for the honor of the whole Iland.

And with this, they (for England) remembred the profit and disaduantage that might rise to the one from other, by the friendship or hatred of either kingdome, and the benefit that they might looke for from their English neighbours, more than by anie possibilitie they might obteine from their French confederats. For on the one side, the Eng|lish and they were borne in one continent, brought vp vnder the same influence of the heauen, and so like in all things, in toong, in maners, in lawes, in decrées, in countenance, in color, and in lineaments of bodie, as that they rather séeme one than two na|tions. On the other side, the French are not onelie different from them, by naturall soile and clemen|cie of the heauens; but more seuered from them in order and forme of liuing, being further such a peo|ple, as if they were enimies vnto them, they could not greatlie hurt them; and if they be their friends they can not greatlie helpe them. But the English are at hand with men, munition, and monie; when the French, being so far off, are onelie with allure|ments, inforcements, and for their owne commo|ditie drawen to take their part. Besides which, there can be no succor from France but by sea, which the enimie may easilie stop; and so the Scots not able to be succored by them. But from the English they may haue aid by land with speed, and no man can hinder them thereof. Wherefore they should consider how discommodious (for the dispatch of their affairs) and how vnapt (for the defense of themselues) it should be, to hang all the hope of their succor vpon the fauor of the wind, and to place the most suertie of their estate in the vnconstant friendship of the vn|certeine elements. For (if neuer before) yet at this time the Scots might not onlie perceiue in thought but feele in déed what helpe is to be hoped (in present dangers) from absent friends, when that the Eng|lish can not onelie helpe you now, but at this instant doo also kéepe away your promised and long expected aid, which they haue so besieged vpon the sea, that you can receiue no benefit or helpe from them.

After that these things were thus laid abroad for the knitting of the English league, as there were not a few which gaue consent to that motion, so were there manie that stiflie argued to the contrarie. For in that assemblie, there were manie pensioners of the French faction, who (increasing their priuat com|moditie by the publike detriment) did vtterlie ab|hor from all peace; besides whome, there were also some, which suspected the facilitie of promise in the English: especiallie, since the whole estate of Eng|land did then chiefelie hang vpon the backe of Tho|mas Woolseie the cardinall, an euill and ambitious person, and who referred all counsels and consulta|tions to the amplifieng of his owne priuat authori|tie and dignitie; and for that cause, applied that and all other things to euerie blast of fortune. All our men although they were mooued by diuerse reasons (as the varietie of diuerse wits bred diuerse minds) did yet with like endeuor tend vnto one end, which was alwaies to defend the French league; for they denied, that the same sudden liberalitie of the eni|mie, could anie way sort to their benefit; since this was not the first time that the English had vsed that policie to intrap vnwarie men: as did Edward the first, who (swearing and binding himselfe with all bonds of law, when he was chosen an arbitrator to cease the strife of the kingdome of Scotland) did with great iniurie make a king of Scots at his pleasure: and of late also, Edward the fourth king of England (when he had promised his daughter Ce|cilie to the sonne of Iames the third) did (the maid being readie for the mariage) dissolue the same, by taking occasion of warre through our ciuill dissen|tions. According to which, the English doo now al|so seeke none other matter, than (casting a vaine hope before vs to gouerne them, to bring vs into right seruitude; and (when we are destitute of all forren helpe) to oppresse vs with all the power of their king|dome.

Neither is that true also (wherein the chiefest strength of their spéech consisteth) that the aid of our neighbors néere at hand, is better or surer to vs than further friendship. For how may we looke for anie good from those our neighbors, since commonlie a|mongest neighbors there neuer want occasions of dissention; which oftentimes chance bringeth foorth, and the stronger (hauing small or no occasion) will manie times seeke to offer: at what time, he which is greatest in armes, must & will appoint lawes of agréement as seemes best to his liking. Beside, there was neuer yet so sacred or firme a bond of amitie betwéene adioining kingdoms, which was not often|times Where the English haue killed one, the Scots haue murthered ten as the course of their histo|ries will well prooue. broken, either by offered or sought occasions of displeasure & breach: neither is it to be hoped, that the English will absteine from offering violence vnto vs; that haue not spared the bloud of so manie of their owne kings. For the sanctitie of leagues, & the religion of an oth, and the faith of compacts EEBO page image 311 and couenants, are in truth firme bonds of amitie amongest the good: but amongest the wicked, they are nets to intrap others, if occasion of commoditie be offered for breach of them. All which benefits and iniuries, doo dwell in people, whome neerenesse of bounds, conuersation of language, and not vnlike maner of life hath ioined togither.

And if all these things should be far otherwise, yet there be two things which we ought speciallie to foresée and prouide for; whereof, the one is, that we spend not our time in vaine by chiding and disagrée|ment, as persons drawen into diuerse factions; the other, that we reiect not our old friends (for this new aliance) before we haue heard what they can say; especiallie in such a cause (as this) which may not be determined, but by the consent of the parle|ment. Upon which, the French followers did ear|nestlie stand, that there should not anie thing be doone therein; and therefore sent certeine of the French aid as ambassadors about the cause. This thus ended, and the comming of the gouernour spread abroad, the same made manie glad, confir|med the doubtfull thereof, and withdrew others (that were inclined to the English part) from the same opinion they were of.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke immediatlie after his arriuall came to Edenburgh, where he caused all the lords of the realme to assemble in that towne, where he declared the great loue and affection that the king of France bare to the realme of Scotland, insomuch as hea|ring of the slaughters, murthers and burnings, prac|tised by the Englishmen, he thought that he felt the same doone vnto him, reputing himselfe one of their members. And for reuenging thereof, he would bée partner with them as their member: for more cre|dit whereof, he shewed the kings letter, confirming his declaration. He therefore exhorted them to as|semble an armie, in reuenge of iniuries & wrongs doone to them and their countrie; for he had brought with him monie, men, and artillerie to the furthe|rance thereof. Herevpon it was concluded, that the armie should assemble at Dowglas dale the eigh|téenth of October: the which conclusion they kept, and from thence they marched to Caldstreame vpon Tweed, and sent ouer the water certeine of their great artillerie, with a companie of Frenchmen and Scots, by the guiding of Dauid Car; and being Dauid Car. Warke castell besieged. got ouer, they lay siege to the castell of Warke, which was kept by sir William Li [...]e capteine thereof, ha|uing with him a strong garrison of English souldi|ors, and great prouision of artillerie, and all things necessarie: yet at the first assault, the vtter barne|kin was woone, and the said companie of Scotish|men and Frenchmen lay within the same, indama|ging the castell in all they might.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The earle of Surrie and diuerse others of the English nobilitie, with an armie of fortie thousand The earle of Surrie with an armie of fortie thou|sand men. The marques Dorset appoin ted to kéepe Berwike. men, were at Anwike, not far distant from Warke, and the marquesse Dorset was sent with a great companie to keepe the towne of Berwike, for doubt least the same should haue béene besieged. Also in the meane time, a new assault was made to the inner barnekin of Warke, and the same woone likewise as the other had béene before. After this was the ca|stell assailed, and part of it beaten downe with the artillerie lieng on the Scotish side of the water of Twéed. At which breach the assault was giuen, and Warke as|saulted. the same continued, till that through darknesse and lacke of light, the assailants were driuen to retire. Great slaughter was made at that assault on both The Scots and French retire backe ouer the water. sides, but especiallie of them within the house. The assailants ment to haue giuen a fresh assault the next day, being the fourth of Nouember: but a sore and [...]hement storme and tempest of [...] chanced that night, so that they were constreined to leaue off that enterprise, and to get themselues ouer the ri|uer againe vnto the armie, least by the rising of the water of Twéed, they might haue béene cut off by their enimies, before they could haue beene suc|coured.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the meane time, whilest this siege continued, a number of Scotishmen made a road into the Glendale burned by the Scots. countrie of Glendale within the English marches, and burnt and spoiled diuerse townes, cast downe sundrie piles, and returned without anie resistance: for the earle of Surrie would suffer none of his people so depart from the armie, nor breake order, for feare of more inconuenience. The duke of Al|banie An herald sent. lieng on the Scotish side of Twéed, sent an herald vnto the earle of Surrie, willing him to call to remembrance, how in his absence he had inuaded Scotland with fire and sword: for the which cruell dealing, he required him vpon his honor to come forward, and he would méet him in the confines of both the realmes, and giue him battell. To the which message the earle answered, that he had no commis|sion to inuade Scotland at that time, but it onlie to defend. And (as some haue reported) he caused a secret messenger to passe to the quéene, as then lieng a good way distant from the armie, to mooue for some abstinence and truce, and further to persuade the duke to retire home; which he did, so that by hir labor, a truce was taken for that instant, and afterward A truce. confirmed for a longer time: and thus the duke re|turned with honor (as the Scotishmen report.) This Sée more of this matter in England. 1524. truce was well kept all the next winter following, and no inuasion made, till the moneth of Maie: and then was the erle of Surrie sent againe to the Eng|lish borders, and the lords of Scotland on the other part monethlie laie on their borders by quarters, for defense of their countrie, as the vse is.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 On Trinitie sundaie, being the one and twen|tith Scots enter into England of Maie, fiue hundred Scots entered England, to surprise the English merchants, and others, go|ing that day vnto Berwike, where yéerelie on that day the faire is kept; and so by reason therof they met with diuerse of them that went to this faire, and tooke to the number of two hundred prisoners, whom they led with them into Scotland. But Hall saith, that by the comming of the yoong lord of Fulberie to the succors of the Englishmen, the Scots were chased, and lost two hundred of their numbers. On the fift of Iulie, sir William Fenwike, Leonard Musgraue, & Bastard Heron, with diuers other, to the number of nine hundred Englishmen, entred into the Mers, Englishmen inuade Scot|land. and began to spoile and rob the countrie: but they were shortlie compassed about with Scotishmen, & so hardlie assailed, that although they fought vali|antlie a good while, yet by fine force they were com|pelled to giue ground, and séeke to saue themselues by flight, in which two hundred of them were taken Englishmen discomfited. Bastard He|ron sla [...]e. prisoners, and Bastard Heron with diuerse other slaine. Amongest the prisoners, were sir [...] Fen|wike, Leonard Musgraue, and diuers other gentle|men of good calling.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 On the seuententh of Iulie, the lord Marwell, 1524. Foure [...]ou|sand saith Hal. and sir Alexander Iordein, with diuerse other Sco|tishmen in great numbers, e [...]red England at the west marches by Caerleill, with displaied banners, The lord Maxwell in|uadeth Eng|land. and began to harrie the countrie, and burne diuers places. The Englishmen assembled on euerie side, so that they were farre more in number than the Sco|tishmen, and there vpon set fiercelie vpon their eni|mies, insomuch that for the space of an houre, there was a sore fight continued betwixt them But the lord Maxwell like a right politike capteine (as of all that knew him he was no lesse reputed) ceassed not to incourage his people: & after that, by the taking EEBO page image 312 of Alexander Iordein & diuers others, they had bin put backe, he brought them in araie againe, and be|ginning a new skirmish, recouered in maner all the prisoners, tooke and slue diuerse Englishmen, so that he returned with victorie, and led aboue thrée hun|dred prisoners with him home into Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After this iourneie, there was an assemblie of An assemblie of the lords. the lords in Edenburgh, with the duke of Albanie, where some of the lords were of mind that the warre should continue: other thought it not reason, that for the pleasure onelie of France, the realme should su|steine such damage, as it had doone by those three last yéeres wars now passed, and therefore they persua|ded peace. Moreouer, there was also much debating of the matter, touching the age and gouernement of the king; some of the lords holding that he was now of age to take the rule vpon himselfe, and that the gardianship or tutorie of a king expired sooner than of another priuate person. The duke of Albanie per|ceiuing how the lords were diuided amongest them|selues, and neither content with his gouernement, nor willing to mainteine the warres which he had so earnestlie persuaded for the pleasure of France, hée declared to them that he wold returne into France, and so taking his leaue of the nobilitie, went to Striueling where the king was, of whome he tooke leaue, also giuing vnto him such louing and faithfull counsell, as to his knowledge séemed expedient, and so went into the west countrie, where he tooke the The duke of Albanie re|turneth into France. Fr. Thin. seas in September, and sailed foorth into France, [neuer to returne into Scotland.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The king of England [before the rumor of the departure of the duke of Albanie] hauing in the mo|neth of Iune sent ouer into France, vnto Archem|bald earle of Angus, that remained there vpon the commandement of the duke of Albanie, persuaded him to come from thence secretlie into England, which accordinglie he did; and being safelie arriued in England, king Henrie procured him to passe in|to Scotland, that with the assistance of such lords as The earle of Angus com|meth into England. would be readie to take his part, he might raise war against the duke of Albanie, which sought by all meanes (as the king of England was informed) to destroie him & his: but yer the earle could come into Scotland, the duke was departed toward France. On the six and twentith of Iulie, the king by the ad|uise of his mother, and certeine yoong lords, came from Striueling vnto Edenburgh; and thrée daies after, the quéene tooke the whole gouernment of the king vpon hir, and entered into the castell of Eden|burgh The quéene taketh the go|uernment in|to hir hands. with the king, where they soiourned the most part of the next winter. The prouost of Edenburgh was discharged, whom the towne had chosen, and the lord Marwell was appointed by the queene, prouost in his place. For the performance wherof, there was a parlement also summoned to be holden at Eden|burgh the third day of Februarie next insuing [and A parlement summoned. Fr. Thin. the bishop of saint Andrews and Aberden (as saith Buchanan li. 14.) were cast into prison, who after ga|thering armes (and curssing all others) within the space of a moneth following were reconciled to the king.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The king of England glad to heare that the duke of Albanie was departed into France, sent into Scotland in ambassage one maister Iohn Magnus, and Roger Ratcliffe esquier, to declare vnto the quéene and lords, that he would be content that a truce might be accorded betwixt the two realmes of England and Scotland, now that the duke of Alba|nie was returned into France, who had beene the onlie procurer of the warres. Herevpon they agréed to take truce to indure for one yéere, and in the meane time they appointed to send ambassadors in|to A truce taken for one yeare. England to treat vpon a continuall peace, ali|ance, and amitie to be had betwixt both the realmes. In this meane while, the earle of Angus came into Scotland: and bicause of the displeasure which the quéene bare him, there insued occasions of great di|uisions within the realme. Notwithstanding the quéene by aduise of certeine lords, sent the lord Gil|bert earle of Cassels, Robert Cockeborne bishop of Ambassadors into England Dunkeld, and doctor Mille abbat of Cambusken|neth, ambassadors into England, in the moneth of December; the which were receiued at Gréenewich by the king of England the foure and twentith of the same moneth: where the bishop of Dunkeld made an eloquent oration in Latine, declaring the cause of their comming, the which in effect was for intreatment of peace, loue, and amitie betwixt the two realmes: and for the more sure establishment thereof, they required that a mariage might be con|cluded betwixt their king & the ladie Marie, daugh|ter to the king of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This request was well heard by the king, who therevpon appointed commissioners to common thereof with the said ambassadors. Diuerse articles were proponed by the said commissioners on the king of England his behalfe, and in especiall one; which was, that the king of Scotland should re|nounce the league with the king of France; and that further he should come into England, and re|maine there till he came to perfect age to be maried. Bicause the ambassadors had not commission to conclude so farre, the earle of Cassels returned into Scotland, to vnderstand the minds of the lords and councell in these points, the other remaining at Lon|don till his returne to them againe. Fr. Thin. 1525. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 414. Upon All saints day there was a great motion of wind, with such stormes and tempests of thunder and lightning which suddenlie arose, that the same (ouerthrowing manie priuat houses in Edenburgh, and the pinacle of the tower of Dauid in the same castell) entered into the quéenes lodging with a great flame, which burnt so vehementlie, and went so farre, that it had almost consumed the same; which storme (ouerthrow|ing the buildings about the chamber of the bishop of Whitchurch) the bishops lodging did yet remaine Candida Casa. safe not touched with the violence of the flame.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 When the day of the parlement appointed to be holden in the Tolbuith of Edenburgh was come, the king, queene, and lords, fearing some tumult in the towne to be raised by the earle of Angus, would not passe foorth of the castell, but kept the parlement within the same. Archembald Dowglasse earle of Angus, and Iohn Steward earle of Lennox, with diuerse others, to the number of two thousand men, came in the night season vnto Edenburgh, bicause they durst not enter the towne in the day time, for feare of the gunnes that laie in the castell. The next day, being the fourtéenth day of Februarie, the said earles with the archbishop of saint Andrews, the bi|shop of Aberden, that by the quéenes appointment had béene kept before in ward, the bishop of Dub|lane, Calene Campbell, the earle of Argile, and di|uerse other lords and barons being in the towne, sent to the castell, alledging that the king was kept as prisoner by the queene, and iustice suppressed, with great damage of the common wealth; and therefore The earle of Angus his request. he desired, that the king might be deliuered vnto them, to be gouerned by the aduise of the thrée states, and if they refused to deliuer him, they would be|siege the castell, and if they wan it, all their liues within should rest at their pleasures, the kings one|lie excepted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The quéene, by the counsell of the earles of Ar|rane and Murrey, refused not onelie to deliuer the king, but sent them word, that except they did de|part the towne, they would suerlie discharge all the EEBO page image 313 artillerie of the castell against them. Héerevpon, great feare rose in the towne, speciallie among the burgesses, but by the diligence of certeine persons that trauelled betwéene the parties, an assurance was taken on either side for certeine daies. In the meane time, the earle of Angus caused the castell to be forset, that neither meat nor other thing might He fore [...]etteth the castell of Edenburgh. be suffered to be conueied into it, except so much as might serue for the sustentation of the kings owne person. At length, all the parties were agréed, so that the foure and twentith day of Februarie, the king The parties are agréed. came vnto the parlement holden in the Tolbuith in most honorable wise, with the assistance of all the e|states, hauing the crowne, scepter, and swoord borne before him, and from thence he was brought to the abbeie, where he remained.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this parlement, there were eight lords chosen to be of the kings priuie councell, the which tooke the Councellors appointed. gouernement of the king and realme vpon them, as these: the archbishops of saint Andrews and Glas|cow, the bishops of of Aberden and Dublane: the earles of Angus, Argile, Arrane, and Lennox: the quéene was adioined to them as principall, without whose aduise nothing should be doone. From this par|lement also was the earle of Cassels sent, with an|swer to the king of England; who came to London the nintéenth of March. But bicause the king had knowledge that the French king was taken at the battell of Pauie, he would not procéed in the trea|tie of mariage betwixt the king of Scotland and his daughter, till he had the emperors aduise, whome he affirmed to be his confederat friend: and so renew|ing Truce re|newed. the truce for three yéers and six moneths, the am|bassadors returned into Scotland about the begin|ning of Aprill next insuing, without anie contract of mariage at that time. The agréement betwixt the queene and lords continued not long, for anon after died the bishop of Dublane or Dunkeld (as saith Lesleus) whose benefice the earle of Angus obteined Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 417. of the king for his brother William Dowglas, with|out the aduise of the queene and other lords. Where|vpon the quéene departed and went vnto Striue|ling, leauing the king with the eale of Angus, who tooke the whole rule and gouernment of the realme and king vpon him, and made his vncle Archembald Dowglas treasuror of the realme, and bestowed be|nefices, offices, and all other things, by the aduise of his brother George Dowglas, and the earle of Len|nox, who assisted him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane time, the archbishop of saint An|drewes, and the earles of Arrane, Argile, and Mur|rey, remaining with the quéene at Striueling, alled|ged that the king was withholden from them by the earle of Angus sore against his will: and therefore they sent vnto the earle, requiring him to deliuer him. But the earle caused the king to giue the an|swer himselfe, that he would not come from the erle The king not in his owne power. of Angus, albeit he would gladlie haue beene out of his hands if he might; as by secret messages sent to sundrie of the lords, and likewise at that time it appee|red, for he willed them by priuie meanes to assemble an armie, and to come & fetch him out of their hands that thus deteined him. Herevpon shortlie after, they raised a power, and comming therewith to Lin|lithgew, The quéene mother in armes. purposing to passe into Edenburgh, that they might get the king out of the earle of Angus his hands: the said earle, with the earle of Lennox and other his assistants being thereof aduertised, came to the field with the kings banner displaied, and brought the king with him, although partlie a|gainst his will.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The queene and such lords as were with hir there in the armie, for the reuerence they bare vnto the kings person, and also fearing the danger that might chance to them if they buckled togither in a fough|ten field, they withdrew themselues to Striueling, and from thence the quéene went into Murrey land with the earle of Murrey, and there remained a long time after. The earles of Arrane and Argile went into the west countrie, and the bishop of saint An|drews to Dunfermling: and then the earle of An|gus tooke vpon him more boldlie the gouernment of the king and realme, and sent to the bishop of saint The great seale deliuered Andrews (who was chancellor) for the great seale, which was deliuered to them that were so sent for it. The nobles of the realme remaining thus at vari|ance, and diuided among themselues, there was small obedience of lawes & iustice. Diuerse slaugh|ters in sundrie parts were committed, great thefts & robberies made by the borderers vpon the inland A diuorse be|twéene the quéene and the earle of Angus. countries. Moreouer, a diuorse this yéere (as some haue said) was sued before the archbishop of S. An|drews, betwixt the quéene, and the earle of Angus hir husband, and then afterwards she tooke to hus|band one Henrie Steward, sonne to the lord of A|uendale, the which Henrie was after created by the king lord of Methwen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 On the foure and twentith of Iulie, the king be|ing 1526. accompanied with the earle of Angus, the lord Hume, the Karres & others, rode vnto Iedburgh, in purpose to haue reformed the misgouernance of the borderers; but after that they had remained there three daies with little obedience shewed towards them, they all returned. And vpon the 29 day of Iulie, at the bridge of Melrosse, the lard of Bo|clouth, The lard of Boclough his enterprise, to take the king from the earle of Angus. accompanied with a thousand horssemen, be|gan to shew himselfe in sight, whose principall pur|pose was to haue taken the king from the earle of Angus and his assistants, being requested and com|manded by the king himselfe so to doo. The earle of Angus incontinentlie sent an herald vnto the lard of Boclough, to know what his intention was to doo; who answered, that he came to doo the king honor and seruice, and to shew his friends and power as the vse is of the borderers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Angus, with the lord Hume, and the rest, not being content with this answer, because of the great feud betwixt him and the Humes, and the Kars, sent vnto him a commandement in the kings name to depart, and not to approch néere to the kings presence, vnder paine of high treason. Whervnto he answered, that he knew the kings mind well inough & would not spare for this commandement to come to his graces presence. Which answer receiued from him, incontinentlie the earle of Angus, the lords Fleming and Hume, the Kars, the lard of Sesse|ford, with their friends, alighted on foot; the king re|maining on horsbacke, accompanied with the earle of Lennox, the lord Maxwell, George Dowglasse, and Ninian Creichton, tutor of Sainquhar.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The lard of Boclough lighted also on foot, but be|cause the most part of his men were of the theeues and outlawes of the borders, commonlie called bro|ken men, vpon their first comming to ioining with their speares, they fled, leauing the lard of Boclough with a small number of his owne seruants about him in all the danger: yet they defended themselues verie manfullie, and [...]ue the lard of Sesseford and di|uerse The lard of Sesseford slaine. The lard of Boclough put to flight. other, on the earle of Angus his side: but final|lie, oppressed with multitude, they were put to flight, and foure score of Bocloughes men slaine in the chase. After this, the king returned to Iedburgh, and remained there the space of foure daies, and then re|turned to Edenburgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 All this while, the king was gouerned and holden against his will, by the earle of Angus and his assis|ters, although he did not outwardlie shew so in coun|tenance, but dissembled the matter as well as he EEBO page image 314 might, yet perceiuing two enterprises to haue quai|led that had béene attempted for his deliuerance, he thought to assaie the third; and héerevpon, procured the earle of Lennox to assemble an armie, with as|sistance of the quéene and hir friends, to helpe to de|liuer The earle of Lennox ga|thereth a pow|er. him from the hands of his enimies. The earle of Lennox did so, and came with such power as he could raise from the westparts vnto Linlithgo. The earle of Angus being aduertised, that the earle of Lennox was gathering men, sent to the earle of Ar|rane for aid, requiring him to come with such power as he could make, and to méet him at Linlithgo. The earle of Arrane immediatlie héerewith gathered a The earle of Arrane ga|thereth a power. power, and with the same came to Linlithgo before the earle of Lennox came thither, who shortlie after comming with his people, approched that towne, vn|to whome the earle of Arrane sent a messenger, re|quiring him to turne and saue his enterprise, assu|ring him, that albeit he was his sisters sonne, he would not spare him, if he held forward vpon his iournie. The earle of Lennox héerewith answered in a great rage, that he would not staie, till he came to Edenburgh, or else die for it by the waie. The earle of Arrane therefore not staieng for the earle of An|gus his comming from Edenburgh, issued foorth of Linlithgo at the west end of the towne, and incoun|tered the earle of Lennox and his companie, where there was a cruell onset giuen on both sides, but sud|denlie the earle of Lennox his companie fled, and he himselfe with the lord of Hunston and diuerse other The earle of Lennox slaine gentlemen were slaine.

*The death of which Dowglas the king did great|lie lament, and hearing the clamor and noise that was made in that conflict, did send foorth (but all too late) Andrew Wood (his familiar) to haue succored the Lennox, if by anie meanes he could. After this victorie, the faction of the Dowglasses (to the end that striking a feare in those that were enuious a|gainst them, they might make them alwaies to be in danger to them) began to mooue questions and sutes in law, against such as had borne armor a|gainst the king: for feare whereof some bought their peace with monie, some tooke part with the Dow|glasses, some followed the Hamiltons, and some stiflie standing in the matter, were followed and cal|led into the law. Of which number Gilbert earle of Cassiles (when he was earnestlie pressed by Iames Hamilton the bastard, to yéeld himselfe to the part of the Hamiltons) being a man of great stomach, gaue this answer, that the old league of friendship, which was betwéene their grandfathers (in which his grandfather was alwaies the more honorable and first named) should not make him now so forgetfull of the honor of his familie, that he would séeme to degenerat from his ancestors, and willinglie grant to be vnder defense (which is the next degrée of seruitude) of them, whose head in making an equall league and couenant was contented with the second place of honor.

Wherefore, when the said Gilbert appéered in the law at the day appointed, for the deciding of his cause: Hugh Kennedie his kinsman answered for him, that he was present in that battell, as sent thi|ther by the king, and not as enimie to the king, and he would (if need required) bring foorth the kings let|ters therfore, notwithstanding the Hamiltons frow|ning and fretting against his boldnesse: for the king had written as well to Gilbert (going home) as to manie others, to ioine with Iohn Steward earle of Lennox, who séeing the battell at hand, and that he had not time left to call togither his friends and fol|lowers, did with his present companie (taking his iournie out of the waie) turne to Striueling. Wher|fore (the power of the Hamiltons in that cause some|what suppressed) Iames Hamilton the bastard stirred with great hatred against Kennedie, did procure Hugh Campbell shiriffe of Aire to dispatch him out The death of the earle of Cassiles. of the waie, which he shortlie after did in his returne home. Afterward this Hugh, to the end he might dis|semble his conscience or knowledge of this euill (the execution wherof he had committed to his fellowes) was remaining at the day and time of the same murther, with Iohn Areskine, whose sister was the wife of Gilbert Kennedie.

But she (as soone as she heard of that déed) did with manie bitter woords lay the fault vnto him, because by that fact the noble house of the Kennedies had al|most béene brought to vtter subuersion, had he not left a yoong sonne behind him. This yoong earle, after the death of his father, fled to his kinsman Ar|chembald Dowglasse then the kings treasuror, to whome he committed the defense of himselfe and his familie. This doone, Hugh Campbell was called in|to law for the said déed, who being manifestlie conui|cted thereof, was banished into an other place. Nei|ther did the Dowglasses with lesse bitternesse exer|cise their anger against Iames Beton, for bringing their power to saint Andrewes, which they spoiled, as after appéereth.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, the earle of Angus bringing the king with him, arriued, and had come to the bat|tell, but that the king was not willing to come foorth of Edenburgh in that quarrell (as some haue writ|ten) and therefore made excuses, as he did also by the waie, faining himselfe sicke: but George Dowglas droue and called vpon his horsse verie sharpelie, and constreined him to ride foorth with faster pase than he would haue doone, giuing him manie iniurious woords, which he remembred afterwards, and would not forget them. They went that night to Striue|ling, and shortlie after passed through Fife, searching for the quéene, and the bishop of saint Andrewes; and The quéene sought for because they were kept secretlie in their friends hou|ses, so that they could not be heard of, they spoiled the abbeie of Dunfirmeling, and the castell of saint An|drewes, taking awaie all the moueables which the archbishop had within the same.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 423. In the north parts also, the two families of the Leslées and the Forboises, intangled with mutuall hatred, raised great flames of tumults and parts ta|king: which enimities did after grow to be the grea|ter, because there were dailie manie slaughters of the nobles & other people committed in Mar, Gar|reoth, and Aberden, whilest ech faction labored to de|fend 1526. it selfe against the others. For which cause (when the common-wealth was much deformed thereby, and all iustice seemed almost vtterlie ouerthrowne in those parts) the earle of Angus and other of the no|bilitie (which were of the kings priuie councell) did not ceasse, vntill they had made vnitie betwéene those two families. But in the end (the heire of the For|boises, & the lord Lenturke, hauing by wait killed the noble baron Meldrume, which fauored the Leslées) those buried contentions began againe to be raised from the dead; whose enimities being once againe knowne to the nobilitie (and what hurt might insue thereof to the common state) they attempted all pos|sible means once more to quench that deadlie flame, and afresh to ioine their minds togither in amitie, with this prouiso, that the murtherers of Meldrume should (for punishment of their offense) be banished into France, where the greatest part of them died, after manie miseries and reproches susteined in their pitifull life. Which last league so sincerelie vnited be|twéene the Forboises and the Leslées, was imbraced with such faith ech to other, by renewing thereof with continuall mariages & other courtesies, that it conti|nueth most firme euen vnto this day.

EEBO page image 315 In which north parts also, the inhabitants ( [...]act|lie following their naturall disposition, and partlie 1520. Le [...]eus lib. 9. pag. 423, [...]4, &c. excited by the example of the former times long suf|fered so to be vsed) did in like sort ouerr [...] and spoi [...] all things, by reason of ouer much libertie. But of all other [...]rs ra [...] in those parts, that was the g [...]|test and most troublesome, which was raised by the Makintosches. Of which vnrulie people, the one familie was called the Glenchattens, and the other was surnamed Makintosches after the head of that kindred; in which, the chiefe was called Lachla [...] Makintosche a man of great possessions, and of such excellencie in singularitie of wisedome, that with great commendation he did conteine all his follow|ers within the limits of their dueties, more than o|thers did. Which constreints (when they could hard|lie beare (as loth to liue in order) hauing so long pas|sed their time licentiouslie) did withdraw the hearts of manie men from him. Amongest whome was Iames Malcolmeson his kinsman (who thirsting after the desire to rule) tooke occasion (by the iniurie of the time) traitorouslie with deceipt to kill this Makintosché; after which (fearing further trouble to insue towards him) he flieth to the Ile (at the lake Kothmurcosie) as a sanctuarie or defense for him. But the rest of the familie of the Makintosches did Kothmurcosie pursue him with such eager minds, that by force ta|king him in the Ile, they woorthilie killed him, and manie of his confederats, guiltie of that wicked|nesse. After which (because the sonne of Makintos|che, for his tender yeares, was not sufficient with feare & punishment to bridle the minds of his fierce subiects) by common consent they chose the bastard brother of the slaine man (called Hector Makintos|che) to be head and leader of that familie, vntill this New tumults [...] that fami|lie. yoong nephue might grow to yéeres, and might wéeld the gouernement of his owne tribe.

Now when when the earle of Murreie perceiued that if the sonne of Makintosche were committed to the rashnesse of a people somewhat fierce and cruell, that he should (on euerie side) be oppressed with ma|nie troubles, he did most godlie (for the care he had of him his nephue being his sisters sonne) prouide, that he should be caried to an other place, to the O|giluies, the childs kin on the mothers side, where he should be well instructed and imbued with the pre|cepts of all learning and vertue. Whereat Hector was greatlie offended, to sée that the child should so subtilie be taken from him. Wherefore (affirming that much of his authoritie was thereby diminished) he attempted (euerie way he might) to get the child againe into his possession, that thereby he might salue and recouer his credit and authoritie. But some there were, which supposed that the great care and labor which he so much emploied (for getting the child into his hands) was to none other intent, but that he might make him awaie, and prepare a path whereby to lead his owne sonne to the gouerne|ment of that familie. Which conceipt being déeplie grauen in the mind of the earle of Murreie, caused him to séeke the preseruation of the child, that by no means he might fall into the hands of Hector.

Wherewith Hector being highlie incensed (and determining to spue out his choler, séeking reuenge by anie kind of means) he did cause his brother Wil|liam The familie of Makintos the raise sedi|tions. & other of his kindred, that ioining their force, they might stronglie vex the earle of Murreie, and spoile his possessions: which they did with so great fu|rie, that ouerthrowing the fort of Dikes, and besie|ging the castell of Tox [...]ewaie, they executed manie cruelties, slaughters, spoiles, burnings, and other mischiefes vpon all sorts of people, men, women, and children, and all such as fauored them. For their hatred not limited against the earle of Murreie, ex|tended further against the familie of the Ogiluies, amongest whome the child was left in custodie fox educations cause. With which mind this Hector and his complices placing their campe at the castell of Pettens, which belonged to the lord of Durneus (one of the familie of the Ogiluies) they did so furr| [...]ie besiege the same, as the people of the same were in the end forced to yéeld the fort: which when they had entred, they killed foure and twentie of the Ogil [...]es, whom they found therein. Whervpon (their minds being now aduanced with spoiles and happie succ [...]s) they became so proud, as (trusting ouermuch to prosperous euent in all their actions) they neuer set end to their wicked crueltie, vntill the erle of Murreie did with force execute iust iudge|ment vpon them. For when the earle beheld them immoderatlie reioising, in spoiling his lands, and committing other excessiue euils; he obteined of the king and his councell, that he might be [...] the kings deputie and gouernor in that battell, to bri|dle the rage and boldnesse of those in that order spoi|ling the common-wealth.

Wherefore the earle assembling an armie, did with such speedie valu [...]e come vpon them and their countrie, that at the first he tooke almost two hun|dred of their capteins, and committed them to the gallowes. All whose faith was so true to their cap|teine, Woonderfull faith of euill men to their capteine. as (when life was seuerallie promised to eue|rie one man as he was alone lead to the gallowes) there would not anie one of them confesse where their capteine Hector had hidden himselfe. For eue|rie one answered (with bold spirit) that they knew not where he was become; and if so be they did, that yet they would not (by anie paine or terror of death) be induced to breake their faith and to betraie their maister. But hanging not being thought a sufficient reuenge (for such capteins as the earle had taken) there were more gréeuous punishments laid vpon William Makintosche (brother to Hector) because in the beginning he nourished those coles of cho|ler for his brothers cause. For after that this Wil|liam was hanged, his head was chopped off and fast|ned vpon a pole at Dikes, and the other foure parts of his bodie were sent to the townes of Elgin, Fo|resse, Inuernesse, and Alderne, there to be set vp publikelie to the reproch of them, and the example of others.

Now, after all these sturs, Hector (séeing his men were thus dispersed and executed, and that himselfe was excluded from anie other succor) fled to the faithfull helpe of Alexander Dunbar deane of Mur|reie, by whose aduise he goeth humblie and secretlie to the king, beseeching his mercie and fauor to be extended vnto him: for he supposed it better, rather to craue the doubtfull mercie of his lord, than to make triall of the earle of Murreis certeine re|uenge. Wherevpon the king (seeing his humble submission) receiued him into his fauor; and did with all his heart louinglie after embrace him, be|cause he was valiant and wise in warre, and in counsell. But God, whose iustice is alwaies shewed in punishing of wickednesse, would not suffer this filthinesse of crueltie, theft, murther, & spoile (where|with Hector did wickedlie defile his life) to go vn|reuenged with most gréeuous paine vpon the said Hector. For in the citie of saint Andrews, sudden death (than which there can be no greater punish|ment) was laid vpon him by one Iames Spense a priest, who was himselfe afterwards beheaded.

When the earle of Murreie had shewed such re|uenge vpon the fréends of Hector and their compa|nions; the people of the prouince of Glencatten did from thencefoorth kéepe themselues within the li|mits of their duetie: vntill that the sonne of Lach|lane EEBO page image 316 Makintosche came to mans estate and full age. Which yoong man was in his first yeares imbued with such learnings and policie of life conformed therevnto, that when he was imploied about the common-wealth; all the capteins of them (who natu|rallie speake Irish in the furthest part of Scotland) did embrace him as a perfect paterne of all vertue, and an excellent woorkemaister to frame a well orde|red state. Wherefore certeine (not able to susteine the brightnesse of his vertue) did ioine in counsell with such as were néerest of bloud vnto him, and had before laid violent hands on his father, to take his life away by forceable means. Whereof we shall more liberallie intreat in an other place.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This yeare the king by counsell of the earle of An|gus, Arrane, and others, went with eight thousand men vnto Iedburgh, to set some order amongest the borderers, for the kéeping of better rule: and so on the eight of Iune, the principals of all the surnames of the clans on the borders, came to the king, bin|ding themselues, and deliuering pledges for their good demenors. The seuenteenth of Iulie, there was a great assemblie of the lords at Holie rood house, at 1527. Lesle. what time, there came a simple fellow (to looke vpon) seruant and horskeeper sometime to the earle of Len|nox, who in the midst of a great companie of people Sir Iames Hamilton hint by a des|perat person. in the abbeie close, strake sir Iames Hamilton knight verie desperatlie with a short prage or dag|ger in the bellie shrée seuerall stripes vp to the haft, and yet the said sir Iames died not of those hurts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The man being taken, by & by confessed the déed without repentance, saieng;

Phy on the feoble hand quilke wald not doo that thing the heart thought, and was determinat to doo.
And being inquired what he was, and who caused him to doo the same; he answe|red that he was a seruant of God, sent by him to doo that déed. And albeit he was put to great torture and paines dailie by the space of a moneth, yet would he neuer giue other answer, and so he was hanged, and his head set ouer one of the gates of Edenburgh towne. About the same time, there came out of Germanie maister Patrike Hamilton, abbat of Ferne, brothers sonne to the earle of Arrane, who had béene scholer to Martin Luther, & others there. This man being conuented and examined vpon cer|teine articles, as of iustification, predestination, of frée will, and such like, contrarie to the doctrine taught by the church in that time, because he did af|firme, and constantlie defend them, he was decla|red an heretike and burned. The abbat of Ferne burnt.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The eightéenth of March, the king besieged the castell of Edenburgh, the queene and hir husband Edenburgh casteil besie|ged. 1528 Lesle. Henrie Steward, with Iames his brother being within it. But as soone as the quéene vnderstood, that hir sonne the king was there in person, she cau|sed the gates to be set open, and vpon hir knées be|sought him of grace for hir husband and his brother, and would not rest, till she had obteined the same; but yet they were kept in ward within the castell, till the king afterwards released them. In the yeare following, the king being now come to the age of The king be|ing seuentéene yeares of age, refuseth to be longer vnder gouernement. seuentéene yeares, and of good discretion and wit for his time, would not longer remaine vnder the go|uernement of the earle of Angus and his companie. Therevpon he assembled diuerse noble men of Striueling, & by their counsell sent an herald vnto the earle of Angus & his assistans resiant as then in Edenburgh, commanding them on paine of high treason, that they should depart foorth of that towne, & that none of them should come within foure miles of the court, wheresoeuer the same chanced to lie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Shortlie after, the king himselfe with two thou|sand men, followed the herald: wherevpon the earle of Angus, both being charged by the herald, and ad|uertised of the kings comming toward the towne, departed thence immediatlie. And shortlie after, the same herald was sent vnto him againe with com|mandement from the king, that he should remaine prisoner within ward in the countrie of Murrey, till the kings pleasure were further knowen: which he would not obeie; wherefore both he and his adhe|rents were summoned to appeare in parlement to be holden at Edenburgh, in September next fol|lowing. In this parlement begun at Edenburgh the sixt of September in this yeare 1528, the earle 1528. The earle of Angus for|faited. The earle of Angus at|teinted by parlement. Henrie Ste|ward created erle of Meth|wen. of Angus, with his brother George Dowglas, his vncle by his father Archembald Dowglas, Alex|ander Drommond of Carnocke, and diuerse other, were by decrée of parlement atteinted, and forfalted for diuerse offenses, and speciallie, for assembling the kings people to haue assailed the kings person: and because he had deteined the king against his will with him the space of two yeares and more, all which time he stood in feare of his life.

In this parlement Henrie Steward the quéenes husband was created lord of Methwen, and made maister of the ordinance. Fr. Thin. Buchanan, lib. 14. Besides which, in place of earle Dowglas was Gawin Dunbar, the kings schoolemaister made chancellor, a good and a learned man, and one in whome manie did desire more ciuill policie; and in the place of Archembald Dowglas the treasuror was admitted Robert Carnicruce, more famous for his monie than his vertue. In this parlement there was onelie one found, called Iohn Bannatine, who fauoring the Dowglas, did boldlie there protest, that whatsoeuer was therin doon, ought by no meanes to be hurtfull to the earle Dowglas; since iust feare of his appearance there, was a iust cause to force him to be absent from thence. With|in a few daies after, a brother of the earles called William, abbat of the monasterie of Holirood died, partlie by sickenesse, and partlie by griefe of mind, being wearied with the present state of things; whose place Robert Carnicruce, a man of base birth, but well monied, did obteine of the king: who had gran|ted vnto him the auoidance of the next spirituall li|uing. At length, the Dowglas out of hope of all good successe, burnt the townes of Constandie and Cranstoune, and so fled to the castell of Tantallon.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In October following, the king assembled a great companie of men, with artillerie, and diuerse kinds The castell of Tantallon besieged. of munition, to besiege the castell of Tantallon, which the earle of Angus did hold, who aduertised of the preparation made for the same siege, furnished the castell with men and all kind of necessaries, and went himselfe into England. When the siege then was laid about the castell, it was so strong and so well prouided, that it might not be woone for all that could be doone at that season: in somuch that after Dauid Fauconer, principall gunner of the kings Dauid Fau|coner slaine. side was slaine, the king caused the siege to be raised; yet at length (though not till a long time after this) it was deliuered to the king by appointment. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 14. Be|fore the deliuerie whereof, the king déepelie sware that he would not leaue one aliue to succeed in the inheritance and name of the Dowglasses, so long as he liued and was king.

Wherevpon he came to Edenburgh, where (to the end he might distresse them the more) he determined by the aduise of his councell to send a dailie compa|nie (though no great number) to Coldingham, which should defend the husbandmen from the spoile. Which office appointed to Bothwell chiefe of Louthaine, he did vtterlie refuse; either fearing the power of the Dowglas (wherevnto all the other strength of Scot|land did of late not seeme to be equall) or that he would not (being then yoong) imbrue his hands with the destruction of so famous a familie. Wherevpon, EEBO page image 317 since the king durst not trust the Hamiltons (as friends to his enimies, & being offended with them for the death of Iohn Steward earle of Lennox, nor durst commit the matter to anie of the adioining nobilitie) at length the same came so about, that Calene Campbell (dwelling on the furthest borders of the kingdome, being a man of good estimation for his wisedome, and approoued experience in feats of warre, and for his iustice déerelie loued of the peo|ple) was sent by the king (with great authoritie) to the rebels. Whereby the Dowglasses (being forsa|ken, of the Hamiltons and their other friends) were brought to those extremities, that they were infor|ced to depart into England to K. Henrie the eight, who honorablie and liberallie receiued and inter|teined them. After this, the king (as is said) getting the castell of Tantillone by composition, did scarse kéepe all the couenants of his grant thereof in wri|ting; although he performed this, that Alexander Drumman at the request of Robert Bretton, had licence to returne home into his countrie, a little before which (as it séemeth) when Iames Coluille and Robert Carnicruse were remooued from the court (as persons suspected to fauor the Dowglasses) their offices were bestowed vpon Robert Bretton, then in great fauor with the king and courtiers, and aduanced to the gouernement of manie places.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The eightéenth of Maie, in the yéere 1529, the earle of Cathnesse and the lord of Sincler, with a great 1529. armie by sea passed into Orkenie, to haue taken that Ile into possession; but the people of the countrie as|sembled The earle of Cathnes pas|seth ouer into Orkenie. at the commandement of Iames Sincler of Kirkewall their capteine, who gaue battell to the earle and his armie with such courage, that he dis|comfited the enimies: the earle with fiue hundred of his men was slaine, and drowned in the sea, vnto the The earle of Cathnesse slaine. The blindnes of the Orknie men. which they were driuen. The lord Sincler and all the residue were taken. The Orkenie men held opinion, that their patrone saint Magnus was séene that day to fight in the field on their side against their eni|mies. In the same moneth on the fiftéenth day, there An assemblie of the lords. was a great assemblie of the lords in Edenburgh, where the king himselfe sate in iudgement. The lard of Hinderland called Cockburne, and one Adam Scot of Tushlaw, who was named king of theeues, were accused of theft, and of receiuing and maintei|ning Kng of th [...]ues. of théeues, slaughters, and other crimes; of the which being conuict, they lost their heads, which were set ouer the Tolbuith of Edenburgh. Execution.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 On the same day, the earle of Bothwell was also conuict, for mainteining them and their crimes, and The earle of Bothwell conuict. his life, lands, and goods, were in the kings hands. He was therefore kept in ward within Edenburgh ca|stell, and after sent into Murrey land, & lastlie bani|shed the realme during the kings daies [and remai|ned Fr. Thin. Banished the realme. at Uenice.] Also, the lord Maxwell, the lord Hume, the lards of Balglueth, Fernihurst, Pollort, Iohnson, Marke Kar [with the earle Bothwell] and F [...]. Thin. Other lords conuict, and put in ward. other principall men of the borders, were conuict by assise, and put in ward: by reason whereof, the borde|rers kept better rule euer after, during the kings reigne. [Few moneths after, the king commanded the noble men (before imprisoned, and then to be ba|nished) F [...]. Thin. Buchan. lib. 14. to be restored to libertie, taking pledges for their allegiance. Of which companie, one Walter Scot (killing Robert Iohnstone a théefe of noted crueltie, therwith to gratifie the king) began deadlie enimitie with that familie, to the great hurt of both those kinreds.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About this season, a landed man named Iohn Iohn Scot fasted fortie daies without receiuing any [...]od. 1 [...]1. Buch. Scot, that had trauelled abroad in the world [ouer England, France, Italie and the holie land, as saith Lesleus] who now being returned into Scotland, (bicause it was bruted in other countries that hée had fasted 40 daies without either meat or drinke) was for triall therof put in Dauids tower in Eden|burgh castell, and diligent watch set vpon him to sée that he had no sustenance to relieue him withall, and so kept for fortie daies, he fasted all that time with|out anie kind of nourishment, to the great woonder of the people. In the summer of this yeere 1529, Ar|chembald 1529. Dowglas, that had béene forfalted (as ye haue heard) came alone to the king while he was on hunting in Striueling parke, & besought his grace of pardon, which he had obteined fullie at his hands, bicause he fauoured him more than anie of that sur|name, if he had not béene (as he was indéed) altogi|ther determined that none of them should remaine within the land at that time, and so he banished Archembald Dowglas banished. him into France, where shortlie after through griefe of mind he departed this life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 In the moneth of Iune, the king with an armie The king com meth to the borders. went to the borders to set order there for better rule to be kept, and to punish such as were knowen to be most culpable. And herevpon he caused fortie and right of the most notable theeues, with their capteine Iohn Armstrong to be apprehended; the which being conuict of murther, theft, & treason, were all hanged Théeues hanged. on growing trees, to the example of other. There was one cruell théefe amongst the rest, which had burned a house with a woman and hir children within it: he A théefe burnt to death. was, burned to death. George Armstrong, brother to Iohn, was pardoned, to the end he should appeath the residue, which he old; so that they were apprehen|ded by the kings commandement, and punished for their misdooings, according as they had deserued. In August following, manie meruellous sights were woonders seene in the firmament. seene about Striueling, as candels burning on the tops of hils in the nights, and in the morning afore sunne rising. Diuerse armed men appeared fighting vpon the ground, which was taken to be a foretoken of some trouble to insue in those parties. The fif|téenth day of August, a great number of people be|ing assembled at the market in Campscenneth, fif|tie & two persons were drowned in the ferrie bote; A ferrie bote drowned. amongst the which were diuerse honest men and wo|men of the countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The first of March, in the yéere 1530, the abbat 1530. An abbat murthered. of Culrose called Iames Inglis, was cruellie mur|thered by the lord of T [...]lliallan and his seruants, a|mongst whom there was a priest called sir William Louthien, for the which they were apprehended, and the said sir William the twentie and seuenth of the same moneth, vpon a publike scaffold in Eden|burgh was degraded (the king, quéene, and a great companie of people being present) and after his de|gradation, he was deliuered to the earle of Argile high iustice, and the next day the said Tulliallan and the same priest were beheaded. This yéere the col|lege The sessions instituted. court of iustice called the sessions was institu|ted in Edenburgh by the king, with consent of the three estates in parlement assembled, and after con|firmed in Rome; in the which are fiftéene councellors ordinarie, eight of them being spirituall persons, of the which the most ancient is president, and seuen temporall men, but so as by this number the chancel|lor of the realme is aboue the president, when he is present. There are also foure councellors extraordi|narie, remooueable at the princes pleasure. In the yéere 1531, I find little doone to make account of, 15 [...]1. for the erle of Angus remaining in England, could not persuade the king of England in his fauor to breake the peace with Scotland, though the same earle earnestlie laboured to bring that to passe.

Fr. Thin. Buch. lib. 14. 1532. The earle of Bothwell, for that he went priui|lie into England (being supposed to haue had secret conference with the earle of Northumberland) he was the 16 kalends of Februarie committed to the EEBO page image 318 castell of Edenburgh, & sir Iohn Sandland knight was sent with authoritie to the hermitage (a castell in Liddesdale) to represse the spoiles and robberies committed there. When of ancient time there had béene no certeine daies and place appointed for the deciding of monie, contentions, or debts amongest the citizens and people of Scotland, Iohn duke of Albanie obteined from the bishop of Rome, that a yeerelie summe of monie (as much as should be suf|ficient to paie the stipend of a few iudges that shuld be appointed therefore) should be leuied of the clear|gie, of euerie one according to his estate and sub|stance. Whervpon Gawin Dunbar bishop of Aber|den for himselfe in the name of the cleargie, appea|led to the said bishop of Rome. Which controuersie continued from the fift Ides of March, vntill the tenth kalends of Maie, at which day the college of the iudges of Edenburgh was established, of whom in the beginning there were many profitable things doone, and law was equallie ministred; but yet the same end did not follow which was then hoped a|mongst them. For since in Scotland there be almost no lawes but such as are decréed by parlement, which are not commonlie perpetuall, but made for a time; and that the iudges as much as in them lieth doo hin|der the making of such lawes: the goods of all men were committed to the arbitrement of fifteene men, which haue perpetuall power therfore, being in truth but tyrannicall gouernment, since their one|lie arbitrements must stand for law. Thus much Buchanan.

But bicause Lesleus treateth in more ample and other sort of that matter; and for that I will not de|priue the reader of the seuerall writings of them both touching one thing: I will also set downe Lesleus words, writing in this order. In this parlement (saith 1533. Lesleus. lib. 9. pag. 437, 438. he) by the consent of the states, it séemed good that the forme of iudgement vsed by our ancestors should be taken away. For where certeine of the cleargie, of the barons, and of the citizens, were chosen euerie yeere to trauell ouer the foure parts of the realme, to giue iudgement of ciuill causes (as they terme it) and of other things intangled with the controuersie of law: and that then it oftentimes happened, either by the ignorance of the iudge that did not atteine to the perfection of the law, or by the malice of them which were corrupted with bribes, that the woorser part had vniustlie the vpper hand against the righ|ter; to which discommoditie this was also ioined, that no cause could be well examined to the vttermost by one man at one time, bicause the iudges were so of|ten changed; whereby it must néeds folow, that seue|rall iudges (hauing seuerall minds and wits) must for one matter giue inconstant & contrarie iudge|ments. Wherefore to take awaie this varietie of iudgements and other discommodities, wherewith the common-wealth was afflicted; it pleased the par|lement by the persuasion of the king, that a certeine defined number of senators (being persons of the greatest knowledge in law) should haue a perma|nent place at Edenburgh, to decide all matters of controuersie, the maner & order whereof we haue set downe in our former booke, saith Lesleus. And I for my part thinke not vnméet for the more explaning thereof, to set it downe in this place out of the same Lesleus.

The companie (saith he) of these men (whom wee Lesleus. lib. 1. pag. 79. call the senat of the publike wealth) receiue none but such, whose praise of vertue and sharpenesse of wit (especiallie in matters of law) dooth aduance them to that place. This court is so apted of the cler|gie and secular nobilitie (as a man may fearme them) that the one part of the laitie dooth answer the other number of the cleargie. Which we thinke to bée doone by the great benefit of God, that the religion and simplicitie of the cleargie may temper the sin|gular wisedome of the temporaltie, obteined by the experience of worldlie causes; and againe, the iudge|ment of the laitie may further and moderate the pure religion and ancient simplicitie of the cleargie. Ouer all these is one chiefe and head (which is a spi|rituall man) who hath the highest place in sentence and pronouncing of iudgement; except the iudge|ment of the chancellor of the kingdome happen to come in place; for then therevnto the Scots giue the chiefest preheminence in all the affaires of the com|mon-wealth. Thus much he.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the yéere 1532, sir Arthur Darcie was sent to 1532. Sir Arthur Darcie sent to the bor [...]rs. the borders, who being at Berwike, by the counsell of the earle of Angus then being there, they made a rode into Scotland, and burned certeine places: wherevpon the Scots assembling themselues to de|fend their countrie, made towards the Englishmen, He maketh a rode into Scotland. who retired themselues to Berwike againe. After this were diuerse inuasions made on euerie side vp|on the borders, and ships likewise taken by sea, and yet no warre was proclamed. In September, in the yeere 1533, certeine commissioners of either 1533. realme were at Newcastell, to intreat for a redresse and recompense to be made for burning of townes and villages, taking of goods, casting downe of piles, taking of ships, slaughters of men, and di|uerse other spoiles and iniuries doone, as well by the sea as by the land, from the 23 day of Aprill in the yéere 1532, vnto the day of the méeting of the same commissioners; which dooings were little lesse in ef|fect than had béene vsed in time of open warre, al|though the same was not proclamed. Bicause there|fore that the scathes & iniuries fell out to be so great on both sides, that particular redresse could not bée had, the order thereof was referred to the pleasure of both the princes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Further it was agréed, that for a perpetuall peace to be concluded, certeine commissioners should be 1534. Lesle. appointed to treat therof at London, as afterwards they did. For the king of Scotland there were sent as commissioners about this treatie, William Ste|ward bishop of Aberden, Robert Reid the abbat of Kinlos, and sir Adam Sterburie knight [or (as saith Fr. Thin. Lesleus li. 9. pa, 439.) Adam Otterburne] the which ac|companied with diuerse other knights, barons, and gentlemen, came to London, and were there right honorablie receiued the 25 of March. After they had béene before the kings presence, there were certeine commissioners appointed by him to treat with them of peace, the which agréed vpon certeine conditions and articles for a peace to continue betwixt both A peace con|cluded. kings during their naturall liues, and one yere after the decease of that prince which first chanced to de|part this world: and so the commissioners returned into Scotland in the moneth of Maie next in|suing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About the same time were sent into France Da|uid Ambassadors into France. Beton abbat of Arbroth, and Iames Erskin se|cretarie, as ambassadors to require the duke of Uan|dosmes sister in mariage for the king: with which motion the ladie and hir friends were verie well con|tented. Neuerthelesse (as afterwards shall appéere) the king himselfe passing secretlie into France in The king him selfe passeth se|cretlie into France. proper person, when he had once séene the ladie, he li|ked hir not; & so became a sutor to the French king his eldest daughter Magdalen, whome he obteined: wherefore the duke of Uandosmes sister would ne|uer after match hir selfe with anie other in mariage, but professed hir selfe in a house of religion, where she remained the residue of hir life time. The king of England sent ambassadors into Scotland, the bishop of Duresme, sir Thomas Clifford, the prior of Du|resine, EEBO page image 319 and one doctor Magnus, who were honorablie receiued in the moneth of Iulie: and then was the peace before concluded by the ambassadors at Lon|don, The peace concluded with Eng|land. confirmed by the king himselfe, and the charter thereof interchangablie sealed, with the great seales of both the realmes, during the liues of both the prin|ces (as before ye haue heard.)

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag 439. 1534. The king in those daies did shew such hope of ho|norable vertue in him, that the wisest and the most valiant princes of the world did honor him with the ornaments of their orders: for first Henrie king of England adopted him into the order of the garter, the emperor made him a fellow of the golden fléece, and shortlie after the French king clothed him with the order of saint Michaell. In remembrance of all which (for a note to be left to posteritie) he caused the armes of Scotland, honored with these thrée orders, to be set vp ouer the gate of his palace of Lithquoe, with the ornaments of the honor of saint Andrew, which are proper to the kingdome of Scotland.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The same yeere, the king passed through the north parts of his realme, and caused iustice dulie to be mi|nistred Iustice mini|stred. in places where he came, against offendors. Moreouer, in Edenburgh was great inquisition made, and punishment exercised against such as were detected to hold opinions against the religion then vsed, the king himselfe assistant thereto. Mai|ster Norman Gorleie that was abiured before, and Andrew Stratton that would not renounce his opi|nion, were burned. The shiriffe of Linlitgew, and di|uerse other, that were fled for feare of punishment, were conuict of heresie. Diuerse Englishmen that English fugi|tiues receiued into Scot|land. held against the diuorce betwixt king Henrie, and the ladie Katharine Dowager, fled this yeere into Scotland, and were receiued.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 14. About this time (to conclude a league with Char|les the fift, emperor) this Charles sent Godescall E|rike (to the end the matter might be handled more secretlie) from Toledo (by Ireland) into Scotland, 1534. who when he had declared his message to him from the emperor [conteining the iniuries doone to his aunt Katharine quéene of England, & to hir daugh|ter by Henrie the eight, king of England: the cal|ling of a generall councell: the ouerthrow of the Lu|theran heresie (to vse Buchanans woord) and for con|tracting of mariage] the said ambassador did deli|uer to the king the emperors letter, wherein was set downe the offer and choise of which of those thrée Maries the king would take to wife: which were Marie (the sister of Charles) a widow by Lodowike of Hungarie, hir husband slaine by the Turke: Ma|rie of Portingale his néece by his sister Leonara: or Marie of England his coosine germane by his aunt Katharine. Wherevnto the king answered, that the mariage with England should be most profitable, but the same was a thing of vncerteine hope, of greater danger & labour, & of longer delaie than his carefulnesse (being the onelie man left of that line) might well indure. Wherefore of all the emperors kinred, that mariage by manie reasons should be most beneficiall for him, to take to wife the daughter of Christern, king of Denmark, begotten vpon Isa|bell sister to the emperor. Wherevnto for deniall ther|of, Charles did shortlie make answer (at Madrike) that he was affianced to another.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the yéere 1535, the pope sent a messenger into Scotland, requiring king Iames to assist him a|gainst 1535. The pope sen|deth into Scotland. the king of England, whome he had decréed an heretike, a schismatike, a wedlocke breaker, a pub|like murtherer, and a sacrileger; and therefore he had declared him to be depriued of the said kingdome, the which he would bestow vpon him, and other ca|tholike princes. In the yéere 1536, the king tooke the sea with fiue ships, without knowledge of the most 1536. part of the lords of his realme, and sailed about the The kings voiage about the Iles. Iles of Skie and Lewes, and the other Iles, and by storme was driuen to take land at saint Ninians in Galloway, & so returned to Striueling, from whence he passed on foot in pilgrimage vnto our ladie chappell of Lauret beside Muskelburgh, and afterward sent for diuerse of his lords, and by their counsell tooke his voiage againe by sea with fiue ships, to passe into France, as he was minded to haue doone the first time: but what caused him to alter his purpose then, we find not. This second time he imbarked at Kirc|kaldie the last of August, and with good and prospe|rous wind he shortlie after arriued in France, there He saileth in|to France. being with him in companie the earles of Argile, and Arrane, the lords Boid and Fleming, with di|uerse other barons, knights, and gentlemen; and be|fore him there were in France the earles of Mur|rey, Lennox, and Cassiles, the lord Erskin, the abbat of Arbroth, and others.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Immediatlie after his arriuall, he rode in secret He rideth to Uandosme. manner disguised vnto Uandosmes in Picardie, ta|king with him but one seruant named Iohn Ten|nent, whome he caused to take vpon him as he had béene maister; and so comming to the duke of Uan|dosme his place, got sight of the ladie who shuld haue béene his wife; but not liking hir, he returned againe without talking either with hir or hir friends: and comming to Rouen where his companie were abi|ding for him, he passed from thence towards Paris, where the Dolphin of France was appointed by the king his father to méet him seuen leagues from the citie, who brought him to the king, who receiued him in such hartie manner, as if he had beene his owne He is receiued into Paris. sonne, and with as much honor as might haue béene shewed to the greatest prince in earth. There were iustes, tourneis, and other princelie pastimes practi|sed and set foorth; in which iustes and other exercises of warlike feates, he shewed himselfe as hardie, cun|ning and valiant, as anie other person within all the realme of France, for the which he wan passing great praise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, he caused his ambassadors and He is a sutor for mariage. the noble men that were with him, to declare vnto the king of France, that the cause of his comming was for mariage to he had betwéene him and the la|die Magdalen, eldest daughter to the king, whome he loued & fauoured aboue all other within his realme. The French king was glad héereof, that the ancient band betwixt Scotland and France might thus with new aliance be confirmed, and therefore declared that he would willinglie giue him his daughter in mariage. But héerewith he let him vnderstand, that his daughter was much subiect to sicknesse, and ther|fore he referred that vnto the king of Scotland his owne pleasure, whether he would haue hir, or his yoongest daughter the ladie Margaret, who was af|ter maried to the duke of Sauoy. This offer of choise being reported to the king of Scotland, he continu|ed in his former purpose, which was, to match with the ladie Magdalen, who was in déed a plesant yoong ladie, beautifull, of good fauour, louelie countenance, and comelie manners, aboue all others within that realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Heerevpon the mariage was contracted betwixt The mariage contracted be|twixt the king of Scots and the ladie Magdalen. them, and an hundred thousand crownes of the sun promised with hir in dowrie, with thirtie thousand franks of pension, during the life of king Iames: which monie was deliuered vnto him at his returne homewards, besides manie rich hangings, cupboords of plate, sumptuous apparell, and rich iewels giuen to him and his wife, farre aboue the summe of an o|ther hundred thousand crownes, with two great ships (the one called the salamander) and great plen|tie of artillerie, powder, and other munition. Moreo|uer, EEBO page image 320 all his charges and expenses were borne by the French king, during his being within the realme of France. At the same time also, was the ancient league and bond of amitie betwixt the two realmes of Scotland and France renewed, and the day of the solemnization of the mariage appointed to be hol|den the first of Ianuarie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time, great preparation for the same was made, and all the nobles of France sent for to be there at that day. On the which within the church of Nostre dame in the citie of Paris, the king of 1539. The mariage contracted. Scotland openlie maried the said ladie Magdalen, in presence of the king hir father, the king of Nauar|re, seuen cardinals, and diuerse great dukes, mar|quesses, earles, lords, barons, bishops, & others. After the solemnization of the mariage, king Iames re|mained in France, till the moneth of Maie, passing the time with all kind of pleasure and disport that might be deuised for his honorable interteinement. Finallie, the king and his wife quéene Magdalen tooke their leaue of the king of France their father at Paris, about the latter end of Aprill, and so rode to Rouen, where they were receiued with great tri|umph, 1537. Lesle. and from thence they passed downe the riuer to Newhauen where they imbarked, being accom|panied by the admerall of France, and manie other noble men of the realme, appointed by the French king to attend vpon them into Scotland, & so they sailed foorth with pleasant wind and prosperous wea|ther, through the seas, till they came into the Forth, The king with his quéene retur|neth into Scotland. and there landed at the peare of Lieth hauen, the 29 of Maie, in the yeere 1537, where a great number of earles, bishops, barons, & other noble men & gentle|men of Scotland were readie to receiue them with passing ioy and gladnesse, & from thence with great triumph they were conueied to the abbeie of Holie rood house.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This noble ladie with hir louelie countenance and séemelie demeanor, at hir first arriuall woone the loues and hartie good wils of all the nobles & people of the realme, and withall contented so highlie the mind and fantasie of the king hir husband, that there was neuer more hope of wealth and prosperitie to succéed within the realme, than at that present. But fortune enuieng so great felicitie, would not suffer them to continue anie longer time togither: for a|bout the end of Iune she fell sicke of a vehement fe|uer, whereof she departed this life the tenth of Iulie Quéene Mag dalen depar|teth this life. next insuing, and was buried in the church of Holie rood house, for whose death the king was verie sorow|full, & stirred not abroad of a long time after: [whose death (saith Buchanan) was so lamented of all men, Fr. Thin. that then (as he supposeth) began the first vse of moor|ning garments amongest the Scots, which yet at this day, not being past fortie yéeres, is not verie common, though publike orders and manners doo e|uerie day grow woorsse and woorsse.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the summer of this yéere, Ione Dowglasse the ladie of Glames, sister to the earle of Angus, was The ladie Glames and hir husband conuict of treason. 1537. Less. apprehended, and likewise hir husband Dauid Lion, and both of them brought to Edenburgh, where they were accused and conuict by an assise, for conspiracie of the kings death: the said ladie was burned, and hir husband hanged. Hir son the lord Glames was also conuict for misprision and concealement of that crime, and therfore forfaiting all his lands, was con|demned to die: but because he was yoong and of ten|der yeeres, the king pardoned him of life, and com|manded him to perpetuall prison, in the which he re|mained so long as the king liued. [This yéere was Bothwell, for that he was ouer familiar with the Fr. Thin. English, banished into France (as saith Buchanan.] Shortlie after, Iohn maister of the Forbois, and el|dest The maister of Forbois he headed. sonne to the lord Forbois, who had maried a si|ster of the said ladie Glames, was at Edenburgh likewise indicted and conuict by an assise, by procure|ment of the earle Huntleie, for the like conspiracie of the kings death, for the which he was beheaded and quartered, and his head and quarters set alost vp|on the gates of Edenburgh. His father the lord For|bois, vpon suspicion of the same conspiracie, was long after kept in prison within the castell of Eden|burgh; but at length when nothing might be prooued against him, he was released and set at libertie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This yeere, the king in September caused iustices Iustices ap|pointed to sit in diuerse parts of the realme. to sit in the north parts of the realme, and likewise in October; and in the winter following he caused the like to be doone in the south and west parts. The king himselfe was often times present, assisting the lords whome he had appointed his commissioners for the furtherance of iustice, and maintenance thereof tho|rough all parts of his realme. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 14. pag. 447. The king appoin|ted in assemblie of the nobles, by whose consent an edict was made to confirme the former law, in which all his grants made at Roane in his minoritie were voided and of no authoritie. At what time also by the said persons it was brought to passe by great labor, that the kings patrimonie should be augmented with manie possessions. Wherefore when they percei|ued that the kings charge and dignitie could not be mainteined with so small reuenues, they aduanced his foure sonnes (borne of diuerse women) to the rich abbeies & priories of Melrosse, kelso, Coldingham, Holie rood, and of saint Andrewes, whose reuenues they transferred to the kings coffers so long as he li|ued: by which (perhaps) there came no lesse monie (saith Lesleus) vnto his coffers, than did arise of his kinglie inheritance.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king by the aduise of these noble men of his 1538. Lesle. realme, thinking it necessarie for him to match a|gaine in mariage with some noble princesse, sent in|to The king is a sutor for ma|riage to the dutchesse of Longuile. Fr. Thin. France vnto the earle of Murrey, and Dauid Be|ton abbat of Arbroth [whome (as saith Lesleus lib. 9. pa. 447) Paule the third had made a cardinall, & they of France had made bishop of Miropreuse] his am|bassadors there resident, willing them by the aduise of the French king to treat for a mariage to be had betwixt him and the ladie Marie de Lorraine, dut|chesse of Longuile, widow, daughter to the duke of Guise. And being aduertised from his said ambassa|dors, that the king of France, the ladie hir selfe, and hir friends, were well contented therewith, he sent in the beginning of Maie the lord Robert Maxwell, and the maister of Glencarne, well accompanied in|to France, to ioine with his other ambassadors for the contracting of that mariage, the which according to their commission treated thereof, and concluded vpon resolute articles, and so espoused hir by procu|rators, as the vse is amongst such estates, with great triumph in the citie of Paris, whereat the king and manie noble men were present.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After this she was conueied to Newhauen, and there taking the seas, passed through the same till she came to Carell in Fife, where she landed the tenth of Iune; and from thence she was conueied to the new palace in the abbeie of saint Andrewes, being hono|rabli prepared for the receiuing of hir. And there the The mariage solemnized. king accompanied with manie noble men, openlie solemnized and confirmed the foresaid mariage with the said ladie in the abbeie church, with great ioy and triumph. The king with his queene remained there the most part of that summer. And within a few mo|neths after the mariage, she conceiued with child, to the great comfort of the king and the whole realme, for the hope of succession thereby; and therefore gene|rall processions and publike praiers were made tho|rough all parts of the realme, for the prosperous suc|cesse of the same. After that the king had pacified the EEBO page image 321 borders and all other parts of his realme, by exerci|sing of iustice, and trauelling about the same in his owne person through all places (where néed requi|red) so that there was as great quietnesse, rest, and policie vsed in Scotland, as euer was in anie kings Great quiet|nesse in Scot|land. daies before him: yet neuerthelesse there were cer|teine disobedient persons in the Iles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king therefore, to bring them to order, caused to prepare a good nauie of ships, and in the moneth of Maie went aboord the same in the rode of Lieth, ha|uing with him the earles of Arrane, Huntleie, Ar|gile, 1539. and diuerse other earles, lords, and barons, with whome he sailed foorth by the coasts of Fife, Angus, The king sai|leth north|wards to the Iles of Orke|nie and others Aberden, Murrey firth, Southerland, and Cath|nesse, till he came to Orkenie, where he landing and all his companie with him, were receiued verie ho|norablie by the bishop Robert Maxwell. Heere they furnished themselues with fresh vittels, and other such things as were necessarie; and taking the seas againe, sailed to the Iles of Skie and Lewes, where Mac Clewd of the Lewes, a principall clan of his kin, was brought vnto the king, who sent foorth also a companie to Mac Clewd Haugh, who came like|wise out of his Ile, and presented himselfe to the king.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 From thence the king sailed by the coast of Rosse & Kintaile, to the Ile of Tranternes, where diuerse of the Maconiles, such as the lord Olagarrie, Iohn Moidart, and others (who alledged themselues to be of the principall bloud, and lords of the Iles) were brought also to the kings presence. From thence tra|uelling through the residue of the Iles, Maclane and Iames Maconile of Kinter, being the two principall capteins of the small Iles, came likewise to the king who at length landed at Dunbreton, and sent the The out Iles brought to good order. capteins and ships with prisoners to passe the same waie he came round about the coast, so to come to Edenburgh, where the same prisoners being arri|ued, the chiefe heads of them were kept in ward as pledges for good rule in their countries, and were not suffered to depart so long as the king liued, whereby there followed great quietnesse, and as good obedi|ence to the lawes throughout all the Iles, as there was in anie part of the realme; and as good account and paiment made to the kings controller in his ex|cheker for the lands of the same Iles perteining to the crowne, as for anie part of the reuenues belon|ging therevnto within the maine land. [In this yéere Fr. Thin. (saith Buchanan lib. 4.) were manie taken for Lu|therantsme, wherof some were burnt; nine recanted, and manie were banished: amongest whom, George Buchanan was one, who escaped by a rope out of a window of a chamber.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilest the king was in this voiage, the queene was deliuered of a sonne at saint Andrewes, where|of The quéene deliuered of a sonne. the king being aduertised at his landing, hasted with all possible diligence to the quéene, and shortlie after was the child baptised, and called Iames. The archbishop of saint Andrewes, and the earle of Ar|rane were godfathers, and the quéene the kings mo|ther was godmother. For the birth of this prince, there were bounfiers made through all parts of the realme, with great triumph and giuing of thanks to God for the same. After this the quéene, mother to the king, returned vnto Methwen, where after she had remained a certeine time, a sicknesse tooke hir, of the which shortlie after she departed this life, and was The quéene mother depar|ted this life. buried in the Charterhouse church of saint Iohns towne, by the toomé of king Iames the first. The king himselfe and manie nobles of the realme were present at the funerals, which were kept in most so|lemne and pompous manner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The same yeare were burnt at Edenburgh for Certeine per|sons burnt for religion. heresie (as it was then taken) a regular canon, two blacke friers, and a secular man. Also two priests were degraded, and condemned to perpetuall prison. The same time there was a graie frier in the citie of Glascow burnt for the like cause, and manie other summoned; and because they would not appeare, they were denounced heretikes. About the same 1539. Lesle. The death of Iames Be|ton archbishop of saint An|drews. time, Iames Beton archbishop of saint Andrews, a man of great age departed this life, and was bu|ried in saint Andrews. Before his departure, he had prouided successors to all his benefices, first to his archbishops sée; and to the abbeie of Arbroth, maister Dauid Beton, afterwards cardinall; and to the abbeie of Dunfermeling maister George Du|rie that was archdeacon of saint Andrews. These men, without anie gainesaieng of the king, entered with his good will into the same benefices, immedi|atlie after his deceasse. This Iames Beton builded a great part of the new college of saint Andrewes, and left great summes of monie and treasure to go through to make an end of the same woorke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yeare in the moneth of August sir Iames 1540. Sir Iames Hamilton ar|rested. Hamilton of Finhart knight, remaining as then in the towne of Edenburgh, was arrested by Da|uid Wood controller to the king, who charged him in the kings name to go to ward within the ca|stell of Edenburgh. Which commandement he wil|linglie obeied, thinking himselfe sure inough, as well by reason of the good seruice he had doone to the king, speciallie in reparing the palaces of Striue|ling and Linletgew; as also for that the king had him in so high fauor, that he stood in no feare of him|selfe at all. Neuerthelesse, shortlie after he was brought foorth to iudgement, and conuict in the Tol|buith Sir Iames Hamilton be|headed. of Edenburgh, of certeine points of treason laid against him, which he would neuer confesse; but that notwithstanding, he was beheaded in the mo|neth of September next insuing [after that he had Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 451. liberallie confessed at the place of execution, that he had neuer in anie iot offended the kings maiestie, and that this death was yet woorthilie inflicted vp|on him by the diuine iustice; because he had often of|fended the law of God to please the prince, thereby to obteine greater countenance with him. Where|fore he admonished all persons, that (mooued by his example) they should rather follow the diuine plea|sure, than vniustlie séeke the kings fauor, since it is better to please God than man.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This summer the quéene remaining at Striue|ling, The quéene deliuered of another son. was deliuered of an other prince, which was baptised in the chappell of Striueling, and called Ar|thur: but within eight daies after, the said prince de|ceassed The two yoong princes departed this life. at Striueling aforesaid. On the verie same daie, prince Iames the kings eldest sonne being at saint Andrews departed this life also, in such wise, that there was but onlie six houres betwixt the time of their departures out of this world; which caused no lesse lamentation through the whole realme, than there was ioy at their births. After this, the queene went vnto saint Iohns towne, where she was hono|rablie receiued with great triumph made by the towne. She was accompanied with the principall The king and queene at A|berden. men of the countrie, and from thence she roade to Aberden, the king then being come vnto hir, where, by the towne and vniuersitie they were receiued with great ioy, triumph, pageants, verses, & plaies, set foorth in the best maner for their pastime. They remained there the space of fiftéene daies, and were highlie interteined by the bishop of that place.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 There were exercises and disputations held in all kind of sciences in the colleges and schooles, with diuerse orations made in Greeke, Latine, and other languages, to the high praise and commendation of the maisters & students in that vniuersitie. From thence the king with the quéene returned to Dun|dee, EEBO page image 322 where a costlie entrie was prepared for them al|so, and after they had béene right princelie intertei|ned there, they came to Falkeland. In the moneth of Maie, sir Iohn Borthwike, commonlie called capteine Borthwike, suspected, defamed, and accu|sed of heresie, was summoned to appeare in saint Capteine Borthwike accused of he|resie. Andrews before the cardinall, and diuerse other bi|shops and prelats there present, where (notwithstan|ding his absence) the same being prooued by suffici|ent witnesse against him (as was thought) he was conuicted and declared an heretike. An image was made to resemble him, and at the market crosse of the said citie, as a signe and memoriall of his con|demnation, it was burned, to the feare of others, but he himselfe escaped their hands and got into England, where he was receiued.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 453. The king of Scots (hearing of the maner of the king of England, and how he honored himselfe) tooke in euill part, that the king of England in all generall assemblies of the states of Ireland did call himselfe king of Ireland, when all his predecessors before were onelie intituled by the names of lords of Ireland. For by that new title, king Iames his authoritie did seeme to be diminished, when the king of England did write himselfe king of all Ireland: A small por|tion in déed. whereof a portion by manie ages was vnder the rule of the king of Scots. Yet at length K. Iames did yéeld therevnto; and that the rather, because the king of England vnder this title and authoritie, did not dispossesse the heires of the Scot Makeconell; and other his Scots of those lands which they there inioied in that countrie.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yeare the king of England aduertised of the 1541. The king of England sen|deth to the king of Scots. meeting of the emperor, the French king, and pope, at the citie of Nice, doubting some practise to be de|uised there against him, sent to the king of Scot|land the bishop of saint Dauids, & the lord William Howard, desiring him as his most tender kinsman and nephue, to méete him at the citie of Yorke in England, where he would communicat such things with him, as should be for the weale of both the realmes. And therewith the king of England, tru|sting that the king of Scotland would haue fulfilled his desire, caused great preparation to be made at Yorke for the receiuing of him. But albeit the king of Scotland was willing of himselfe to haue passed into England, to haue met and séene his vncle; yet after long reasoning and deliberation of his coun|cell and prelats [especiallie Iames Beton bishop of saint Andrews, and George Crichtoune bishop of Fr. Thin. Aberden (as saith Buchanan. lib. 14.] assembled for that purpose, casting in their minds (as they tooke it) what danger might fall to him and his realme, if he should passe into England, in case he should be stai|ed and holden there, contrarie to his will, as king Iames his predecessor was, hauing no succession of his bodie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And againe, for that it was certeinelie knowen, that the principall cause, why the king of England required this meeting or interuiew, was to persuade the king of Scotland to vse the like order in Scot|land, as he had doone within his realme of England, in abolishing the popes authoritie, making himselfe supreame head of the church, expelling religious per|sons out of their houses, and seizing the iewels of their houses, their lands and rents, and such like in|formation. And if it chanced the king should attempt the like, they should lose the friendship which was betwixt him, the pope, the emperor, and French king, that were his great friends and confederats. Here|vpon they persuaded him to staie, and by their aduise sent pleasant letters & messages vnto the said king of England, desiring him to haue him excused, for that he could not come into England at that time, hauing such lets and causes of abiding at home, as shortlie he should vnderstand by his ambassadors, whom he ment to send to him, as well for this mai|ter as other causes. And shortlie after sir Iames Leirmouth was appointed to go as ambassador in|to Sir Iames Leirmouth ambassador into England England, as well to make the kings excuse for his not comming to méet the king of England at Yorke; as also to make complaint vpon certeine inuasions made by the borderers of England into Scotland, and also for the vsing of the debatable ground betwixt the two realmes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But the king of England sore offended that the king of Scots would not satisfie his request, to 1542. The king of England meaneth to make warre into Scot|land. meet him at Yorke (as before is recited, would ad|mit no excuse, but determined to make warre into Scotland, albeit as the Scotishmen allege, he would not suffer the same to be vnderstood, till he had pre|pared all things in a redinesse. In the meane time he sent commissioners to méet with the Scots commis|sioners vpon the debatable ground, to talke for re|dresse to be made of harmes doone vpon the borders, but no good conclusion could be agréed vpon by these commissioners, neither touching the debatable land, nor yet for reparing of wrongs doone by the inuasi|ons. ¶ But that the truth concerning the causes of this war, moued at this present by that noble prince king Henrie the eight, may the better appeare; I haue thought good here to set downe the same, as they were drawen foorth and published in print to the whole world by the said king in a little pamphlet, vn|der this title.

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