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1.9. The forme of the homage.

The forme of the homage.

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_I Iohn N. king of Scots shall be true and faithfull vnto you lord Edward by the grace of God K. of England, the noble & superiour lord of the kingdome of Scotland, as vn|to you I make my fidelitie of the same kingdome of Scotland, the which I hold & claime to hold of you. And I shall beare to you my faith and fidelitie of life and lim, and worldlie honor, against all men; and faithfullie I shall knowledge, and shall doo to you seruice due to you of the kingdome of Scotland aforesaid: as God so helpe and these holie euangelists.

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Now for the third part, touching records and regi|sters, we haue them so formall, so autenticall, so se|riouslie handled, and with such circumstances decla|ring the matters, as they be and ought to be a great corroboration of that hath beene in stories written & reported in this matter. For among other things we haue the solemne act and iudiciall processe of our progenitor Edward the first, in discussion of the title of Scotland, when the same was challenged by 12 competitors (that is to saie) Florentius comes Holandie, Patricius de Dunbar comes de Mer|chia, Willielmus de Uesci, Willielmus de Rosse, Robertus de Pinkeni, Nicholaus de Soules, Pa|tricius Galightlie, Rogerus de Mundeuile, Ioan|nes de Comin, D. Ioannes de Hastings, Ioannes de Balliolo, Robertus de Bruse, Ericius rex Norwe|gie.

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Finallie, after a great consultation and ma|ture deliberation, with discussion of the allegations proponed on all parts, sentence was giuen for the ti|tle of Balioll, according wherevnto he inioied the realme. But for confirmation of the dutie of the ho|mage before that time obserued by the K. of Scots, it appeareth in those records, how when those compe|titors of the realme of Scotland repaired to our progenitor, as to the chiefe lord for discussion of the same, insomuch as the authoritie of the iudgement to be giuen depended therevpon; it was then orde|red that the whole parlement of Scotland, spirituall & temporall, & of all degrees assembled for that pur|pose, and considering vpon what ground & founda|tion the kings of Scotland had in times past made the said homages and recognition of superioritie, the said parlement finding the same good & true, should (if they so déemed it) yéeld and giue place, and by ex|presse consent recognise the same.

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At which parlement was alleged vnto them, as appeareth in the same records, not onelie these acts of the princes before those daies, and before rehear|sed: but also besides the testimonie of stories, the writings and letters of forren princes at that time reciting and rehearsing the same. Wherevpon the said parlement did there agree to this our superiori|tie, and insuing their determination did particular|lie and seuerallie make homage & fealtie with pro|clamation, that whosoeuer withdrew himselfe from dooing his duetie therein, should be reputed as a re|bell. And so all made homage and fealtie to our pro|genitor Edward the first. And the realme of Scot|land was in the time of the discussion of the title ru|led by gardians deputed by him. All castels and holds were surrendred to him, as to the superiour lord in the time of vacation. Benefices, offices, fées, promotions passed in that time from the méere gift of our said progenitor, as in the right of this crowne of England. Shiriffes named and appointed, writs, and precepts made, obeied, and executed.

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Finallie, all that we doo now in the duchie of Lan|caster, the same did our progenitor for the time of the contention for that title in the realme of Scot|land, by the consent of an agréement of all estates of the realme assembled and consulted with for that purpose. At which time the bishops of saint Andrews and Glascow were not (as they now be) archbishops; but recognised the archbishop of Yorke, which exten|ded ouer all that countrie. Now if the Scots will take exception to the homage of their princes as made in warre, and by force, which is not true; what will they say, or can they for shame allege against their owne parlement, not of some but of all confir|med, & testified by their writings and seales; where|vnto nothing inforced them but right and reason, be|ing passed in peace and quiet without armor & com|pulsion? If they say they did it not, they speake like themselues; if they say they did it, then doo they now like themselues, to withdraw their dutie, not so much to be blamed, as to be amended.

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Thus appeareth vnto you the beginning of the right of superioritie, with a perpetuall continuance, without intermission within memorie. Certeine o|missions and forbearings vpon the grounds and oc|casions before specified we denie not, whereby they haue manie times sought and taken their opportuni|ties to withdraw the dooing of their duetie in know|ledge of our superioritie ouer them; which to auoid, they haue not cared what they said or alleged, though it were neuer so vntrue, lieng alwaies in wait when they might annoie this realme, not without their owne great danger & perill, & also extreame detri|ment. But as they detracted the dooing of their du|tie, so God granted vnto this realme force to com|pell them therevnto within memorie, and notwith|standing anie their interruption by resistance, which vnto the time of our progenitor Henrie the sixt ne|uer endured so long as it made intermission within time of mind, whereby the possession might séeme to be empaired. From the time of Henrie the sixt, vnto the seuenth yeare of our reigne, our realme hath béene for a season lacerat and torne by diuersitie of titles, till our time; and since also by warre outward|lie vexed and troubled. The storie is so lamentable for some part therof, as were too tedious to rehearse.

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Since the death of our progenitor Henrie the sixt, our grandfather Edward the fourth reigned, who af|ter great trauels to atteine quietnes in his realme, finallie in the time of preparation of warre against Scotland died. Richard the third, then vsurped for a small time in yeares, whome the king our father by the strength of Gods hand ouerthrew in battell, and most iustlie atteined the possession of this relme, who neuerthelesse, after the great tempestuous stormes, finding all matters not yet brought to perfect quiet and rest, ceassed and forbare to require of the Scots to doo their dutie; thinking it policie rather for that time to assaie to tame their nature by pleasant con|iunction & conuersation of affinitie, than to charge them with their fault, & require dutie of them, when oportunitie serued not by force & feare to constreine and compell them. And thus passed ouer the reigne of our father without demand of this homage. And being our reigne now foure and thirtie yeares, we were one and twentie yeares letted by our nephue his minoritie, being then more carefull how to bring EEBO page image 328 him out of danger, to the place of a king, than to re|ceiue of him homage, when he had full possession of the same.

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Wherefore being now passed, since the last ho|mage made by the king of Scots, to our progenitor Henrie the sixt, 122 yeares, at which time the ho|mage was doone at Windsor by Iames Steward, then king of Scots, as before 56 of these yeares the crowne of this realme was in contention, the trou|ble wherof ingendred also some businesse in the time of the king our father; which was thrée and thirtie yeares: and in our time one and twentie yeares hath passed in the minoritie of our nephue. So as final|lie, the Scots resorting to their onelie defense of dis|continuance of possession, can onelie allege iustlie but 13 yeares of silence in the time of our reigne, be|ing all the other times since the homage doone by Iames Steward, such as the silence in them (had they béene neuer so long) could not haue ingendred preiudice to the losse of anie right that may yet be de|clared and prooued due. For what can be imputed to king Edward for not demanding homage being in strife for that estate, wherevnto the homage was due? What should Richard the third search for ho|mage in Scotland, that had neither right ne leasure to haue homage doone vnto him in England? Who can blame our father, knowing the Scots nature neuer to doo their dutie but for feare; if he deman|ded not that of them, which they would eschew if they might, séeing his realme not clearelie then purged from ill séed of sedition, sparkled and scattered in the cruell ciuill warres before.

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Law and reason serueth, that the passing ouer of time not commodious, that the purpose is not allege|able in prescription for the losse of anie right. And the minoritie of the king of Scots hath indured twentie one yéeres of our reigne, which being an impedi|ment on their part, the whole prescription of the Scots, if the matter were prescriptible, is thus dedu|ced euidentlie to thirteene yéere, which thirtéene yéere without excuse we haue ceassed and forborne to de|mand our dutie, like as the Scots haue likewise ceas|sed to offer and render the same: for which cause ne|uerthelesse we doo not enter this warre, ne minded to demand anie such matter now, being rather desi|rous to reioise and take comfort in the friendship of our nephue as our neighbour, than to mooue matter vnto him of displeasure, whereby to alienate such na|turall inclination of loue as he should haue towards vs: but such be the woorks of God superior ouer all, to suffer occasions to be ministred, whereby due superi|oritie may be knowne, demanded, and required, to the intent that according therevnto all things gouer|ned in due order héere, we may to his pleasure passe ouer this life to his honor and glorie, which he grant vs to doo in such rest, peace, and tranquillitie, as shall be meet and conuenient for vs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 When therefore the king of England had set foorth this declaration of the causes that mooued him to make warre against Scotland, he prepared to prose|cute the same both by sea and land, and hauing rig|ged and furnished diuerse ships of warre, he sent the same foorth to the sea, that they might take such Sco|tish Scotish ships taken. ships as were to returne from their voiages made into France, Flanders, Denmarke, and other countries, whether they were gone for trade of mer|chandize, with which the English ships incountred, tooke 28 of the principall ships of all Scotland, fraught with all kind of merchandize and rich wares, which they brought with them into the English ports.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king of Scotland aduertised therof, sent with all spéed an herald, desiring restitution of his ships, as he thought stood with reason, séeing no war was proclamed: but the king of England thought it no reason to depart with them so soone, till other articles of agréement might be concluded, and therefore re|fused not onelie to deliuer their ships, but also sent sir Robert Bowes with men to the borders, giuing him Sir Robert Bowes inua|deth the bor|ders. in charge to inuade Scotland, who according to his commission, with thrée thousand men rode into Scotland, and began to burne and to spoile certeine small townes: wherevpon the fraie being raised in the countrie, George Gordon the earle of Huntleie, who was appointed to remaine as lieutenant vpon The earle of Huntleie gi|ueth an ouer|throw to the Englishmen. 1542. Lesle. the borders, for doubt of such sudden inuasions, im|mediatlie gathered a number of borderers, and set vpon the Englishmen, and put them all to flight; sir Robert Bowes, and his brother Richard Bowes, with diuers other, to the number of six hundred, were taken prisoners; and the said sir Robert Bowes and other the principall landed men were kept still in Scotland till after the kings death. This victorie chanced to the Scots, at a place called Halden Rig in the Mers, vpon saint Bartholomewes day, which is the twentie fourth of August.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, the king of England sent the duke of Norffolke with the earles of Shrewesburie, Darbie, Cumberland, Surreie, Hertford, Angus, Rutland, and the lords of the north parts of England, with an armie of fortie thousand men, as the Scots estéemed them, though they were not manie aboue twentie thousand, who entered into Scotland the one and twentith of October, and burnt certeine townes vp|on the side of the water of Twéed: but the earle of Huntleie, hauing with him ten thousand of the bor|derers and other, so waited vpon them, giuing them now and then skirmishes and alarms, that they came not past two miles from the water of Twéed within the Scotish bounds at that season.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, the king of Scotland being aduertised héereof, gathered a great armie through all the parts of his realme, and came to Sowtraie hedge, where they mustered, and were numbred to be thirtie six thousand men, with the which he came to Falla Mure, and there incamped, determining to giue battell to the Englishmen, as he pretended: howbeit, if the duke had taried longer, as it was thought he would haue doone, if the time of the yéere and prouision of vittels had serued, the Scots would yet haue béene better aduised, before they had ioined with him in a pight field. But true it is, that after the duke had remained there so long as vittels might be had and recouered from anie part, he retired with his armie backe into England, not without some losse of men, horsses, and spoiles, which the Scots vn|der the earle of Huntleie and others tooke from the Englishmen in that their retire, speciallie as they passed ouer the riuer of Tweed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After the Englishmen were thus departed and withdrawne home foorth of Scotland, king Iames being of an high and manlie courage, in reuenge of harmes doone by the Englishmen within his coun|trie, thought good that his whole armie should passe forward and inuade England, himselfe to go there|with in proper person. And héerein he requested the consent of his nobilitie, who after long reasoning, and good aduisement taken in the matter, gaue answer [by the earle of Murrey] to the king in this sort, that they could not thinke it good that they should passe within England, and to seeke battell, the king him|selfe being with them, considering that his two sons were latelie deceassed, so that he had no succession of his bodie: for in case that they lost the field, as in chance of battell is most vncerteine, then the king of England hauing great substance, might therwith follow the victorie, and put the realme of Scotland in great hazard.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 329 Therefore they thought it sufficient to defend their owne bounds, and to constreine the enimie for feare to leaue the inuasion thereof, as presentlie they had doone; and declared that they were determined to haue giuen battell to their enimies, if they had conti|nued within the realme, and doubted not by the helpe of God, they hauing so iust a cause, and being inua|ded in their countrie, but that they should haue obtei|ned the victorie. The king hearing their determinati|on, albeit his high courage pressed him to inuade; yet the approoued wit of his nobles and councellors cau|sed him to follow their aduise, and so returned with The king br [...]aketh vp his armie. his armie backe againe, the first of Nouember, the armie of England being first discharged, and the duke of Norffolke in his returne towards London.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, the king of Scotland went himselfe in person to the west marches of his realme, where The king go|eth to the west borders. 1541. Lesl. the lord Maxwell was warden, whome togither with the earles of Cassiles, and Glencarne [the lord Fle|ming] and certeine other lords there with him, the king appointed to inuade the English marches on that side, taking with them the power of the borders, and sent also with them Oliuer Sincler [the brother of Rosseline Comarch] and the residue of the gentle|men Oliuer Sin|cler. of his houshold. These earles and lords entering into England on saint Katharines euen, being the foure and twentith of Nouember, began to burne certeine townes vpon the water of Eske. But as soone as the scrie was raised in the countrie, the lord Wharton warden of the west marches of England, The lord wharton. suddenlie raised the power of the countrie, and came to a little hill, where they shewed themselues in sight vnto the Scotish armie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scotish lords perceiuing the Englishmen ga|thered, assembled themselues togither, and inquired who was lieutenant generall there by the kings ap|pointment; and incontinentlie Oliuer Sincler was holden vp on two mens shoulders, where he sheweth The enuie of the lords a|gainst Oliuer Sincler. foorth the kings commission, instituting him lieute|nant to the king of that armie. But howsoeuer that was read, the earles and lords there present, thought themselues imbased too much, to haue such a meane gentleman aduanced in authoritie aboue them all, and therefore determined not to fight vnder such a capteine, but willinglie suffered themselues to be o|uercome, and so were taken by the Englishmen, not The Scots discomfited by the English|men. shewing anie countenance of defense to the contra|rie, and without slaughter of anie one person on ei|ther side.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 This rode was called Solowaie Mosse, at the which were taken prisoners men of name, these per|sons following: the earle of Cassiles and Glencarne, the lord Maxwell, the lord Fleming, the lord Somer|uile, the lord Oliphant, Oliuer Sincler, the lord of Craggie, and sundrie other gentlemen, the which were led prisoners to London, where they remained till after the king was dead. The king being in Car|lauerecke vpon the borders not farre from Solo|waie Mosse, when this misfortune fell vpon his men: after he heard thereof, he was merueloustie amazed, the more, in calling to remembrance the refusall made by his nobles, assembled with him in campe at Falla vpon his request to in [...]de England. Héere|with such an impression entered his mind, that he thought with himselfe that all his whole nobilitie had The griefe of the king for the ouerthrow of his men. conspired against him, and therevpon tooke such a ve|hement and high displeasure, increased with a me|lancholious thought that he departed suddenlie from thence to Edenburgh, and after remooued to Falke|land, where he remained as a man desolate of com|fort, being sore vexed in spirit and bodie, and would not permit anie manner of person to haue accesse to him, his secret & familiar seruants onelie excepted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now, as he was thus disquieted, newes were brought him that the queene his wife was brought to bed of a faire yoong princesse the seuenth day of The birth of the Scotish queene. December, the which newes he liked verie euill; and added the griefe thereof to his former displeasant|nesse, insomuch that he perceiued the end of his life to approch, and withall said, that he foresaw great trouble to come vpon the realme of Scotland, for the pursuit which the king of England was like to make therevpon against the same, to the end he might bring it vnder his subiection, either by mariage, or [...] some other meane. It was reported that he was disquieted with some vnkindlie medicine: but how|soeuer the matter was, he yéelded vp his spirit to almightie God, and departed this world the foure|téenth of December, in the yéere of our redemption, 1542, the thirtie thrée yeere of his age, and thirtie two of his reigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after his departure, his bodie was con|ueied into Falkeland vnto Edenburgh in most ho|norable wise; the cardinall, the earles of Arrane, Ar|gile, Rothes, Marshall, and diuerse other noblemen being present, and with all funerall pompe (as was requisite) it was buried in the abbeie church of Ho|lie rood house, beside the bodie of quéene Magdalen, daughter to the king of France, his first wife. There was great lamentation and mone made for his death throughout all parts of his realme, for he was verie well beloued among his subiects. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 460. He was of swéet countenance and courteous speech, graiesh eied, hauing a diuine mind in all whatsoeuer, nei|ther certeine in doubtfull things, nor doubtfull in things of certeintie, auoiding dangers with graue counsels, performing hard matters with great no|bilitie of mind, and foreséeing what might follow with an incredible iudgement: in such fort that hée was neuer vnprouided against the danger of anie thing, or was drawne from it by the difficultie there|of, or was hindered by the obscuritie therein: where|by he might incurre the note either of a rash, feare|full, or slow person.

All which singular commendations seemed to flow out of this spring, that he did not by heat of youth (rashlie) but with great deliberation (soundlie) man|nage the whole affaires of the common-wealth. For as he did chieflie labor that his table might not ex|céed for gluttonie, nor be ouersparing for miserie: so if his apparell were decent, he esteemed not the shew of womanish attire after the courtlie fashion. He was so farre from pride, that he alwaies shewed himselfe offended with the vses thereof. He was an obseruer of iustice, a defender of the law, and a sharpe shield for the innocent and poore: for which cause he was of the nobilitie called the king of the commoners. For he set at libertie the poore oppressed with the tyrannie of the rich, and repressed the rich from spoiling of the poore: all which he did with a certeine seueritie, but yet such, as in the same there appeared a woonderfull gentlenes of his naturall disposition, bicause he sel|dome put anie of them to death, but did either by pri|son or mulct punish the offense. For he was woont to say, that he would neuer take life from anie, but onelie to kéepe the law sound, and for the example of others: and to kéepe downe the boldnesse of such as dwelt about the borders. With these conditions he left the realme plentifullie furnished with riches, and his owne treasurie not emptie, but abundantly stored with gold, siluer and other furniture: for which cause it should not séeme strange, that his death was greatlie lamented of his subiects, to whom he was a perfect patrone, and a louing father.

Of whome also Buchanan lib. 14 writeth, that his vices did almost equall all his great vertues; but that they were rather to be imputed to the ini|quitie of the time than the inclination of his nat [...]re, EEBO page image 330 for the libertie of althings had then dissolued the pub|like discipline, which could not be staied but by great seueritie of correction. And this made him more co|uetous of monie, bicause that he was kept extreame hard when he was vnder the gouernment of others. Whereby, when he came to bée at libertie, he was a|new to furnish all his courts with houshold stuffe, finding his houses emptie, and all things conueied awaie: for his tutors had consumed the kinglie pa|trimonie vpon those whome he willinglie would not to haue receiued it. Besides, for his excesse of women the fault grew by such as were his tutors, who gaue him libertie therto, supposing therby to keepe him the longer in their danger. The nobilitie did not great|lie take his death grieuouslie, bicause he had fined manie, imprisoned more, and caused no small few (for auoiding his displeasure) to flie into England, and rather to commit themselues to the enimie than to his anger.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 THe eternall God calling to his mercie Iames king of Scotland, the fift of that name, Marie Queene Marie. his onelie daughter and heire began hir reigne ouer the realme of Scotland, the eighteenth day of De|cember, in the yéere of our Lord 1542, Francis the first of that name then reigning in France, & Hen|rie 1542. the eight ouer the Englishmen. She was not pas|sing seuen daies old when hir father departing this life, left vnto hir his kingdome, hir mother lieng in childbed in the castell of Lithquo, of which place the lord Leuingston being capteine, had the charge com|mitted The lord Le|uingston. to him, both of the daughter & mother, with the mothers good agreement and frée consent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, immediatlie after the kings death (bi|cause he deceassed without making anie will, or ta|king anie direction for the gouernement either of the realme, or custodie of the yoong queene his daugh|ter) Dauid Beton, cardinall and archbishop of S. Dauid Beton cardinall. Andrews, the speciall minister & factor of the French causes, to the aduancement and continuance there|of, inuented and forged [by Henrie Balfure] a will and testament of the late king now departed, in His forging of a will. which (amongst other things) he established himselfe chiefe regent, adioining with him the earles of Mur|rey, base brother to the king deceassed, Huntleie and Argile, not once mentioning the earle of Lennox then absent in France, nor yet Iames Hamilton earle of Arrane his cousine, being there present in Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Those that professed the reformed religion, beeing then called protestants, to whome the said cardinall The prote|stants espied the cardinals craftie iug|ling. was euer a cruell enimie and sharpe scourge, espied foorth his vniust dealing in this behalfe, and trusting by the gentle nature and good inclination of the said earle of Arrane, to haue some libertie to imbrace the gospell, set him against the cardinall: so that by the helpe of his owne and their friends, he remooued the cardinall and his adherents from the vsurped roome and authoritie, and therewith was the said earle of Arrane proclamed gouernor and protector of the 1543 Lesle. Fr. Thin. realme. [And therevpon shewing his authoritie, he entereth the kings palaces, as saith Lesleus lib. 10. pa. 464. and vseth the kings treasure, and calleth the officers of the treasurie to account, whereof he retei|neth some, and changeth others at his pleasure.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This earle of Arrane made a title to haue and inioie that office and roome, as next in bloud to the yong queene, as descended from a sister of K. Iames the third, maried to his grandfather lord Hamilton, in the yere 1475, by reason of which mariage he was created earle of Arrane, as by act of parlement hol|den the same yeere at Edenburgh, it was agréed and ordeined. The king of England that noble prince Henrie the eight, aduertised of the death of the king of Scots, considered with good aduise, that now there was offered a most readie meane and iust occasion, whereby the two realmes of England and Scotland might be brought into one entier monar|chie, without warre or bloudshed, by the mariage of his sonne prince Edward, being then little past six yéeres of age, with the yoong quéene of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He therefore being resolued fullie to bring the The king of England tal keth with the lords of Scot|land prisoners for a mariage betwixt his son and their quéene. same to passe, either by quiet meanes or by force, and sending for the erles of Cassiles, and Glencarne, the lords Maxwell, and Fleming, and other prisoners that had bene taken at Soloway mosse, caused them to be conueied vnto Hampton court, where the se|uen and twentith of December they being right curteouslie interteined, he made vnto them an ouer|ture of his purpose and whole intent, proponing the whole matter vnto them, requesting them for their parts, to helpe (with their consents) that a con|tract of mariage might be made betwéene his sonne the prince, and their yoong queene; promising to them libertie without ransome, besides other pleasures and benefits, if they would doo their indeuor to per|suade the gouernor, and other the nobilitie of Scot|land to be agréeable herevnto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Scotish earles and lords accepted the kings 1543. Buch. offer, and withall promised to doo their diligence to persuade the rest of the nobilitie in Scotland at their comming home: wherevpon they were licenced to depart, and so comming to Newcastell, remained Duke of Norffolke Buchanan. there with the duke of Suffolke, then the kings lieu|tenant of the north parts, till he had receiued foorth of Scotland certeine pledges of the chiefest of these lords, for performance of their promises. Likewise the king of England sent with them the earle of An|gus, The earle of Angus sent home into Scotland. and his brother sir George Dowglas with his letters to the gouernor, requesting effectuouslie, that they might be restored to their roomes, lands and pos|sessions in that realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 These lords arriuing at Edenburgh, about the 1543. Lesle. 1542. midst of Ianuarie, declared to the gouernor their message and proposition made by the king of Eng|land, with such efficacie, that the gouernor being per|suaded thereto by their words, sent for the lords and A conuention of the Scotish nobilitie. nobilitie of the realme to come to Edenburgh, to a conuention there, to be holden the seuen and twen|tith of that present moneth: where they concluded that a parlement should be kept in March next insu|ing. And doubting lest the cardinall (being there pre|sent) should go about to persuade the nobilitie not to consent to their desires, they caused him to be put The cardinall committed to ward. in ward within the castell of Dalketh: the lord Seton béeing appointed to haue the custodie of him. About the same time, sir Robert Bowes, and all other the Englishmen that were prisoners, and had béene taken at Halding rig on saint Bartholo|mews Halding rig. day (as before ye haue heard) were sent home by the gouernor into England, and sir Rafe Sadler Sir Rafe Sadler. was sent ambassadour from king Henrie vnto the said gouernor, and other the lords of Scotland, and came thither before the said parlement, to persuade the lords to agree vnto the king his masters moni|tions, trauelling so diligentlie in the matters wher|about he was thus sent, that it was concluded by Ambassadors sent into England. act of parlement, to send ambassadors into Eng|land, for the better satisfaction of king Henries desires.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And so the earle of Glencarne, sir George Dow|glas, sir William Hamilton, sir Iames Leirmouth, and the secretarie being named and appointed there|to, departed in the moneth of March, and comming into England vnto the king, remained there till the latter end of Iulie. In which meane time, such coue|nants, contracts, and promises were had and conclu|ded, passed and sealed interchangeablie, as stood with the pleasure and good liking of king Henrie, so as the EEBO page image 331 mariage was fullie contracted, and a peace conclu|ded The mariage confirmed. for ten yeeres, by authoritie of the aforesaid par|lement. Héerewith also the lord gouernor shewed himselfe to imbrace the reformed religion, causing one frier Guilliam to preach against images, and fruitlesse ceremonies, and gaue libertie that the bible called The new and old testament, should be had in English, & vniuersallie publisht through the realme of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Also he commanded not onelie the cardinall (as before ye haue heard) but also ordeined that the quéene mother should remaine in Lithgow with the yoong quéene hir daughter, vnder some manner of safe custodie, and the cardinall to be remooued vnto his owne castell of saint Andrewes, with warders a|bout him to see him safelie kept. Fr. Thin. Iesleus. lib. 10. pag. 465. Not long after, the cardinall was restored to vnhoped libertie, and the earle of Angus, George Dowglasse, and the lord Glames, the heire of Iames Hamilton, with manie others, by the consent of the thrée estates, were who|lie restored to all their goods, and deliuered from the sentence of banishment.

Iohn Hamilton abbat of Passelew, brother of the gouernor, returning out of France (where he had im|ploied himselfe to studie) did (with certeine learned men, as Dauid Paniter, and others, whom he had in his companie) visit the king of England, of whome they were most courteouslie interteined. After which this Hamilton returning into Scotland, was made treasuror of the kingdome, which office he discharged with great commendation, so long as his brother kept the gouernement, whom he did not onelie helpe in counsell for ordering of the kingdome, but also shewed him selfe a valiant and industrious man in the warres against the English, for defense of the kingdome of Scotland. About this time, the earle Bothwell, which was banished, and had remained long at Uenice, did returne into Scotland, whither he was honorablie welcommed, as a person much desired of his friends and kinred.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The realme being thus brought in quief, and vnder good gouernement, the French king sore misliking The French king misliketh of the match with Eng|land. Matthew earle of Len|nox. this new coniunction of the Scots with England, and doubting least the old former bond of aliance be|twixt France and Scotland might thereby be vtter|lie dissolued and shaken off, he sent for Matthew Steward earle of Lennox, then abroad in his seruice in the wars of Italie, and vpon his comming backe from thence to the court, he declared to him the de|ceasse of the late king of Scots, the intrusion of Ar|rane, and the attempts in that realme begun, with all the circumstances from point to point as he knew; and further discoursed with him what wrong he had to be set aside, and displaced from his right of gouernement; and therefore exhorted him to repaire home to recouer the same, offering not onelie to as|sist him with men, monie, and munition, but also to ioine his friends in Scotland with him in aid to at|taine the place of regiment, and to remooue Arrane and others from it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Lennox héerevpon with commission and instructions deliuered to him by the French king, had also letters from him directed to the lords that were of the French faction, wherin the said king requested them to remaine and continue in their for|mer good meanings towards him, and to assist the earle of Lennox in all things, as should be thought expedient. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 15. Now, before the earle of Lennox retur|ned out of France, the cardinall had vsed manie persuasions against the English, as well that the Scots set at libertie by the king, should breake their faith with him, as also to draw them to the French faction, and rather to suffer their pledges to receiue what king Henrie would vse vnto them, than by kée|ping promise to the English, to conueie the yoong quéene vnto them.

Wherevpon, when the greater part of those no|bles (whome the matter touched, could easilie find a|nie color for the excuse of their fault) had consen|ted to the cardinals persuasion, onelie one amongest the rest would not yéeld thereto, which was Gilbert Kennedie earle of Cassiles, who could not be draw|en from that constancie (in obseruing his faith) ei|ther by bribes, flatteries, or threats. For he (hauing two brothers pledges for him in England) did open|lie protest, that he would returne to prison, and by no feare laid before him commit such a fault, as that he would redéeme his life with the bloud of his two bro|thers: for which cause he went foorthwith to London, although euerie man spake against it. Wherevpon, the king of England did singularlie commend the constancie of the yoong man, and further (to the end that his vertue might be knowne to all men) did set him at libertie with his two brethren, and sent him home honorablie rewarded.

Now the realme of Scotland being thus in great vprores by means of the quéenes and cardinals fac|tions, whereof the laft drew all (such as he could) to support the French league, they sent ambassadors in|to France, to request the French king to send home Matthew Steward earle of Lennox, as one that was not onelie emulous against Hamilton, but also his deadlie enimie for the slaughter of his father at Limnucho: which yoong Steward (beside his beau|tie and comelinesse of bodie, in the verie flower of his youth; the memorie, carefulnesse, and dangers of his father, a verie popular man, and beloued of the people; the woorthinesse of that familie brought al|most to an end, and that the same was of great pow|er, and linked in mariage with manie nobles) did win and draw the minds of manie men, desirous to helpe him, for the great fauor they bare vnto him.

To the which further procurement of the peoples loue also, there might be ioined, that he was next heire to the crowne by the kings appointment, if he died without issue male; the which king Iames, if he had liued, would haue established by parlement: be|sides which likewise, there wanted not flatterers, which did not onelie [...]re vp his noble mind (now gaping after great things, and vndefended against deceits) to the hope of gouerning of the kingdome for these one and twentie yéeres and more, during the quéenes minoritie, and to the rule and power o|uer his enimies, whereby he might vse reuenge vpon them: but also they promised him to marrie the quéene Dowager: and in the meane time (if anie thing happened otherwise than well to the yoong quéene) that he should obteine the crowne, whereby he should both be king, and the next lawfull heire of Iames Hamilton latelie deceassed, since the gouer|nor was a bastard, and could not onelie by law not looke or hope for the kingdome, but also not so much as hope to be heire to his owne familie. To all which were added the persuasions of the French before mentioned. Wherevpon, the yoong man (whose mind was credulous, being tickled and intised with these hopes) determined to go into Scotland.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle therefore fullie instructed by the French The earle of Lennox pas|seth into Scotland. king, how to deale and procéed, tooke his leaue, and with all spéed taking the sea, directed his course into Scotland, where (after his arriuall) he came to Eden|burgh, in which towne all the lords being assembled togither with the gouernor, he declared to them the effect of his commission from the French king, his request to them, & good affection to mainteine them against England, if in case they would continue the old league with him, and not séeke to make anie new aliance with the king of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 332 But perceiuing that the gouernor and his friends were minded to satisfie the king of Englands de|sires, he would not tarrie for a resolute answer, but by the counsell of the earle of Argile, William earle of Glencarne, and others of the French faction, he suddenlie departed foorth of Edenburgh toward the west countrie, highlie displeased (as should séeme) with the gouernor, and taking Lithgow in his way, he conferred with the quéene Dowager (as they ter|med The earle of Lennox con|ferreth with the quéene Dowager. hir) deuising how to assemble the noble men of the French side, to bring hir and hir daughter to li|bertie, out of the danger of the lord gouernor: be|cause it was supposed that he ment to conueie hir in|to England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the same time, through practise of the abbat of Pas [...]eie, brother to the gouernor, and others, the 1543. Lesle. The castell of Edenburgh recouered to the gouernors vse. castell of Edenburgh was got out of the hands of sir Peter Creichton, and the keeping thereof commit|ted by the gouernors appointment vnto Iames Ha|milton lard of Stanehouse. But the erle of Lennox, with the assistance of the earles of Huntleie, Mont|rosse, Mentife, Argile, and others of the French fac|tion in August following, conueied the yoong quéene The yoong quéene conuei|ed to Striue|ling. with hir mother from Lithgew vnto Striueling. The cardinall also was there with them latelie be|fore, hauing corrupted his kéepers, & gotten abroad at libertie. Héerewith was a day appointed and pro|clamed for the coronation of the yoong quéene. The earle of Arrane then gouernor, with the earles of Angus, Cassiles, the lords Maxwell, Someruile, and diuerse others, called the English lords, remaining still at Edenburgh, aduertised the king of England of all the drifts of Lennox, and other of that faction, requiring his aduise and counsell how to deale for disappointing of their purposes, that sought to conti|nue the amitie still with France, to the preiudice of peace with England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king of England aduertised héereof, as well thus from the gouernor, and other the Scotish lords, as also from sir Rafe Sadler, his maiesties ambas|sador there, doubted greatlie least these lords, in The king of Englands doubt. whose hands the quéene then was, in respect of the fa|uour which they bare to the French king, should con|ueie hir ouer into France: wherevpon he requested the gouernor, and the other lords that fauoured his side, so to deale, that she might be sent into England, there to remaine, till the mariage might be consum|mate betwixt hir and his sonne prince Edward: ha|uing in the meane time such lords of hir countrie a|bout hir to attend vpon hir, and to see to hir bringing vp, as should be thought expedient. To conclude, his maiestie not onelie sent his princelie comfort by waie of counsell and good aduise, but also according to their desire, and as by the duke of Suffolke (his highnes lieutenant thén in the north) it was thought expedient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thomas lord Wharton, with two thousand men from the west marches, and the lord Euers with o|ther The lord Wharton. The lord E|uers. two thousand from the east borders, were ap|pointed to enter Scotland, and to ioine themselues with the gouernor, and his friends, to assist them a|gainst their aduersaries. But as they were in a rea|dinesse to march, through the secret labor of the car|dinall, wishing the aduancement of the earle of Ar|rane his kinsman (whome he thought he should well inough frame to be at his appointment) rather than Lennox that was knowne to be of a greater sto|mach, the matter was so handled, what by the cardi|nall and the earle of Huntleie of the one part, and the queene Dowager on the other, that the earle of Ar|rane reuolting from the king of England, came in to the Dowager, and ioined himselfe with the cardi|nall, and other the lords of the French faction: by The earle of Arrane a faith breaker. reason whereof, they all concluded to mainteine him in the estate of lord gouernor, and not to place Len|nox, as their purpose was to haue doone, if Arrane had continued faithfull to the king of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, the yoong queene was crowned at The corona|tion of quéene Marie. Striueling, the cardinall taking vpon him to order things as he thought good, appointing the gouernor to beare the crowne as chiefe person, & next in bloud to the quéene, and the earle of Lennox to beare the scepter. After the coronation, a parlement was cal|led A parlement. and holden at Edenburgh, at the which, in pre|sence of the patriarch of Apuleia the popes agent, The patri|arch of Apu|leia. and of the French kings ambassadors, monsieur la Brosse, and monsieur Menage, latelie before come into the realme, the earle of Arrane was newlie confirmed gouernor. And for the sure preseruation (as they pretended) of the yoong queene, it was a|greed by the gouernor and the estates, that the shuld Order for the custodie of the quéene. remaine with the old quéene hir mother in Sterling castell, during hir minoritie, and certeine rents of that seigniorie were assigned for maintenance of such traine as was thought expedient to be atten|dant about hir: and further, the lords Leuingston, Erskin, and Fleming [or (as saith Buchanan) the Fr. Thin. lord Grams, Iohn Areskin, Iohn Lindseie, & Wil|liam Leuiston] were appointed to abide continual|lie with hir, for the better safegard of hir person.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus was euerie thing ordered as séemed to stand with the pleasure of the cardinall. Wherevpon the earle of Lennox, perceiuing how vncourteouslie he The earle of Lennox his displeasure. was vsed, to haue his aduersarie thus confirmed in authoritie by the French side, and himselfe reiected, he first sent to the French king, informing him tho|roughlie of the iniuries to him doone, putting him in remembrance of the promises made to him when he departed from him; also the constantnesse of his ser|uice, the hazard he had put himselfe in for his sake: and notwithstanding how he was yet vnkindlie dealt with, that through trust of his promised aid and assistance, he was brought out of credit in his coun|trie, and subiected vnder the commandement and authoritie of his enimie, and wrongfullie disappoin|ted of his right, which he looked to haue recouered, and to haue béene mainteined therein by his support.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In consideration whereof, he renounced his ser|uice, willing him from thencefoorth not to looke for the He renoun|ceth his ser|uice to the French king. same anie more at his hands. Héerewith Lennox ioining himselfe with the earles of Angus, Cassiles, and Glencarne, the lords Maxwell, and Someruile, the shiriffe of Aire, the lard of Drumlanrig, and o|ther of that side, called the English lords, set himselfe against the gouernor, the cardinall, and others of that faction, so that the residue of this yeere was spent in ciuill dissention betwéene them. And héere is to be Ciuill dissen|tion in Scot|land. noted, that a little before that the earle of Arrane re|uolted to the French part, there was arriued in the mouth of the riuer of Cloide on the west coast, fiue French ships arriuing in the riuer of Cloide. ships, which the French king had sent to the aid of his friends in Scotland, vnder the conduction of Iames Steward of Cardonold, and of the forenamed mon|sieur de la Brosse, & monsieur Menage, the French kings ambassadors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There came with them also the patriarch of Apu|leia, of whome ye haue likewise heard before. They had brought aboord in these ships fiftie thousand crownes, and munition to the value of ten thousand crownes. The earle of Lennox therfore, when he first resolued to turne to the English part, with the aduise of his confederats, seized vpon those ships, got the fif|tie The earle of Lennox seized vpon the French ships. thousand crownes, and the most part of the mu|nition into his hands, and brought it to the castell of Dunbreton, reteining it to his owne vse, where it was sent to haue beene imploid to the maintenance of the French faction, against the king of England, and the lords that leaned to his side.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 EEBO page image 333 The earle of Lennox therefore, raising a power of The earle of Lennox rai|seth an armie. men of warre with the assistance of the lords of his faction, came with them vnto Leith against the go|uernor that was then in Edenburgh: but through the diligent trauell of the cardinall, the earles of Huntleie, Murrey, and Argile, the matter was ta|ken vp, and an appointment accorded: so that sir In appoint|ment taken. Pledges deli|uered. George Dowglasse was deliuered as a pledge for his brother the earle of Angus, the maister of Glen|carne for his father the earle of Glencarne, the ab|bat Cassaghole for his brother the earle of Cassiles, to remaine in safe kéeping where it pleased the go|uernor to appoint. The earle of Lennox came vnto Edenburgh to the gouernor, but within six daies af|ter, The earle of Lennox com|meth to the gouernor. He departed from him a|gaine. He fortifieth Glascow. they went both to Lithquho, from whence the earle of Lennox secretlie departed from the gouer|nor without bidding him farewell, and comming to Glascow, fortified the castell.

* When the gouernor had receiued true intelli|gence that the earle had taken Glascow, he (assem|bling such power as he could make, as well of his friends and followers, as of others, especiallie of the lord Boid) went vnto Glascow, in which place the earle of Glencarne had before placed his armie, to the end there to trie the matter with his enimies. But before the battell, the earle of Lennox had with|drawen himselfe vnto Dunbreton, to gather a grea|ter assemblie, shortlie after to returne to Glascow. The earle of Glencarne, with Tilbarne, Houstone, Buchanan, Macfarlane, Drumquhassile, and other barons and nobles of the Lennox, Ramfrie, and o|ther places adioining, with the citizens, ecclesiasticall persons of all orders, and the other sort of common people, departed out of the towne to the plaine there|of (being a mile from the towne) there to trie the e|uent of battell (before the comming of the earle of Lennox) more in haste than good spéed. Wherevpon the gouernor (perceiuing himselfe to be drawne for|ward to battell) commanded the trumpets to sound to the alarmes. Wherevpon the battels ioined, the hosts began to fight violentlie, and the conflict grew to be extreme on both parts: in which (with great slaughter) they long time fought with vncerteine vi|ctorie.

But in the end (what with the force of his armie, and the incouragement of the capteine) the full con|quest fell to the gouernor, who put his enimies to flight. At what time, of the fauourers of the Lennox there were manie slaine, partlie of the nobles (as the sonne of the earle of Glencarne, and Monniepennie capteine of the footmen) and partlie of the common sort (as the citizens of Glascow, and manie ecclesi|asticall persons.) Besides all which, there had manie more perished, if the gouernor (through his naturall clemencie) had not (when the victorie began to leane towards him) giuen a signe of retreit, & with much spéed saued manie of them. On the gouernors part were few missing, except Cambusketh (the head of that familie) and the baron of Argentine. The go|uernor pursuing this victorie, entered the towne of Glascow, where he vsed (by the persuasion of the lord Boid) woonderfull fauour towards the citizens, (farre beyond their deserts) although that he depri|ued some (of the chiefest condition amongest them) from all the vse and benefit of their goods.

The earle of Lennox remaining at Dunbar, re|ceiued into the castell the earle of Glencarne, and o|thers, which had escaped the battell, who sometime af|ter did rest (being feared with the ouerthrow) from a|nie further turmoiles or troubles. But in the end, they which fauoured the Lennox, doo afresh stirre him to take weapon against the gouernor: wherevpon he dooth restrengthen the towne and stéeple of Glas|cow, determining to gather a new supplie, and once more to cast the dice of war. But the gouernor (min|ding to preuent all his indeuors by wise counsell) did (being accompanied with the cardinall) call to him about Glascow, all the nobilitie of the south parts, and (bringing foorth the hired souldiors) commanded the great péeces to be planted against the enimie. Wherevpon (entering the towne) he besieged the castell and steeple of the church (in which place were both Scots and Frenchmen) and in the end (after a slaughter of some of them) inforced the other to yéeld their forts. After that the castell was thus come into the gouernors hands, he hanged eighteene of the chiefest and best loued vnto Lennox, and permitted the rest to depart at libertie. The earle of Lennox (vnderstanding that his affaires began to wauer, and to obteine such euill successe) dooth send the earle of Angus and the lord Maxwell to the gouernor, to in|treat of peace betwéene him and the earle of Len|nox, the which they laboured with great diligence, ac|cording to the trust reposed in them.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But the gouernor caused them both to be secretlie The earle of Angus and the lord Max|well commit|ted to ward. conueied from the councell by the backeside of the blacke friers of Glascow, vnto the castell of Hamil|ton, and from thence the earle was sent to Blacke|nesse. The lord Maxwell was kept still in hold at Hamilton, and George Dowglas, and the maister of Glencarne in Edenburgh castell. These persons thus imprisoned stood in great doubt of their liues (as some supposed:) but as diuerse other did suspect, Mens opini|ons for the imprisoning of the earle of Angus. 1544. The earle of Lennox sen|deth to the king of Eng|land. they were rather committed for a colour, than for a|nie euill that was meant towards them. Howsoe|uer it was with them, the earle of Lennox by the aduise of his friends sent the earle of Glencarne, and a gentleman called Thomas Bishop, vnto the king of England with offer of his seruice, and re|quest to haue in mariage the ladie Margaret Dow|glasse daughter to the Earle of Angus, and néece to the said king.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 470. Herevnto the king granted. For the perfor|mance whereof (and the dispatch of other things) he sent the lord Wharton and diuerse others. And on the earles part, the bishop of Cathnes his brother and the earle of Glencarne were appointed, who met at Carleill to performe the agreement. The quéene, the cardinall, and the other of the French faction, did helpe the gouernor all they might, with counsell, power, and monie; because they perceiued that he repented such friendship with England as he had taken in hand by the counsell of Angus and of others. In the meane time there was a parlement assembled at Striueling, in which by common con|sent, the earle of Lennox was condemned of trea|son; wherefore the sentence of banishment was exe|cuted against him, and all his goods with his patri|monie were confiscat to the quéene. Whilest the French king was ascerteined that Lennox had for|saken his faction, & committed himselfe to the king of England, he suddenlie committed to prison Iohn Steward lord of Aubigne baron in France, brother to the earle of Lennox, and depriued the said Iohn Steward of all such honors and offices as he posses|sed in France. For he was generall capteine of all the Scotish lands in France, being either such as had gard of the kings bodie, or bowmen, or men at armes: for the king of France hath Scots in wa|ges of all the orders.

But let vs now returne to the Patriarch, who was honorablie receiued by the cardinall and the bishop of Scotland into the citie of Glascow: during whose abode there, great contention arose betwéene the cardinall and the archbishop of Glascow, who should in that citie be of greatest authoritie and honor. Which in th' end came to this issue, that both families fell togither by the eares, which of them should go be|fore EEBO page image 334 with his crosse borne vpright. For the cardinall archbishop of saint Andrews and primat of the king|dome, did affirme that the archbishop of Glascow should not haue his crosse borne in his owne church, so long as the cardinall was present. Which the ser|uants of the archbishop of Glascow tooke in such dis|daine, that they plucked downe the cardinals crosse and threw it to the ground. Wherevpon, the gouer|nor (vnderstanding the whole matter, and that it was now come from words to swords) made hast to appease this factious commotion, & caused the Patri|arch therwith to be brought to Edenburgh accompa|nied with the clergie, where he remained all the win|ter following. In which towne he was honorablie enterteined and feasted of the quéene, the gouernor, and other of the nobles, whome he requited with the like courtesie.

Amongest these of the nobilitie, the earle of Mur|rey had the Patriarch on a day to a banket, in which this Murrey did shew an honorable thing not accu|stomed amongest others. For where he abounded in store of siluer vessels, yet he commanded his ser|uants to furnish a great cupboord with christall glas|ses brought from Uenice, & that in the midst of din|ner he should ouerturne the cupboord as it were vn|willinglie. Which the seruant at the time appointed did performe. The noise of breaking of which glasses did suddenlie fill the eares of all the companie: and the Patriarch seeing the hurt, was somewhat moo|ued. But the earle making no account of this thing, commanded his man afresh to furnish the same cupboord with as manie and fairer vessels of glasse than the former were, to the Patriarchs great ad|miration. For the Patriarch affirmed that the glas|ses of Muranoe and Uenice did not anie way excell these. Truelie this earle of Murrey was honora|ble, wise, iust, and famous amongest manie prin|ces for his manifold vertues, & manie ambassages most happilie performed amongest them. Who shortlie after this, departing the court, died of the stone at his castle in Turnwaie.

This Patriarch shewed to the gouernor (besides other priuileges that he had from the sée of Rome) his great authoritie, in that he was legat from the popes side, amongest the Scots, as long as he re|mained there. Which office, when he departed to Rome, he procured to be transferred to the cardinall; at what time the Patriarch also in the name of the pope, did promise much helpe, and monie to be sent to Scotland against England. For he studied by all means he could, to hinder the mariage of those two kingdoms: because he suspected thereby, that some alteration might be made in Scotland touching the religion; with the ouerthrow of churches and mona|steries. Now, after that the Patriarch had remai|ned all the winter in Scotland, he departed from thence in March, who as he was honorablie enter|teined in all places, so he spared not to recount to the French king and other princes (whome he visited in his iourneie) the humanitie he found in Scotland, which he also imparted to the bishop of Rome, to the other cardinals, & to the senat of Uenice; not with|out singular praise and honor to the Scotish nation.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They that were sent, so solicited the earles cause, that in the end the king was persuaded that Len|nor ought of right to haue the gouernement of the realme of Scotland, and to be second person in the fame. And herewith, in consideration how vniustlie not onelie his maiestie had béene dealt with, but also how vnthankefullie and discourteouslie Lennox had béene vsed, both at the hands of the French king, and also of his adherents in Scotland, by the cardi|nall & others: he both thankefullie receiued his gen|tle offer of seruice, & also promised to aid him in his title and all other lawfull causes: and herewith pre|pared The king of England meaneth to aid the earle of Lennox. an armie to passe into Scotland by sea, ap|pointing the earle of Hertford, and the lord Lisle to haue the conduction of the same, who shipping at Tinmouth with their people, arriued in the Forth vnder Werdie castell, a mile & a halfe aboue Leith the third of Maie, the whole nauie conteining aboue The English armie landeth by Leith. the number of two hundred ships. Here at New|hauen, a quarter of a mile from the said castell, they landed their armie of ten thousand men of warre, with great artillerie, and all kind of munition.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lord gouernor being at that present within the towne of Edenburgh, hearing of their arriuall, went foorth of the towne accompanied with the car|dinall, the earles of Huntleie, Argile, Bothwell, and others, purposing to stop their landing: but per|ceiuing the puissance of the aduersaries to be such, as they could not resist the same, they returned to Edenburgh againe, and sent maister Adam Otten|borne The prou [...] of Edenburgh sent to the earle of Hert|ford. prouost of Edenburgh, and two of the bailiffs to the earle of Hertford, to vnderstand the cause of his comming; and withall offered, that if there were anie iniuries or wrongs doone by anie of the Scots nation, he would appoint commissioners to talke with such as by him should be authorised thereto, for the full answering thereof, & to that effect he would gladlie receiue them into the towne of Edenburgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Hertford answered that he had no The earles answer. commission to talke of anie such matter; but rather to take reuenge of the vniust dealing and breach of promise on those that had falsified their faith. And therefore minding to burne the towne of Eden|burgh, as well as other within that realme, he wil|led the inhabitants and all all those that were with|in the same to come foorth, and submit themselues before him the kings lieutenant, to stand vnto the kings will and pleasure, or else he would not faile to procéed in execution thereof. The prouost answe|red that he would rather abide all extremities, than accomplish his request and desire in that behalfe; and therevpon returned to the towne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After the gouernor had heard what answer was made to the prouost, he caused the castell to be furni|shed with all things necessarie for defense, and de|parted straightwaies to Striueling. The English armie lodging that night in Leith, marched the next day toward Edenburgh, passing vp the Cannogat stréet to enter at the nether bow, where they found some resistance made by the Scots, so that diuerse were slaine on both parts. Towards night, the Eng|lishmen, after they had continued long in skirmi|shing that day with the Scotishmen, retired to Leith. The next day the whole armie with the great artillerie came forward towards the towne, and breaking open the Cannogat, they entred the towne Edenburgh entred by force. by the same, bringing their ordinance within sight of the castell, purposing to plant the same in batte|rie against it; but the capteine of the castell caused the artillerie within to shoot off at them in so great abundance, & so good measure, that they slue diuerse Englishmen, and dismounted one of their péeces, so Sée more hereof in Eng land. that in the end they were constreined to draw backe their ordinance & retired; but yet in the meane time they set fire on the towne, and burnt the most part of all the houses in the same. They burnt also the Can|nogat Edenburgh burnt. street, and the abbeie of Holie rood house. The gouernor at that present released out of prison the earle of Angus, the lord Maxwell, the maister of Glencarne, sir George Dowglas, and others. Prisoners set at libertie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane time also there came from the borders by land foure thousand of English horsse|men, vnder the conduction of the lord William E|uers, and his sonne sir Rafe Euers; who ioining with the armie at Leith, scowred the countrie on euerie EEBO page image 335 side of Edenburgh. Finallie, after the English armie had lien in Leith a certeine space, they burnt that towne also, and sent their ships awaie fraught with pillage and spoiles (got as well in that towne, as in Edenburgh, and abroad in the countrie) backe towards England. And therwith the earle of Hertford, the lord admerall, and others, returned by land through the countrie vnto Berwike, as in the English historie more at large appeareth. Whilest the English armie was thus occupied in that part of Scotland, the erle of Lennox with an armie of men which he had raised, was readie to come on the backs of the gouernor and his adherents, if they had assembled their forces and come forward to haue giuen the Englishmen battell. For all this season the ciuill contentions still continued, and sundrie conflicts and skirmishes chanced betwixt the parties.

The Scots which inhabit the mountains, and the Iles, did now in these turmoiles begin to shew some tokens of their inconstancie. For they (which paied yeerelie tribute in the time of Iames the fift, kept the peace, liued within the bounds of law, and well obeied the gouernor) did now (after they saw all things on a flame) begin againe to spoile and destroie their neighbors, in the same vttering the humor of their naturall disposition. Wherevpon the gouernor (to restreine their boldness) called vnto him George Gordon earle of Huntleie, and the earle of Argile, whereof he made the one gouernor of the north parts of Scotland, of the Orchades, and Shitland; and to the other, he committed the rule of Argile, and the Iles Hebrides. Wherevpon Huntleie with all speed gathered an armie from the north parts, and determined to bridle the Glancamerons, the Gencronelles, the Mudiardes, & the Kindiardes, with force and authoritie. The capteins or heads of which families, were Ewin Allanson, Ronald Mackoneilglas, and Iohn Mudiard, who did possesse the lands of the lords Grant, and Louet, hauing expelled them by force from the same.

But when they first vnderstood that Huntleie had incamped neere vnto them, they fled euerie one home to their owne possessions: which being defended partly by the west sea, and partly included about with the mounteins, stopped Huntleie, so that hee might not haue anie passage vnto them: by meanes whereof (these dissessors being banished) the lords Grant and Louet were restored to their right inheritance. But it fell out contrarilie for Louet, who going to take his owne into his hands, fell into danger of his enimies. For at that time both the companies were disposed into such order, that neither partie could absteine from fight. Wherevpon they first discharge their bodies one against another, and their arrowes spent, they after flie to their swords, with which they fought so egerlie, that the night cutting off the battell, it could not be well knowne to which part of the victorie gaue place. In which there was so great slaughter on both parts, that till the next morning in viewing the dead bodies, the victors were not knowne. Amongest whome of the part of the Glencamerons and Mudiardes there were many slaine.

But by reason of the death of the lord Louet, and of his sonne and heire (a youth of singular hope, and brought vp on France) with three hundred of the bloud and surname of the Fraisers, for Louet was the head and leader of that familie) the hurt seemed to be the greater on their part. For there was a rumor spred, that there was not one of the familie of the Fraisers left aliue that was of mans state. But it happened by the singular benefit of God, that they left their wiues with child when they went to the fight, by which meanes the familie was after raised and restored. Huntleie (greatlie grieuing that the Fraisers had receiued this grieuous wound) gathered a power togither, and with armes so pursued those factious people, that he tooke and beheaded Ewin Allanson, and Ronald, with diuerse others, and put the rest in prison. The earle of Argile discharged the office committed to him as well as Huntleie did and with more happie successe, for all the Iland men humblie submitted themselues vnto him, and deliuered pledges to liue quietlie hereafter.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About this time the earle of Lennox, accompanied with Alexander the maister of Glencarne, otherwise called lord of Kilmawse, Walter Graham brother to the earle of Montrosse, sir Iohn Borthwike knight, and sundrie other gentlemen, tooke the sea to passe into England, and arriued at Westchester about Midsummer: & passing from thence to the court, he was ioifullie receiued. And immediatlie therevpon was the mariage celebrated betwixt him and the ladie Margaret Dowglas, daughter & heire to the earle of Angus, and to Margaret his wife queene of Scots, sister to king Henrie the eight, at what time there was assured to him by way of inheritance, lands to the value of seuen hundred marks of yeerlie rent of assise, in consideration of this mariage with the kings neece, and in recompense of lands lost by him in France, to the which he was inheritor after the deceasse of Robert Steward lord Obenie, one of the foure marshals of France.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, king Henrie being now vpon his iournie towards Bullongne, aswell for the anoiance of his highnesse enimies in Scotland, as for recouerie of all the said earles right in that realme, appointed the said earle to enter Scotland in the moneth of August, accompanied with sir Rise Mansfield, sir Peter Newtas knights, maister Thomas Audleie, master Thomas Brookes, old maister Winter comptrollor of the kings ships, and his sonne sir William Winter that now is, and sundrie other capteins, hauing vnder their charge two hundred hackbutters, two hundred archers with long bowes, and two hundred armed pikes, beside the mariners belonging to those ships that were appointed to go foorth on this iournie, being in number about twelue or fourteene saile, belonging to Bristow, and other of the west parts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Vpon their arriuall on the coast of Scotland, they burnt the Ile of Arrane, and raced the gouernors castell to the ground. And afterwards arriuing at the Ile of Bute, they entered the same, and tooke the castell of Roseie standing therein (from whence the Stewards kings of Scotland had their originall) the capteine they had awaie prisoner with them into England. Here also they tooke two French ships laden with wines, and this doone they entered the Firth of Clide, thinking to find none but their friends in the castell of Dunbreton. But true it is, that in this meane time the earle of Glencarne with sundrie gentlemen being left in that castell, with the capteine thereof called Houson, to keepe it in the name and to the behoofe of the erle of Lennox, were in his absence persuaded thorough practise of the queene Dowager, not only to renounce their promised faith to him, in defrauding him of that castell; but also to intrap and wind him within their danger to take him prisoner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For this purpose they so dissembled the matter that they had got him on land onelie with three hundred men: and so farre foorth they were growne in talke, that the erle of Lennox being entered into the castell with a few other with him, the monie was laid downe on the boord, to be paid to the capteine for his satisfaction. But in the meane time, the earle of Lennox, & such as were with him, perceiuing some treasonable EEBO page image 336 treasonable practise in hand got foorth of the house a|gaine vnto their companie below, leauing the mo|nie behind them, and after made shift to get to their ships, and not before it was high time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For if they had staied that night, they had béene intrapped by George Dowglas, who with foure thousand men was secretlie drawne thitherwards, and entered the towne of Dunbreton, shortlie after that the earle of Lennox was thus departed, and got to his ships lieng there at hand in the riuer of Clide, downe the which he retired to the sea, not without danger to haue lost the same ships, by reason of the narrownesse of the water: for the erle of Argile be|ing gotten betwixt him and the sea with a great power of men, with banners displaied, hailsed the ships with shot of ordinance from the castell of Din|nune, annoieng the earle of Lennox his passage as much as he could. But he escaping with the Eng|lish gentlemen, and the ships out of danger, tooke ad|uise togither at the Ile of Bute what they were best to doo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle sore mooued to haue béene thus repel|led from Dunbreton, and stomaching the matter sore, to be so discountenanced by his enimie the earle of Argile, with the aduise of the English gentlemen, he returned with them, and with great shew of man|hood tooke land beside the castell and towne of Din|nune, The earle of Lennox lan|deth at Din|nune. where the earle of Argile with seuen hundred men was readie to incounter him, & to kéepe him off from landing: but by the helpe of the shot out of the ships, and great store of botes, the Englishmen lan|ded, slue foure score of the enimies, most part gen|tlemen, and put the residue to flight, with the losse of thrée men onelie on the English side.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This doone, the towne of Dinnune was burnt, and the church spoiled, that was full of goods and orna|ments. When the night approched, by reason the Eng|lishmen The towne of Dinnune burnt. had no powder, nor other prouision on land, the earle with his people returned to shipboord in safetie, howbeit not without offer of skirmish made by the enimies though to their losse, namelie of those that aduanced themselues most forward. About foure or fiue daies after, the earle of Lennox with The earle of Lennox lan|deth againe in Argile. fiue hundred men landed in another part of Argile, and remaining on land a whole day togither, burnt, spoiled, and wasted the countrie: the earle of Argile with two thousand men giuing the looking on, and not once offering the skirmish, so that the earle of Lennox with his souldiers retired to his ships with|out incounter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After this they inuaded the Ile of Kinter, where Kinter inua|ded. Iames Mackonell dwelled, burnt manie places in that countrie, tooke and caried awaie great booties of cattell and other goods. All the coasts of Kile, Car|rike, & Coningham, and likewise of Galloway re|mained in continuall feare, so that oftentimes their beacons were fired, and manie of the noble men constrained to come to the earle of Lennox, suing to him for assurance. In these exploites the earle had with him Walter Macferlane of Tirbat, and Walter Mac|ferlane. seuen score men of the head of Lennox, that spake both Irish, English, & the Scotish toongs, light foot|men, well armed in shirts of male, with bowes, and two handed swords, and being ioined with the Eng|lish archers and shot, did much auailable seruice in the streicts, the marishes, and mountaine coun|tries.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 15. During these things, they which had gouern|ment of Scotish affairs (as the quéene Dowager, the cardinall, and the gouernor) called a councell, in which they decréed that all such of the nobilitie as had force and armor, should be readie to follow the gouernor whither soeuer he went, and there to re|maine with him for the space of eight daies. Short|lie after there assembled eight thousand men, and in the sharpe winter battered the church of Colding|ham, standing in armor a whole day and night to the great toile and wearinesse of the men and horsses. The next day the gouernor, either to accuse his ten|dernesse susteined in the last daies labor of warre, or else fearing the inuasion of the enimie (for he was certified of an armie of men that should come from Berwike) suddenlie (vnknowne to the other nobili|tie) did flie to Dunbar with a few of his owne traine. They which went about to excuse the defame of this flight, reported how he feared that he should haue béene betraied to the English by his host, for hatred which they had conceiued against him for manie of his offenses.

This departure of the gouernor brought great trouble to the armie, & so much the more, bicause the secreter it was (and the reason vnknowne) the more cause it gaue to the rest to feare some further euill. Wherefore the greater part remained in this obsti|nate mind, that euerie one should returne the next way home, and leaue the artillerie at randon. But others (who were more carefull, and would séeme lesse fearefull) doo agrée to stuffe the péeces full of powder, and to breake them, rather than they should fall in the hands & helpe of the enimie. To the which deuise onelie Archembald Dowglas did resist, least he should ad a wicked déed to a wicked flight. Who when he could not staie any man, either by threat, in|treatie, or authoritie, he exclamed with a lowd voice (for euerie one to heare him) that for his owne part he had rather die an honest death, than to haue a se|cure and rich life with such dishonor.

Wherefore you my friends consider what you will doo, for either I will bring awaie this artillerie, or I will not returne home with life; wherefore I meane to make this the last end both of my life and glorie.
When he had spo|ken this, a few (whose honor was deare vnto them) were mooued therewith, but the rest (despairing by reason of the shamefull flight of the gouernor) did scatteringlie depart, wandring whither they thought good, without anie order. The Dowglasse with such companie as he had (placed in good order) followed the artillerie, and brought the same to Dunbar, the horssemen of his enimies in vaine hastening after them behind at their backes. This expedition by the gouernor rashlie begun, and shamefullie performed, brake the hearts of the Scots, and aduanced the minds of the English, who gloriouslie applied the da|stardnesse of the gouernor to their owne glorie.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To conclude, after the earle of Lennox and his companie had atchiued these enterprises afore men|tioned, he returned towards England, and sent sir Peter Mewtas knight, & Thomas Bishop a Sco|tish Sir Peter Mewtas. gentleman, to aduertise the king of England of his procéedings, who found him at the siege of Bul|longne, where they declared to him the whole circum|stance of euerie thing, as the same had passed in the earles iornie, which the king tooke in verie good part. And vpon his returne into England, after the con|quest of Bullongne, the earle of Lennox was also called home to the court by letters to him directed, he being then at Bristow.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the middest of Februarie, sir Rafe Eure 1545. Sir Rafe E|uers inuadeth Scotland. commonlie called Euers, lord warden of the Eng|lish middle marches, entred Scotland with a power of foure thousand Englishmen, Irishmen, and assu|red Scots; and comming first vnto Iedwoorth, lod|ged there that night. And therwithall vnderstanding that the gouernor and the earle of Angus were at the abbeie of Melros, about eight miles distant from thence, the next morning he was got foorth so earlie, that he was almost vpon the enimies in such wise on the sudden, that they fled out of their lodgings, EEBO page image 337 and left their beds and all their houshold furniture which they had in store there with them, not hauing time to conueie it awaie at their departure, their warning was so short. Sir Rafe Euers at his com|ming thither, finding them fled and gone, spoiled the towne and abbeie, vtterlie defacing the toomes and He defaceth the monu|ments of the Dowglasses. monuments of the earles of Dowglas, greatlie to the displeasure of the earle of Angus, and those of his linage.

Fr. Thin. B [...]ch. lib. 15 After this (the comming of the English being looked for the next yéere) the minds of the borderers were greatlie troubled, bicause they were hopelesse to atteine anie succor from the gouernor, which vsed the aduise of the clergie, but chieflie of the cardinall. Wherevpon Archembald Dowglas earle of Angus (greatlie mooued partlie with his priuat losses, for he had great possessions in the marches, and in Tiuiot, and partlie to sée his ancestors monuments defaced) came to the gouernor, and fullie laid before him the greatnesse of the danger wherein the realme did stand, persuading him to incounter and resist the same. At what time also (after the gouernour had opened vnto him, that he was forsaken of the nobilitie, and now left alone) the Dowglas shewed that the same happened vnto him by his owne fault, and not by the nobilitie, which would imploie their liues, liuings, and goods, for the defense of the com|mon-wealth. For he contemning their counsell, on|lie leaned to the spiritualtie, who were cowards in warre, and seditious in peace.

Out of this founteine (saith he) a suspicion (that you dare not trust one another) is growne betwéene you and them, which is the onelie cause why things are no better performed. But if you determine (in great affaires) to take the aduise of them (who will not refuse to spend their bloud therein) I doubt not but that we shall be able to execute as great mat|ters as euer our ancestors did: but if we shall (by our flouth) permit the enimie to take all things from vs, then of necessitie will folow, that either they shall shortlie banish vs, or bring vs into perpetuall ser|uitude: the inconueniences of anie of which cannot well be spoken. As touching our selues I know that thou art suspected to be a coward, and I a traitor, which reproch if thou thinke to purge (for thou canst not auoid it) prepare to cleare the same, not with painted speaches, but with bloudie weapons.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon the gouernor and the said earle (sore aggreeued to be thus foiled at the Englishmens hands) assembled togither [vnder the leading of Fr. Thin. Norman Leste son of the earle of Rothseie] all such forces as they might recouer, so that they had quicklie got them about fifteene hundred men, wher|of eight hundred at the least were gentlemen. Who hearing that the Englishmen were retiring to|wards Iedworth, they met them at a place called Pannier hugh, or Broomehouse, where both the par|ties alighting on foot, ment to trie the quarell by plaine force of hand. But as they were redy to ioine, the assured Scots, to the number of seuen or eight hundred reuolted vnto the part of their countrimen, by reason whereof, after a right sharpe and fierce con|flict, the Englishmen in the end were constreined to flie, whome the Scots right egerlie pursued, slue sir 1544. Lesle. Buchanan. Rafe Euers, the lord Ogle, sir Brian Leiton, and other gentlemen & souldiors to the number of eight Sir Rafe E|uers & others slaine. hundred. They tooke also about two thousand priso|ners, with certeine péeces of artillerie and other munition.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This victorie fell to the Scots the seuentéenth day of Februarie, the report whereof was right displeasant to the English nation, but speciallie the losse of that worthie gentleman sir Rafe Euers was greatlie bemoned, and that euen of the king himselfe, for the noble prowesse and great loialtie which at all times had béene found in him. His ser|uice His seruice against the Scots. had beene such in these wars against Scotland, that he had brought the more part of the Scots with|in twentie miles space of the English borders, vnto the obeisance of the king of England, although at length they holpe to worke his confusion, as before ye haue heard. ¶ Of this gentleman & his singular Abr. Fl. seruice in the field, I omit here to speake, bicause he was imploied otherwise, besides Scotland: where|fore I remit the readers to the twentith yere of king Henrie the eight, where to his high commendation this gentleman is recorded.]

Fr. Thi [...]: Buchan. lib. 10. pag. 478. The occasion of the English ouerthrow (as saith Lesleus) and the Scots victorie, were chieflie by these meanes. First they fought vpon equail ground, and with vnequall helpes. For the Scots with the sunne on their backs (being declined toward setting) came foorth of a narrow & marish place, and set vpon the English (at the side of an hill which was betweene them) hauing the sun in their faces, by which meanes they could neither well perceiue what number the Scots had, nor with their gunnes hurt anie of the Scots. But those that fought in the first battell, wherevnto was ioined (a feare not in vaine) which they had conceiued of the Scotish march-men, who in great number hauing red crosses (the note of the English) ran vp and downe hither and thither to sée the euent thereof.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About the same time that the victorie before men|tioned chanced to the Scots, Robert Corncorse bi|shop of Rosse departed this life, to whome succéeded Death of bi|shops. Dauid Pantane, secretarie to the gouernor and pri|or of saint Marie Ile. In Aprill, William Steward bishop of Aberden likewise deceassed, and maister William Gordon chancellor of Murreie, vncle to George erle of Huntleie, was by the cardinals sute promoted to that sée, greatlie to the displeasure of the earle of Angus, that labored to haue preferred an o|ther thereto. For this and other causes, the cardinall was greatlie in hatred of the Dowglasses.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 479. About that time, the king of England by prise & preies persuaded the Flemings to take sixteene of our ships harbored in the hauen, and to conuert the commodities (wherewith they were fraught, being verie costlie) to their owne commoditie. By means whereof at one time we had warres with two nati|ons, England and Flanders. But sith the Flemings did not the same maliciously for hatred to the Scots, but carefullie for the loue vnto the English, as the Scots did certeinlie know, they shewed none other token of enimitie to the Flemings, but that they forbad them to fish on their coasts, and did sometime intercept their ships, without further iniurie doone vnto them.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yéere also, Montgomerie, otherwise called 1545. Buch. Monsieur de Lorges sent into Scot|land. monsieur de Lorges, knight of the order of saint Mi|chaell, was sent by the French king with foure thou|sand Frenchmen into Scotland to assist the Scots a|gainst England. He landed at Dunbreton, & came in good order to Edenburgh the thirtéenth of Maie: he brought with him from the French king the order of saint Michaell, to inuest therewith the lord gouer|nor, Knights of saint Micha|els order. the earles of Angus, Huntleie, and Argile. Her|with also was an armie of Scots raised, and ioining with the Frenchmen, they approched the borders, where they laie for a season: but the earle of Hert|ford An armie of Scotslieth on the borders lieutenant generall of the north parts comming downe, tooke such direction for the safe kéeping of the English borders, that after the Scots had laine there in campe a certeine space without atchiuing a|nie great enterprise, though some notable exploit was looked for to haue beene attempted by them at that present, they brake vp their armie & went home.

EEBO page image 338 Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 480. This castell of Dunbreton was at that time so carefullie kept by the captein therof, that he determi|ned neither to deliuer it to the gouernor, nor to anie Englishman, nor to anie Scot. Wherevpon, the go|uernor fearing least it should fall into the hands of the English, prepare to besiege the same; the newes wherof comming to Glencarne, he signified the same vnto Lennox, affirming, that if he would come thi|ther, he should shortlie obteine the castell. The king of England reioising of that newes, prepareth two ships, and in the meane time sent the bishop of Cath|nesse into Scotland, which should foorthwith be recei|ued into the castell. Wherefore the gouernor making the more hast, commeth to Dunbreton togither with the cardinall, and the earles Huntleie, and Argile, laieng present siege to the same, which was strong|lie doone, and the castilains pressed to great extremi|tie by the slaughter of manie people. But at length by the policie of the earle Huntleie, it was so agréed, that the castell (which was by nature inexpugnable) should be deliuered. Which the gouernor receiued (with certeine conditions) and honorablie intreated the capteine for the singular discharge of the trust committed to him: and therewithall he restored the bishop of Cathnesse, brother to the earle of Lennox to his bishoprike, which before he had lost by his go|ing into England.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The sixteenth of September, thrée or foure hun|dred Scots, with Maxwell, Lochinuart, and Iohn|stone, aided with the Frenchmen, attempted to en|ter into England on the east borders: but the Eng|lishmen Frenchmen and Scots o|uerthrowne. perceiuing where they were about to passe by a certeine streit, they set vpon them with their ar|chers, discomfited them, sleaing, & taking to the num|ber of seuen score of them. Among other that were taken, one of the sonnes to the lord Hume, with a French capteine, and George Elphinston archer of the corps to the French king, were accounted chiefe. Also on the west borders, Robert Maxwell eldest son to the lord Maxwell, was taken in a rode made by The lord Maxwels son taken prisoner him and others, into the English confines on that side; although at an other time certeine Englishmen making a rode into Scotland were distressed, the more part of them being taken or flaine. At a parle|ment holden at Linlithquho, begun there the twen|tie eight of September, and continued till the first of October, Matthew earle of Lennox, and Thomas bi|shop of Utheltres, were for falted, and all their lands and goods giuen awaie and annexed to the crowne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane time, the king of England desirous to haue the seruice of the Iles of Scotland for sun|drie great causes and respects, mooued the earle Len|nox to deale with them to that end: which he did. And his trauell tooke such effect, that the Iland men were contented to rest at the king of England his deuoti|on, The earle of Lennox pro|cureth them of the Iles to [...]erue the king of England. partlie for that they were in a manner sworne e|nimies to the earle of Argile, and his familie; and partlie for that they doubted the king of Englands puissance, if he should attempt to inuade those par|ties: and againe, bearing an old speciall fauour to the earle of Lennox and his house, hauing an anci|ent bond of aliance and amitie with the same, they were the more readie to satisfie his motion. Héere vp|on, they elected amongest them a lord of the Iles, the next of bloud: a title long since verie odious to The lord of the Iles elec|ted, being one of the Maco|neis. the state of Scotland, and by the inducement of the earle of Lennox, he was contented as the king of Englands pensioner, to receiue two thousand crownes of him yéerelie, with certeine rich apparell of cloth of gold and siluer from the said earle.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The first proofe he attempted to shew of his ser|uice in the king of Englands behalfe, was this. Ha|uing instructions thereto from the earle of Lennox, vnder colour of conference for matters touching the estate of the countrie, he had suborned one of his aliance and seruants, called the clane Reginald, to Clane Reg [...]|nald sleteth the lord Lo|uet. intrappe the earles of Argile and Huntleie. And al|though they escaped verie narrowlie, the lord Louet an ancient baron, & great friend to those two earles, was slaine by the said clane, togither with seuen hundred of his kinsmen and friends: insomuch that there remained not but one yoong boy of that linage to succéed in that lords lands [which is before more Fr. Thin. fullie handeled out of Lesleus.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, the lord of the Iles, with six thousand men imbarked in certeine vessels, passed ouer into The lord of the Iles in|uadeth Ca|r [...]ke. Carrike, harried and burnt the lands of the earle of Cassiles, then a great enimie to the king of Eng|land. In this voiage he got great spoiles, and slue manie of the enimies. After which enterprise so at|chiued, he came with his power by sea, and landed in Ireland, where the earles of Lennox and Ormond He commeth into Ireland. were, with twelue hundred Irishmen, appointed to ioine with him, that with their whole power they might inuade the earle of Argiles countries, & conse|quentlie the maine land of Scotland at the broad side. But before the preparation could be made rea|die for that iorneie, the new lord of the Iles deceas|sed, whose buriall in Ireland to honor the earle of He departeth this life. Lennox, stood the king of England in foure hundred pounds sterling.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now to returne vnto the dooings on the bor|ders betwixt England and Scotland in this season. Ye shall vnderstand, that after the armie of Scot|land was broken vp, the earle of Hertford by vertue of his commission, raised an armie in the countries of the further side of Trent northwards; so that when the same was assembled togither, with such stran|gers as were then in the kings wages, they were in all of horssemen and footmen twelue thousand figh|ting But eight thousand, as some say. men. With this armie garded with great store of artillerie, munition, and all manner of furniture necessarie, the earle of Hertford entered Scotland, The earle of Hertford in|uadeth Scot|land. and marching to Coldingham, past vp by the water of Twéed, and burnt a great part of the Mers, and Tiuidale, the abbeies of kelso, Melrosse, Driborne, and Iedworth, with townes & villages, to the num|ber of fiue score.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit, he entered not farre within the said countrie beyond the said water, but kept alongest néere to the same, and returned backe without anie incounter: for after the Scotish armie was broken vp, it was not like they would assemble againe, and so the earle of Hertford taking the time that serued his purpose, sore indamaged the Scotish borders at that present. Manie other small inuasions were made, as well by the one part as the other, and some skirmishes fell out betwixt them, sometime to the losse of the Scotish, and sometime of the English, ac|cording to the course of warre.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 15. Much about this time, or rather before, Robert Maxwell the sonne of Robert (a yoong man of singu|lar vertue) was taken by the English. Besides which there was nothing doone woorthie the memorie, but that in the beginning of the next winter Montgome|rie returned into France. After this, the cardinall leadeth the gouernor about the néere countries, vn|der colour to reconcile such parts as were at dissen|tion: then they came first to Perth, where foure men were punished for eating flesh on forbidden daies: from thence they went to Dundée called Toadune (to vse the name of the place, as Buchanan hath) to punish (as they said) such as vsed the late new testa|ment of Luthers translation. Thither came also Pa|trike Greie (the head of a noble familie in those parts) accompanied with a good traine, togither with the erle of Rothseie, being before that commanded to be there by the gouernor, after the pacifieng of the o|ther EEBO page image 339 tumults. But the cardinall (supposing it small safetie to receiue at one time two such noble and fac|tious persons addicted to the restored religion, into the towne) wrought with the gou [...]rnor that he and they might go backe to Perth.

The next morning, when those two noblemen (redie for the iourneie) vnderstood that the gouernor was on his waie towards Perth, they presentlie fol|lowed him. Who being come in sight, did strike such feare into the cardinall, that the gouernor com|manded them to sunder themselues, and seuerallie to enter the citie: which they did. Wherevpon the next day they were both committed to prison. But Rothseie being shortlie deliuered, Greie (whome they hated more, and feared most) was kept longer in that restraint. But before they parted thence, it séemed good to the cardinall to abate the strength of Ruthwen capteine of the towne. For which cause, the gouernor taketh his office from him, and be|stoweth the same vpon Kinfane Comarch, neighbor and kinsman to Greie. For this Ruthwen was a great enimie to the cardinall, and much fauored the restored religion: as likewise was Greie, who af|ter the same sort did not beare a friendlie mind to the cardinall, nor to his religion.

By reason whereof, the cardinall supposed, that if he might set them (by this meanes) together by the eares (sith manie of both parts would ioine for de|fense of the chiefe of their families) and that if anie side had the woorse (as both must be diminished) that then he had by so much abated the power of one of his enimies. Upon which occasion the gouerne|ment of Perth (which had by manie descents remai|ned in the familie of the Ruthwens) might be thus translated to Kinfane. Thus the new capteine was sent with a power to subdue the citizens by force, if they would not willinglie obeie: as it séemed that they would not; because they tooke it with some griefe, to haue (in this new capteine) the old liber|tie of voices (in choosing of their gouernor) taken from them. The besieging of the towne being there|fore diuided into parts, Greie (which had wholie ta|ken the matter on him) attempted the ouerthrow thereof, from the bridge of Taie. The other band (hauing laid their artillerie along by the riuer ouer against the towne) did inuade the open side of the said Perth.

But because the swelling of the sea did not an|swer their deuise, they came not in time to doo anie thing therein. Greie assalting it by the bridge (which Ruthwen hauing receiued, and conueied the aid in|to the next houses, would séeme to leaue vngarded) when he saw no armed men stirring, did (without all feare) enter further into the towne, where he was so sharplie set vpon by Ruthwen, and his com|panie (suddenlie and vnlooked for breaking out of the houses vpon them) that euerie one hastened to spie some place by which he might flie awaie. But the multitude confused and driuen into a streict, did let one an other thereof. For they behind, thinking to breake in amongest the other, did hinder the first that they could not flie: in which vnorderlie multi|tude, manie were troden vnder foot, and thrée score were killed with the sword.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The cardinall (although against his mind) hauing heard of the victorie of Ruthwen; yet he did not greatlie lament the slaughter made of his aduersa|ries. After this, the cardinall hauing thus suffici|entlie progressed to Angus: he led the gouernor after the fouretéenth of December to saint An|drews, to the end (if it were possible) to bind the gouernor more firmelie vnto him. For although before he had the gouernors sonne as pledge with him; yet (as often as he remembred the eagernesse of the Scotish nobilitie, the strength of his enimies, and the inconstancie of the gouernor) he greatlie feared, least the said gouernor should with like light|nesse be drawen to assist his enimies, as he had béene led to take his part.] During the time whilest they were at S. Andrews, the cardinall caused in the Lent season all the bishops & prelats of the realme to assemble at the towne of saint Andrews, where a learned man, named maister George Wischart, that had béene in the schooles of Germanie, was ac|cused of heresie, which he had (as was alleged against him) publikelie preached, and priuatlie taught in Dundée, Brechin, and diuerse other parts of Scot|land, since his returne home. This matter was so George Wis|chart a learned man burnt. vrged against him, that he was conuict, and burnt there in the towne of saint Andrews during the time of that conuention or assemblie.

Fr. Thin. When these things were thus doone, the cardi|nall, although he greatlie trusted to his riches; yet because he was not ignorant what were the minds Buchanan. lib. 15. of men, & what spéeches the common people had of him) determined to increase his power with new deuises. Wherefore he goeth into Angus, and ma|rieth his eldest daughter (as saith Buchanan) to the earle of Crawfords sonne. Which mariage was so|lemnized with great preparation, almost answera|ble to kinglie magnificence. During which time, the cardinall vnderstanding by his spies, that the English did prepare to inuade the Scotish borders on the sea (and speciallie did threaten those of Fife therewith) returned to saint Andrews, and appoin|ted a day to the nobilitie, and such as dwelled about the sea coasts, to assemble togither to prouide in common for the defense thereof, and to prepare re|medie for that hastened euill. For the easier and bet|ter performance whereof, he had determined, togi|ther with the lords of that countrie, to haue sailed himselfe about the coasts, and to haue defended such places as were most conuenient.

Amongest others that came vnto him, there was a noble yoong gentleman called Norman Lesle, sonne to the earle of Rothseie, whereof we haue spo|ken before manie times. This man (after that he had manie times emploied his valiant and faith|full diligence in the behalfe of the cardinall) grew to some contention with the said cardinall for a priuat cause, which for a time did estrange both their minds the one from the other. This same contention did Norman (being thereto induced with manie faire promises) afterwards let fall. But certeine moneths following (when he returned to demand the performance of such liberall promises) they began to grow from common spéech to brallings, and from thence to bitter tawnts & reproches, not fit to be vsed by anie of them both. Wherevpon they departed with the gréeued minds of euerie of them. For the cardinall being intreated more vnreuerentlie than he would or looked for; and the other threatning that being ouertaken by deceipt, he would reuenge it: they both returned discontented to their owne peo|ple. Wherevpon Norman, declaring to his parta|kers the intollerable arrogancie of the cardinall, they easilie agréed all to conspire his death. Where|fore, to the end that the same might be lesse suspec|ted, they departed in sunder afterward. This Nor|man accompanied onelie with fiue of his owne traine, entred the towne of saint Andrews, and went into his accustomed Inne and lodging; tru|sting that by such small traine he might cunninglie dissemble the determination of the cardinals death. But there were in that towne, ten of those which had consented to this conspiracie; which closed in secret corners, some in one place, and some in an other, did onelie expect the signe which was to be giuen vn|to EEBO page image 340 them to execute this deuise. With which small companie this Norman feared not to aduenture the déath of the cardinall in the same towne, furni|shed in euerie place with the seruants and friends of the cardinall.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon the thirtéenth of Maie, the cardinall being within his castell of saint Andrews, certeine of his owne friends (as he tooke them) that is to say, the said Norman, lord Lesleie, William Kirkan|die, the yoong lord of Grange, and Kirkmichell with sixteene chosen men, entered the castell verie secret|lie in the morning, tooke the porter, and all the cardi|nals seruants, thrusting them out of the place by a posterne gate. And that doone, passing to his cham|ber where he laie in bed, as he got vp, and was ope|ning his chamber doore, they slue him, and seized vp|on the artillerie and munition, wherewith that for|tresse The cardi|nall of saint Andrews murthered. was plentifullie furnished, and likewise with rich hangings, houshold stuffe of all sorts, apparell, copes, iewels, ornaments of churches, great store of gold and siluer plate, beside no small quantitie of treasure in readie coine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Sir Iames Leirmouth, prouost of saint Andrews, assembled all the people of that towne for the rescue of the cardinall, after he heard that the conspirators were entred the castell; but they shewed the dead bo|die of the cardinall ouer the wals, as a spectacle to the people, and so they made no further attempt, sith they saw no meane how to remedie or reuenge the matter at that present. The cause that mooued the conspirators thus to kill the cardinall, was thought to be partlie in reuenge of the burning of maister George Wischart, fearing to be serued with the same sawce, and in the end to be made to drinke of the same cup. Partlie it was thought they attemp|ted it through counsell of some great men of the realme, that had conceiued some deadlie hatred a|gainst him.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10 pag. 481. But Lesleus also, writing of the causes of his death saith, that they were diuerse: as the seuerall tormentors seuerallie framed euerie one a part for his owne excuse. For Norman & Iohn did com|plaine, that they were wronged by him with no small iniurie, because that the cardinall had not recom|pensed him for the losse he susteined; when the car|dinall had restored to Colwine lord thereof (before through the cardinals counsell banished by the king) the castell and possessions of Easter wemes; which the king had after giuen to the said Norman. The lord Grange affirmed that he reuenged himselfe, be|cause he was remooued by the cardinals aduise from the office of the treasurorship; which (being granted by the king to him) he had discharged with great profit to the realme, & honor to himselfe. And Kirkmichell did also say that he was dispossessed by the cardinall of some other (I cannot tell what) possessions. All which causes were but veiles which they spread a|gainst the wind and report of so wicked and shame|full a deed. For vpon the fact, Norman being vexed with remorse of conscience, did not onelie labor to pacifie the anger of such, that (either by bloud or be|nefit) were tied to the cardinall with all kind of du|ties: but did also, to shun the danger thereof, passe into France, and there by valour (in the seruice of Henrie the second king of France) endeuored to wipe away that note of infamie, which he had cast vpon his familie. All which notwithstanding, both he and others (some after one sort, and some after an other) were worthilie punished for their wickednes.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The same euening that the cardinall was slaine, the old lord of Grange, maister Henrie Balnauis, one of the councell of the realme, and sundrie gentle|men of the surname of the Meluins, Iohn Knocts and others, to the number of seuen score persons, entred the castell to their support, taking vpon them to keepe it against the gouernor and his partakers. Not long after, the gouernor, considering that his deere cousine the cardinall was thus made awaie, as|sembled the great lords of the realme, as the earle of Angus, Huntleie, Argile, and others, by whose ad|uise he called a parlement, and forfalted them that 1546. The slaters of the cardinall forfalted. had slaine the cardinall, and kept the castell of saint Andrews.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herewith also he raised a power, and besieged the same castell, planting diuerse péeces of great artil|lerie against it. But it was so stronglie furnished with all maner of artillerie & munition by the cardi|nall The castell of saint An|drews besie|ged. in his life time, that they within cared little for all the inforcements that their aduersaries without could aduance against them. Wherevpon, after that the siege had continued the space of three moneths, the gouernor was glad to take an appointment with them within, to the end he might get out of their The siege rai|sed. hands his eldest sonne, who was remaining with the cardinall at the time when he was murthered, and so kept by them that did the murther, till now they agréed to deliuer him to his father, with condition that he should raise his siege.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 They deliuered also the dead bodie of the cardi|nall, after it had laine buried in a dunghill within the castell, euer since the day in which they slue him. [The gouernor did name the abbat of Paslew his Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 1 [...]. pag. 483. brother to the bishoprike of saint Andrews, and gaue the abbeie of Arbroth (being before granted to Iames Beton kinsman to the slaine cardinall) to George Dowglasse bastard sonne to the earle of An|gus: which things were afterwards occasions of great troubles in the realme.] In the yeare next insuing, king Henrie the eight departed this life, af|ter 1547. The king of England de|ceassed. whome succéeded his sonne Edward, the sixt of that name, king of England, France, and Ireland: Shortlie after, that is to say, the last of March, Fran|cis the French king deceassed, and his sonne Hen|rie, The death of the French king. the second of that name succeeded him; who at the desire of the gouernor of Scotland, appointed Leone Strossie prior of Capoa, a knight of the or|der of Malta, with a nauie of 16 gallies, fraught with men of warre, and munition, to passe into Scotland, to helpe to win the castell of saint An|drews.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The gouernor in the meane time with an armie passed to the west borders to besiege the castell of Langham, the which was kept at that present by Michaell Wharton, hauing then with him but six|teene Englishmen, who neuerthelesse abid thrée or foure daies siege, and seuen canon shots, and so yéel|ded the house to the gouernor: and hereby was the peace broken, first by the Scots, euen as the Eng|glishmen could haue wished. Moreouer, at the same time, the erle of Rothous then returned out of Den|marke was acquit by an assise (as they call it) of earles and lords, of an accusation wherewith he was charged, as confederat and partie with them that had murthered the cardinall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Whilest the gouernor was thus passed with his armie to the west borders, he was aduertised that the prior of Capoa was arriued, and [against the Fr. Thin. wils of such as were against it] entred into the The castell of saint An|drews besie|ged by the French. towne of saint Andrews: wherevpon the gouernor, with all the nobilitie that were then about him, ha|sted thither to assist the prior, and so the siege was stronglie laid about the castell there. The prior cau|sed certeine péeces of artillerie to be drawen vp, and mounted on the top of a church, which was higher than the castell; so that those peeces shot plump into the castell, that none durst shew themselues on the wals, or abroad in the yard within the castell. He caused also certeine canons to be drawen with en|gins, EEBO page image 341 néere to the verie wals of the castell, which bat|tered the same in such sort, as the ditches were néere hand filled with the rubbish and stones of the wals that fell downe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Moreouer, the gallies at an high water appro|ched on the riuer side so neere to the castell, that with shot of canons and other artillerie, they sore annoied them within, and slue diuerse. The defendants per|ceiuing themselues thus besieged on all sides, & not able long to hold out, put foorth a token vpon a speares point, to signifie that they desired parlee, which was granted, and certeine of them comming foorth, were admitted to talke with the gouernor, the queene, and the prior of Capoa. They offered to ren|der the castell, so they might depart, and haue their liues saued with bag and baggage.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But this would not be granted, the gouernor vtterlie refusing it; at length he was content to par|don The castell of S. Andrews [...]lded. them of their liues, if the French king should thinke it good, else to stand to his pleasure. The spoile of the castell was giuen to the Frenchmen, who vp|on the surrender entring the same, left nothing be|hind him that might serue them to anie vse in ta|king it away. All the principall men within it were led to the gallies, and conueied awaie into France prisoners at the French kings discretion. Diuerse of them were committed to sundrie prisons on the coast of Britaine, and others were appointed to row in the gallies till the yeare 1550, in which the pri|soners we set at libertie, and the others that were in the gallies were redeemed by their friends for cer|teine summes of monie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Thus was the castell of saint Andrews rendred the nine and twentith of Iulie, fourtéene daies after the arriuall there of the prior of Capoa, whereby his The prior of Capoa. great valiancie, well knowen afore that time, was so renewed, as his praise for his spéedie dispatch and good successe therein was much aduanced. Shortlie after, the duke of Summerset, heretofore in this booke named earle of Hertford, vncle by the mother vnto the yoong king of England, and admitted go|uernor The duke of Summerset protector of England. of his person, and protector of all his realms, dominions, and subiects, minding the aduancement of the yoong king his nephue, thought good with all spéed to procure the consummation of the mariage, betwixt him, and the yoong quéene of Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But perceiuing that the same could not be brought to passe without force, he séemed loth to let passe the opportunitie of time then offered (as he tooke it) to serue his purpose; and therevpon by aduise of councell leuied an armie with all expedition, and came to Berwike, about the latter end of August, and in the beginning of September entred Scot|land with the same armie, conteining seauentéene He entreth Scotland with an armie or eighteene thousand men, which was diuided into three principall wards, the vant-gard led by the va|liant earle of Warwike, the battell by the duke of Summerset himselfe, and the rere-ward by the lord Dacres of the north.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There were certeine wings and troopes of men of The order of the English armie. armes, demilances, and light horssemen, and also of harquebusiers, that attended vpon these thrée wards, garded with diuerse péeces of great artille|rie. The lord Greie of Wilton high marshall of the armie had the generall conduction of the men of armes and demilances. Sir Francis Brian, lieu|tenant of the light horssemen, with eight hundred of them was appointed to the vant-gard. Sir Peter Mewtas capteine of fiue hundred hagbutters, and sir Francis Fleming maister of the ordinance, with a thousand light horssemen, were appointed to the battell. And sir Richard Manners, with six hundred light horssemen, attended vpon the rere-ward.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this order marching through the Mers, and Louthian, they came at length vnto a place called Buckling Braies, neere to the Forth side, in which The English fleet. riuer the English fleet was arriued, and laie before the towne of Leith, but now by order giuen came backe from thence, and lay néerer to the armie. The gouernor of Scotland aduertised of the comming of this armie of England thus to inuade Scotland, with all diligence sent abroad solemne summons The gouernor raiseth an ar|mie. for the leuieng of a new armie foorth of all parts of the realme; supposing thereby to be sufficientlie fur|nished and inabled for the incounter; happen when it should; the contrarie part (no doubt) being likewise opinioned, and both hoping, or greedilie gaping af|ter the glorie of victorie.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 485. For the gouernor did attempt at this time that which is accustomed to be vsed in the greatest dan|gers of the countrie: which was, that he sent out messengers through all the realme, who carieng a fierie crosse in their hands, should make signe (and declare) aswell to the laitie, as to the churchmen; that all they which were aboue sixtéene yeares old, and vnder sixtie, should presentlie (with their armor) re|paire to Mussilborow, and there be readie to defend the libertie of the countrie; who accordinglie came to Mussilborow (within lesse than two miles of the place where the English armie came to incampe, lieng at Preston) & placed themselues at Inuernesse ouer against their enimies.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here we haue to vnderstand, that the Scots light horssemen oftentimes would come pricking almost within their staues length of the Englishmen as they marched, whouping and shouting, to the end they might traine them foorth from their strength, and with railing words would still be in hand to pro|uoke The goodnes of the Sco|tish horsmen feared of the Englishmen. The lord Greie desireth to incounter the Scotish horssemen. them thereto. But the duke of Summerset, doubting the goodnesse of the Scotish prickers, gaue secret commandement, that no offer of skirmish by the Scotish horsmen should be taken. But at length the lord Greie of Wilton, not able to beare such bold presumption in the Scots, aduenturing (as he tooke it) ouer rashlie, and more than stood with their owne suertie, made sute to the duke of Summerset, that if they continued in such brauerie, it might be lawfull for him to set them further off.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke at the first by no meanes would assent thereto, telling the lord Greie, that his desire procee|ded more of a iolitie of courage, than of anie know|ledge of the enimie, and séemed to defend the good|nesse of the Scotish horssemen: but when the lord Greie persisted in his sute, and the earle of War|wike assisted his request, the duke in the end yéelded thereto. Herevpon when the lord Hume with the Scots the next time (which was on the Fridaie the uinth of September) came foorth to offer the skir|mish after their woonted maner, the lord Greie ta|king with him certeine bands of horssemen, both men of armes, demilances, and also light horsmen, diuided them in troopes, appointing the Spanish and Italian hagbutters on horssebacke to kéepe on a wing, and to gard the hindermost troope of the English horssemen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He also gaue order to the leaders of euerie troope, that to which soeuer the enimie should once offer, in Order giuen by the lord Gr [...]ie. anie wise, that no answer by skirmish were made them, but after they had drawne them to their accu|stomed plaie and proffer of charge, that troope that it was offered vnto, presentlie vpon the enimies wheeling about should throughlie giue it them; and that so giuen, the next troope presentlie to giue it in the face: and so (as occasion required) both those troopes wholie togither to helpe other without brea|king. The Scots comming forward, pricking and whouping after their old woont, the Englishmen for|bare a great while, till at the last, foure or fiue hun|dred EEBO page image 342 of them came scattered vpon the spurre, with a maruellous shout within a stones length of the for|most troope.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 These thinking then to haue whéeled about, mai|ster Nicholas Gainesford, the leader of that troope, and lieutenant of the lord Greies band of his men Nicholas Gainesford. of armes of Bullongne, cried; A charge, which as spée|dily on the English part as vnlooked for of the Scots being giuen, from charging at that time in sport, the Scots were driuen to gallop awaie so fast as their horsses might beare them, losing of their companies The Scots horssemen put to flight. that were taken and slaine, to the number of eight hundred and more (as some haue written) [at what time the lord Hume (as saith Lesleus lib. 10. pa. 486) Fr. Thin. falling from his horsse, was grieuouslie wounded, and caried to Edenburgh, and his eldest sonne was taken prisoner] but yet, as diuerse of the English|men aduentured too farre in following the chase, they were distressed, and sundrie of them taken prisoners, among the which were some of their capteins, as sir Rafe Bulmer, Thomas Gower, & Robert Crouch, English cap|teins taken. each of them hauing in charge the leading of seue|rall bands of light horssemen. ¶ Thus much for this Fridaies skirmish, wherein the chiefest force of the Scotish horssemen was defeated, to the great discou|ragement of the rest.

Fr. Thn. Buchan. lib. 15. The English armie remaining still at Pre|ston, did from a hill behold the number of the Scots, who (supposing that they saw a greater number than in truth there was) assembled in the meane time to consult of the estate of their affaires. And therevpon sent letters to the Scots, desiring that if they might obteine anie thing by iustice, that they should rather end the warre with couenants than with canons.

The effect of which letters tended to this end. That the English did greatlie intreat the Scots, first to remember that both armies were christian men, to and of whome (vnlesse they vtterlie forget their pro|fession) there should nothing be more welcome nor desired than peace & tranquillitie, and nothing more detestable than warre and vniust force. Besides this, that the cause of this present warre did not grow of couetousnesse, hatred or enuie, but from the desire of perpetuall peace, which could not be better or more firmelie established by any means, but by the league of matrimonie (being promised and confirmed by the publike consent and pledge of the nobilitie) with those conditions which were more beneficiall for the Scots than the English, being such as did not call them into seruitude, but into a felowship and liberall imparting of all their fortunes each to other. For so much more should that mariage be commodious to the Scots than to the English, by how much the hope of profit, and the feare of iniuries should bée greater from the stronger to the weaker.

Wherefore they should chieflie consider (and in this kind) this to be their greatest reason, that since that their quéene was of necessitie to be giuen in ma|riage by the Scots, and that the same necessitie was not to be auoided; and the moderation therein verie hard: that the onelie power to choose hir a husband was left vnto the publike councell or parlement. And if they would choose (to their quéene) a husband for the publike profit and dignitie: of whome could they better take choise, than of a king their neigh|bor, borne in the same Iland, néere of bloud, instruc|ted in the same lawes, brought vp in the same ma|ners and language; not their superior onelie in ri|ches, but almost also in all commodities and orna|ments of externall things, and such a person which did bring with him peace, concord, amitie, and the for|getting of all old iniuries? But if they call to them anie other (differing from them in language, ma|ners, and lawes) to take the kingdome: let them thinke with themselues, what and how manie dis|commodities will grow thereby, and to what euill counsels they shall indanger themselues: the which they may learne by the example of other nations, be|ing farre better to be taught it by the misfortunes of others, than to féele the smart thereof by their owne experience.

Wherefore (as touching themselues) if they shall not perceiue the Scotish nation to be estranged from this amitie and concord, they would mitigate somwhat of their former promises (which by law they might chalenge) and be contented that the maiden queene should be brought vp amongst them, and bée alwaies in their power, vntill the time that nature should inable hir fit for mariage, and vntill such time as she might choose hir a husband by the aduise of the nobilitie. And that in the meane time (vntill the same might be performed) that both the nations should ab|steine from warre: and that also the quéene (during that time) should neither be conueied into anie strange nation: nor that they should conclude anie pact or couenant with the French, or anie other for|reine prince touching hir mariage. The which if the Scots would most holilie and handfastlie promise, the English would foorthwith depart with a quiet armie. And further, that if the English had commit|ted anie hurt or spoile (since they came into the coun|trie) they would recompense the same by the iudge|ment of good men.

These letters thus sent, the gouernor did impart vnto a few, and of those especiallie to Iohn his bro|ther bishop of saint Andrews (taken vnto him in place & authoritie of the slaine cardinall.) These two aduanced with great hope of victorie, were the cause that these letters were suppressed, bicause they feared that if the equall conditions of peace were knowne abroad, the most part would willinglie incline to the same quiet aduise. Wherefore they procured a false rumor to be spread through the host, that the English men were come thither with determination to take awaie the quéene by force, and by strength of armes to bring the whole kingdome into their subiection. For the gouernor being faint spirited by nature, had chosen vnto him foure such other councellors (like vnto himselfe) in the affairs of warre, by whose com|mand & becke all things were performed. Of which number were his three kinsmen, Iohn archbishop of saint Andrews, the abbat of Dunfermling, George Durie, with Archembald Beton; and the fourth was Hugh Rigs, a lawier, rather famous for his grosse bodie and foolish conditions, than anie know|ledge in militarie affaires. These foure had so puffed vp the gouernor (inconstant by his owne nature, and changing his counsell by the wind of euerie rumor) that he would with stopped eares heare all other mens opinions. In the meane time, his friends ha|uing spread a feined tale (through the Scotish host) by him deuised, the Scots ran in all hast to their weapons, whose vnaduised spéed was in the end the cause of their vnfortunate procéedings, as after shall appeare.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 For being true (as the Scots haue reported) that The Scots meant not to haue giuen battell. the gouernor, and the nobilitie of Scotland meant not to hazard battell within their owne realme, but rather to lie still and defend their ground, if the Eng|lishmen should come forward to giue them battell there. The Englishmen aduertised thereof, the mor|row after this great skirmish, raised their field ve|rie earlie, purposing to take an hill called Pinkhill, where they might place their ordinance, and to shoot The purpose of the Eng|lishmen. into the Scotish campe, whereby they should force the Scots to dislodge from their ground of aduan|tage. The gouernor and the Scotish lords, beholding their enimies thus marching forward, thought best EEBO page image 343 to staie their enterprise, and therefore suddenlie, not|withstanding their former determination, rushing foorth of their campe, passed forward to incounter their enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They were diuided into thrée battels; Archembald The ordering of the Scotish battels. Dowglasse earle of Angus, with certeine lords with him, led the vant-gard; George Gordon earle of Huntleie, and his friends the rere-ward; and the go|uernor accompanied with the earle of Argile and the rest of the noble men, were in the maine battell. The Englishmen hauing got the hill, and perceiuing the Scots to come forwards with great hast, staied for their comming: but the Scots were so rash and ha|stie, passing first through the water in their armour, and so vp towards the hill, that continuing their march with such speed, as they seemed rather to trot, than to keepe anie ordinarie marching pase, before they could come to ioine with the Englishmen, they were almost out of breath.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit, the earle of Angus, and the other in the vant-gard, boldlie abid the charge of all the Eng|lish horssemen, and so rigorouslie reincountred them, The English horssemen beaten backe. that slaieng and beating downe no small number both of men and horsses, they put the rest to flight; so that no small part of them retired backe in such dis|order, that they ran thorough the rankes of the foot|men in the fore-ward, wherwith such feare entered a|mong the Englishmen, that (as hath béene reported) they had vndoubtedlie fled, if the manfull courage of the earle of Warwike had not béene shewed at that present, according to the woonted valure of his often The valiant|nesse of the earle of War|wike. approoued prowesse, whereby he caused them to staie, and relie themselues againe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the meane time, the battell and the rere-ward of the Scots aduanced forward with great courage. But there was a gallie & two pinesses of the Eng|lish fléet, which from the sea shot so terriblie at the The gallie and two pin|nesses. Scotish armie, that the same was not onelie sore galled and indamaged thereby, but also staied, that they could not come easilie forward. And héerewith the English vant-gard incouraged with the comfor|table woords and behauior of the earle of Warwike, and other the capteins, made towards the Scotish vant-gard againe: the which not able of it selfe to re|sist, retired in good order to the great battell of Scot|land. Wherevpon, the multitude fearing, by reason they saw them in the fore-ward thus retire (albeit in good order) that all had béene lost, gaue backe, and tooke them to flight; whome the Englishmen follow|ed amaine, slaieng the Scotishmen downe on heaps in passing great numbers. Manie were also drow|ned in the water of Undereske, through the which they tooke their flight.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Huntleie and the rere-gard stood still with their ensignes and banners, till the chase was past by them: but at length were driuen to make a|waie as well as the rest, and the earle himselfe in the The earle of Huntleie ta|ken prisoner. retire being taken on foot, well clad in gilt armour inameled, was led prisoner to the lord protector. Di|uerse other men of name, barons, and knights, were taken prisoners. There were slaine no small number of personages of good account. Among other, the lord Fleming, the maister of Erskin, the maister of Gra|ham, Men of name of Scots [...]aine. Fr. Thin. the maister of Meffine, the maister of Ogiluie, the maister of Leuingston, the maister of Rosse [the maister of Argendale and Meffane] the lard of Lo|chinwar, the lard of Glencarnocke, & others. [There were taken prisoners diuerse noble men, the lord Zestrie, the earle of Huntleie chancellor of the realme, and others, as saith Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 487.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next day, the English armie remooued to Leith, where the prisoners were put into a church, di|uerse of them being sore wounded. But the earle of Huntleie, entering bond for them that they should well and trulie paie their ransomes, agréed [...]pon be|twixt them and their takers, or else to come and pre|sent themselues prisoners in England by a certeine day, they were suffered to depart. The earle of Huntleie en|tereth bond for his coun|triemen. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 15. The calamitie of which bloudie day, there were not a few which did impute iustlie to happen to the Scots, because they did arrogantlie reiect such honorable and beneficiall peace, and did hope (if they obteined the victorie) to haue vsed more crueltie to their owne people than vnto the English, either because they would (as I my selfe coniecture) reuenge old quarels, or else haue vsed extremitie against such as secretlie misliked this conflict with the English.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The gouernor escaping from the battell, came to The quéene remooued from Striueling. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 487. Striueling, where the quéene regent was, togither with hir daughter the yoong queene. Héere, by the counsell and aduise of the earle of Angus [Argile, Rotesen, and Cassiles] and diuerse other lords that were also withdrawne thither after the battell, they were conueied to the countrie of Menteith, where they remained in the abbeie of Inch Mahome [deli|uering Fr. Thin. the yoong quéene to hir mother, Erskine and Leuingstone to be kept there] till the English armie was departed out of the realme, and then they re|mooued againe, and came to Striueling. [After that Fr. Thin. the gouernor had deliuered the earle out of prison at Edenburgh] the English nauie wan the Ile of saint The Ile of saint Colmes Inch woon by Englishmen. Colmes Inch [in the meane time] and did sundrie o|ther exploits by sea, as in the English historie it may appéere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Moreouer, the earle of Bothwell, whome the go|uernor The earle of Bothwell. had before kept in prison, and was the night after the battell set at libertie, repared to the duke of Summerset, with diuerse other lords and gentlemen of Louthian, whilest he laie at Leith, offering them|selues to be at the king of Englands commande|ment, and so were assured from receiuing hurt or da|mage by the English power. The duke of Summer|set 1547. hauing remained at Leith eight daies, burnt a peece of it, and demanding the castell of Edenburgh, The English armie retur|neth home|wards. but could not obteine it, departed thence the eight|téenth of December homewards the next waie, ouer the mounteins of Soutreie, comming the third day before the castell of Hume, where they did so much by Hume castell rendred to the Englishmen. countenancing to win that fortresse, that within thrée or foure daies after their comming thither, it was surrendred.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 This castell being woone, & a garrison left there|in to kéepe it, they remooued to Rockesburgh, where within the compasse of the ruinous wals of an old castell, they built a fort; & after returning into Eng|land, left a conuenient garrison to kéepe it. They got also about the same time a strong fortresse, called Fast castell, standing néere to the sea side, and placed Fast castell woone by them. Broughtie crag woone. a garrison within it. And moreouer, in this meane time, their fléet by sea wan the castell of Broughtie crag, and put in like manner a garrison within it to kéepe the same (as in the English historie it may fur|ther appeere) and in what sort also all the chiefest lords and gentlemen of the Mers and Tiuidale came in, and submitted themselues to the duke of Summer|set, vpon assurance had and giuen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore, whilest the duke of Summerset with his armie did thus inuade Scotland on the east part, it was ordeined by the said duke, and other of the councell to the king of England, that Matthew earle of Lennox, and Thomas lord Wharton, then warden of the west marches of England, should with a power inuade Scotland on the west side, to the end that there should not anie of the west borders nor countries come to assist the gouernor against the duke of Summersets armie, but be driuen to re|maine at home to defend their owne countrie. Here|vpon, there was an armie leuied, to the number of EEBO page image 344 fiue thousand footmen, and eight hundred light horsse|men, with which power the earle of Lennox and the lord Wharton entering Scotland the eight of Sep|tember, incamped the first night vpon the water of Eske, and marched the next day through the nether part of Annandale, till they came to the castell of Milke, a fortresse of good strength, the wals being fouretéene foot thicke. The castell of Milke yéelded

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Capteine of this castell was one Iohn Steward, brother to the lard thereof, who vpon the approch of the earle of Lennox, yéelded the house to him, with|out anie shew of resistance, Wherevpon, Ferguse Graham, brother to Richie Graham of Erske, was appointed with a garrison of souldiors to keepe that castell to the vse of the yoong king of England, and was afterwards confirmed capteine there with fif|tie light horssemen, by appointment of the duke of Summerset, & the councell; so that during the wars, he remained there to the great annoiance of the Scots, enimies to England, and preseruation of the countrie thereabouts to the king of Englands vse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 On the twentith of September, the earle of Len|nox, and the lord Wharton, incamped néere to the towne of Annand, and on the morrow after appro|ching néerer to the fame, gaue summons vnto the capteine therof, called Lion, of the house of Glams, who with an hundred Scots [whereof Maxwell and Fr. Thin. Iohnstone, and Cokpull (as saith Lesleus lib. 10. pa. 489. being parcell] kept the church and stéeple of An|nand, being péeces of themselues verie strong and mightilie reinforced with earth: they within there|fore refused to yéeld, and valiantlie defended them|selues. The greatest péeces of artisterie, which the Englishmen had there at that time, were certeine double and single falcons, wherewith they beat one|lie the battlements, till they might with certeine en|gines approch hard to the wals, and vndermine the The church of Annand vndermined. same, so as the roofe of the church was shaken downe, and a great number of them within the church slaine and crushed to death. Such as escaped fled into the stéeple.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Two of the Englishmen that wrought about the [...]ines, were slaine: but at length, the capteine moo|ued by persuasion of the earle of Lennox, to whome he claimed to be of kin, rendered the stéeple to him, with himselfe, and 96 Scots souldiors, with conditi|on The stéeple yéelded. to haue their liues onelie saued, and the capteine to remaine prisoner, and to go into England. Im|mediatlie vpon their comming foorth of the steeple, fire was giuen vnto the traines of powder in the mines, and so both the church & steeple were blowen vp into the aire, & raced downe to the ground. This The church and stéeple of Annand blowen vp with powder. doone, they burnt the towne (after they had sacked it) and left not one stone standing vpon an other, for that the same towne had euer beene a verie noisome neighbour to England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Englishmen had conceiued such spite to|wards this towne, that if they saw but a péece of timber remaining vnburnt, they would cut the same in péeces with their bils. The countrie herewith was striken in such feare, that the next day all the Kilpa|trikes and the Iordeins, the lards of Kirkmichell, A|pilgirtht, The Scots that came to assure them|selues. Clo [...]urne, Howmendes, Nubie, and the Irrewings, the Bels, the Rigs, the Murreies, and all the clanes and surnames of the neather part of Annerdale, came in, and receiued an oth of obei|sance, as subiects to the king of England, deliuering pledges for their assured loialtie. The residue that would not come in and submit themselues, had their houses burnt, their goods and cattell fetched awaie by the English light horssemen, that were sent a|broad into the countrie for that purpose.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 These things thus executed, the earle of Lennox, and the lord Wharton, returned backe into England with their prisoners, booties, and spoiles, receiuing great thanks and commendations by gentle letters on the fiue & twentith of September, from the duke of Summerset, then lieng at Rockesburgh, about fortifieng of that place. The gouernor perceiung thus that without the assistance of France he should not be able to resist the Englishmen, hauing now got such foot hold within the realme of Scotland, re|quired The gouer|nors su [...] to the queene Dowager, and to the French am|bassadors. the queene Dowager, and monsieur Doisell, liger ambassador for the French king, to persuade with him by letters, to send an armie into Scotland, to the aid of his friends there.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The quéene and monsieur Doisell, perceiuing a readie waie prepared to bring that to passe which they most desired (which was, to haue the quéene of Scot|land ordered in all things by the French kings ad|uise) they vndertooke to procure an armie out of France, according to the gouernors desire, if he with the states of the realme would agrée that the quéene The quéene Dowager promiseth aid out of France with conditi|on. might be sent into France, and a contract made for hir bestowing in mariage, as stood with the French kings pleasure. The gouernor condescending héere|vnto, assembled the states, and by their aduises, pas|sed certeine couenants to the effect aforesaid, & sent the same in writing by certeine messengers into France.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The French king gladlie accepting this message, The gouernor sendeth into France for aid. Broughtie crag besieged by the gouer|nor. prepared a nauie of ships and gallies to transport an armie into Scotland the next summer. In the meane time, the gouernor laied siege to Broughtie crag, and the duke of Summerset, as well for meane to cause the Scots to retire that siege, as also for the annoiance of Clidesdale, apperteining to the gouer|nor and the earle of Angus, and other Scots that would not come in to the obeisance of the king of England, appointed the earle of Lennox to make a new inuasion into Scotland, and to vse for triall of their fidelities the helpe of two thousand Scotish light horssemen, that were alreadie assured & sworne to serue the king of England in all such exploits in which they should be imploied.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Lennox desirous to aduance the king of Englands affaires, and hauing receiued letters from William earle of Glencarne, with promise of his assistance, and likewise of his father in law the earle of Angus, the lard of Drumlanrig, and those lards and gentlemen of the countries of kile, Con|ningham, Renfre [...], and Lennox, entered Scotland The earle of Lennox ente|reth into Scotland. about the twelfth of December, accompanied with Henrie Wharton, second son to the lord Wharton, with two hundred light horssemen, of the garrisons in Scotland, and comming first to Dunfreis, where the generall assemblie was appointed of the two thousand assured Scotish light horssemen, when the musters should be taken, he found scarse thrée hun|dred, and those for the more part of the broken coun|tries of Annandale, Ewisdale, Esdale, and Lides|dale.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Glencarne came thither in déed, but The earle of Glencarne his double dealing. vnder a counterfet shew of good meaning, where in truth he ment nothing but craft to discouer all the earle of Lennox his purposes: who perceiuing his double dealing, and finding no such forces readie to assist him, as he looked for, and moreouer, mistrusting the loialties of the maister of Maxwell, & the gentle|men Now lord Harries. of Nidesdale, meaning (as he tooke it) to intrap him, and deliuer him to the quéene Dowager, and the lord gouernor, stood in some perplexitie what way The earle of Lennox in doubt what to doo. should be the best for him to follow, thinking it not to stand with his honor to returne, without atchiuing some enterprise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The earle of Glencarne had shewed to him two letters written by the lard of Drumlaurig, signifi|eng, The lard of Drum [...]rig. that if the earle of Lennox came, accompanied EEBO page image 345 onelie with Scotishmen, he would both serue him and honor him in the best wise he might: but if he brought those Englishmen in his companie, he would not onelie refuse to aid him, but also raise all the power he might make, either by his friends or o|therwise, to resist him, and proffer him a repulse. The earle thus perceiuing that he was in danger to be betraied among them, and that there were all the deuises practised that might be to staie those that should come to the deuotion of the king of England, dissembled the matter with Glencarne, and other that were suborned to betraie him; pretending to The ea [...]le of Lennox dis|sembleth with dissemblers. them, that he would follow the course of their deui|ses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But in the meane time he got togither the Eng|lish 1547. Buch. capteins that were appointed to attend him, and also such Scotishmen as he knew he might trust. And meaning to scourge Drumlanrig, & to cut him short, for that he was the chiefe instrument to staie all the Scotishmen in those parties from entering friendship with the Englishmen: he gaue secret warning to all the capteins & leaders about nine of the clocke at night, that they should be readie with their men to mount on horsbacke at the sound of the trumpet, and kéepe with them the earle of Glen|carne, the maister of Maxwell, the lards of Clos|burne, Kirkmichell, and others the gentlemen of Ni|desdale and Annandale.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He sent foorth six hundred chosen horssemen vpon sound of the trumpet, at twelue of the clocke at Horssemen sent foorth to scourge Drumlanrig. night, vnder the leading of Henrie Wharton, and o|ther the capteins of the garrisons, who in the daw|ning of the next morrow, arriued neere the place of Drumlanrig, where they appointed foure hundred of They harrie the countrie a|bout Drum|lanrig. their horssemen to passe to the forraie, who raised fire, and burnt two miles in length, both townes and vil|lages on ech side, euen hard to the gates of Drum|lanrig, spoiling the houses of goods and riches, woorth to the value of two thousand marks, got thrée thou|sand shéepe, two thousand herd of great cattell, be|side nine score horsses and mares.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Annandalers laden with spoile and cattell, being in number foure hundred men, departed with their preie homewards. The lard of Drumlanrig, li|eng all this while in ambush with seuen hundred men, forbare to breake out to giue anie charge vpon his enimies, doubting least the earle of Lennox had kept a stale behind: but now after he perceiued that the most part of the enimies were departed, and that the residue of the gentlemen & capteins of the Eng|lish horssemen were withdrawing towards Dunfre|is, Drumlanrig pursueth the Englishmen. being not past six score men, he fiercelie followed after them with his power, in hope not onelie to o|uerthrow and distres them, but also to take the earle of Lennox at Dunfreis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Maister Henrie Wharton and those six score horsse|men, retiring beyond the water of Nith, and percei|uing that Drumlanrig and his men entered the wa|ter rashlie to pursue them, returned, and gaue such a desperate charge vpon them, that Drumlanrig and his companie were scattered and put to flight: yet He is put to flight. Drumlanrig himselfe, although there were some speares broken vpon him, through the goodnesse of his horsse escaped. Two gentlemen of his surname and traine, that were in no small estimation with him, were staine, and six score prisoners taken, and led to Dunfreis. The terror of this ouerthrow, and the brute of the earle of Lennox his entrie thus made into Scotland, caused the gouernor to leuie his siege from Broughtie crag, and with speed to The siege of Broughtie cr [...]g raised. come from thence, the better to defend his countries of Clidesdale, and Dowglasdale. Sir Andrew Dud|leie, capteine of Broughtie crag, bare himselfe verie valiantlie, in defending the castell during this siege, so that the Scots certes lost diuerse hardie persona|ges: and among other, Gawen Hamilton, the go|uernors kinsman, was slaine at the same siege.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, the prior of Whiterne by his letters and messengers, offered himselfe to obeie the king of The prior of Whiterne. England: and the inhabitants of the burrough and hauen townes of Wigton and Kirckowbre, the knights of Loghinwar and Garleis, the lard and tu|tor of Bombie, the lard of Cardines, & all the gentle|men of Annandale, Nidesdale, and Galloway, euen to Whiterne, being foure score miles in length from Caerleill, through the inducement of the foresaid pri|or, and of the knights of Loghinwar and Garleis, (for the sauour they bare to the earle of Lennox) with|in two daies after the discomfiture of Drumlanrig, came vnto Dunfreis, and there receiued an oth to be true to the king of England, and afterwards went with the earle to Caerleill, leauing the countrie in good quiet, and the king of England acknowledged for lord of Galloway, Nidesdale, and Annandale, by the inhabitants thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And after that the forenamed persons had remai|ned The Scots deliuer pled|ges. for a space at Caerleill, they deliuered pledges, but especiallie for Iohn Maxwell, & returned home to their countrie, as assured men & subiects to the K. of England. In this meane while, the gouernor ha|uing held siege before the castell of Broughtie crag, by the space of thirtie daies, and now retiring from thence (as before ye haue heard) by the aduise of the principall lords about him, he caused maister Iames Haliburton, tutor of those parties, to raise cer|teine companies of horssemen, and appointed him Iames Holi|burton. Capteine Leirmouth. with capteine Leirmouth (whome he left in Dun|dée with certeine footmen) to defend the countrie a|gainst the Englishmen, if they issued foorth of Broughtie crag, to atchiue anie enterprise anie where néere thereabouts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The duke of Summerset by aduise of the residue 1547. Lesle. of the councell in England, minding to bridle the Scots that refused to come in & submit themselues to the king of England, tooke order [with the lord of Fr. Thin. Forts built. Wilton, who (as saith Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 491.) re|mained in Scotland from the fourth Ides of Aprill, vntill the tenth kalends of Iune] for the building of one fort at Lauder, and an other at Hadington, as in the English historie it may appeare. And further 1548. it was appointed also, that about the end of Febru|arie, the earle of Lennox and the lord Wharton, with seuen hundred English horssemen, beside the assu|red Scots horssemen, and about foure or fiue thou|sand The earle of Lennox and the L. Whar|ton inuade Scotland. English footmen, should by the west borders in|uade Scotland: they according to their commission set forward, and the first night came to Louch [...]a|ben, and there lodged.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next day they marched to Dunfreis, and whilest they remained there, the earle of Angus be|ing come to Drumlanrig, by messengers entred some talke with his sonne in law the earle of Len|nox. The dissimu|lation of the earle of An|gus. But sith it was perceiued that this was doone, rather to intrap the earle of Lennox, or rather at the least wise to driue time, vpon consultation had with the maister of Maxwell, the lard of Cloesborne, and others the gentlemen assured of Nidesdale and An|nandale; it was concluded, that the townes of Mor|ton, Dusdere, and others, néere adioining togither in those parts, should be burnt; to the end that the earle of Angus might so be drawen to the field, and caught by some one meane or other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About midnight therefore, the forraie being set foorth, vnder the leading of maister Henrie Whar|ton, to the number of twelue hundred light horsse|men, Maister Hen|rie Wharton. the maister of Maxwell, now lord Herries, and the residue of the assured men being amongest them kept forward, and in the morning the earle of EEBO page image 346 Lennox, and the lord Wharton marched foorth with the footmen, till they came ten miles beyond Dun|freis. And where the earle of Angus was drawen to the castell of Drumlanrig, vnder pretense to com|mune with his sonne the earle of Lennox (but mea|ning to intrap him) if it were possible, he was so in|uironed by the English footmen yer he could haue The earle of Angus put to flight. sufficient warning, that he was forced to flée onelie with fiue persons in his companie. But now the English horssemen being come to Dusdere, eight & fortie miles within the realme of Scotland, hauing passed sundrie great riuers, they set that towne on Dusdere set on fire. fire.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the maister of Maxwell, with the other Sco|tish gentlemen and light horssemen borderers, to the number of foure hundred, being in companie of the English horssemen (as before ye haue heard) had contriued the destruction of the Englishmen afore hand. And the better to woorke their feat, they had procured (as ye haue heard) the earle of Angus to come vnto Drumlanrig with a chosen power of men for that purpose. There were also vpon euerie hill about, great numbers of Scotish footmen, with speares and lancestaues to assist the earle of Angus and his complices against the Englishmen. The lard of Drumlanrig with a number of chosen horsse|men was aduanced forward in sight of the Eng|lishmen, as they were busie in firing the towne of Dusdere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The assured Scots therefore, thinking the enter|prise to be suerlie inough conueid for their contriued purpose, openlie vpon the field neere to Dusdere, hoising vp a blacke pensill vpon a speares point for a The reuol|ting of the as|sured Scots. token, reuolted wholie, and ioined themselues to the lard of Drumlanrig and other their countrie men, & thrust in betwixt the English horssemen & footmen, to the great perill of distressing aswell the one as the other. For making toward the place where the earle of Lennox, and the lord Wharton were comming forward with their footmen, néere to the old castell of Dauswinton, sometime the house of the Cumins, they bruted it abroad, that the English horssemen A false ru|mor spred. were quite ouerthrowen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Lennox, beholding the maner of his aduersaries, lighted on foot from his horsse, willing the lord Wharton to doo the like; for this day (said he) I will die a true Englishman. At length the Eng|lish horssemen fetching a compasse in retiring backe from Dusdere, came néere to the place where the earle and the lord Wharton were ranged in order of battell: and thinking no lesse but that their horsse|men had beene ouerthrowen, were readie to march backe towards Dunfreis. But their horssemen thus comming in, and perceiuing how the matter stood, gaue a right valiant charge vpon the Scots, that stood countenancing the footmen, and readie to take the aduantage, if they might haue driuen them through shrinking backe into anie disorder.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But such was the violence of the shocke giuen at that instant, with great manhood (vndoubtedlie) by the English horssemen, that the Scots were there|with put out of arraie, scattered, & quite put to flight; the lord of Drumlanrig being taken prisoner, cor|rupted The Scots put to flight. his taker, and so got away. The maister of Maxwell escaped in great danger of life, for he had sundrie speares broken on him in the chase as he fled awaie. There were yet taken that day of the Scots to the number of foure hundred, beside sundrie that were drowned in the water of Nith. Amongest the prisoners were these men of name; the abbat of new abbeie, Christie Irrewing of Bonshaw, a brother of the lord of Hempsfield, & manie other gentlemen of name. Dunfreis was rifled and spoiled, as the earle of Lennox and the Englishmen returned thi|ther, Dunfreis spoiled. and a martiall court appointed there for execu|tion of pledges; but yet suspended and staied, till the councels pleasure might be knowen in that be|halfe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There were at the first euill news spread abroad, and certified to the court of England of this iornie, how the earle of Lennox and the English armie was ouerthrowen, so that it was by order appointed, that the earle of Derbie, the Lord Scroope, and Coniers, with their powers should repaire to the west borders to garnish the same for defense against the enimies: but vpon the true report how the matter had pas|sed, made by maister Henrie Wharton, and one Bi|shop a Scotishman, sent in post for that purpose, that appointment was staied; and maister Wharton was at that time made knight, and the said Bishop richlie rewarded for bringing so good news. Here|with were letters directed downe from the councell to the lord Wharton, for the execution of certeine pledges, that is to saie, the maister of Maxwels Pledges exe|cuted. pledge, being one of his néerest kinsmen of the house of the Herries, also the warden of the Greie friers in Dunfreis, the vicar of Carlauerocke, and diuerse other which were executed at Carlill. In this meane time were the forts at Lawder and Hadington built, the castels of Yester and Dawkith woone, all the mils burnt within foure miles of each hand of Edenburgh, and other exploits atchiued by the Eng|lishmen, as in the historie of England is more at large expressed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now the French king, hauing prepared an 1548. Buch. 1547. Lesle. A nauie pre|pared at Bre [...] in Britaine. armie readie to come into Scotland, caused the same to draw downe to Brest in Britaine, where the ships and gallies were rigged and made readie to passe therewith into Scotland. The chiefe leaders of which armie were these, which had charge chieflie to command in the same: monsieur de Desse lieute|nant generall, monsieur Dandelot coronell of the The chiefe capteins of the French armie that came into Scotland. French footmen, the countée Reingraue coronell of the Almains, monsieur de Malleraie, monfieur Doisell, Pietro Strozzie coronell of the Italians, monsieur Etauges capteine of the horssemen, sir Nicholas de Uillegaignon a knight of the Rhodes (or rather Malta) capteine of the gallies, and mon|sieur Duno commissarie of the artillerie: with di|uerse other woorthie personages, and men of appro|ued valiancie. These capteins with their powers being imbarked at Brest, sailed alongst by the east seas, and at length about the middest of Iune came into the rode before Leith, where they landed their people and ordinance. [A little before whose arriuall Fr. Thin. into France (as saith Lesleus, libro 10. pag. 491.) Chapelle Bironne landed in Scotland, accompa|nied with other nobilitie of France, to giue good counsell to the Scots answerable to the time, which was (to please their eares therwith) that there should a greater armie shortlie come out of France, to suc|cor their extremities.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Afterwards, with the aduise of the gouernor, and other of the Scotish lords, the French power went Hadington besieged. to besiege Hadington, and comming thither, incam|ped themselues in places of aduantage about the towne, cast trenches, planted their ordinance, bat|tered the rampires, and kept them within streictlie besieged on each hand, vsing all the waies they could deuise to constreine the Englishmen to yéeld. They forbare yet to giue a generall assault, bicause they would not hazard (as they haue reported) the losse of Why the Frenchmen forbare to giue an as|sault. so manie men as might haue béene slaine and mai|med thereby, to the great weakening of their power there, hauing not meanes to supplie it when they would.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And yet they had a great armie of Scots with them for a season, and had made the breaches so rea|sonable, EEBO page image 347 that with small paine they might haue en|tered by the same if the force of the defendants had not sufficed with handblowes to haue beaten them backe, as no doubt there was no want of good wils in them so to haue doone, if the Frenchmen h [...]d put the matter in triall: yet during this siege, they with|in st [...]d in great necessitie of things be hoouefull for the defense of the towne. Wherevpon sir Henrie Wharton with a band of light horssemen of the west borders, and others, came and put into the towne a certeine number of men with powder, and other ne|cessaries, greatlie to the reliefe of the besieged, & no lesse displeasure of the Frenchmen and Scots, that were not aware of this enterprise till it was doone in the night season, by the good and fortunate conducti|on of them that had the conueiance thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But after this, there came a power of English horsmen to the number of little lesse than two thou|sand denulances, light horsmen, & harque bussiers on The English horssemen o|uerthrowne. horsbacke, vnder the leading of sir Robert Bowes, sir Thomas Palmer, sir Henrie Wharton, capteine Gambo a Spaniard, and others; the which aduentu|ring ouer rashlie within danger of the whole French power, were ouerthrowne and chased: sir Robert Bowes, & sir Thomas Palmer, with a great num|ber of other capteins, gentlemen and souldiers be|ing taken prisoners, besides those that were slaine. Yet after this ouerthrow of those horssemen, the French remooued their siege from the places where they had first planted it, and lodged further off from the towne, continuing there; till at length by an ar|mie sent foorth of England vnder the conduct of the erle of Shrewsburie, the lord Greie, and others, they The earle of Shrewsburie [...]eth the siege from Hadington. were constreined to retire from thence, as in the English historie ye may find more largelie expres|sed, to the which for the further report of the euents chancing during that siege, I referre the reader.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But this is to be remembred, that whilest the siege remained at Hadington, by a conuention or assem|blie of the lords it was decréed, that the quéene shuld be sent into France. And therevpon monsieur de Uillegaignon, with foure gallies departing from Sir Nicho|las [...]e Uille|gaignon. Leith, made semblance as though he would haue sailed into France: but hauing passed the mouth of the Forth, he turned his course on the left hand to passe alongst the shore northward by the Germane seas, that compassing the land on the east side, hée might passe about by the Iles of Orkeneie, and so by the west Iles, till he came to Dunbreton where the yoong queene laie. This iournie he fortunatelie at|chiued, the same neuer before (to mans remem|brance) being made or attempted with gallies. The French gallies com|passe about the realme of Scotland by Dungesbie head. 1547. Lesle.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At his arriuall & conuenient landing at Dunbre|ton, he found all things readie prouided, necessarie for the imbarking of the quéene, that he might con|uey hir into France, for the accomplishment wherof he had taken that iournie in hand. Herevpon she be|ing brought aboord into the kings owne gallie, wher|in monsieur de Brezze was also appointed to be a|boord with hir, as he that had beene sent with expresse Monsieur de Brezze. commandement to sée hir conueied into France, [with the lords (as saith Lesleus lib. 10. 494) of Are|skine, and Leuingston, the ladie Fleming, with cer|teine Fr. Thin. noble maidens named after the yoong quéene, as Marie Leuingston, Marie Fleming, Marie Se|ton, and Marie Beton] who togither with Uillegaig|non shewed such diligence in atchiuing that enter|prise, The yoong quéene of Scots con|ueied into France. that finally they arriued with prosperous wind and weather in the hauen of Brest in Britaine with that yoong quéene, béeing as then betwixt fiue and sir yéeres of age.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 494. From thence being accompanied with the nobi|litie of that prouince, she kept hir right course to the kings palace of S. Germins in the towne of Lai|on, where she was receiued with great preparation, & there taried the comming thither of the king, at that time pacifieng the sed [...]ons and turmoiles in the inward parts of France. When the king was come, bée gladded all men with his presence, and prouided that there was a large houshold, as well of the noble men and women of Scotland, as of others appointed to the yoong queene, which he still increased (as the quéene grew more in yeeres) vntill such tune as she might be maried.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now to returne to the dooings in Scotland concerning the warres there. After that the siege of Hadington was raised by the English armie, as be|fore ye haue heard the Frenchmen therevpon reti|red themselues vnto Muskelburgh; and choosing forth The French|men incampe at Muskel|burgh. a plot of ground for their aduantage, kept them|selues within the same. And herewith there came to them fifteene thousand Scotishmen to assist them, so that when the Englishmen came forwards to assaile them, they found them so stronglie imbattelled, that (whether their commission did not so farre extend, or whether they had no liking of the match) they for|bare Sée more hereof in England. to set vpon them in that ground of so great dis|aduantage for the assailants, and so returned backe to Hadington, and after homewards, hauing furni|shed the towne with new supplies of men, munition, and vittels sufficient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here is to be noted, that the English fléet ente|ring into the Forth, was readie to haue aided the ar|mie by land, as occasions might haue beene offered. The lord ad|merall of England. But the lord admerall perceiuing no likelihood of battell by land, tooke vpon him to atchiue some other enterprises, and first comming to Brent Iland, set certeine ships on fire there, of the chiefest in the ri|uer; and saluting the towne of Leith as he passed by with canon shot, he determined to land some of his men on the north side of the Forth, to make some spoile within the countrie of Fife. But Iohn Ers|kin The lard of Dun. lard of Dun, as then somewhat diseased, and re|turned home from the campe, caused such dailie and nightlie watch and ward to be kept, that this enter|prise could not be so secretlie conueied by the Eng|lishmen, but that the same was perceiued, and so The English men repelled at saint Me|nets. preuented, that vpon their landing they were forced to retire with losse: and happie was he that might first get againe to shipboord.

Fr. Thn. Buchan. lib. 15. For Iames Steward, brother to the queene (hearing of this tumult) came thither in hast with the common people of saint Andrews, and some other few citizens which were remaining in the towne, to whome the neighbors about did also ioine them|selues, vnderstanding the cause of that assemblie. The English being now come on land, about twelue hundred, stood in warlike sort readie for the battell, and with the feare of the artillerie (which they dis|charged out of their ships) did easilie cause the rude multitude to flie awaie. But this Iames Steward (by litle and litle suppressing the feare of such as fled) did (with such violence) rush vpon his enimies, that foorthwith he ouerthrew them, put them to flight, compelled them to returne to the sea with great slaughter, when also manie of them (as they fled to their ships) were drowned, besides thrée hundred that were slaine, and one hundred taken.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Shrewsburie being come backe from Hadington vnto Dunglas, order was giuen for the building of a fort there, as in the English historie further may appeare. And in the meane time mon|steur de Desse, remaining in campe at Muskel|burgh, hearing that the English armie was remoo|ued homewards, & how diuerse new bands of hors|men and footmen being left in Hadington, were readie to come foorth to skirmish abroad vpon sight of the enimie; he tooke aduise, to trie if he might EEBO page image 348 draw them foorth to their losse, and therevpon was monsieur Dandelot, and the Reingraue appointed to choose foorth a thousand of their lustiest footmen, the which with thrée hundred horssemen were conueied and laid close in ambush, behind a little hill not farre from the towne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This doone, a few horssemen were drawne foorth to draw the Englishmen out of the towne to skir|mish with them. The Englishmen were no sooner aduised that the enimies were there at hand in the field, but that all their horssemen issued out of the towne backe with certeine footmen, and streight had the French in chase; who retiring, mainteined the skirmish, of purpose to make the Englishmen more earnest to come forward. But immediatlie as mon|sieur de Desse saw his time, he gaue signe by sound of trumpet to the footmen to breake foorth, who togi|ther with the horssemen gaue so fierce an onset vpon the enimies, that they were incontinentlie discom|fited: The English men put to the woorsse at a skirmish néere to Hadington. and fleeing toward the towne, were followed by the French euen hard to the walles; diuers were slaine, and aboue an hundred taken prisoners.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, monsieur de Desse raised from Mus|kelburgh, and comming to Leith set in hand to forti|fie that towne. The marshall Strozzi, and monsieur Leith for|tified. Dandelot, with diuerse other capteins imbarking themselues in the gallie that yet remained, tooke their course to returne to France. One of the same gallies (they being eight in number, beside a foist and a brigandine) was taken by an English ship A gallie taken called the falcon, as she passed through the narrow seas at a place named the Southfurlong, she being alone, and (as it chanced) hindermost of all the com|panie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After the departure of monsieur Dandelot, mon|sieur de la Chappelle de Biron remained coronell of the French footmen in Scotland. As for the furni|ture on the water, there remained now but foure gallies vnder the guiding of one capteine Bach an Capteine Bach. Italian, a man of great experience and approoued skill. For ye must vnderstand, that before the ariuall of the English nauie & armie to the succors of them in Hadington, monsieur de Mallerie viceadmerall Monsieur de Mallerie vice admerall of France. of France returned home with the fleet of ships that had brought the French armie into Scotland. In what sort the lord Greie of Wilton afflicted the coun|tries of Tiuidale and Liddesdale, after the returne of the earle of Shrewsburie, is partlie touched in the historie of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the same time, there chanced a mutinie to rise betwixt the Scots and the Frenchmen in Eden|burgh, by reason that a French souldier fell a qua|relling with two or thrée Scotishmen; and falling to|gither A fray betwixt the French souldiers, and the townes|men of Eden|burgh. by the eares, diuerse Scots that came to de|part the fraie, would haue had the Frenchman to prison; but other Frenchmen being there also pre|sent, would not suffer the Scots to take him awaie. Wherevpon arose a great tumult and stirre among them, insomuch that there were diuerse slaine on both parts, namely Iames Hamilton lard of Stan|house, knight, capteine of the castell, and prouost of the towne of Edenburgh, with his sonne; and mai|ster William Steward one of the quéens seruants, besides sundrie other. For the Frenchmen doubting some contriued commotion against them, assem|bled togither in order of battell in the streets; so that before the matter might be appeased by the capteins that shewed their diligent endeuors therin, they had inough to bring it to passe as they wished.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The beginner of this businesse was hanged the same day in the market place of Edenburgh, where he began first to pike the quarell. Monsieur de Desse, to shew that this variance had not procéeded so farre as the brute thereof gaue foorth (for it was rather in|creased ye may be sure than diminished) vndertooke an enterprise in hand to win the towne of Hading|ton by a camisado, but in what sort they missed their The French|men giue a ca|misado to Ha|dington, & are beaten backe. purpose, and how they were well beaten backe, and sent away by the valiant manhood of the English capteins and souldiers then within the towne, yée may read further thereof in the English historie. There were seuen score (some say three hundred) slaine in the base court.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now, forsomuch as I haue said nothing of Broughtie crag besieged by the earle of Argile. Vlpian Ful. Broughtie crag, sithence the lord gouernor raised his siege from thence, ye shall vnderstand, that (as some haue written) shortlie after the earle of Argile came thither with an armie of his Irish Scots, and besieged it. But when he saw he could not preuaile, he tooke truce with them within for a time, and be|fore the same was expired, there came new succors to the Englishmen: so that the earle of Argile (by reason his people had remained there the full terme of their bounden & ordinarie seruice) was constrei|ned He raiseth his siege. to leaue his fiege, and suffer the Englishmen to become maisters of a little hill, where afterwards they builded a fort. And now in the latter end of this The fort buil|ded by the Englishmen at Broughtie crag. yéere, they purposed also to haue fortified Dundée, and to haue kept the same with a garrison of souldi|ers; but hearing that monsieur de Desse with his Frenchmen was comming thitherwards, they a|uoided Dundée aban|doned of the Englishmen. the towne of their owne accord, hauing first spoiled the houses, and after set them on fire.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Reingraue with two bands of his Almains, and monsieur de Etauges with his companie of horssemen were sent before, who comming to Dun|dée, and finding the Englishmen gone, incamped there, staieng till monsieur de Desse was come, that followed at hand with the French footmen. Within two daies after, they going foorth to view the fort, were in danger to haue beene caught yer they could get backe againe. For the Englishmen and Lance|knights that were there with them (part of Conrad Phennings bands) issued foorth, and droue them to retire, not without danger to haue béene distressed, if the Reingraue had not vsed the greater policie in The Rein|graue. retiring the troope. To be short, monsieur de Desse, to stop the Englishmen from entering anie further into the countrie on that side, left seuen ensignes of Frenchmen, & two ensignes of Scots within Dun|dée, Dundée for|tified by the Frenchmen. with artillerie and pioners to fortifie the towne, & to keepe it in safetie from the Englishmen. This doone, he returned to Edenburgh, and sent the resi|due of his people abroad into the countrie, to lodge in townes and villages here & there, as was thought most expedient, for the better refreshing of them af|ter their long trauell.

Fr. Thin. 1548. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 498. While these things were in dooing, the gouernor of Scotland sent the lord Carneigeie knight (and se|nator) ambassador to the protector of England, which should for ransome (as the custome is) demand deli|uerie of the earle of Huntleie being prisoner: which if he could not obteine, that then he should request this libertie, that his wife and children might come vnto him into England. Wherevnto the protector answered, that he would not set the earle frée, vntill the warres were ended: but for the companie of his wife, he was content to grant it for certeine daies; with this prouiso, that he should not withdraw him|selfe by anie means from the custodie of Rafe Uane (corruptlie by Lesleus called Wane) who had taken him in the warres. Wherefore, when the ambassador was returned into Scotland, Huntleie was com|mitted to certeine kéepers, who should carie him from London to Morphet, distant twentie and foure miles from the borders of Scotland. Now whilest the earle dooth there looke for his wiues comming to him, he thinketh vpon escape, and to come to hir. For EEBO page image 349 he had agréed with George Kar, that he should one night priuilie bring to him thither, two of the swif|test horsses that he could get to flie awaie vpon them. According wherevnto Kar was readie out of the borders of Scotland with such horses as he knew would serue the turne, wherof one was for the earle, and the other was for his man.

The erle prepareth a supper for his kéepers, where|vnto they were solemnelie inuited, and to plaie at cards with him to passe awaie the tediousnes of the night. At length (as though he had plaied inough at cards) he left off, but earnestlie desired his kéepers that they should continue on their game. During which, the earle (going vnto the window, and looking out) did by a secret signe (for he could not well dis|cerne anie thing, it was so extreame darke ouer all the element) easilie vnderstand that all things were readie for his iournie. The earle then doubtfull (be|ing sometime in good hope, and sometime in feare) thought vpon manie things, which he mustered to himselfe: and at length vnaduisedlie (as doubtfull men are woont to doo) burst out in these speeches;

Oh sorrow, all these things be a hinderance vnto me, the sharpenesse of the winter night, the doubt of my weake force and helpe, the let of an vnknowne way, and the want of a faithfull guide: God prosper the iourneie.
His kéepers hearing him speake to him|selfe, asked him what those secret spéeches might sig|nifie: to whom the earle (knowing that he was guil|tie of his fault) answered, that those words were v|sed as a prouerbe amongst the Scots: and first had their beginning by the old earle Morton, vttering the same in the middle of the night when he lay in dieng. Whervpon (to the end that his kéepers should not haue anie suspicion of his determined flight) he sitteth downe againe to cards.

After which suddenlie he rose from them, as vr|ged by loosenesse of his bellie to vnburden nature, by which occasion he foorthwith (accompanied onelie with his seruant) leapeth foorth, found the horsses rea|die furnished for himselfe and his man, got on them, & with speedie iournie did flie to the borders of Scot|land. When he was passed ouer the riuer of Twéed, and had a little refreshed himselfe from the labor of his iournie in the house of Kar, he went the same night (being Christmas éeue) to Edenburgh, where he was ioifullie & honorablie receiued of the quéene, the gouernor, his wife, and his other friends, with an vniuersall gladnesse of the whole multitude of the towne. As soone as his kéepers perceiued that he was gone, they spéedilie run to horsse, and (doubtfull which way to follow) they séeke him here, and there, and euerie where, but all in vaine, for the diligence of the erle put them out of all doubt for obteining him. Whose flight was not onelie a fréedome to himselfe, but also to manie other noble prisoners, who (vpon the assurance of his faith and word) were permitted to depart into Scotland. The gouernor therefore, to congratulate with the earle for his returne, restored vnto him the chancellorship, and the rule of manie o|ther prouinces which he had before his captiuitie. For which cause when he had remained a while at Eden|burgh, he returned to the north parts of Scot [...]d, where spéed [...]e and easilie he appeased all the tumults of those people.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 On saint Stephans day at night, the castell of Hume was scaled, and [...] out of the English|mens Hume castell recouered by the Scots. hands. One of the surname of the Humes, a man of threescore yeers of age, was the first that en|tered on the wall, sleieng one of the watchmen that kept his wa [...]e on that side. [...]. Thin. Buchan. li. 15. 1549. Lesle. Notlong after, when the cap [...]ine of Falkecastell had [...] the h [...]|bandmen ad [...]ing, to bring thither, (at a [...] day) great store of vittels, the yoong men there a|bouts hauing that occasion, assembled thither at the day appointed, who taking their burdens from the horses, and laieng them on their shoulders, were re|ceiued (after they had passed the bridge, which was made ouer two high rocks) into the castle, where (laieng downe that which they brought) they sudden|lie (by a signe giuen) set vpon the keepers of the gates, slue them, and (before the other Englishmen could be assembled) possessed the other places, wea|pons, and artillerie of the castell, and then receiuing the rest of their companie into the same (through the great and open gate) they wholie kept and inioied the castell for their countrimen.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 About the same time, the Reinsgraue returned in|to 1546. The Reins|graue retur|neth into France. Mo [...]sieur de Etauges ta|ken prisoner by the Eng|lishmen. France, leauing his fiue ensignes of Almains behind him, vnder the charge of capteine Retonze, a good man of warre and of great experience. Also monsieur de Etauges was taken in a skirmish at Broughtie crag, as I haue noted in the English hi|storie: & about the same time, there landed at Dun|breton foure bands of souldiers, Prouancois and Gascoignes, bringing monie with them to paie the souldiers their wages, behind as then for the space of three moneths. Sir Iames Wilford also was taken Sir Iames wilford taken about the same time by the Frenchmen, in a skir|mish at Dunbar (as I haue also noted in the histo|rie of England.) Not long after, monsieur de Desse was appointed by the queene Dowager, to go vnto Iedworth, to preuent that the Englishmen should not fortifie there, whereof she stood in some doubt.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Immediatlie vpon his comming thither, the lard of Fern [...]hurst requested him to helpe to recouer his castell of Fernihurst out of the Englishmens hands, which they had taken from him and kept, greatlie to the annoiance of all the countrie there abouts. Mon|sieur de Desse taking with him monsieur de Disell, and monsieur de la Chapelle de Biton, hasted thither with the chiefest part of his armie, sending before certeine capteins with their [...] to surueie the house; who at their comming thither, vsed such dili|gence in following the offered occasion, that they both repelled their enimies that came foorth to giue them the skirmish; and pursuing them with great ri|gor, wan the li [...]s of the house vpon them, forcing the capteine and souldiers to retire within the dun|geon, and kept them so short therein, that they had opportunitie to mine an hole though the wall, of such largenes, as a man might easilie enter by the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Heerewith a great number of Scots hauing broken open the gate of the base court, where the The castell of Fernihurst woone by the Frenchmen. Frenchmen were busie to assault the dungeon, burst in on heapes, and namelie of their capteine, who (as they said) had doone them manie great displeasures. The capteine perceiuing this, and doubting if he fell into the Scotishmens hands he should die for it, he presented himselfe at the hole which the Frenchmen had made, and yeelded himselfe to monsieur de Dussac, and la Mouthe Rouge, who minding to vse him as became men of warre, would haue led him out of the prese: but suddenlie a Scot comming behind him, whose wife (as was reported) he had rauished, smote off his head so iust from the shoulders, that it The crueltis of the Scots. leapt foure or fiue yards quite from the bodie. Manie other cruell parts the Scots seemed to shew against other Englishmen towards them before that time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Monsieur de Desse returning to I [...]worth, aided by the furtherance and counsell of the Scots, ceassed not in occasions of aduantage to attempt new en|terprises against the Englishmen, as time and oppor|tunitie seru [...]: and [...]ong other exploits, the castell The castell of Cornewall [...]. of Cornewall (an old house [...] after the ancient EEBO page image 350 maner of fortifieng) was taken by the Frenchmen, and spoiled of all things woorth the bearing awaie. Also capteine Cobios a Frenchman, hauing a band Capteine Co|bios. of fiftie light horssemen Scots seruing vnder him, on a night had a faire hand against a number of English horssemen, whome he charged so on the sud|den, as he saw them out of order, that he easilie dis|comfited them, and tooke more prisoners (whome he brought to Iedworth) than he had persons in his companie to assaile them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Monsieur de la Chapelle de Biron, was sent foorth A road made by monsieur de la Chapelle de Biron. by monsieur de Desse, with the companie of horsse|men that belonged to monsieur de E [...]auges then prisoner, and fiue hundred footmen beside Scots, to make a road into England: which enterprise he at|chiued in burning townes and villages, and retur|ned without anie great losse susteined at that time. Within two daies after his returne to Iedworth, monsieur de Desse dislodged from thence, & taking Another made by monsieur de Desse. Fourd castell woone. with him foure field péeces, and all his men of war, entered into England, tooke the castell of Fourd and burnt it, with ten small villages in the countrie thereabouts, situat within halfe a mile ech of other. There was one tower yet parcell of that castell of Fourd, which was kept by Thomas Kar, so that the Thomas Kar Frenchmen could not win it, for they had no time to staie long about it, remoouing that night ouer the water, & incamped there within the Scotish ground.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 As the Scots and Frenchmen executed these en|terprises, they were coasted by certeine light horsse|men; but neuerthelesse the Frenchmen returned in safetie to Iedworth, hauing sore indamaged the English borderers by that road: insomuch as it was thought, the Scots (which were with them at that road) gained at that time, by pillage and booties to the value of nine thousand crownes. The English|men Scots gaine by spoile. sore gréeued, that the Frenchmen lieng thus in Iedworth, should in such wise addresse one enterprise after an other against them, so greatlie to their an|noiance, assembled a power togither at Roxburgh, purposing to haue assailed the Frenchmen in their campe at Iedworth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But monsieur de Desse hauing warning thereof, Monsieur de Desse fléeth out of Ied|worth for feare of the Englishmen. departed from thence first to Melrosse, and after fur|ther off within the countrie, fearing to be constrei|ned to giue battell. Which he could not haue doone without manifest losse of his féeble armie, hauing not past fiftéene hundred footmen, and fiue hundred horssemen able to haue doone seruice: for such was the miserie, which they had in manner continuallie su [...]ined through want of vittels, and other necessa|rie helps during the time of their incamping at Ied|worth, that what through sickenesse and hurts recei|ued in assaults and skirmishes, no small number of them were dead, and manie other so féeble, that they The misera|ble state of the Frenchmen in Scotland. were not able to aid themselues; insomuch that now being got out of danger, they thought themselues happilie escaped.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, in the beginning of the summer, the Englishmen arm fiue and twentie saile of men of warre, the which arriuing at the Basse, néere to the mouth of the F [...]th, assailed by faire and pleasant words to haue persuaded the kéepers of the castell, there standing on the height of a great recke, to haue yéelded the place into their hands. But perceiuing their persuasions would not be regarded, they tooke their course vp into the Forth, and finding in their waie foure ships of Frenchmen and Scots, seized vpon them as a wished preie: and the morrow next insuing, at the verie breake of day, they came before Leith, and saluting the towne with canon shot, [...]|mained there at anchor ten or twelue daies, in which meane while they landed their people at Inskith, and Inskith forti|fied by the Englishmen. began to fortifie with all diligence. But before the place could be put in anie strength, the ships depar|ted from thence backe towards the sea, and left in the Iland foure ensignes of Englishmen, and one ensigne of Italians, to defend the pioners and the Iland against the Scots and Frenchmen, if they should attempt to assaile them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After the English nauie was thus departed, mon|sieur de Desse, and the queene mother being at E|denburgh, determined with all diligence to imploie all such forces as they might make about the recoue|ring of the Ile, before the fortifications begun by the Englishmen should be brought to anie perfection. Heerevpon, monsieur de la Chapelle de Biron, im|barked La Chape [...] de Biron. in the gallie of monsieur de Uillegaignon, rowed foorth to view the maner of the Englishmens dealing within the Ile, which he did in such effectuall wise, that approching within harquebuse shot, he brought knowledge with him not onelie of the state and whole circumstances of their buildings, but also of the perfect number of their ensignes, and the qua|litie of the men of warre that serued vnder the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At that present also, monsieur de Thermes latelie before arriued at Dunbreton with an hundred men of armes, and two hundred light horssemen after the manner of France, and one thousand footmen, was come to the quéene, busie now to further this enter|prise. She had got togither within Leith hauen all the botes that belonged to all the créekes & hauens of the Forth: so that on thursdaie after Trinitie sun|daie, The diligence of the Scotish quéene. euerie thing being prepared readie for the pur|pose, in the morning by the breake of day the quéene was come to Leith, to sée the imbarking of the men of warre appointed that day to trie what successe for|tune would send them. There was no diligence wan|ting, neither among the Scots nor Frenchmen, to bestow themselues abroad, & the comfortable woords The forward nesse of the souldiers. of the quéene greatlie incouraged them thereto, be|holding them, and deuising with monsieur de Desse and the other capteins, till they were all set forward.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Uillegaignon with his gallies passed on before to kéepe the Englishmen occupied, so as they should not perceiue the Frenchmens meaning: but they Insaith as|saulted by the Frenchmen. discouering the vessels at their setting foorth, concei|ued streightwaies what was intended: and there vp|on prepared to keepe the enimies off from landing, so that vpon the Frenchmens approch, they saluted them with arrowes and harquebuse shot verie hot|lie: yet at length by fine force the Scots and French|men got on land, and droue the Englishmen and I|talians backe from the sea strond vp to the higher ground, where they stood at defense on a plumpe togi|ther, dooing their best to defend the place against the assailants.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But finallie, their generall named Cotton, being Capteine Cotton gene|rall of Ins|kith and o|thers slaine. slaine with George Applebie esquire, a capteine of an ensigne of footmen sent foorth of Derbishire, and one Gaspar Pizoni, that was capteine of the Italians, beside diuers other gentlemen, and the most princi|pall men of warre and souldiers among them: the residue were constreined to retire vnto a corner or point of the Iland, where they were taken without further resistance, although before they had made ve|rie stout defense, hurt and staine diuerse Scots and Frenchmen, both at their landing, and also after they were entered on land. Among other, monsieur de la Chapelle de Biron was striken through the hand Monsieur de la Chap [...] hurt. with an harquebuse shot, and his burguenet beaten so into his head, that his friends that were about him, were faine to conuei [...] him into one of the gal|lies to be dressed of his hurts by a surgian. Also a gentleman named Desbo [...]ies, which bare the said [...]sieur de la Chapelle his cor [...]nell ensigne, was slaine with a pike by the hands of the forenamed Cotton the English generall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 351 Thus was Inskith recouered out of the English|mens Inskith reco| [...]ed by the Frenchmen. hands, after it had beene in their possession by the space of sixtéene daies, the more to the high con|tentation of monsieur de Desse, for that at the same time he stood vpon his discharge and returne into France, being appointed to surrender vp his place to monsieur de Thermes, latelie before arriued (as ye haue heard) with commission to receiue the same. So that monsieur de Desse, to end his charge with Monsieur de Desse retur|neth into France. the glorie of this atchiued enterprise, estéemed it much to stand with his honor: and no doubt with the swelling humor of the glorie thence redounding he was blowen vp; as in cases of victorie it commeth to passe in them that make a good hand: whereas the vanquished (God wot) are contrarilie qualified.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after, he returned into France with the gallies, and monsieur de Thermes succéeded in his Monsieur de Thermes succéedeth in his place. place for the generall conduct of the French armie in Scotland. Who by the aduise of the gouernor, and other of the Scotish lords, determined with a siege volant to kéepe the Englishmen in Hadington from vittels and all other reliefe. First therefore, after that Desse was departed towards France, mon|sieur de Thermes with his Frenchmen and some Scots incamped at Aberladie, where they began the foundation of a fort, so to impeach the Englishmen A for [...] buil|ded at Aberla|die. from setting on land anie vittels there, to be conneid from thence to Hadington, as before they had doone.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane time, the Englishmen had increa|sed their numbers of Almaines, and other stran|gers, and not onelie furnished their forts with new supplies of men; but also had an armie in the fields which lay most an end at Dunglas, and one while besieged Hume castell. But after they saw them|selues disappointed of the meane, whereby they sup|posed to haue recouered it, they raised from thence, and spoiled the most part of Tiuidale and other the marches there about; in reuenge (as they alleged) of the disloialtie and breach of promise proued in the as|sured Scots. Generall of this armie was the earle of Rutland, lieutenant at that present of the north parts, a noble man, right valiant, wise, well aduised, The earle of Rutland. and staied in his dealings, verie honorable and cour|teous in all his demeanor.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He was accompanied with capteins of good esti|mation and approoued prowesse, as sir Richard Ma|ners, sir Francis Leake, sir Iohn Sauage, sir Tho|mas Holcroft, sir Oswald Wulstrop, & others. He so behaued himselfe in that dangerous time of the vprores and rebellions of the commons, through the more part of the realme of England; that although the appointed forces against Scotland were staied, and turned to the suppression of the rebels, to the in|couragement (no doubt) both of Scots and French|men in Scotland, yet they were so fronted and kept in aw by that armie vnder the earle of Rutland, that they rather lost than gained in this season at the Englishmens hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At one time the same armie, vnder the conduct of the said earle, passing foorth with a conueie of vittels vnto Hadington, came so suddenlie vpon the Frenchmen where they laie in campe, that whether through default of their scouts, or other negligence vsed by them, or through the great diligence and pro|uident forwardnesse shewed by the Englishmen, the Frenchmen were in such hazard to haue béene vtter|lie The French|men in danger to haue béene distressed. distressed, that if the Englishmen had not doub|ted more, than by anie was thought néedfull, they might haue ouerthrowen, taken, & slaine the French|men handsmooth (as was supposed) at their pleasure. But the Englishmen euen at their first comming in sight of them (as it stood with the reason of warre, sith by the aduenturing rashlie oftentimes in such cases too late repentance easilie insueth) staied, the better to conceiue of that which they had to doo. Wher|by the Frenchmen had leasure to march their waies a maine pase, till they were got out of danger: for after they once beheld all the troops of the English horssemen almost at their elbowes, and herewith the battell of the Almaines suddenlie appearing on The French|men retire. the hill top readie to come downe vpon them, it was no need to bid them packe awaie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Scotish light horssemen comming on the backe of the English armie, perceiued where the Al|maines (to make them readie to giue battell) had throwen off their clokes, and left the same (with all their baggage and stuffe which they had about them) in kéeping of none but of their women and boies: where vpon those Scotish horssemen, not minding to suffer such a preie to escape their hands, came gallo|ping in, and tooke all the best stuffe they could lay hold vpon, and returned in safetie, before anie eni|mie The baggage of the English Lansquenets spoiled by the Scotish horsse men. could come backe to the rescue. The Almains were in no small chafe for the losse of their garments and other necessaries; but there was no helpe then to séeke remedie in that behalfe: for the Scots were withdrawen and got quite out of danger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The English armie, after that the Frenchmen were thus fled and gone, passed foorth to Hadington, with their cariages laden with vittels, to the great comfort of them within that fortresse, standing in Hadington vittelled. great necessitie before this conueie came. This summer also, and a little before the vittelling thus of Hadington, vpon knowledge had that Iulian Ro|mero Iulian Ro|mero distres|sed. with his band of Spaniards, whereof he was capteine, seruing the king of England, was lodged in Coldingham, six miles distant from Berwike: certeine bands of Almains and Frenchmen came thither vpon the sudden, and surprising the Spani|ards before they were aware of their approch, set vp|on them in their lodgings, tooke, and slue in maner the whole number of them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Things passing in this wise in Scotland in the summer of this yeare 1549, the Englishmen were 1549. not onelie in the meane time sore troubled with com|motions raised by the commons of that realme; but also with the warres which the French king made a|gainst them, within the countrie of Bullognois, so that they had not meanes to imploie their forces a|gainst Scotland as they had determined to haue doone; as partlie before, and more largelie in the hi|storie of England is mentioned. By reason whereof, anon after Michaelmas they gaue ouer the kéeping Hadington raced and left by the Eng|lishmen. of Hadington, and raising their fortifications there, they returned into England to the great reioising of Louthian, to whome that towne had giuen occa|sion of great troubles and calamities. Upon the gi|uing ouer thus of Hadington, the gouernor and the quéene Dowager were aduanced, in hope to reco|uer againe all that the Englishmen held within the bounds of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But first it was thought good to assaie the win|ning of Broughtie crag; for it sounded (as was thought) greatlie to the diminishing of the estima|tion, aswell of the Scots as Frenchmen, that the English should kéepe foot so far within the realme, in despight of their whole puissance. Herevpon mon|sieur 1550. de Thermes about Candlemasse, hauing all things in a readinesse for the siege, came thither, and did so much, what with shot of canon to make bat|terie, and other meanes of inforcements, that gi|uing Broughtie crag woon by the French|men. the assault both with Scots and Frenchmen, they entred the fort the twentith of Februarie by fine force, so that all those within were either taken or slaine. Whervpon those English also that kept the castell, rendred vp the same without further resi|stance, amongest other prisoners: sir Iohn Lutte|rell the capteine was one.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 352 In this meane time there were certeine commis|sioners appointed betwixt the two kings of Eng|land and France to commune of a peace: but be|cause A treatie for peace. they continued long in their treatie yer they could agrée, the Scots and Frenchmen surceassed not in occasions of aduantage to pursue the warre, so that comming before Lowder they besieged that fortresse, & skirmishing with the Englishmen that issued foorth, to incounter them, droue them in at the gates with some losse on either part. And this doone, the French held them within so strcictlie besieged, that if peace had not béene the sooner concluded, sir Hugh Willoughbie capteine of that fort must néeds Sir Hugh willoughbie. haue yeelded through lacke of shot, & other necessarie things seruing for defense; which were spent, so that they were constreined to vse their pewter vessell in stead of bullets. But as it fortuned, a peace was ac|corded, A peace con|cluded. passed, and confirmed, that verie selfe time betwixt the two kings of England and France, through the diligent and orderlie trauell of the com|missioners The names of the commis|sioners ap|pointed to treat of peace. appointed to deale therein, whose names insue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 First for the king of England, the right honora|ble Iohn earle of Bedford, knight of the garter, and lord priuie seale; William Paget lord of Beau|desert, knight also of the garter; sir William Peter knight, chiefe secretarie to the said king; & sir Iohn Mason knight, secretarie to him for the French toong. For the French king were appointed Fran|cis de Montmorance, lord of Rochpot, knight of the order of saint Michaell, and lieutenant for the same king of Picardie, in absence of monsieur, de Uan|dosme; Gasper de Colignie, lord of Chastillon, knight also of the order, and capteine generall of the footmen of France, and the said kings lieutenant generall in the countie of Bullogne; Andrew Guil|lard lord Mortier, knight also of the order, and one of the same kings priuie councell; and Guillaume Bouchettell lord of Sassie, knight likewise of the order, & secretarie of the estate of the finances. [And for the Scots (as saith Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 506.) Fr. Thin. D. Painter bishop or Rosse.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Among other articles comprised in this peace, it was couenanted, that all such forts, castels, and The articles of the peace. places as the Englishmen held in anie part within the Scotish dominions, should be deliuered and re|stored to the Scots; and that the forts of Dunglas, Roxburgh, and Aimouth, which the Englishmen had built and raised out of the ground, should be raced and throwen downe, to auoid all occasions of new controuersies that might grow by reason of kéeping or defending the same: so as the peace now conclu|ded, might in all points be firmelie and truelie kept and obserued, aswell betwixt England and Scot|land, as England and France, and betwixt all and euerie the subiects of the same realmes, both by sea and land. Monsieur de Mourret was sent into Scot|land with the copie of this peace, by whose means it Monsieur de Mourret. was proclamed anon after Easter about the begin|ning of Aprill, and euerie thing vsed and ordered ac|cording to the articles of the agréement concluded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Maie the Frenchmen and Almaines were im|barked at Leith in sixtéene French ships, and cer|teine Scotish ships, and departed from thence in|to The French|men returne home. France. A few there were, as Nigropellice and Saint Falcise, capteins of light horssemen, with o|thers that passed through England, and so home into their countrie. Moreouer the marquesse de Maine, The mar|quesse de Maine. after duke Daumals comming ouer into England about the same time for an hostage, passed after|wards through the realme into Scotland, to visit his sister queene Dowager, and shortlie after returned. They mourned both for the death of their father The death of the first duke of Guise. Claud de Loraine, the first duke of Guise, who de|ceassed the eightéenth of Aprill this present yeare 1550.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 507.Now when the French departed out of Scot|land; there were manie Scots appointed vnto them; partlie, to defend them from pirats, if they should of|fer them anie iniurie in the streict of the British sea, and partlie for honors cause to bring them on their iournie into France. By whose departure Scotland was fréelie deliuered from all forren soul|diers, except certeine Frenchmen, who remained still in the countrie; because they had the Ile of Ins|keth and the castell of Dunbar committed to their charge, which afterwards they did most faithfullie discharge. Monsieur de Thermes, Chappellie, and diuerse other capteins of France, remained also in Scotland (after that the others were imbarked to be gone into France) for pleasures cause, and to sée the countrie; who (trauelling ouer Scotland, and behol|ding the cities, searching the castels, and marking the bulworks of defense) did constantlie affirme, that in the whole world they neuer saw forts and townes more pleasantlie placed, or more naturallie defended. In séeing whereof they consumed the time with great pleasure, vntill the moneth of December, in which they all went into France with the quéene Dowager.

Thus, as there was peace (by the departing of the Buchanan lib. 15. French) with forren nations, which continued three yeares: so was there within the wals and king|dome warre and dissention amongest the Scots; which was most perillous and troublesome. For they which were the chiefe rulers (as the gouernor and his brother the archbishop of saint Andrews and others) did vse all things with extreame cruel|tie & couetousnesse. For the archbishop, being giuen to all libertie, followed by law his pleasures in all things, as though it had béene permitted vnto him. For first, as a presage of his following tyrannie, he permitted the slaughter of William Chreichton to go vnpunished, the same William being slaine in the gouernors house (if not within his owne sight) by Robert Semple: next followed the death of Iohn Maluill an old man of Fife; who next vnto the gouernor was most accounted of by him, as chie|fest of his familiars. This Iohn had his letters (which he wrote to an Englishman, to whome he did commend a capteine his friend) intercepted. In which, although there were not anie suspicion of anie fault, yet was the author of them punished with the losse of his head. Whose patrimonie made his death seeme the more vile; because the same was giuen to the yoonger sonne of the gouernor. The hurts of these wicked parts did perteine to few, the enimie there|of to manie, and the example vniuersallie to all. For by reason of this vnskilfull gouernement of the kingdome, and the slo [...]th of his life, which offended the common people; the gouernor began to be had in contempt almost of all men.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In September following, the quéene Dowager accompanied with the earls of Huntleie, Cassils, Marshall, Southerland, and diuerse other of the Scotish nobilitie tooke the sea, and sailing to France The quéene Dowager sai|leth into France. landed at Diepe: she was conueied thither by the prior of Capoa, & Leon Strozzie, sent and appoin|ted with six gallies to haue the conduction of hir. From Diepe she remoued to Rone, where the king then laie, of whome she was right courteouslie recei|ued, and had such attendance and seruice doone vnto hir, during the time of hir tariance there, as stood with the dignitie of hir person, and was answerable to the minds and expectations of hir traine; to the high praise likewise of the king and his court in that behalfe.

The causes of the quéene Dowagers going into EEBO page image 353 France were, that now hauing disposed all things at Buchanan. lib. 15. Lesleus lib. 10 pag. 508. home in Scotland, she might renew the old league in France, she might sée hir daughter and hir other friends; and procure the gouernement of the realme to hir selfe. For the ambitious and subtill woman did thinke in hir mind, that the gouernor by his euill demeanor would soone be put out of his office, and that she might easilie find means to be substituted in his place. But before hir shipping into France, and whilest they were preparing, the earle of Huntleie commanded William Makintosche (chiefe of the fa|milie of the Glenchattens, and his followers) to be apprehended (for a conspiracie secretlie begun a|gainst 1551. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 508 him, whilest he was the kings deputie in those north parts) and from thence (being first depriued of all his goods) caried him to Strachbolgie, where he was beheaded. Which fact (greatlie offending the minds of the earle of Cassils, and others that fauored the Makintosche) did so stir them against Huntleie, that a commotion and tumult had béene raised by them, vnlesse the wisedome of the quéene had appea|sed the furie of their minds.

For although the quéene certeine yeares after, had vndoone the sentence of proscription for the goods of Makintosche (restoring the same with the possessions and inheritances vnto the sonne of Makintosche) and thereby had seemed to cut awaie the cause of dissention betwéene Huntleie and them: yet the kindred and friends of the Glenchattens (not suffe|ring so great an iniurie to their familie to go vnre|uenged) did secretlie (but eagerlie) pursue the same with great contention of mind. Wherefore entring the castell of Pet by deceipt, they apprehended Lanchlane Makintosche, and (condemning all his followers to banishment) did cruellie kill him (as Lanchlane Makintosche apprehended. the betraior of the head of his owne familie) because they supposed, that he ministred and blew the cole that fired Huntleie, to make the said William Ma|kintosche out of the waie.

A little before which, the maister of Ereskine, and Henrie Senclere deane of Glascow were sent in|to Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 509. England; who at London did anew confirme the peace concluded before with the English; from whence they passed into Flanders, to make the like league with the low countries, which they did re|new, to the great reioising of both nations; although in the beginning of the treatie there grew great and contentious questions for the restitution of the ships of Flanders and Holland (whereof the Scots had taken manie in the warres) notwithstanding that the Scots had alleged, that they did not offer anie violence to those of the low countries, before that they (by the persuasion of the English) had offered wrong to the Scots, in deteining their ships and merchandize

Thus much digressed from [...]he quéene Dowagers going into France, wherevnto afresh to direct our pen, we say; that being at Rone, the king did there openlie make shew of hir welcome vnto him by di|uerse arguments. Amongst which, this was not the least: that (besides other shews, honorable triumphs, & manie courtesies shewed to the Scots) calling a chapter of the knights of the order of saint Michaell, he admitted the earle of Huntleie and other chiefe lords of Scotland deere to the queene, and fauored by him, into the said order. Which honors and pleasures séemed the more augmented, in that the yoong quéene of Scots was there present, adorned with such sin|gular beautie, as was not easilie to be spoken, by the iudgement of Lesleus. After that they had thus spent some time in delights of courtesie, to feed the mind and eie, the king of France, the two quéens of Scotland, and the other nobles, departed from thence to Paris; where they were with great triumph of the citizens most ioifullie receiued. At what time a|gaine, the French king shewed such humanitie to Huntleie, and the other Scots; that he séemed for euer most firmelie to bind them vnto him. After that they spent some daies there at Paris, the king with that companie remoued to Blesies; where he remained all the winter.

Now the quéene Dowager, thinking the time Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 510. and place fit for the executing of the cause of hir com|ming into France, and vsing therein the aduise of the duke of Guise, and the cardinall of Loreine (hir brethren) openeth the same vnto the French king, shewing that amongest others, the chiefest cause to take that iournie, was to require his opinion, tou|ching the gouernement of the kingdome of Scot|land: and to know, if it pleased him that the helme of the same kingdome should be committed to hir rule. Which if he misliked, or deemed the contrarie; that yet she would wholie rest on his determination. The which matter pleased well the king, but yet with this promise; if the gouernor without anie tumult or raising of quarrels would giue it ouer.

Wherevpon the quéene, to bring euerie thing a|bout as she desired, did persuade the king to con|firme the dukedome of Chatelerault in France, vn|to the gouernor, before granted to him and to his Buchanan. lib. 16. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 410. heires, & to make his eldest son erle of Arraine chiefe capteine of the bands of Scots in France. And further, to giue the earledome of Murreie to the earle of Huntleie (kinsman to the gouernor) and to his heires; the earledome of Rothseie to his sonne, which had maried the kinsman of the said gouernor; the whole earledome of Angus, to the earle thereof; and the erledome of Morton, to the sonne of George Dowglasse. All which he should procure likewise to be confirmed by such, as should be gouernors of the yoong quéene. These things now doone, the French king carefullie receiued the yoong quéene of Scots into his protection; vntill she should come vnto more sufficient yeers, able to confirme all these gifts; the which if she refused then to doo, the French king wold then bestow as large possessions on them in France.

In the meane time the gouernor had sent Car|negie knight and senator into France, who should in the name of the Scots giue great thanks to the king for the aid which they receiued out of France, against the Englishmen. After this the French king did liberallie open the determination of the queene mother of Scotland to the bishop of Rosse (then am|bassador for the Scots in France) to Robert Car|negie, and to Gawin Hamilton (to whom, as was said, the abbeie of Kiluinin was giuen in commen|dam) to the end that the same which was at the first secretlie consulted betwéene the king of France & the quéene Dowager, might now openlie be con|sidered among the Scots which were in France: declaring further, that he desired nothing more, than that the quéene mother should susteine the parts and place of the queene hir daughter, in the administra|tion and gouernement of Scotland, sith the same mostlie stood with reason and equitie; and that he (the better to win the gouernor to yéeld therevnto) had giuen the gouernor the dukedome of Chatelerault, to his sonne the capteinship of all the Scots in France, and manie other liberall benefits to manie other of his kinsmen.

And to the end that no deceipt might be supposed to be hidden vnder this liberalitie, the French king willed the ambassadour to take possession of all these things in the dukes name. Robert Carnegie hauing his errand, returned into Scotland; & short|lie after, the bishop of Rosse was appointed ambas|sador, who at length with much adoo did wring from the gouernor a consent to part from his authoritie, EEBO page image 354 and to applie himselfe to the will of the French king: which thus in the end obteined, the bishop of Rosse goeth againe into France, to aduertise the king what he had doone. Wherevpon the king considering his painfull & faithfull seruice, did reward him with the abbeie of Labseie in France.

Whilest these things were in dooing, Edward Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 511. the sixt, king of England, did send the marquesse of Northampton, & other of the nobler sort of ambassa|dors to Henrie the second, king of France, then so|tourning at Blesies, to moue him to giue his daugh|ter Blois. in mariage to the king of England. At what time there were [...]anie martiall games and pastimes shewed before the king, in which the English ioining the Scots with them as companions of their sports, did beare a part, and wan the garland (from the o|thers) to their singular commendation. The summer next following, the French king accompanied with the quéene mother of Scotland and other of the no|bilitie, did with great pompe enter Turon, Aniow, Nants, and other cities of Britaine, which he had not before seene since he atteined the crowne. After cer|teine moneths consumed in those iournies, he retur|ned to Founteinblew.

But the quéene Dowager of Scotland, taking hir courteous leaue and farwell of the French king, Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 512. hir daughter, & of other the nobilitie, departed from the court, and with easie iournies came to Iamiestie: where re [...]ng a certeine time, she had the plea|sant companie of hir mother the duches of Guise, and hir other friends to their great ioy: but that the shewed a certeine griefe (for hir father latelie decea|sed) which somewhat diminished the sweet pleasure of that méeting. Now when the quéene Dowager had remained almost 12 moneths or more in France, honorablie interteined, bountifullie feasted, louing|lie saluted by hir friends and kinred, and hauing ob|teined a willing grant of the effects of hir request, the Scots doo vrge hir to hasten hir returne into Scotland, preparing at Paris all things necessarie therevnto.

Wherefore departing thence, and comming a|gaine to Rone, the quene mother mooued and per|suaded Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 512. the nobilitie about the taking of hir iournie through [...] into Scotland. By occasion wher|of, loosing their ships from Newport, they passe the seas, and happilie landed at Portesmouth, a famous port of England. The knowledge of which arriuall comming to king Edward the sixt, he presentlie sent thither the earle of Southampton, and the lord Wil|liam Howard to interteine hir: who receiued hir with singular ioy and courtesie, and conueied hir through Hampshire, Sussex, and Surreie (three pro|uinces of England) to Hampton court, where the king as then remained; from whence (after that the had béene there most honorablie receiued) she came along the riuer of Thames to London, and landed at Poules wharfe in the after noone, and from thence rode to the bishop of Londons palace by Poules, and there lodged.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The fo [...] of Nouember, she rode in hir chariot to the kings palace of the Whitehall, accompanied with the ladie margaret Dowglas, the three dutches|ses, of Suffolke, Richmund, and Northumberland, and diuerse other great ladies and gentlewomen, both Scotish and English. At the court gate the Hir receiuing at the court. dukes of Northumberland, and Suffolke, and the lord treasuror were readie to receiue hir. And at hir entering into the hall, the king stood in the vpper end thereof, and the erle of Warwike holding the sword before him. She at hir approching to him, knéeled downe, and he courteouslie tooke hir vp, and kissed hir; and taking hir by the hand, led hir vp into his owne chamber of presence, & after into the quéenes chamber of presence, where he kissed all the ladies of Scotland, and so departed for a while.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 She dined on the quéenes side that day with the king, his seruice and hirs comming both togither; the kings being placed on the right hand of the table, and hirs on the left. What plentie of all maner of costlie meates and drinks there was, and [...]at rich furniture of plate and all other things was shewed to set foorth the feast, it were superfluous to write. All the ladies both of England and Scotland dined in the quéenes great chamber. After dinner the king shewed hir his gallerie and gardens, with all other commodities of the place. And about foure of the clocke, he brought hir downe againe by the hand in|to the hall, where he first receiued hir, and there kis|sing hir, she tooke hir leaue, & returned to the bishops palace from whence she came.

Fr. Thin. And here I must not forget what Lesleus hath set downe in this place for the defense of his people, in not deliuering the yoong quéene of Scots to the English, to haue entered the mariage bed of king Edward the sixt. Whose reasons although they may (the first ground of the warre considered, with the consent of the Scots parlement to that mariage, and the willingnesse of the English to haue caused them to performe their promise without battell) bée well answered, as matters that not verie greatlie defend the cause: yet I will not anie way say anie thing of him (being a man estranged from vs in re|ligion, but learned, wise, of great experience, a faith|full seruant to his mistresse, and a graue bishop of Rosse) but set them downe plainelie as he writeth them, leauing the same to the iudgement of others, sith I meane not in anie thing to derogate from them, or arrogate vnto our selues more than is due. Thus therefore he writeth.

When the quéene (saith he) of Scots was come Lesleus lib. 10, pag. 113. to London, the king of England sheweth vnto hir his treasurie, openeth the monuments, laieth abroad the antiquities of the kingdome, and laboured by manie other such kind of means, that he might pre|pare himselfe a passage (with the open notes of cour|tesie) to obteine the good will of the queene. For he af|ter persuaded hir with manie spéeches, that she shuld giue hir daughter vnto him, as it was before de|créed by the Scotish nobilitie: which he prooueth by manie arguments to be most beneficiall vnto both nations. When on the contrarie part (if she were gi|uen vnto the French kings sonne) it should not be profitable either to the Scots, which should giue; or the French, which should receiue hir to wife. There|withall adding this vnto it, that there should alwais be continuall hatred, and deadlie enimitie betwéene him and that person which should marrie hir.

Wherevnto the queene both presentlie and wise|lie answered, that the cause of hir daughters mari|age to be solemnized with the French, was onlie by reason of the protector of England, which so bitterlie pursued the Scots with such earnest warre as then was made against them. For it was vnaduisedlie doone of him, to séeke to compell by force of battell a woman, which is to be allured to the mariage bed with faire promises and flattering spéeches. Where|vnto she ioined, that the Scots were so vehementlie pressed by him, that they were inforced to craue aid from the French: for the more speedie & easie obtei|ning whereof, they were vrged to leaue the yoong quéene of Scots in France for a pledge. Wherefore she greatly grieued that the matter was so fast knit vp by the necessitie of time, otherwise than the Eng|lishmen would haue had it. But yet, she would la|bor the French king by hir letters and messengers, with all the diligence that she might, to sée if hir tra|uell and furtherance could doo anie thing with him EEBO page image 355 therein. Thus much Lesleus, and so againe to the matter.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The firt of Nouember, the queene Dowager de|parted from London toward Scotland, riding from Poules through the citie, passing foorth at Bishops gate. The duke of Northumberland, the erle of Pen|broke, and the lord treasuror brought hir to Shordich church, and there tooke their leaue of hir. The duke of Northumberland had an hundred men after him with iauelins, whereof fourtie were gentlemen clad in blacke veluet cotes garded with white, & hats of blacke veluet with white feathers, and chains of gold about their necks. The earle of Penbroke had six score men well appointed also, with blacke iauelins and hats with feathers, and the lord treasuror had an hundred gentlemen and yeomen with iauelins in like maner, well apparelled: which thrée companies of horsmen furnished the stréets on either side, from the crosse in Cheape, to Birchen lane end, as the pas|sed that waie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The shiriffes of London had the conduction of hir to Waltam towne end, where she lodged that night: and in euerie shire through which she passed, the shi|riffe, with the gentlemen of the same shire, receiued hir, and gaue their attendance on hir, till she came to enter into the next shire, where the shiriffe and gentle men there receiued hir: and that order was obserued till she came to the borders of Scotland, and all hir charges for meat and drinks, aswell for hir selfe, and whole traine, as also the prouision for their horsses, was borne and allowed by the king. [Besides which, (as saith the same Lesleus) Richard Shelleie, now Fr. Thin. maister of the knights of Malta in England, and Edward Dudleie baron, were appointed to attend on hir all the waie through England, from London to Edenburgh, where she was honorablie recei|ued by the earle Bothwell, and the lord Hume.] The earle of Huntleie, and diuerse other of the Scotish lords returned home by sea, the said earle landing at Montrosse, about the latter end of December.

Fr. Thin. Leslus lib. 10. pag. 513. After that the quéene was arriued in Scotland, the labored euerie waie to stop all occasion of dis|sention; and that these bralles which were risen a|mongest the nobilitie in the time of the warres, and were not yet fullie quenched, might grow no further, to bring the common wealth (alreadie much impai|red) into new troubles. Wherefore, by the aduise of the gouernor, of the earles of Huntleie, Angus, and Argile, and by the quéenes trauell, the controuersies mooued about the archbishoprikes of saint Andrews and Glascow, the bishoprikes of Dunkeld and Bre|chine, the abbeies of Aberbrothie, Inchechafrie, and other benefices, were ended: by bestowing some of them vpon noble mens children, and some vpon such persons as woorthilie deserued them.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Doctor Wanthop, whome Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 514. calleth Robert Warhope, a Scotishman borne, The archbi|shop of Arma|chane. archbishop of Armachane, so nominated by pope Paule the third, and after created Legatus à latere by Iulius the third, deceassed this yéere in Paris, the 1551. tenth of Nouember. This man was blind from his infancie, but yet gaue himselfe so to studie, that he was first made doctor of diuinitie in the vniuersitie of Paris, and after atteined to such estimation in the court of Rome, that he was by the foresaid popes aduanced (as before ye haue heard.) So that it is to be presumed, that the sufficiencie of his learning, (whereto he must néeds aspire altogither by the eare) (sith he was quite depriued of the benefit of fight) coo|pled with other good qualities of mind, were means to preferre him first into the popes fauour, and then to promotion of his bestowing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yeere in the moneth of Iune, the quéene Dow|ager, and the gouernor, went into the north parts of 1552. Scotland; and at Innernes, Elgin, Bamf, Aberden, and Perth, the gouernor sat in iustice for redresse of wrongs doone are by iustice redressed. wrongs, and administration of righteous lawes and orders. And afterwards they repaired to the west parts, and sat likewise in iustice at Dunfreis, Glas|cow, Lanricke, and in other places of that countrie, where diuerse were put to their fines for transgres|sing the lawes, but few or none touched by corporall punishment. Which was but a slender course taken in reforming enormities, and little better than im|punitie; though in leuieng of the fines (perhaps) a proportion were vsed: for by that meanes manie an offense was redéemed by monie, and iustice was lit|tle better than bought and sold, as at a publike mart.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 515. After this, they returned to Edenburgh, where all things requisite for the establishing of iustice were confirmed by the counsell of the nobilitie, and of the wise senators. Wherevpon, when nothing sée|med to want for the setling of a perfect peace through all the realme, but this, that certeine of the inhabi|tants of the east limits (accustomed to spoiles) did by driuing booties of cattell from the borders of Eng|land, séeme to offer new occasion of warre. At this time, the gouernor goeth to Iedworth, and remooued such magistrats as had negligentlie gouerned their owne prouince, or dispatched the generall affaires of the kingdome: where taking pledges of euerie familie, he made them after that time in better qui|et. Wherevpon a long time following, there was a mutuall peace betweene England and Scotland. A|bout which time also, the protestants religion making breach into the doctrine of the Romans, there was a prouinciall councell kept at Bithquoe, where the Caluinists with their doctrine were condemned and accurssed; and all things decréed in the councell of Trent vnder Paule the third, were established, with manie other néedfull lawes made to purge the cor|rupt manners of the clergie.

In which meane time, Dauid Panter or Painter 1552. (for I find both written) being a man of great lear|ning, and famous by great experience, hauing faith|fullie consumed seuen yeeres in France, in the ser|uice of an ambassador legier, came out of France to Iedworth: where, when he had declared to the go|uernor (in the assemblie of the nobilitie) the reason, order, and meane which he vsed in accomplishing of his office; he was greatlie commended of all men. And for that he had so diligentlie, wiselie, & trustilie performed that great charge, he was with great so|lemnitie consecrated bishop of Rosse, in the presence of that assemblie. At which time also, the gouernor Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 516. did dub into the order of knighthood certeine borde|rers, who had deserued well of the common-wealth, to the end that their vertue adorned with such hono|rable recompense, might be more inlarged toward the care of their countrie. Amongest which persons so aduanced, these were the chiefe: Ceffurd and Ferni|hurst, Andrew Kar of Littleden, Couldinknols, Greinherdie, Balclenche, with manie other valiant men.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In this iorneie (wherein the gouernor was thus The quéene mother séeketh to be gouernor the iustice) the quéene secretlie trauelled with the lords, both spirituall and temporall, to haue their con|sents to be regent of Scotland, immediatlie after hir daughter the quéene came to sufficient yéeres, and that the time of hir tutorship were accomplished, or sooner; if the lawes of the realme would so permit. And to assure hir selfe of their good wils in this be|halfe, the contracted sundrie priuie bands with them, making large promises of great rewards vnto eue|rie of them. To conclude, this matter was so hande|led 1552. Lesle. 1553. The gouerne|ment is resig|ned vnto the quéene. by hir and others, to whome the committed the dooings therein, that in the yéere following, the go|uernor agréed to surrender vp the gouernance into EEBO page image 356 hir hands, hir daughter the yoong queene being not yet full twelue yeeres of age.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The gouernor was promised not onelie a full dis|charge and a Quietus est of all his dooings, as well for receipt of monie, iewels, & other things, during the time of his gouernement, but also a confirmation of the heritable gift of the dukedome of Chatelerault: likewise an other confirmation of all gifts and resti|tutions by him made, during the time he had exerci|sed the office of gouernor. And foorthwith the queene Dowager sent into France, to get all these things dispatched, with such assurances of writings vnder hands and seales, as was expedient, and to be sent home into Scotland for his securitie in all things.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 517. 1552. But before the gouernor had consented to the queenes demand, there was great contention about the matter: for she well vnderstood that he would not depart with his office, before the time that the yoong quéene had atteined to the age prescribed for hir full yeeres. For it is ordeined by the law of the kingdome, that the king shall not remaine anie lon|ger vnder tutors, than to the age of fouretéene; & the quéene (as it is in other women) at the yéeres of 12, at which times they may appoint procurators, which shall haue the gouernement of the kingdome vntill their full age. For which cause, the yoong quéene chose amongst other (as after shall more appéere) the quéene Dowager to be one: wherevpon, the quéene Dowa|ger challenged the gouernement vnto hir selfe, for that hir daughter was certeine moneths aboue those yeeres of twelue. Against which the gouernor did [...]flie contend, constantlie affirming that the yoong quéene did not excéed the age of eleuen yéeres.

Whervpon the quéene, to take from the gouernor all starting-holes and other shifts, dooth vrge the cu|stome of that kingdome, and the obseruation of those lawes to be, that they must reckon the yeere in which the Scotish king or quéene is yet vnborne in their mothers bellie, to be part of that number of twelue or foureteene; in which they may appoint gouernors to rule vnder them. Which the gouernor perhaps did seeme to confesse for the king, but that the same was true for a quéene it did not appeere; sith it séemeth to be wrought by Gods high prouidence, that the king|dome of Scotland was alwaies héeretofore by ma|nie ages gouerned by kings, and that a woman did ueuer before this time (especiallie one within age) challenge that kingdome vnto them, although the male line (as appéered from the Bruses to the Stew|ards) descended from the women, haue sometime possessed the sterne of Scotland.

But in the end, saie or doo what he could, the go|uernor did surrender his place (as after shall more plainelie appéere) vntill which time we will pursue the orderlie course of things doone in this place: which is, that whilest the gouernor & the queene mother were in this discord for the regentship of the realme, manie Les [...]eus lib. 10. pag. 519. seditious persons (taking occasion thereby with hope to scape vnpunished) did renew the memorie of old iniuries. For heerevpon it happened, that manie of 1552. the familie of the Kars did (at Edenburgh) with great boldnesse vtterlie slaie Balcleuche the knight. Besides which, the yoonger sonne of the lord Ruth|wen or Rewen, did publikelie thrust through and slea Sundrie slaughters of the nobilitie. Iohn Chartrusse a noble and a valiant yoong man, for deadlie hatred (as was thought) betwéene those two families. Yet it was spred abroad, that the chie|fest cause why Ruthwen did kill Chartrusse, was for that Ruthwen (being called into sute of law by the other) distrusting his cause, and supposing that it would passe against him by iudgement, had none o|ther remedie to relieue the matter, than that verie day to kill Chartrusse. Which matter was the occasi|on of making this law, that whosoeuer with force or armes did either pursue or abate, recouer or lose in anie action, should not onelie be punished for the rashnesse of the fact, but also should haue the matter foorthwith (euen in that moment of time) iudged a|gainst him.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yeere, the sixt of Iulie, Edward the sixt of that 1553. name, king of England, departed this life, after whom succéeded his sister Marie, eldest daughter to K. Henrie the eight. [Touching whose regiments, Abr. Fl. sith this historie requireth matter appropriate vnto it selfe, we will saie little in this place, remitting the readers to the conuenient course of time wherein they flourished and vaded. Onelie this is woorthie the noting, that the realme of England was not so much in hir time afflicted with exquisite troubles of barbarous persecutors, to the diminishing of Gods seruants, and the increasing of satans synagog, as it was like to haue triumphed vnder the glorious title of the victorious gospell, if God had not (for the vnwoorthinesse of the English people) taken the yoong king awaie. For the prosperous beginning of his gouernement foretold an happie procéeding, and a blessed ending. But to returne to Scotland.]

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10 pag 520. About this time, Norman Lesle, who (as you heard before) had fled for the death of the cardinall Beton bishop of saint Andrews into France (where he then was imprisoned) being now set at libertie, did priuilie conueie himselfe into Scotland. Which vnderstood of the gouernor, he fined all those that 1554. had receiued him into their house, & compelled Nor|man to flée to Denmarke, for feare that (if he were taken) he should suffer extreme punishment. But when he knew that there was no place of safetie for him in that countrie, wandering ouer manie pro|uinces, he came at last into England, in the reigne of Edward the sixt; of whome, with the rest of his companions, he was most courteouslie receiued, with yéerelie pensions out of the excheker or com|mon tresurie assigned vnto them for their mainte|nance, according to their estates.

But after that king Edward was departed the world, they all were also commanded to depart the realme, to whome (earnestlie vrging that their pensi|ons might be paied to them in an other place where they should remaine) the duke of Norffolke did pub|likelie say in the councell, that it séemed not iustice, that a catholike prince should paie anie pensions to such as had murthered a catholike cardinall. With which answer the said Norman was almost stroken dead, and being then wearied with the griefe of his exile, went againe into France, and there by king Henrie (by the meanes of the baron Brunstone, whom this Lesle had sent before to request the same) he was made capteine of the Scotish light horsse|men in France. This man did so valiantlie, woorthi|lie, and honorablie behaue himselfe in warres, which the French king had (with Charles the fift then em|peror) on the borders of Flanders, that he was al|waies formost in the front of the battell, to assault the enimie; hoping by that meanes to wipe awaie the blot of the cardinals slaughter, and more firmelie to bind the French king vnto him.

But after certeine light skirmishes (which he hap|pilie performed against the enimie) following the battell at Renton (a towne in Picardie) most hotlie, and drawing néere within danger of the enimie, he was so wounded with a shot, that he could hardlie re|turne to his companie: but being relieued by his owne souldiers from the hands of the enimie, he was caried to Montrulle, where he shortlie after died, greatlie repenting him of his former wicked fact, and greatlie abhorring the other authors thereof, as furtherers of him therein. Towards whom (after his death) the French king was yet so louing (for the EEBO page image 357 singular fortitude of mind that was in him) that he procured all such of his Scots (as returned from the warres with Brunstone) to be receiued into their owne countrie, and restored to all their goods and possessions.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In lent all the lords of the realme of Scotland as|sembled at Striueling, where all the couenants and The coue|nants and ar|ticles are per|fected. 1555. Buch. 1554. A parlement. Edenburgh castell deliue|red to the lord Erskin to keepe. articles of agreement, betwixt the quéene and the go|uernor, were perfectlie and fullie concluded, and ther|vpon a parlement appointed to be holden in Eden|burgh, the tenth of Aprill next insuing: and in the meane time the gouernor deliuered the castell of E|denburgh vnto the lord Erskin to kéepe, as it were by waie of assurance for his part, that all things at that parlement should be accomplished, according to the points of the agréement made by full consent. The lords then assembling in parlement at Eden|burgh, on the said twelfth day of Aprill, all the coue|nants of agréement had & made betwixt the quéene The quéene made gouer|nor by parle|ment. Dowager and the gouernor were presented & read, touching the dimission and giuing ouer of the gouer|nors authoritie, confirmed by the quéene hir selfe in France, with consent of the king of France hir hus|band, the duke of Guise, and the cardinall of Lor|rain hir curators, with a gift of the dukedome of Cha|telerault vnto the gouernor, vnder the great seales The gouernor made duke. of France, and others, to whome it apperteined.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, there was read a confirmation of the thrée estates of Scotland, touching the premisses, in which they bound themselues to warrant the queenes discharge made to him, & to establish him as second person of the realme [& to haue the gouernement of the castell of Dunbreton (as saith Buchanan] with o|ther Fr. Thin. things conteined in the contract: to the which there in open parlement all the estates subscribed, and put therevnto their seales. Which doone, the go|uernor gaue vp his office of tutorship, in presence of the said estates, the queene mother, & monsieur Doi|sell The gouernor resigned his office vnto the quéene. being there present, who receiued the same in the quéenes name, at that time remaining in France. And herewith presentlie was a commission shewed, giuen by the quéene of Scotland in France, with consent of hir curators, making the quéene Dowa|ger hir mother, regent of hir realme: which office she The quéene giueth the go|uernance of the realme vn|to the quéene mother. tooke vpon hir, and was thereto admitted by the e|states of the realme. Then was the parlement new|lie authorised in the quéenes name, with consent of hir curators, and in name of the quéene regent.

Fr. Thin. Where is to be noted, that as at the first they which had the administration of the common-wealth vnder the king of Scotland in his minoritie, were first called gardians, and then gouernors: so now be|gan they to haue a new title for the same, to be called regents of Scotland, not before accustomed among the Scots, which name hath euer since remained to all such as execute that place (euen in our age) du|ring the minoritie of Charles Iames the sixt, now ruling the scepter of Scotland. In which declination of things (as before you heard) to the gouernement Buch. lib. 16. of the French, the Scots could neuer be persuaded that the castell of Edenburgh should be deliuered to the rule of strangers: fearing that if the quéene should die without issue, that then the French would there by tyrannie settle themselues. Wherefore the same was committed to the defense of Iohn Ares|kine, which he should not deliuer to anie, but to one of the order, and of the nobilitie and parlement.

About this time, the quéene regent sent George Gordon earle of Huntleie to apprehend Iohn Mudi|ard Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 522. Buchan. lib. 16. (or Muderac, as saith Buchanan) chiefe of the fa|milie of the Reginaldins, a notable théefe, & one that was fraught with most wicked déeds: which iournie it is supposed that Gordon did not verie faithfullie discharge. Wherefore, when he returned without the dispatch thereof, in not taking of that man, he was committed to prison vntill the day appointed, where|in he should answer the cause. Whose friends in the meane time (to mitigate the enuie against him for the same) did spred false rumors thereof, laieng all the fault in the familie of the Cathans: for they said that the same was hindered by them for the malice that they bare vnto the Gordons: which speeches did one|lie rise almost vpon this occasion.

Whilest the quéene prepared for hir iournie into Scotland, Gordon did cast into prison William (the head of the familie of the Cathans) a yoong man li|berallie brought vp with the earle of Murreie for kinreds sake, being sisters son to the said earle; for none other cause but for that he would not yéeld him selfe to the protection of him. Gordon therefore grie|ued at this man, did not thinke it safetie to leaue him frée and at libertie behind him, when he should go in|to France with the quéene, although he could find no fault to laie to his charge woorthie anie punishment. Wherefore (by his friends) he persuaded the yoong man (ignorant of all deceit) that he should yéeld him selfe into his protection and tutorship: for so by that one meanes, both the fame of the one and safetie of the other might be prouided for, which the yoong man did accordinglie.

Wherefore Gordon being now lord ouer the life and death of this William, did (dissembling his ha|tred to him) breake with his owne wife to execute the yoong and giltlesse man in his absence, supposing thereby to transferre all the malice which should rise thereof vnto the fact of his wife, as not doone by his consent. Which fell out quite contrarie: for when eue|rie one knew the subtill wit of Gordon the earle of Huntleie, and that his wife (a chosen and rare wo|man) had passed all the rest of hir life within the bounds of womanlie modestie; they were all easilie persuaded, that he alone was author vnto hir of that wicked counsell. Wherevpon, Gordon being now cast in prison for that fact, there was (in a councell holden by the regent) great contention and varietie of opinions, touching the punishment which he should haue. For some would haue him banished in|to France for certeine yeares, & some would onelie haue an excessiue mul [...] to be laied vpon him.

Both which opinions were reiected by the chiefe of his enimies, Gilbert earle of Cassiles. For he, per|ceiuing by the present state of things, that peace would not long continue betwéene Scotland and France; did vtterlie withstand his banishment into that countrie. For he would not haue that man (be|ing so subtilie and vnconstantlie witted, proud, and desirous of reuenge, of and vpon such as were e|mulous, or backbiters against him) to be a firebrand and capteine to those French, who (he was assured, for their insolent pride) would haue warre with the Scots. For although he thought, that of right he ought to be punished, yet he did not iudge, that anie domesticall euill was so much, or the punishment thereof should be thought so great, that they should accustome the French to shed the Scotish bloud. Wherefore at length his punishment was agreed vpon (as after shall appeare) in renouncing of all his right to the earldome of Murreie, & other things.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The quéene hauing the disposition of all things, did at hir pleasure change all the officers, and made the earle of Cassils treasuror, & Ueilmort a French Officers are changed. man controller; also an other Frenchman called monsieur Rubie, kéeper of the great seale, as vice|gerent in place of the earle of Huntleie, who was chancellor and then in ward; [and Iames Machill re|gister, Fr. Thin. and the abbat of Couper keeper of the priuie s [...]ale, as saith Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 521. Bonald gouernor of the Iles.] These mens counsell and mon|sieur EEBO page image 358 Doisels she vsed principallie in all things. The earle of Huntleie being to be deliuered out of ward, did for his punishment renounce his title to the earl|dome The earle of Huntleie re|nounced ma|nie things. of Murreie; whereof he had a gift in heritage. Also he renounced his interest vnto the farmes of Orkeneie and Sheatland, and to the earledome of Mar, and of the quéenes lands of Straits Die: and further was contented to go ouer into France, there to remaine for the space of fiue yeares. But yet af|terwards the quéene was contented, that he should still remaine within the realme, for the which he gaue to hir fiue thousand pounds in monie.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 522. About the same time Marie the quéene of Eng|land, and the regent of Scotland, thought good to haue a peace betweene both nations, and that their commissioners should méet to determine all contro|uersies. At whatime for the Scots, were Robert of Kinwardie, and Iohn Bellenden of Achnowle knights: and for the English, were Thomas Corn|wallesse, 1551. and Robert Bowes knights. At what time there were lawes made touching fishing, aswell in the sea, as in certeine other limited riuers; by which all occasions of contention was taken awaie from both nations. Richard Norton, a man of great counsell in prosperitie, and of great stomach in ad|uersitie, being capteine of Norham castell in Eng|land, was at that time cause of the making of this law for the commons; That if anie Englishman The law for fishing. from a Scot, or a Scot from an Englishman, did by force take away anie fish that was taken; that he should paie the mulct of twentie shillings for the same: beside other punishments of the common law.

Further it was agreed, that whosoeuer by force of Couenants for seamen. tempest, or for anie other cause, were driuen into Scotland or England, he should not by anie pre|tense be staied; but he might fréelie by land or sea, either on horssebacke or on foot returne home. Pro|uided, that he had the testimonie of the next maister of the port, or of the next towne, to witnes the cause of his arriuall; and that during the time of his abode in such a countrie, he attempted nothing against the lawes of the kingdome. Not manie daies after Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 523. this, Henrie Sinclere deane of Glascow, senator, and vicepresident of the high court, did returne in|to Scotland out of France; being a man greatlie 1555. familiar with Iames the fift, aswell for the singula|ritie of his wit, as the excellencie of his learning.

But in the time of the gouernor, the courtiers (not greatlie estéeming such wisedome & learning) made no account of him, although the quéene Dow|ager, and diuerse of the nobilitie held him in great honor; aswell for his deepe studie in the best arts, as for his rare knowledge of the publike lawes and an|tiquities of Scotland. This man, vpon his first re|turne, was foorthwith both author and persuader to and of the bishop of the Orchades chiefe president, and to the other senators; that there should be new lawes made for the short ending of sutes in law; for the obseruation of a right course of iudgments, and for the taking awaie of all euill customs. In the making & tempering whereof, he was of so great iustice; that such things as were set downe in the law, were more holilie and perfectlie brought to their ancient forme than they had béene before.

The reason is readie; to wit, aswell for that in equall deliuering law to all men: as in pleading, there was by his meanes more diligence vsed by the magistrats, aduocats, scribes, and officers; in cutting awaie vaine and superfluous formes and or|ders: which ministred occasion, that their sutes did long hang in court, before they could be determined. At this time also the marquesse of Maine (being after made duke of Almaine) who in the meane time with manie other nobles of France, had remained Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 524. pledges in England, did (hauing licence therevnto) come into Scotland to sée his sister, accompanied with sir Thomas Stewkleie of England now knight; who after he had remained some daies with his sister in pleasure & delight, discharged his faith, and returned againe into England.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Iulie was a parlement held at Edenburgh, 1555. A parlement. in the which manie acts and statutes were made, right profitable (as was then thought) for the com|mon-weale of the realme. Amongest which, to passe ouer the rest, these séeme woorthie to remaine chroni|cled Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 524. to posteritie. First, that none of the citizens (in the feasts of Whitsuntide, or anie such times, in whith their hirelings are accustomed to go foorth) should assemble armed, to cast foorth the husbandmen after the old maner. Secondlie, that the inhabitants mée|ting togither, should no more assemble vnder a certeine colour of gaine, which for exercise of the bo|die (as it was supposed) was holden after the exam|ple of one (I can not tell who) Robert Hood a wild or vplandish man. Thirdlie, that there should be no priuat leagues contracted betwéene subiects. Which lawes did after bring great peace, ease, and quiet to the publike state.

In the verie same yeare 1555, in the eight ka|lends Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 525. Buchanan. lib. 16. of August, fell the mariage of Marie queene of England with Philip king of Spaine in the citie of Winchester. Wherefore ambassadors were sent from the quéene regent to Philip and Marie, to con|gratulat their mariage. Besides which, these am|bassadors did require a renewing of the league, and that commissioners should be appointed to méet the next summer in the borders, to end all controuer|sies. In the meane time, whilest the quéene regent did administer the affaires of south Scotland, Iohn Steward earle of Atholl was sent into the north parts with a chosen companie, to breake the force of Iohn Mudiard or Muderace. At what time this earle vsed such courtesie and counsell in pacifieng, and such celeritie and wisedome in executing of things; that he brought the seditious Mudiard (impatient to haue anie gouernor) to the quéene, to whome the said Mudiard did willinglie yéeld himselfe, his children, and his kindred.

To which man, the queene (in respect of singular clemencie, and pietie to all men, according to the disposition of hir nature) did wholie remit all his of|fenses, with this condition; that he should faithful|lie remaine prisoner in the castell of Meffens, and in the towne of Perth. But as the fox (as the pro|uerbe is amongest vs) cannot liue without his star|ting holes; so this Mudiard and his companions, imbued with more than foxlike conditions, did (de|ceiuing their keepers) returne to their owne caues, and afresh trouble all the north Scotland with their raised seditions and spoiles. Which things inforced the quéene, that she did go into those parts, to hold iustice of oires: in which she might bridle the euils of wicked men, and purge those prouinces from all the roots of sedition.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon, in the moneth of Iulie, the quéene accompanied with the earles of Huntleie, Argile, Rothes, Cassils, and Marshall; the bishop of Aber|den and Rosse, M. Doisell, Rubie, and others, went 1555. Buch. 1556. H. B. to the towne of Inuernesse, in which citie (the faults known by publike accusation) there was iust punish|ment taken vpon the offendors. And because there Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 527. Buchan. lib. 16. were manie hidden in the higher and mounteine countries, which by their absence fled the punish|ment; she commanded the heads of the mounteine families, that they should bring their guiltie coun|trimen and kindred to iudgement, according to the law established by Iames the fift; with a great EEBO page image 359 paine set vpon the chiefe of those families; if the o|ther did stiflie resist, & would not come into iudge|ment.

Wherevpon it followed, that sundrie of diuerse families, that were by contempt departed awaie, did come to publike iudgement. Where manie, and those not of the meanest sort, paied the punishment for troubling the peace; amongest which, one Grant a baron being commanded to bring Iames Grant and diuerse other wicked persons before the iudges, did prouide to bring their dead heads, when they could not take their liue bodies. The earle of Cath|nes also, because that being warned thervnto, he did not bring his people before the iudges; was first committed to prison in Inuernesse, then at Aber|den, and lastlie at Edenburgh, from whence he pur|chased his libertie with a great masse of monie.

Mackeie in like sort, head and chiefe of the tribe of Strathnauerne & of Glencone, being called to iudgement (for that he had often wasted the countrie of Southerland next adioining) did contemne the precept. Wherevpon the quéene prouided a great ar|mie, which vnder the erle of Southerland brake into Strathnauerne, where he possessed all the places of doubt, least anie hole might be left for the théeues to passe awaie from thence. Wherevpon Mackeie, when he saw himselfe so beset (as that no place of flight was left him) yeelded himselfe to Hugh Kene|die, who led him to the quéene, by whom he was com|mitted to prison at Edenburgh a long time, but they of Glencone put in pledges, & (being committed to safe and strong prisons) were reserued to the iudge|ment of the quéenes pleasure.

After this, the queene leauing Inuernesse, and progressing the prouince of Rosse, she came to El|gine, Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 528. Bamf, Aberden, and the chiefe places there|abouts, diligentlie to inquire of the misdemeanor of those people. At what time she did temper the rigor of law with such courtesie, that she punished the of|fendors by fine, and not by death. From thence shée came to Dundée, and to saint Iohns towne, obser|uing the same cause and course of hir comming. When she had thus passed ouer the summer in brin|ging the mounteine people to their dutie, she sent the earle of Huntleie to ioine with the bishop of Rosse and Orkeneie, and to Hugh Kenedie; to whom she did substitute a better and more commodious forme of dispatch of their affaires by others: who should receiue the libels and accusations of priuate persons, and diligentlie to inquire of them, in the townes of Inuernesse, Elgine, and other places. By whose diligence it came to passe, that all those countries (being reduced to the rule of iustice) were made the more quiet.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here I will not (saith Lesleus) now declare how honourablie & sumptuouslie the queene in all hir pro|gresse was receiued (without anie charge to hir) of the péeres, bishops, and other nobles and gentlemen of Scotland, sith the Frenchmen (which were then present with hir) haue opened to other nations as well as to their own people (with singular commen|dations to the Scots) the gorgious shew of this Scotland, being a most woorthie signe of the fauour they bare to the queene.] In the meane time there C [...]mmissio|ners sent. were sent commissioners to the borders, as the bi|shop of Dunblane, the lard of Lethington, & maister Iames Macgill: where doctor Tunstall bishop of Durham, & certeine others for England met them at Duns, and remained there till the queenes com|ming Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 527. backe foorth of the north in September next following.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yéere was a parlement hold [...]n, in which the lards Brimston, Or [...]ston, and Grange, with mai|ster A parlement. Henrie Balnaues, and others, which were for|falted Gentlemen restored. in the gouernors time, were restored. At the same time the queene, by the counsell of monsieur Doisell, and Rubie, and certeine of the nobilitie of Scotland, requested that a new order might b [...] A yéerelie tax to be leuied is proponed. made, whereby euerie mans substance should be put in an inuentarie, and according to the rate thereof to paie a yéerelie taxation, to be put and kept in the treasure-house till warres began, and that then men of warre might be waged, therewith to lie vpon the borders, and none in that case to be charged to come from their owne houses, but when anie great armie came foorth of England to inuade Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Diuerse of the great lords were agreed to this This taxati|on is not granted. 1556. ordinance: but the most part of the barons hearing thereof, assembled togither in Edenburgh, to the number of two hundred & aboue, and sent the lards Iames Sandlandie of Calder in Louthian, and Iohn of Wemis in Fife, to the queene and lords, be|séeching them not to set such new taxations vpon them, for they could not beare such burdens; but would defend the realme, as before time their elders had doone, not meaning to put their goods in inuen|tarie, as if they should alreadie make their last will and testaments: and be past all hope of inioieng their temporall goods, as persons not to liue longer in the world, but to take their farewell, and giue o|uer all that they had by law of fatall necessitie not to be auoided. Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 16 [...]

Adding further, that their elders did not onelie defend themselues, and their goods a|gainst the English, when they were of farre greater power than they now be; but did also manie times make further inuasion vpon them into their owne countrie. For which cause, they being not anie iot now so degenerat from their ancestors, that they wold not, when néed required, bestow their substance and life in defense of their countrie.

And as touching the hired souldiers, it was a thing full of danger, to commit the state of Scot|land to men without substance, or without hope of aduancement, and to such as for monie will dare to doo anie thing, being a thing apt to kindle their déepe couetousnesse, and to minister occasion to them to attempt other matters. But to the end all other things may the better be looked vnto, let them more remember the déerenes of their countrie, than their owne estate or condition. For will anie man beleeue, that hired souldiers will more valiantlie fight for strangers, than the owners will fight for the defense of their owne? That a little hire or wages readie to be abated in peace, will greatlier incense the minds of the common people; than goods, chil|dren, wiues, and temples, will mooue the hearts of the nobilitie?

Wherevnto may be ioined, that this matter per|teineth to the highest good of the kingdome of Scot|land, and that the same is of farre more importance than that it should be communed of at this time, and in the tender age of our yoong queene. Besides which the greater part of men doo suspect and feare, that the same new order for warre is vnprofitable, and such as cannot be performed without some commotion of the Scotish nation, especiallie sith so great sums of monie can hardlie be wroong out by tribute impo|sed on the same Scots, as may suffice to nourish a hired armie to defend the borders. Wherefore it is to be feared, least the end of persuasion grow to this point, that it doo not rather open a gap to let in the e|nimie, than to be a barre to kéepe them backe. For if the English, after this example, being a farre richer nation, shall gather a much greater summe: who doubteth, but that they may with lesse trouble to the cõmon people, susteine an armie twise as great as that of the Scots, & such as shall not onelie enter the borders, but rush euen into the verie bowels of the EEBO page image 360 kingdome of Scotland?

For the other part of the oration, I cannot tell whether it be better to suppresse it in silence, or to deli|uer it (saith Buchanan) to common eies & eares. For I doo heare (writeth he) manie which doo murmur and aske who shall gather this monie? How much thereof shall be necessarie to and for the hired souldi|ors, and how much to be left in the hands of the trea|suror? There be manie things which put vs in great hope, that no such thing shall be established for the especiall goodnesse and temperancie of that woorthie princesse (in whose hand the whole gouernment now resteth) dooth incourage vs, that we shall not bée so taxed. But yet when we remember the outward déeds of others, and our owne at home, which haue before time béene doone; we cannot so gouérne our selues, but that we must feare the same hereafter to fall vpon vs, which we haue alreadie felt.

But letting these things passe, which perchance we vainlie feare, let vs come to those things in which our ancestors did place their chiefe helpe (for mainte|nance of their libertie) against the weapons of their aduersaries. Robert the first of that name (in com|parison of whome none of the Scotish kings were counted more wise, and without all doubt none more valiant, as we all confesse) did not onelie profit his subiects whilest he liued, but also after his death: for when he laid at point to surrender his life, he gaue this admonition, that we should neuer make con|tinuall peace, nor long truce with the English. For that man (by nature and by vse of long time exerci|sed in both fortunes) did well perceiue, that such as li|ued in idlenesse and slouth, had their stomachs and minds abated, and their bodies weakened with de|lights of pleasures, and that couetousnesse and le|cherie did spring vp as it were in vntilled ground, when seuere discipline and sparing was quenched, which made them also to be vnpatient of labor, and to hate battell, whereby their strength being dimini|shed, they should easilie giue place to their enimies.

After that these two noble men had said thus much, the regent fearing tumultuous insurrections if she perseuered in this exaction, left off anie further to pursue this tax, and is (in often acknowledging hir error) said to haue vsed this spéech; That some of the best of the Scots, and not she, were authors and workers of the same. By which words manie supposed that she ment the earle Huntleie, a man of a sharpe wit, latelie deliuered out of prison, and rather readie to reuenge the iniurie receiued by re|streint of his libertie, than mindfull of anie benefit shewed vnto him in his deliuerance. Wherfore when he saw the regent bent to this one thing to inure the Scots with taxes and paiments of monie: and fea|ring least hir power being ouermuch increased, that she would abate the strength of the nobilitie, dimi|nish their authoritie, and call the whole gouernment of Scotland into the hands of hir people, it was sup|posed that he gaue hir counsell answerable to hir disposition for the gathering of monie which she had then in hand, being in déed the part of an enimie to hir, bicause he knew that the Scots would not paie anie tribut, nor be so obedient vnto hir as they had beene before. There were also some that supposed this deuise to grow from Dauid Painter bishop of Rosse; for he being a man of rare wit, and no lesse learning, was with manie benefits tied to the Ha|miltons, and was not anie waie estranged from their counsels and kinreds.

In this yéere, an ambassador of Muscouie going into England with a great ship, & another bote, was 1557. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 328. cast on land by sudden tempest of the sea in the coast of Buchquane, a prouince in the north part of Scot|land; who hauing lost all his goods by shipwracke, was saued himselfe, and some of his companie, be|cause they lighted on a rocke, where he & they might saue their liues. The inhabitants did liberallie in|terteine this strange man, and brought him to E|denburgh to the queene, who would not permit this new ghest to want anie thing so long as he remai|ned with hir: and further, commanded and procured, that his goods lost by sea, and come into the hands of the people, should be faithfullie restored to him a|gaine, appointing moreouer the lord Hume for ho|nors sake to accompanie him to Berwike.

This yéere also in the moneth of Iulie was Hoter Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 529. Traberne sent ambassador (from Anna duke of Ol|denberge, and Delmensore, and earle of Emden) out of east Frisia into Scotland, to require that the ancient couenant of an hundred yéeres made be|twéene the Scots and the people of Emden (which by course of some yéeres past, was now of no force) might now againe be renewed. Which being gran|ted & solemnelie established, both those nations from that day did liue togither in mutuall & perfect friend|ship. After this, warres arising betweene England and France, quéene Marie of England, fearing least the Scots would be stirred at the motion of the French to attempt something against England, Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 529. sent ambassadors to the regent, to require that some of the Scots might with hir people méet on the borders, to treat of matters belonging vnto them both.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon in the moneth of Iulie, the procura|rators for both the kingdomes met at Caerleill, whi|ther for the Scots came Robert Reid bishop of Ork|neie, Henrie Seintclere deane of Glascow, Robert Carnegie knight, senators; and the lord Harries, at that time president of the west borders. For the English did come Tunstall bishop of Durham, the lords Dacres, and Wharton; amongst whome there was talke for peace, and recompense of such iniu|ries as were committed by both the nations. In the meane time a certeine Frenchman landed at the west part on Scotland, and declared to the quéene the warres betwéene England and France, dest|ring hir to make warre vpon the English. Where|vpon the quéene sent for the lords to commune with 1557. The queene regent desi|red warres. them at Newbottell, where she opened to them di|uerse wrongs doone on the borders by Englishmen, and how no redresse could be got: wherfore she requi|red that warres might be mooued against England in reuenge of those iniuries, although the bishop of Orkeneie was the same time at Caerleill in talke An assemblie at Caerleill. with Cutbert Tunstall bishop of Durham and o|thers, commissioners for England. The principall cause that mooued the queene regent to seeke to The occasion why the quéen regent desired to haue war. make war against England, was for that the Eng|lishmen aided the Emperor in fauor of his sonne king Philip against the French king, bicause their quéene had taken to husband the same king Philip, and sent the earle of Penbroke ouer with an armie to ioine with king Philips power.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It was thought therefore, that if the Scots inua|ded the English borders, it might cause them to call backe their power foorth of France to defend their owne countrie. But the Scotish lords would not The Scotish lords refuse to take warre in hand. Haimouth is fortified. Inuasions are made into England. consent in anie wise to begin anie warres: which their dealing when monsieur Doisell perceiued, hée spéedily went to Haimouth beside Berwike, and for|tified the same with all diligence, making inuasions into England. Wherevpon the Scotishmen in their owne defense were constreined to make warre, and the erle of Huntleie was made lieutenant vpon the borders, who came thither; and remaining there by the assistance of the Frenchmen, made sundrie inua|sions and rodes into England, burnt diuers townes and villages, and cast downe manie stone houses, piles EEBO page image 361 piles and strengths.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this meane while were the Scotish commissioners at Caerleill; and the maister of Maxwell warden of the west borders, being there with them, with much adoo got away and came home into Scotland. The queene assembled a great armie out of all parts of the realme, the which came forward to Kelso in the moneth of October, where the queene & Frenchmen persuaded them to enter by inuasion into England. But they mening to take further aduise, passed ouer Tweed to Maxwell hugh, where they incamped, and afterward approched the castell of Warke, inuironing the same with a siege for the space of two or three dais. Capteine Read at that present had charge of that castell, with three or foure hundred footmen, and one hundred horssemen, seeming to care little for the Scottishmens forces.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Westmerland, being then lieutenant of the north parts, gathered such power togither as he might make, and came to Lowike, accompanied with the lord Talbot, sir Iames Crofts, and others, to suceor where most need should appeare. The Scotish armie, perceiuing the Englishmen thus in a readinesse to resist their attempts, tooke aduise togither, and concluded that it was not for the weale of the realme, at that time to hazard battel foorth of the bounds of their owne land, their princesse being absent, and as yet in hir minoritie; considering also that the war was not taken in hand for their owne quarell, but for the pleasure of France. These and other the like reasons, being alleged by the earles of Arrane, Huntleie, Argile, Cassils, and others, to the queene and French capteins, they were nothing satisfied therewith; but the Scotish lords would attempt no further, but retired backe and scaled their armie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In remoouing from Warke, they were pursued by certeine bands of the borderers, and others, which were repelled, and stood in danger to haue beene distressed, if capteine Read had not with noble corage issued forth, and in time relieued them that were retiring: whereby they staied and gaue a new charge, and chased ouer the water to their maine armie that was already passed ouer. The queene and monsieur Doisell, perceiuing that they could not get the Scotish lords to make anie further exploit at that present, she retired home: but Doisell with his Frenchmen were appointed to remaine still in Haimouth, to countergarrison the Englishmen within Berwike.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There were diuerse foot bands of Scots waged by the French king, which were appointed to lie in places about the borders, as at Kelso, Rockesburgh, and such like for defense of the countrie, and the annoiance of the Englishmen, as occasions might serue. After this, sir Andrew Kar, and diuerse other entered England with a power of men about Martinmasse. Neuerthelesse, the earle of Northumberland, being then lieutenant of the north parts of England, and lieng on the borders, assembled his forces togither, & comming to incounter the Scots in the very borders side neere to Cheuiot, at the first the Englishmen were put to the woorsse, and yet at length the Scots were ouerthrowne and chased: sir Andrew Kar, and manie other being taken prisoners.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Sir Iohn Forster bare himselfe verie valiantlie at this incounter, so that his seruice might not well haue beene spared. He was thrust through the mouth into the necke, and also through the thigh; moreouer, his horsse was slaine vnder him. The conflict was sharpe, for both the horssemen and footmen came to make proofe of their forces. The warre thus being begun and followed, the Scots kept their quarterrage, and euerie noble man (as he was appointed) laie on the borders with a thousand horssemen, during his ordinarie tearme. And on the other side, the English borders were furnished with new supplies of men of warre, so that there were dailie rodes and incursions made by the parties, to the great damage and spoile of the townes and villages scituate neere to the confines of both the realmes.

In December the queene assembled a parlement at Edenburgh, where shee (highlie fauouring the French) shewed foorth the letters of Henrie king of France, to be read by the whole assemblie, touching the solemnization of the mariage betwene the yoong queene of Scots, and the French kings sonne, which I haue here set downe.

[Section heading:] The substance of the letter of the French king, concerning the mariage of his sonne to the queene of Scots.

Henrie by the grace of God, king of the French, to his woorthie coosines & princes of Scotland, and to the rest of the orders, being our deere friends, greeting. It is most plainlie knowen to all nations, how fast a bond hath alwaies hitherto remained betweene Scotland & France. Neither can it be hidden what these signs of amitie were, being for number manie, for greatnesse large, and for dutie of friendship mutuall ech to other; by which the kings our ancestors haue seemed to confirme, and as it were to increase this amitie, to the end it might remaine whole and sound for euer: yea and so farre the shew thereof hath appeered, that all the benefits of either realme haue seemed to be common to ech other. Which bond of friendship we also haue (for the time in which we first receiued the ensignes of our kingdome) labored firmlie to reteine, to the end the same should not anie waie be decaied or broken. The which in like sort we well vnderstand, that you haue likewise abundantlie performed vnto vs.

Wherefore (more stronglie to knit the same) we will not suffer this opportunitie (which the diuine goodnesse hath laied before vs, as we verelie suppose) of mariage to be solemnized betweene our son the Dolphin, and your queene our deere and sweet sister intreated) was to vrged by all parts, and the yoong queene was caried into France, by the consent of our sister the Dowager, and the governor of Scotland, to the great reioising of all you that yeelded there vnto; there now she hath atteined such beautie and number of vertues, partlie by the liberalitie of nature (which she receiued from the kinglie bloud of hir parents) and partlie by the instruction of my wife, that I can hardlie anie longer suffer (in respect of the age of my sonne) that this mariage (which we haue so much desired) should anie longer be deferred. And sith at Christmasse next my son shall come to those yeeres, in which he may promise all things that shall be necessarie for the knitting vp of the mariage; and sith also we haue determined (if it so seeme good to the queene hir mother, and to the rest of the parlement of Scotland, which we earnestly request at your hands) that the mariage shall publikelie at Paris (on the day consecrated to the three kings) with such ceremonies as is requisite, be fullie consummate with the speech of my sonne and of your queene:

We doo by these letters request you, that by common consent you foorthwith send some of your chiefe nobilitie EEBO page image 362 nobilitie, that may honor the mariage with their pre|sence, and that (hauing publike authoritie therefore) may fréelie and according to law, dispose of those things which are accustomed to fall in such matters and affaires.

The which if you shall doo, I promise that hereafter they shall liberallie vnderstand how acceptable they shall be to me: and how that you shall receiue all the fruit and benefit which shall arise of my sons ma|riage (for the performance whereof, by reason of his sufficient age, we will shortlie prouide) which said cõ|moditie shall not onclie now remaine to you that be present, but also most abundantlie with great plea|sure shall continue to your posteritie. For sith both our and your people of France and Scotland shall be so firmelie conioined (as we hope) by this mutuall knot of mariage, and our affaires with yours, and yours with ours, shall hang the one vpon the other, as it were by a certeine mutuall linke and knot, that both we (being out of the danger of such as would di|minish and ouerthrow our states) maie for euer in|ioy such quiet as we did neuer hope to doo before this. From our castell of saint Germans, the fourth ka|lends of Nouember. 1557.

Subscription, A little below: By the king, Henrie: De Laubespine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Upon the reading of which letters in the parle|ment, by the consent of the whole estates, there were elected and chosen Iames Beton archbishop of Glas|cow, Robert Read bishop of Orkeneie, George Le|sle earle of Rothes, Gilbert Kennedie earle of Cas|siles, Iames Steward prior of saint Andrewes [the Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 533. Fr. Thin. queenes bastard brother] George lord Seton [cap|teine of Edenburgh] Iames Fleming, and Iohn Erskine lard of Dun [gouernor of Montrosse] am|bassadors and commissioners to go into France, and Ambassadors sent into France to consummate the mariage betwixt the quéene of Scotland and the Dolphin of France. 1558. there to contract mariage betwixt Marie quéene of Scotland, and Francis Dolphin of France, and to solemnize the same mariage. Wherevpon, sufficient commissions and instruments were made to them by the estates of the parlement, and they accepting the same, made preparation for that iournie, and de|parted in the moneth of Februarie foorth of the rode of Leith, and with great winds & boisterous stormes came into France, loosing in their iournie one of their ships, with men and horsses before saint Ebbes head, in the Forth of Scotland, and an other with great riches & manie gentlemen, with the capteine called Waterton in the rode of Bullongne. Two ships lost.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The ambassadors themselues neuerthelesse esca|ped, and comming safe vnto the French court in the moneth of March, were honorablie receiued of the king at Paris, where the contract of mariage was made, and thr [...]e score thousand franks assigned in The assigne|ment of the Scots quéens dowrie. dowrie to the queene of Scotland, & thirtie thousand franks of yéerelie pension, with manie rich iewels. There was also a perpetuall bond of league conclu|ded betwixt France and Scotland, and great prepa|ration made for the mariage, which was solemnized in Paris with great triumph and assistance of all the cardinals, dukes, earles, barons, lords, and bishops of the realme, in the church of Nostre dame, the 24 of Aprill in that present yeere, 1558.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 16. After the solemnitie of this mariage, the legats of Scotland were called into the councell-house of the French king: at what time the chancellor of France delt with them, that they should represent the crowne and scepter, and other ornaments of the kingdome, to th' end the husband of the yong queene might be crowned king also of Scotland Where vn|to the ambassadors did shortlie make answer, that they had no such thing giuen in charge to them After which, the cardinall said;

We desire nothing more at your hands at this time, but that which lieth in your power to performe; which is, here now to confirme by writing that you will hereafter, forward, approoue & worke that this honor (which now we iustlie demand) maie be granted to the Dolphin, when the same shall be talked of in the parlement of Scotland. Which re|quest (when it séemed full of impudencie) they suppo|sed best more constantlie and sharpelie to reiect.

Wherefore they answered, that their ambassage was restreined within certeine bounds, which they neither could nor would excéed. But and if they had beene sent with frée libertie of their ambassage, that yet it were not the part of faithfull friends (as the French professed to be) to require that which could not be granted without certeine and assured danger and infamie of treason, though danger of life were absent from it. All which notwithstanding, in all ho|nest things which might well be granted they would yéeld vnto the French, ioined vnto them by so manie necessarie occasions. Wherefore they requested the French that they would not in their demands excéed the limits of modestie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Whervpon the ambassadors being dismissed from the court, foure of the chiefe of them (before they departed home) which were these, Gilbert Kennedie, George Lesse, Robert Read, and also Iames Fle|ming, all men of singular vertue and loue to their countrie, besides manie other of the companie, died there, not without mistrust of poison. It was also be|léeued, that Iames the queenes brother had receiued the same draught: for (although he were of a better composition of bodie, stronger constitution of com|plexion, and of more youthfull strength, whereby he escaped death) he had alwaies after a continuall and dangerous infirmitie of his bellie whilest he liued, of the death of all which shall be somewhat more said héereafter. Thus leauing the Scotish lords ambassa|dors there in France for a time, we will returne to shew what happened betwixt the Scots and English|men at home, where the warres were pursued, to the losse or little gaine of both parts.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About Whitsuntide, sir Henrie Persie with di|uerse bands of the countrie garrisons, & sir George Bowes then marshall of Berwike, with sundrie bands of the garrison of that towne, passed foorth in|to A rode into Scotland. Scotland, they being in all about seuen or eight hundred horssemen, and two thousand footmen. They burnt the townes of Duns and Langton; and ha|uing Duns and Langton burnt. got togither a great number of cattell, retur|ned homewards. The Scots that laie in Kelso; and other places, kéeping their quarterage on their bor|ders (for the realme, as ye haue heard, was quarie|red, euerie part kéeping their turne, as the manner is) assembled togither to the number of two thou|sand horssemen (or few lesse) and three bands of foot|men, hasting foorth to defend the countrie. And per|ceiuing where the Englishmen were, followed and coasted them as they returned with their bootie, till they came to Swinton, where they ouertooke them, and skirmished with them sharplie as they were pas|sing through the towne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scotish footmen beat backe part of the Eng|lishmens The Scots assaile the Englishmen at Swinton. shot into their battell, and preassed verie forward in hope to be assisted by their horssemen, the which (as ye haue heard) ouermatched greatlie the English horssemen in number: but the fight grew somewhat hot, and the more vnto the disaduantage of the Englishmen, forsomuch as their shot & pow|der began to faile them, by reason the mistie mor|ning had made much of their powder da [...]kish, so that they could haue no vse thereof. But héerewith sir Henrie Lée, capteine Read, and others, being in the battell, behaued themselues verie stoutlie, causing EEBO page image 363 the footmen to staie, and boldlie to abide the enimie: & heerewith procured the horssemen to giue a charge in such conuenient time, as if the same had béene pro|tracted, it might haue turned verie euill to the Eng|lish side.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now as well the horssemen as footmen plai|eng their parts, the Scotish horssemen abiding with|out the towne in troope (while their footmen were in The Scots horssemen flée. skirmish) fled awaie, leauing their footmen to be slaine and spoiled of the Englishmen, and yet those foo [...]m fought if out right manfullie: so that if the Scots horssemen had doone their parts so well as the footmen, it was like to haue gone harder on the English side than it did. But now the Scotish horsse|men not entring the fight, their footmen were inclo|sed by the Englishmen: for those that were in the fore-ward, and were passed by, returned, and com|ming behind their enimies, holpe to beat them downe, so that few or none of the Scots or French|men The Scots footmen slaine. (whereof there were some few amongest them) escaped, but were either taken or slaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Amongest others, capteine Cullane, and cap|teine The lord of Keith with o|thers taken prisoners. Kenedie, two chiefe leaders of the footmen were taken: diuerse of their horssemen also in the retire were taken, amongest whome William lord Keith, sonne to the earle Marshall of Scotland was the chiefest. But this victorie was not atchiued with|out losse of diuerse Englishmen. Amongest other one Pell, ensigne-bearer to sir Iohn Markhams band of footmen was slaine. Also master Edrington a capteine of light horssemen was taken prisoner by M Edring|ton taken. the lard of Edmonston, at the first charge giuen vp|on the Scotish horssemen, and led awaie without rescue. Beside the manfull prowesse of sir Henrie Persie, and the other English capteins before men|tioned, the forward valiancie shewed that day of sir William Brereton, and Thomas Markham, that Sir William Brereton. led his father sir Iohn Markehams band of footmen, also of Rafe Ellerkar a capteine of horssemen, are not to be forgotten, who with diuerse other capteins & souldiers behaued themseues in such wise at that present seruice, as their dealings therein deserue speciall memorie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, at an other time the Scots & French|men entring into England, the Scotish horssemen, to the number of a thousand or thereabouts, passed foorth to burne and forraie the countrie: but the earle of Northumberland, & his brother sir Henrie Per|sie, assembled togither a power of horssemen: and sir Henrie Persie méeting with them at Grendon, set vpon the Scots and chased them ouer the water of Twisell, vnto the foot battell of the Frenchmen: The Scots put to flight at Grendon. who retiring to the riuer of Twéed, passed ouer the same at Chapell Fourd, where they were assailed both by certeine foot bands of the garrison of Ber|wike, that were come foorth to aid the earle, and al|so by the horssemen: so as diuerse were drowned in the riuer before they could get ouer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But after they were once got to the further side, they put themselues in order of battell againe, and retired in a squadron verie stronglie, susteining lit|tle or no hurt at all, notwithstanding that the erle of Northumberland (being then come) and his brother sir Henrie Persie, with the rest of the capteins and The good or|der of the Frenchmen in their retire. gentlemen of the countrie, pursued them ouer the water for the space of two miles, skirmishing with them still as they marched awaie, but could doo them no harme, because they kept themselues in so good order, & the English footmen were not able to reach them. Wherevpon the English horssemen suffering the Frenchmen to depart, left them, and passing in|to the countrie, burnt long Ednam, and diuerse Lõg Ednam burnt. other hamlets and villages, and so returned. Di|uerse Scots that day at the ouerthrow and chase of their horssemen were taken prisoners, as the lord The lord Greie of Scotland ta|ken prisoner. Cawmils woone by the Englishmen. Greie, and others.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And after this, the Englishmen wan the strong pile of Cawmils, wherein were sixtéene French|men that defended it for the time verie stoutlie, so that it cost the liues of diuerse Englishmen, before they could take it. Shortlie after, there was a fore skirmish at Halidon hill. For whereas the most part of summer it was ordeined, that euerie daie cer|teine bands of souldiers should ward on the same hill, to giue libertie to the inhabitants of Berwike, to mow and carie in their haie; they continued for a time without anie trouble offered by the Scots or French, so that the warders standing in no doubt of the enimies, vsed out of their armor to shoot, bowle, quait, & exercise such like games of pleasure. Where|of the Scots & Frenchmen being aduertised, came one day from Aimouth in so secret wise, that they were drawen verie néere to the Englishmen, yer they had anie warning of their approch.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This approch as it was priuie, so was it like wise sudden, insomuch that before they could be got into order, the Scots and Frenchmen were almost at their elbowes; and falling in skirmish with them, handled them verie roughlie: although sir William Brereton, sir Iohn Markeham, maister William A sore skir|mish vpon Halidon hill. Drewrie, Cutbert Uaughan, and other the capteins of the Englishmen did behaue themselues right manfullie, bringing their men in order, incoura|ging them, and dooing what apperteined vnto har|die and skilfull warriors. But yet three times that day the Scots and Frenchmen put them from the higth of the hill, till at length sir Iames Croft com|ming from Berwike, vsed such diligence and po|licie in the matter, that the Scots and Frenchmen were repelled and constreined to retire, withdraw|ing backe into Aimouth, after they had continuedin skirmish from one of the clocke till it was past foure with no small losse on both parts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, the earle of Bothwell, lieng on the bor|ders The earle of Bothwell. as lieutenant, according to the order for the time of his quarterage, entred on a day into Eng|land, and sent his forraie to burne Fenton towne, kéeping himselfe in ambush at Haltwell Sweire. Sir Henrie Persie aduertised that the Scots were thus entred, got togither a thousand horsse, and ma|king foorth to defend the countrie, set vpon the earle at the aforesaid place of Haltwell Sweire; but some Haltwell Sweire. feare entring into the hearts of the Englishmen, by reason of certeine shot which the Scots had there with them, fled, and were pursued by the Scots o|uer the water of Till. There were taken aboue six score Englishmen, amongst whom capteine Ering|ton, The English men put to flight. and capteine Kar, that had the leading of light horssemen, were two: beside diuerse other men of good account in seruice, as one Uaughan a gentle|man and such like.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About this time, whilest the lord Eure commonlie called Euers, remained capteine of Berwike, one Kirkaudie cousine to sir William Kirkaudie lard of Grange, chanced to be taken prisoner into Ber|wike; and afterwerds being ransomed, at his com|ming home to Aimouth, he made report that he had beene too streictlie vsed, during the time that he re|mained prisoner, at the hands of the said lord Eure. By reason wherof, vpon chalenge made by Grange to fight a combat with the lord Eure, the matter The lard of Grange chal|lẽgeth the lord Eure. grew to this issue; that where their degrées were not equall, Rafe Eure brother to the lord Eure vnder|tooke (in his brothers behalfe) to breake a staffe with the lard of Grange vpon the side of Halidon hill at a day appointed: where they met, either of them bring|ing twelue gentlemen with them, to sée the triall of this chalenge performed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 EEBO page image 364 But when they came to haue their armor & wea|pons viewed, the truth is so, that Grange was ar|med in a cote of plate, and a cura [...]e alo [...]t vpon it: wherewith some fault was found, because maister Cure was clad onelie in a single cote of plate, with|out anie other péeces of armor for defense of his bo|die. But yet such was the great courage of the said maister Eure, that he would not refuse the chalenge, notwithstanding his aduersaries aduantage of ar|mor. The lard of Grange and maister Rafe Eure ran one against ano|ther. Wherevpon they ran togither, and brake both their staues; and as it fortuned maister Eure was hurt in the flanke. The warre being thus pursued betwixt England and Scotland, beside the incoun|ters and roads which are before mentioned, there were two great roads made into Scotland; the one by the earle of Westmerland, and the other by the earle of Northumberland: the lord Talbot being there, & hauing the leading of certeine demilances.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Moreouer, it was thought good by the English|men, not onelie to annoie the Scots by land, but al|so by sea. Wherevpon sir Iohn Clere with certeine Sir Iohn Clere slaine in the Ile of Orkeneie. ships of warre sailed foorth alongest the coast, till at length he arriued at the Iles of Orkeneie; where going on land about an enterprise, & staieng longer than was requisit, he was incountred by his aduer|saries, and slaine with manie of his people, which were there on land with him. But though the Scots had good successe in that part, they susteined great damage on the west side of the realme, by a iournie which the erle of Sussex then lord deputie of Ireland attempted against them. For the better vnderstan|ding whereof ye shall note, that after the lord Clin|ton high admerall of England had burnt the towne of Conquest in Britaine, there were seuen ships of warre appointed to passe into Ireland, as the Marie Willoughbie, the New barke, the Sacret, the Ger|falcon, and thrée other that were merchants, and ap|pointed that yeare to serue the quéene of England in hir warres.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There were also beside those seuen ships of war, two vittellers appointed to attend vpon them. Sir Thomas Cotton was ordeined their admerall, and one Southweke of Douer was assigned to be their viceadmerall. Now vpon their arriuall in Ireland, the earle of Sussex hauing also prepared thrée o|ther The iournie of the earle of Sussex into the west parts of Scotland. ships, with sufficient and necessarie prouision for his iourneie, imbarked with so manie soul|diers as conuenientlie might be bestowed aboord in that fléet, conteining twelue saile in the whole; and departing toward the west of Scotland, land|ded in a part of the countrie called Kentire, with as manie souldiers and mariners as might be spared Kentire. out of the ships, leauing them furnishd with com|petent numbers for their safegard; and being got to land, he passed foorth into the countrie, & burnt two houses that belonged to Iames Maconell chiefe go|uernor of those parts, & a great enimie to the Eng|lishmen. Iames Ma|conell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 He burnt also diuerse townes, villages, and ham|lets belonging vnto the said Maconell, with great store of corne and other things which came in their waie. The Scots oftentimes skirmished with the Englishmen, but durst not aduenture to ioine with them in battell, they kept so good order by the earle of Sussex his politike and valiant conduction. There were a sort of Scots gotten into a bo [...] meaning to haue fled, but being apprehended by the English|men, they were executed. Finallie, after the earle had remained there on land, in burning and spoiling the countrie for the space of thrée daies, he retur|ned to his ships, and in safetie went aboord againe with his men: and making saile to the Ile of Ar|rane, The earle of Sussex burnt the Ile of Ar|rane. entred the hauen called Amalasche, and lan|ding at that place, burnt the countrie, and after went to Cumber, where he likewise burnt and [...]ar|ried that Ile.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This doone, he meant to haue gone into two other Ilands, Ila and Iureie: but the winds grew so ter|rible Foule wea|ther. with tempests and foule weather, that they lost one of their ships; and some of the rest were so rent & spoiled of their tackle and furniture, as they esca|ped in great hazard of being cast awaie also. There were six and twentie mariners drowned, the which perceiuing the ship to be in danger of sinking, sled into the boate, and so perished: the other that re|mained in the ship were saued, as maister Francis Randoll, and others. By reason therefore of such foule weather, the earle of Sussex was constreined to returne into Ireland, arriuing in Cragfergus The earle of Sussex retur|neth into Ire|land. where he landed with his souldiers: and appointing the ships to returne into England, he passed by land vnto Dublin, spoiling the enimies countries by the waie, and taking from them a great preie and bootie of cattell; notwithstanding the painfull passage that he had to make through the cumbersome waies, bogs, and woods, without reliefe of all necessarie things in that so troublesome a iournie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus far for those yeares warre in the daies of Marie quéene of England, betwixt the Englishmen and Scots: whereof sith I haue found none that hath written anie thing at all, I haue yet set downe these od notes, as I haue learned the same of such as had good cause to know the truth thereof, being eie-witnesses themselues of such enterprises and ex|ploits as chanced in the same warres; namelie cap|teine Read, capteine Wood, capteine Erington, capteine Gurleie, and capteine Markham; with o|thers, which of their courtesie haue willinglie im|parted to me the report of diuerse such things, as I wisht to be resolued in. Which accordinglie (so far as my remembrance hath serued) I haue here deliue|red, to the end the same maie giue occasion to others (that maie happilie light vpon more full instructi|ons) to impart to posteritie a more perfect discourse, where otherwise the matter might peraduenture wholie passe in forgetfulnesse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And now to returne vnto the Scotish ambassa|dors that were sent into France, for the conclusion of the mariage betwixt their quéene & the Dolphin. After that the same mariage was consummat, and euerie thing ordered and brought to passe according to the effect of their commission; in the moneth of August they tooke their leaue of the French king, The ambas|sadors died almost all. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag. 538, 539. the quéene, and nobilitie there, to returne home|wards into Scotland: albeit few of them came home, for the bishop of Ork [...]neie departed this tran|sitorie life in Diepe, the fiftéenth of September; the earle of Roths deceassed there the ninth of No|uember; the earle of Cass [...]ls lord treasuror departed in the same place the fourteenth of Nouember; and the lord Fleming deceassed in Paris the eightéenth Thrée came home againe. of December. And so onelie the archbishop of Glas|cow, the prior of saint Andrews, and the lard of Lard of Dun. A parlement. Dun returned into Scotland in October. After whose comming, there was a parlement summoned by the quéene, to be holden in Dcember next.

[In August, Archembald Campbell erle of Argile, Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 10. pag 539. whose wit was singular in dispatch of the affaires aswell of peace as of warre, was made high iustice of Scotland; and in France was aduanced to the title of knight of the order of saint Michaell. Few daies betweene these things departed this life the bishop of Brechin, and Andrew Durie bishop of Whitechurch. To the one did succeed the abbat of Candid [...] C [...]. Couper, in place of the other came Alexander Gordon archbishop of Athens by the queenes benefit. Dauid Painter or Paniter bishop of Ros, & Iames Steward, whome Iames the fift (being illegitimat father EEBO page image 365 father vnto him) had made abbat of Melrosse and Kelso died also this yeare. Whose monasteries the queene did forthwith giue vnto the cardinall Guise; long after which followed also the death of the abbat of Bamtorinoch. At this verie time manie prodigious sights (which I will not here recite, being touched by Lesleus) did appeare by a marker of such ominous things, whereof these verses were made:

Portentum est miserae gentis, quae numine laeso
Diuisis sacris diuidet imperium.

In September there was a parlement holden at Edenburgh, in which the acts of the former legats in France (about the mariage of the queene of Scots [...]. [...]. to the Dolphin) were confirmed. At what time the Dolphin of France by his ambassadors did vehementlie request, that the crowne (which they term matrimoniall) should be giuen vnto him by the decree of the states, whereby he might be called king of Scotland a long as the queene liued. The queene also iudging it a point of honor, to heape all title of glorie which she could vpon hir husband, as one that by a certeine inclination of mind did vertuouslie fauor him; gaue in charge also to the ambasdors, that they should earnestlie follow the same cause amongest the Scots. And to the end to draw them more easilie into hir opinion; she drew the matter into certeine articles, deliuered to the ambassadors with more ample instructions touching the same: the summe of all which was this.

First, diligentlie to beat into the Scots with what disposition of mind the Dolphin was affected toward them, as well as his father, who held the Scots in that account as he did his owne people, and so alwaies would haue them: which good mind of the French towards the Scots to be plaine without anie dissimulation, it maie well appeere as well by the couenants established for the mariage, as also by the benefits which he hath not onelie bestowed vpon the Scots and Scotland in generalitie, but also in particularitie vpon certeine especiall Scots, of his owne free will, almost without the request of anie bodie. And that they should also further laie abroad, what helpe the queene and Scots haue had of the woorthie cardinall of Lorraine, & the duke of Guise the queenes vncle. All which the ambassadors themselues (as they haue fullie proued) did well understand.

Secondlie, where the queene dooth thinke that she is greatlie benefited with manie honors by so great a king, but especiallie in this, that so mightie a prince hath taken hir into the fellowship of the holie bed, by which there can not anie other commoditie grow to the king than the reuenues of the kingdome which he had purchased with his great charge and labor: and that the queene considering all this (with great griefe of mind) doth seeke by what meanes she might at least expresse some small token of a thankefull mind for so manie benefits (because if she should not doo s [...]me thing, no small blot would séeme to be imputed to the queene and the Scots) it came into hir mind to thinke by what meanes she could requite some part therof, which she could doo (as she thought) if at the least she did but honor hir husband with the kinglie title, & giue vnto him the mariage crowne of Scotland.

This thing therefore the queene hir selfe dooth earnestlie desire, and dooth courteouslie request all the estates of Scotland, that the same maie be established by the voices of the full parlement, and that they will command some three or foure of the chiefest nobilitie honorablie to carie the ensignes of the kingdome to him, that at the least by this token of loue, the king & the best of the court maie well perceiue, with that reuerence and with that dutie they fauour the king hir husband.

And to the end that this request of the queene, for the rarenesse of the example, should not breed anie doubt in the mind of the nobilitie, and to hold them as it were in suspense, it was giuen in charge also to the ambassadors, that they should in manner point with their finger, that manie ages past, the queene of Naples did not onelie for loue she did beare vnto him, adorne the duke of Aniou hir husband, with the bare name of a king; but did also by the consent of the nobilitie, giue him rule and gouernement ouer the same kingdome. The like whereof was also doone in our memorie by the queene of Spaine to hir husband the archduke of Austrich, & by the queene of Nauarre to the duke of Vandosme.

But if that the Scots be mooued by the example of the English, who haue excluded Philip king of Spaine, that then the ambassadors should easilie wipe awaie that doubt, if they admonish the Scots that the English are not tied to the Spaniards with that firme and needfull band as the Scots are to the French, both which nations haue one priuilege, magistrats to gouerne, and one fellowship and participation of the administration of all the things in either kingdome. Whervnto they must further adde that it was so far off, that the English should reape anie fruit or commoditie by the Spaniards, that the king of Spaine himselfe did (as it were) wring from the English all the commoditie he could, to performe his affaires out of the realme. And further, that the English being out of all hope for their queene to haue anie issue by the same mariage, they would not grant vnto it, when there is a certeine and full hope left to the Scots, that issue may come of this marriage.

Besides all this, let it be opened vnto the Scots, what a great benefit maie redound vnto them by this signe of a thankefull mind. For it maie so happen, that if the king Dolphin shall feele himselfe increased with this title of honor by the Scots, as a note of their good fauour to him, that he maie raise vp his Well [...]shed to [...] a fr [...]g. father the king of France, that he will not by anie meanes permit the queene of Scots his wife to be excluded from the kingdome of England, after the death of queene Marie, who was not like to liue long being sore troubled with the dropsie.

These things and manie others were giuen in charge to the ambassadors (com [...]n out of France) to declare to the parlement of Scotland. Which being thus declared to the sta [...]es and the quéene regent, with might and maine s [...]eking the furthering there|of; at length it was granted that he should be king during the life of the quéene. For which cause Gil|lesper Campbell earle of Argile, and Iames Ste|ward, bastard brother to the yoong quéene, being pri|or of S. Andrews, were named to e [...]ute their con|sent vnto the Dolphin, to declare him king, and to inuest him with the ornaments thereto belonging, and further to shew the readie minds of the Scots toward him, not onlie in this but in all other things: by which anie honor or profit might anie waie rise vnto him.

But whilest these men doo prepare all things for such a iournie, certeine factio [...]s persons did beat in|to their eares, how heauie a iournie that would b [...] vnto them. For it would happen, that [...] they were busie in prouiding for small things abrode, they should by delaie corrupt, or by absence cleane ouer|turne matters of greater importance at home. For they did know how the subtill [...]it of Iames, and the great power and strength of the earle of Argile would be missing in those new things which were in hand amongst these of the religion: for which they neuer left off intreating and persuading, vntill they EEBO page image 366 had wholie staied them from that iournie.

During these affaires, Marie quéene of England Buch. lib. 10. died, and that woorthie ladie Elizabeth succeeded in hir place. Immediatlie wherevpon, the yoong quéene of Scots bare hir selfe as heire to that kingdome, and caused all hir hangings, bedding, vessels, and o|ther houshold stuffe to be stamped and marked with the title and armes of the kings of England. And although France were then miserablie afflicted in chalenging the dominion and gouernment of Mil|lane, Naples, and Flanders; yet they would needes heape euill vpon euill, and adde therevnto the title of England, as being vnto them a verie scorne and mockerie (as Buchanan tearmeth it.) Neither did the wiser sort of the French looke into that matter: for the Guises, who at that time gouerned all things, did consent to this error of the Scotish quéene, bicause they would thereby séeme to haue gotten to them|selues a singular honor in adding the title of Eng|land to the French name.

The regent hauing now gotten a consent (as be|fore you haue heard) of the matrimoniall crowne to be bestowed vpon the husband of the yoong quéene of Scots, began after a sort to put on a new mind: for by little and little she conuerted that old and accep|ted courtesie, into commanding arrogancie; and the gentle answers wherewith she was woont to ap|pease all parts, were turned contrarie. Which before she durst not doo by reason of the present state, which then was such, as she feared not to promise what she would not haue to be performed, bicause she had not then obteind the grant of the matrimoniall crowne: but now hauing all things after hir owne mind, she vsed other conditions, and other spéeches. There was also a parlement appointed at Striueling in the sixt Ides of Maie.

And bicause she was heard oftentimes to saie, that she would not suffer the maiestie of the chiefe go|uernement to be cast downe from the seat thereof, but wold restore it to the former place. By which sai|engs manie were admonished of some troublesome tempest to follow. Wherevpon diuerse came to in|treat hir for the protestants, amongest which for the dignitie of his name, to make the matter to be more easilie obteined, there were sent Alexander Cu|nigame earle of Glencarne, and Hugh Campbell shiriffe of Aine, a woorthie knight, before whom the regent could not refraine hirselfe, but burst foorth into these woords.

These men (saith shee) sith they haue preached not verie sincerelie, shall be banished, though you andyour ministers resist against it.
And when they re|plied, beséeching hir that she would remember what she had often promised: she answered, that the per|formance of promise is to bée chalenged of prin|ces, so farre as it séemeth commodious for them to performe it. Wherevnto they replied, that they there|fore renounced all dutie and obedience vnto hir, and did further forewarne hir of the great mischiefes that would flow out of this founteine: with which an|swer shée being stroken more than shée looked for, said in the end, that she would both thinke on it and them.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Iulie and August, there was a conuention of all the prelats and cleargie holden at Edenburgh, An assemblie of the cleargie. Fr. Thin. in the which certeine men & women of Edenburgh were accused of heresie, and abiured at the towne crosse with faggots on their backes: [wherevpon (as saith Lesleus lib. 10. pa. 538.) were great tumults rai|sed at Edenburgh, for the appeasing whereof, the lord Seiton was made gouernor there.] In this assem|blie it was required, that the common praiers Cõmon prai|ers to be had in the vulgar toong. might be read in the Scotish toong in churches, with certeine other articles of reformation, whereof the answer was deferred till March, in which moneth a prouinciall councell was appointed to be holden at Edenburgh. The second of March, the said prouinci|all A prouinciall councell. councell of all the prelats and clergie of Scot|land began, wherein diuerse articles were proponed Requests made by the laitie. by the temporaltie; as to haue the praiers and admi|nistration of the sacraments in the Scotish lan|guage, the election of bishops and all beneficed men to passe by the voices of the temporall lords & people of their diocesses and parishes, with diuerse other re|formations: all the which the bishops refused to grant, where through there arose shortlie after great trouble in Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The queene regent caused summons to be giuen 1559. Iohn Knox with other are summoned. to Iohn Knox, Iohn Wullocke, Iohn Dowglas, and Paule Meffane, to appeare at Striueling the tenth day of Maie: and for lacke of appearance they were denounced rebels, and put to the horne. Wher|vpon the said Iohn Knox being in Perth, persuaded the maister of Lindseie, the lards of Tulibardin, Dun, Pettarrow, and diuerse other being there as|sembled, with the burgesses of the townes of saint Iohns towne and Dundee, to pull downe the ima|ges Images and frier houses pulled downe. and altars in all churches, and to suppresse the houses of friers, & other religious places. Who after a sermon made by him to that effect, the same tenth of Maie they began in saint Iohns towne, and cast downe the abbeie of the Charterhouse, the Blacke and Carmelite friers, called the Tullelum [and so Fr. Thin. cleane, that (as saith Buchanan) within two daies there was left no signe thereof almost to be séene] and reformed all other churches thereabouts, brea|king downe the images and altars in Fife, Angus, Mernis, and other parts there next adioining.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The queene regent being aduertised thereof, sent for the duke of Chatelerault, and diuerse other of the nobilitie, as the earles of Atholl, Argile, Marshall, The quéene regent came to Perth. and others, who came with hir to Perth, otherwise called saint Iohns towne, hauing with them two thousand Frenchmen [to whome also repaired (as Fr. Thin. saith Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 548) the archbishop of saint Andrew and Glascow, the bishops of Dunkeld, and Dunblane, Iames prior of saint Andrews, the ab|bat of Cowper and Dunfermeling, with manie o|ther chiefe of the cleargie] who entered the towne vp|on appointment of the lord Ruthen capteine thereof, and so receiuing it, gaue it in keeping to capteine Iames Steward, and capteine Cullane, with their bands of men of warre. In the meane time the erle S. Andrews. of Argile, and the prior of saint Andrews, left the quéene in Perth, and went to saint Andrews, ioi|ning themselues with the other, and made reforma|tion of the churches, casting downe altars, images, houses of friers, and abbeies in that towne, and in Cowper, and other places thereabout: and assem|bling Cowper. a great companie of countrie men, came to Londros, Balmeare, & Cowper, to make resistance against the Frenchmen that were in Falkeland with the quéene [come thither from Perth, after that Fr. Thin. she had left in Perth six hundred men vnder the charge of Iames Steward cardinall, & Iames Cul|lane.] But when they should haue met on Cowper Two armies were pacified, moore in battell, the duke of Chatelerault, the earle Marshall, and others, laboured betwixt them, so that the battell was staied, & the queene with the French|men returned vnto Edenburgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Argile, the prior of saint Andrews, and their assisters came to saint Iohns towne and Saint Iohns towne be|besieged. besieged it, till it was to them surrendered. The erle of Huntleie was sent to them from the queene to treat with them of some accord, but he profited not. At the same time a certeine number of persons of the townes of Dundée & Perth, came to the abbeie Scone abbei [...] burnt. of Scone, and spoiling the church, burnt it with the EEBO page image 367 most part of the house, the earle of Argile, and the prior of saint Andrews being with them in compa|nie. After this they went to Striueling, and to Lith|quo, The friers in Striueling destroied. where they caused the houses of the blacke friers and graie friers to be throwne downe. From thence they passed to Edenburgh where the quéene hearing of their comming, departed with the Frenchmen vnto Dunbar, the duke of Chatelerault, and the erle The quéene departed from Edenburgh. of Huntleie being with hir in companie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Argile and his companie, called the lords of the congregation, were receiued into Eden|burgh by the bailiffes of the towne, where the places of the blacke and graie friers were suddenlie ouer|throwne, & the Church a field, and Trinitie college, The frierhou|ses ouer|throwne. and saint Giles church were reformed, and the ima|ges and altars pulled downe. The lords remaining thus in Edenburgh [apprehended Robert Richard|son Fr. Thin. (as saith Lesleus) that was gouernor of the pub|like treasurie, tooke the keis by force from him, ente|red the abbeie] the coming house, tooke the coining i|rons, seized vpon the quéenes mooueables, which they found in the palace, and kept the same. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 551.Whilest these things were thus doone at Edenburgh, Max|well lord Harries gouernor of the west marches, which at that time was deteined prisoner in Eden|burgh castell, did priuilie get out of the same by a rope hanged to the wall, and hauing spéedie horsses, departed to his owne companie, shortlie after ioi|ning himselfe to the lords of the religion.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Monsieur Doisell and the Frenchmen came from Dunbar to the links of Leith, accompanied with the duke of Chatelerault, the earles of Huntleie, Both|well, Two armies pacified. Mourton, and others. And the lords of the con|gregation came foorth of the towne of Edenburgh of purpose to haue giuen battell to the Frenchmen, al|beit they were not sufficient partie to resist them. But the erle of Huntleie trauelled betwixt them, by whose meanes there met twelue on euerie side, who a|gréed vpon certeine articles, and so the quéene and Frenchmen entered into Leith, and foorthwith began Leith fortified to fortifie it.

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