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1.11. Of the nature of the Claike geese, and sundrie maners of their pro|creation, and of the Ile of Thule. The eleuenth Chapter.

Of the nature of the Claike geese, and sundrie maners of their pro|creation, and of the Ile of Thule. The eleuenth Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _NOw it is come to hand that I intreat of those géese which are ingendred by the sea, whose procreation hath hitherto béen thought to haue beene made vpon trees. But the opinion is false, and yet sith their generation is strange indeed, I haue not a little trauelled, and with no small diligence indeuoured to search out the truth héereof, wherby I learne that their ingendrure is rather to be referred to the sea, than any thing els, if my coniecture be oughts: for although that they are in sundrie wise producted, yet I find the same to be performed continuallie in the sea, and not else|where, as shall appéere hereafter. All trées cast in|to that element in processe of time become wormea|ten, and in the holes thereof are the said wormes to be found, though verie little and small (in compari|son to that they be afterward) to be perceiued at the first. In the beginning, these worms doo shew their heads and féet, and last of all their plumes & wings. Finallie when they are come to the iust measure and quantitie of géese, they flie in the aire as other foules doo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This was notablie prooued in the yeare of Grace 1490, in sight of many people, beside the castell of Pestego, whither the bodie of a great trée was brought by working of the sea. This trée being ta|ken, it was carried to the lord of the soile, who soone after caused it to be slit in sunder with a saw: which being doone, it is incredible to sée, what a multitude at wormes came out of their holes. Of these also some appeered as if they had béene but new shapen, diuers had head, foot and wings, but no feathers, the rest were formed into perfect foules. At last when the people had gazed theron by the space of an whole daie, they carried it to saint Andrewes church beside Tire, where the said blocke remains still to be seene. Within two yeeres after there hapned such another trée to come into the firth of Tay beside Dundée, wormeaten and full of yoong géese after the same maner: the third was séene in the hauen of Leith be|side Edenburgh: and also within a few yéeres, in like sort a ship named the Christopher, after she had lien thrée yéeres at anchor in one of these Iles, was broght to Leith, where bicause hir timber was found to be rotten she was taken in sunder, and in hir kéele were found infinite holes as if they had beene eaten with wormes, or bored with a wimble, and each one of them filled with such creatures as I haue said be|fore.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Héere if any man will alledge that the Christopher was builded of such timber onelie as grew in these Iles, and that all roots and trees there growing, are of such nature as in their corruption doo turne into these foules, I will disprooue his assertion by one no|table example shewed before mine eies. Maister A|lexander Galloway parson of Kinkell, was with vs in these Iles, & giuing his mind with attentiue dili|gence to search out a full resolution with vs of these obscure and hidden matters, it hapned on a time that he tooke vp a branch of Alga, called in Scotish, S [...]at|angle, which hanged full of muskle shels from the root euen to the verie top. Being also desireus to sée what was in them, he grew to be more astonished than before: for when he had opened one or two of them, he saw no fish but a foule perfectlie shapen, ful|lie answering to the capacitie of the shell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Finallie, knowing that I was verie inquisitiue of these and the like rare nouelties, he came hastilie with the said hearbe & shewed it vnto me, who found no lesse by experience than I before reported. By these and many other reasons and examples I can|not beleeue that these Claiks (or Barnacls as I call them) are producted either by the qualities of the trées or the roots thereof, but onelie by the nature of the sea, which is the verie cause and productrir of so manie wonderfull creatures. Furthermore, bicause the rude and ignorant people saw oftentimes the fruits that fell from trées, which stood neuer in the sea, conuerted within short time into géese, they beléeued that these géese grew vpon trées, hanging by their nebs as apples and other fruit doo by their stalks, but their opinion is vtterlie to be reiected. For so soone as these apples or fruit fall from the trée into the sea, they grow first to be wormeaten, and in processe of time to be conuerted into géese.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus haue I spoken sufficientlie of the Iles of the Hebrides adiacent vnto the realme of Scotland, and therewithall would shut vp my discourse of the same, were it not that I haue somewhat to say also of Thule, not vnknowne vnto the Romans, as may appeare by Tacitus, who telleth how the Romane na|uie by the commandement of Agricola, was sent to view the coasts of the whole Iland of Britaine, and at their returne reported how they had séene the Thule, with other Ilands lieng about the same. Pto|lome writeth that the Ile of Thule is one of the Shetland Iles, which lie néere vnto Norwey, and be|yond the Orchades; but this cannot be prooued so by late experience: for Thule is manie miles distant from Shetland. Some say that Thule is the same which we call Island: other write that it is the last Ile of the ocean sea, and so is Island, which lieth in the cold srostie sea, beyond the Artike circle toward the north pole. The people of Island because no corne groweth among them, line onelie by fish, which they drie and powder so small as meale dooth come backe from the mill, afterward they mix it with water, and worke it vp for bread.

1.12. Of the description of Orkeney, and Shetland, with sundrie other small Iles, and of the maners and conditions of the people dwelling in the same. The twelfe Chapter.

Of the description of Orkeney, and Shetland, with sundrie other small Iles, and of the maners and conditions of the people dwelling in the same. The twelfe Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _BEyond the Iles of Scot|land lie those of Orkeney, partlie toward the north|west, and partlie toward the Almain seas. The principall Ile of these is called Pomo|nia, wherein is a bishops sée, and two strong castels. In these groweth no wheat, they are in like sort void of wood, howbeit all other graine groweth there verie plentifullie, they be without all venemous beasts al|so, neither can such as are brought thither liue anie EEBO page image 18 while, more than in Ireland, which susteineth no crea|ture that is aduersarie to mankind. Ouer and beside this, there are no frogs: as for éeles they are seldome found and to be seene in the Orchades. Hauing thus fallen into the mention of Ireland, I thinke it good among diuers other rare gifts of nature, to remem|ber one thing that I haue prooued by experience to be done there (although the tractation of Ireland and hir commodities apperteine not to this place) which farre passeth all that euer I haue read in bookes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes there is a loch, lin, or poole there, néere vnto the which by manie miles, there groweth neither herbe nor trée; howbeit such is the qualitie of this water, that if a stake be pitched in the same, the na|ture thereof dooth within one yéeres space alter and change excéedinglie, for that part thereof which stan|deth in the ground is conuerted into hard stone, the same that is inuironed with water turneth into tough iron, onelie that portion which is aboue the said element reteining hir former wooddie sub|stance, whereby it is often seene how in one and the same bodie, thrée distinct substances are found, that is to say, stone, iron, and wood, which farre excéedeth all credit. But to returne againe to our Orchades, whereof things of little or no lesse importance are to be rehersed, for sith there is great abundance of bar|ley whereof they make the strongest ale that is to be found in Albion, and thereto knowne, that they are the greatest drinkers of anie men in the world; yet was there neuer drunken or man disguised with drinke séene there, neither anie foole, or person other|wise berest of his wits through frensie or madnes. There is herevnto small vse of physicke: for man|kind liueth there most commonlie vnto extreame age in sound and perfect health, whose bodies also are of strong constitution and verie white of colour.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The ewes that are to be found in these Ilands haue for the most part two or thrée lambs a péece at euerie eaning, and therewithall they haue in this countrie such plentie of foules both wild and tame, as the like number againe is not to be found in Bri|taine. Their horsses are litle greter than the French asses, but in their labour they excéed all other. What should I speake of the plentie of fish there to be had, which passeth all credit? among which there is one sort greater than anie horsse, of a maruellous and in|credible sluggish desire to sléepe. This fish when shée prouideth to sleepe, fastneth hir huge teeth vpon some crag that lieth aboue the water, and then slumbreth or falleth into a most sound rest, which the seafa|ring men espieng, they foorthwith cast anchor, and then letting downe their ship-boats, they conueie themselues to the fish, and bore a great hole through hir taile, wherevnto they put one end of a cable, and so make it sure; the other end is fastened to a great anchor, which is let fall of purpose into the sea, and thus is their enterprise attempted yer long to be at|chiued. For after this wound, it is not long yer the fish awaketh, who féeling hirselfe to be hurt, leapeth at once into the sea, thinking to hide and shrowd hir in the déepes: but being staid by the weight of the anchor, and indeuouring in vaine to breake the ca|ble, she laboureth so vehementlie, that at the last she windeth [...] selfe out of hir skin (for the which she is commonlie taken) and soone after also turneth vp hir bellie, yéelding hirselfe vnto the waues, and hir bodie to the mariners, who make an excellent oile of hir grease, and passing strong cables of hir hide or skin. Certes such is the force of rope made of the skin of this fish, that they will hold at a plunge no lesse than the Spanish sparto. Herein also they ex|céed the same, in that they will continue verie long without fretting asunder.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 An hundred miles beyond the Orchades arc the Shetland Iles, whose chiefe commodities stand-one|lie by fish which is dried in the sun. There are brought also into Scotland out of these Ilands great store of shéepes felles, oxe hides, gotes skinnes, and cases of martirnes dried in the sunne. And in the same maner the merchants of Holland, Zeland and Ger|manie, fetch them yéerelie by barter and exchange for other common and necessarie wares, with the people of that nation, who for maners and conditi|ons resemble much the Orchanois. The same in like sort that is said of the Orchanois, concerning drun|kennes and frensie, is verified on them, as is also their length of life, although not in so rare maner: sith these in stead of strong ale, content themselues with water, and verie slender diet, Beyond the Shet|lands there are diuerse other Ilands of like condi|tion, but without corne and all maner of flesh to féed vpon. These drie their fish in the sunne, and when they are through stiffe, they grind them to small pow|der, which they worke vp with water into loaues, and so vse the same in lieu of other bread. Their firing consisteth of the bones of such fishes as they take, and yet they content themselues in such maner with this their poore kind of liuelode, that they thinke their estate most happie in respect of such as inhabit in the maine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes there is no quarrelling amongst these for wealth or gaine, but each one prouideth such store of fish in summer which he taketh himselfe, as shall find his familie, or kéepe his house in winter. They are void of all ambitious mood, and neuer troubled with ciuill or forren warres, as men that déeme firme peace and quietnesse, with mutuall loue and a|mitie, to be the chiefe felicitie to be sought for in this life, and to remaine herein, each one to his power dooth shew his whole indeuour. This finallie is to be added vnto their commendation, that they are sim|ple, plaine, void of craft, and all maner of serpen|tine subtilt [...]e, which endeth commonlie with mis|chéefe, and reigneth in the maine. Once in the yéere there commeth a priest vnto them from Orkeney, (of which diocesse they are) who ministreth vnto them the sacrament of baptisme, and after a certeine time (hauing taken vp in the meane time his tithes in fish, which is their sole increase, and verie trulie paid) he returneth home againe the same way that he came.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If anie gifts of nature are to be numbred as par|cels of worldlie riches and renowme, they are not without these also: for the people of these Iles are lustie, faire, strong of bodie, and high of stature, so that nature hath not failed to indue them with these things, and that in most excellent maner. What should I say of their health, which is and may be pre|ferred aboue all treasure, as they well know that are oppressed with long and gréeuous infirmities? For here among these men, you shall very seldome heare of sickenesse to attach anie, vntill extreame age come that killeth them altogither, and this is that ex|ceeding benefit naturallie appropried vnto their car|cases. As for their quietnesse of mind, it is alwaies such as is constant, & vnchangeable, and therefore in|comparable vnto any riches or huge masse of world|lie treasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herevnto furthermore, if it be true riches (as it is in déed) for ech one not to couet other mens goods, but to content himselfe with that which is his owne, and not to stand in need of anie thing, can anie man be found in anie other region more rich and fortu|nate than the Shetland men and these Ilanders? Fi|nallie, if those be the true honors, and reuerend du|ties which the obedient sonne with great sinceritie and void of all flatterie, dooth shew vnto his good pa|rents, and wherewithall the best sort doo maruellous|lie EEBO page image 19 reioise and delite themselues: and that these are also not wanting in these regions, can we iustlie say that these men doo lacke anie thing, or shall we not rather affirme with great assurance, that they ra|ther stand in need of nothing that anie mortall man can iustlie with or desire.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But if there be anie man that will accuse me of vntruth in the recit all of these things, as one that li|eth lowd and by authoritie of a people dwelling far off, for so much as I my selfe was neuer in those I|lands, he shall vnderstand that I learned all these things of the reuerend father Edward bishop of the Orchades, with whome one of these Ilanders dwel|led, who not onelie made a like rehearsall of these things with his owne mouth, but also verified the same in his owne person, for his height far passed the common stature of men, thereto he was excel|lentlie well featured in his lims, so white of skin ouer all, that he might contend in beautie with anie ladie of the land, and finallie so white and strong of bodie, that no man in all those quarters durst run or wrestle with him. Hereby also we may sée, how far they are deceiued which iudge them to be barbarous, and miserable creatures, that inhabit far from the tropike lines, for there are no people more happie than those that dwell in these quarters, as I haue proued alreadie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore, among the rocks and crags of these Iles groweth the delectable amber, called E|lectrum, [...]ee Matthio|lus vpon the first booke of Dioscorides capite de po|palo alba & nigra. Chrysolectrum, or (as Discorides saith) Pterygo|phoron, indued wish so vehement an attractiue force, that being chafed it draweth straw, flor, and other like light matter vnto it. This gum is ingendred of the sea froth, which is throwen vp by continuall re|percussion of crags and rocks against the sea walls, and through perpetuall working of the waues grow|eth in time to become tough as glue, till it fall at the last from the rocke againe into the sea. Such as haue often viewed and marked the generation of this gum, whilest it hangeth on the rocke, affirme it to be like a froth and bubble of water without all massie sadnesse, because that as yet it is not suffici|entlie hardened by the working of the element. Sometimes the Seatangle is found inuironed also [...]igs. withall, because it is driuen hither and thither by the working of the waues, and so long as it fléets to and fro in this maner, so long is it apt to cleaue to anie thing that it toucheth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Two yeares before I wrote this booke, there came a great lumpe of amber into Buchquhane, in quan|titie so big as anie horsse, which the heardmen that kept their cattell neere hand caught vp, & not know|ing in déed what it was, they caried it home, and threw a portion thereof into the fire: finallie, percei|uing a swéet and delectable sauour to procéed from the same, they ran by & by to the priest of the towne where they dwelled, telling him how they had found a péece of stuffe which would serue verie well in stead of frankincense, wherewith to perfume his saints or rather Idols in the church. These men supposed that sir Iohn had béene more cunning than them|selues, but contrarie to their expectation, it fell out that he was no lesse vnskilfull & void of knowlege than they; and therefore refusing the whole lumpe, he tooke but a small portion thereof, and returned the rest vnto them, whereby it came to little proofe and lesse gaine among the common sort, who suffered it to perish by reason of their vnskilfulnesse. Certes when they brake it in peeces, it resembled in color vn|to the purest gold, & shined as if it had béene the laie or flame of a candle. Herein also the prouerbe was proued true, that the sow recks not of balme. But so soone as I vnderstood of the matter, I vsed such diligence, that one portion thereof was brought to me at Aberden. And thus much of the Hebrides, Or|chades; and Shetland Iles subiect vnto the Scotish regiment.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I might (no doubt) haue made rehersall of diuers other strange things woorthie the noting in this be|halfe: but I haue made choise onelie of the most rare and excellent, and so would finish this descrip|tion, were it not that one thing hath staied me right pleasant to be remembred, as an vncouth & strange incident, whereof maister Iames Ogilbie ambas|sadour from Iames our king (among other) vnto the king of France, hath certified me, and whereof he had experience of late, at such time as he was con|streined by tempest of wether to get to land in Nor|weie. Thus standeth the case, being driuen (as I said) vpon the shore of Norweie, he and his companie saw a kind of people ranging vp & downe in the moun|teins there, much like vnto those which diuers pic|tures giue foorth for wild men, hearie and vglie to behold. In the end being aduertised that they were sauage and wild beasts; yet neuerthelesse deadlie enimies to mankind: they vnderstood therevnto, that although in the day time they abhorred and fea|red the sight of man, yet in the night they would by great companies inuade the small villages & coun|trie townes, killing and sleaing so manie as they found, or where no dogs were kept to put by their rage and furie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes such is their nature, that they stand in great scare of dogs, at whose barking and sight they flie and run away with no small hast and terror, wherefore the inhabitants are inforced to cherish great numbers of the said beasts, thereby to kéepe off those wild men that otherwise would annoy them. They are morouer of such strength, that some|times they pull vp yoong trées by the roots to fight withall among themselues. The ambassadours sée|ing these vncouth creatures, were not a little asto|nished, and therefore to be sure from all inuasion, procured a strong gard to watch all night about them, with great fiers to giue light ouer all that quarter, till on the morrow that they tooke the sea, and so departed thence. Finallie, the Norwegians shewed them, that there was another people not far off, which liued all the summer time in the sea like fish, & fed of such as they did catch, but in the winter half (because the water is cold) they preied vpon such wild beasts as fed on the mounteins, which com|ming downe from the snowte hils to grase in the vallies, they killed with darts and weapons, and caried vnto their caues. In this exercise also they tie little boords to their féet, which beare them vp from sinking into the snow, and so with a staffe in their hands they make the better shift to clime vp and come downe from the crags & mounteins, where|of in that region there is verie great plentie and a|bundance.

1.13. Of the maners of the Scots in these daies, and their comparison with the behauiour of the old, and such as liued long since within this Iland. The xiij. Chapter.

Of the maners of the Scots in these daies, and their comparison with the behauiour of the old, and such as liued long since within this Iland. The xiij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _FOrsomuch as diuers no|ble men haue desired me to shew apart the old maners of the Scots touched in my historie, to the end it may be knowne how far our nati|on in these present daies are different in their maners and EEBO page image 20 behauiour from those of our forefathers, and here|vnto although I assure muselfe alreadie that the re|uealing of these things will procure vnto me the ha|tred of sundrie woorthie or renowmed personages (of which few will yéeld to heare their doings touched or their errours reproued) yet because I owe such duetie and seruice vnto those that haue made this request vnto me, and least I should seeme ingrate not to hearken vnto them in this behalfe; I haue condescended to the performance of their desires, and so much the rather, for that they alledge how it will be verie profitable vnto all the readers, but e|speciallie such as are not immoderatlie giuen ouer vnto their owne affections, nor so wholie drowned in their owne sensualitie and pleasures, but vpon consideration of wholesome admonition will be ve|rie willing to leaue whatsoeuer offendeth in them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 First of all therefore, I will declare what vsages haue béene among our elders both in time of warre and peace, and by what wisedome and industrie they haue preuailed so long time against such and so ma|nie mightie aduersaries, as first the Britains, then the Saxons, next of all the Danes which haue ente|red into this Iland with huge armies to spoile and subdue the same. Furthermore, I will set downe with so much breuitie as I can, how the falling by little and little from the frugalitie and customs of their forefathers, their vertue and force also began in like order to decaie. And finallie how in these daies either by the clemencie of our neighbours, or by their delicat negligence rather than by our owne prowesse, we liue in securitie, and thereby as it were ouerwhelmed and wrapped vp in all auarice and ex|cesse, whereinto our want of exercise and martiall prowesse dooth maruellouslie impell vs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes I beléeue that by this meanes such as are of the more couragious sort (& yet reteining a sauour of the temperancie of their elders) will reioise to heare their manhood & great prowesse commended in this wise, as others of the contrarie sect (in ser|uile maner addicted to gather goods, and spend their times in idle excesse and riot) séeing their errors iustlie reprehended, and the dishonor gotten thereby openlie reuealed, will the rather addresse them|selues to reformation of their estate, thereby to re|couer the ancient renowme of their forefathers, in answering to their prowesse, than proue a reproch vnto their successours, through their lewd behaui|ours neuer to be forgiuen. This I protest before all men, that whatsoeuer I shall speake of the euill maners of our times, I doo not meane it vnto all, but those onlie whome blind selfe-loue, couetousnes, intemperancie, excesse and abuse of all Gods good gifts haue so touched, that they deserue much more to be reprehended than I will vouchsafe to attempt in this my lateward treatise. Therefore if anie man shall thinke himselfe to be rubbed on the gall by me, I counsell him that he conceale not his infirmitie, by séeking reuenge on other men, but rather inde|uour to procure the remedie in first acknowledging his misdemeanors, which is the one and better halfe of his cure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Our elders although they were right vertuous both in warre abroad, and at home in peace, were yet neuerthelesse in conuersation & behauiour verie temperat, which is the founteine & originall of all vertues. In sléepe they were competent, in meate and drinke sober, and contented with such food as was readie at hand and prepared with little cost. Their bread consisted of such stuff as grew most rea|dilie on the ground, without all maner of sifting and bolting, whereby to please the palate; but baked vp as it came from the mill without anie such curiosi|tie, which is a great abasing of the force thereof vnto our dailie nourishment. The flesh whereon they chiefeli [...] fed, was either such as they got by hunting, wherein they tooke great delight, and which increa|sed not a little their strength and nimblenesse, or else such tame cattell as they bred vp at home, whereof béefe was accompted the principall, as it is yet in our daies, though after an other maner and far dis|crepant from the vse and custome of other coun|tries. The stirkes or yoong béefets vngelded, we ei|ther kill yoong for veale, or geld, to the end that they may serue afterward for tillage in earing vp of the ground, but the cowcalfes and heifers are neuer killed till they be with calfe, for then are they fattest and most delicious to the mouth. The common meat of our elders was fish, howbeit not onlie or somuch for the plentie thereof, as for that our lands laie often wast and vntilled, because of the great warres which they commonlie had in hand. They brake also their fast earlie in the morning with some slender repast, and so continued without anie other diet vntill supper time, in which they had but one dish, whereby it came to passe, that their sto|machs were neuer ouercharged, nor their bones de|sirous of rest through the fulnesse of their bellies. At such time as they determined of set purpose to be merie, they vsed a kind of Aquauite void of all spice, and onelie consisting of such hearbs & roots as grew in their owne gardens, otherwise their common drinke was ale: but in time of warre, when they were inforced to lie in campe, they contented them|selues with water as rediest for their turnes. Ech souldier also had so much meale as might serue him for a daie which he made vp in cakes, and baked on the coles, as the Romans sometimes vsed to doo, and the emperour Caracalla himselfe (as Herodian hath remembred.) Seldome did they eate anie flesh in their tents, except they got it from their aduer|saries; such as they had likewise was eaten halfe raw, because they supposed the iuice thereof so vsed to nourish verie abundantlie. But fish was much more plentifull amongst them, especiallie when they wanted their vsuall preies, or could not atteine vn|to them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They brought furthermore from their houses to the field with them, a vessell of butter, cheese, meale, milke, and vineger tempered togither as a shoot-an|chor against extreme hunger, on which they would féed and sucke out the moisture, when other proui|sion could not be gotten. In like maner, whensoe|uer they had entred into league and amitie with their enimies, they would not liue in such securitie, that thereby they would suffer their bodies & forces to degenerat, but they did keepe themselues in their former actiuitie and nimblenesse of lims, either with continuall hunting (a game greatlie esteemed amongest our ancestors) or with running from the hilles vnto the vallies, or from the vallies vnto the hilles, or with wrestling, and such kinds of pastime whereby they were neuer idle. Their heads were alwaies shauen after the maner of the ancient Spa|niards, with a little tuft of heare onelie left on their forparts, and neuer couered, except when they were troubled with sicknesse, by which means it came to passe, that few of our nation in old time was seene to be bald and hearelesse. They went also barefooted, or if they had anie shooes, they dipped them first in the water yer they did put them on, especiallie in winter when sharpest weather shewed it selfe, to the end that the soles of their féet (which were well hard|ned in summer with heat and in winter with cold) might be more strong and able to susteine great la|bor and dailie trauell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Their apparrell was not made for brauerie and pompe, but as shuld séeme best to couer their bodies, EEBO page image 21 and serue their appointed vses, their hosen were shapen also of linnen or woollen, which neuer came higher than their knees, their bréeches were for the most part of hempe, clokes also they had for winter made of course wooll, but in the summer time they ware of the finest that could be gotten. They slept moreouer either vpon the bare floore or pallets of straw, teaching their children euen from their in|fancie to eschew ease, and practise the like hardnesse; and sith it was a cause of suspicion of the mothers fideltie toward hir husband, to seeke a strange nurse for hir children (although hir milke failed) each wo|man would take intollerable paines to bring vp and nourish hir owne children. They thought them fur|thermore not to be kindlie fostered, except they were so well nourished after their births with the milke of their brests, as they were before they were borne with the bloud of their owne bellies, nay they feared least they should degenerat and grow out of kind, except they gaue them sucke themselues, and eschewed strange milke, therefore in labour and painfulnesse they were equall, & neither sex regar|ded the heat in summer or cold in winter, but tra|uelled barefooted, and in time of warres the men had their cariages and victuals trussed behind them on their horsses, or else vpon their owne shoulders without refusall of anie labour inioined vnto them by their capteins.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If it hapened them at anie time to be vanquished, they fled with such speed to the mounteins, that no horsse might ouertake them, and verie oft escaped. The violence that was doone to anie one of them, was reputed common to all, & such was their dead|lie fude conceiued in these cases, that vntill they had requited the like with more extremitie, they would neuer be quiet nor let go their displeasure. The no|blest and most couragious gentleman would soonest desire to be placed in the fore ward, where his vassa|lage or seruice & manhood should readilest be séene, and such was the friendship of the nobilitie amongst themselues, that whilst they contended which of them should be most faithfull and friendlie to other, they would oft fall out, and quarell one with another. Sometimes it happened that their capteine was be|set with extreme perill, or peraduenture some other of the nobilitie, in which cases they that were of his band would suddenlie rush in through the thickest of their enimies vnto him, and deliuer him, or else if they could not so doo, they would altogither lose their liues with him, thinking it a perpetuall note of re|proch to ouerliue their leader.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The graues and sepulchers of our noble men had commonlie so manie obelisks and spires pitched a|bout them, as the deceassed had killed enimies be|fore time in the field. If anie souldier had beene found in the field without his flint and tinder box, or had walked or gene vp and downe with his sword at his side, and not naked in his hand, for then vsed they light armour for the most part, he was terriblie scourged: but he that sold or morga|ged his weapon, was forthwith cut from his com|panie, and banished as an exile; he that fled or went from the battell without leaue of his capteine, was slaine wheresoeuer he was met afterward, without anie iudgement or sentence, and all his goods con|fiscated to the prince. Their light armour in those daies consisted of the lance, the bowe, the long sword which hanged at the side of the owner, and thereto a buckler, but afterward heauier armour came into generall vsage.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In these daies also the women of our countrie were of no lesse courage than the men, for all stout maidens & wiues (if they were not with child) mar|ched as well in the field as did the men, and so soone as the armie did set forward, they slue the first li|uing creature that they found, in whose bloud they not onelie bathed their swords, but also tasted ther|of with their mouthes, with no lesse religion and as|surance conceiued, than if they had alreadie béene sure of some notable and fortunate victorie. When they saw their owne bloud run from them in the fight, they waxed neuer a whit astonished with the matter, but rather doubling their courages, with more egernesse they assailed their enimies. This also is to be noted of them, that they neuer sought anie victorie by treason, falshood, or sleight, as thinking it a great reproch to win the field any otherwise than by meere manhood, prowesse and plaine dealing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 When they went foorth vnto the wars, each one went with the king of his owne cost (except the hi|red souldior) which custome is yet in vse. If any were troubled with the falling euill, or leprosie, or fallen frantike, or otherwise was out of his wits, they were diligentlie sought out: and least those diseases should passe further by infectuous generation vnto their issue & posteritie, they gelded the men. But the women were secluded to some od place far off from the companie of men, where if she afterward happe|ned to be gotten with child, both she and the infant were run through with the lance. Gluttons and ra|ueners, droonkards, and egregious deuourers of victuals were punished also by death, first bring per|mitted to deuoure so much as they listed, and then drowned in one fresh riuer or other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore, as iustice in time of war was com|monlie driuen to perke, so in daies of peace our cun|triemen that offended, were off seuerelie punished and with inconuenient rigor. For they well consi|dered that after their people should returne & come home againe from the warres, they would be giuen to so many enormities, that the same their excesse should hardlie be restreined but by extreame seue|ritie: such also was their nature, that so soone as they knew themselues guiltie of any offense com|mitted against the estate or commonwealth, their first attempt was to set discord amongst the péeres and princes of the realme, neuerthelesse when they are gentlie intreated, and with courteous modera|tion, they are found to be verie tractable and pliant vnto reason: in priuate bargains & contracts they are so willing to giue euerie man his own, that they will yéeld the more. And so farre is it growne into a custome euen in these our daies, that except there be some surplusage aboue the bare couenant, they will breake off and not go forwards with the bar|gaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They vsed at the first the rites and maners of the Aegyptians from whence they came, and in all their priuate affaires they vsed not to write with common letters, as other nations did; but rather with ciphers and figures of creatures made in maner of letters, as their epitaphes vpon their toomes and sepulchers remaining amongst vs doo hitherto declare. Ne|uerthelesse in our times this hieroglyphicall maner of writing (I wot not by what meanes) is perished and lost, and yet they haue certeine letters proper vn|to themselues, which were somtime in common vse: but among such as reteine the ancient speach, they haue their aspirations, dipthongs, and pronunciati|on better than any other. The common sort are not in vre withall, but onlie they which inhabit in the higher part of the countrie, and sith they haue their language more eloquent and apt than others, they are called poets; they make also poets with great so|lemnitie and honour, being borne out therein by the authoritie of the prince. Besides the skill also of ma|ny other arts and sciences, whose rules and methods EEBO page image 22 are turned into the said language, are giuen by tra|dition from their elders, they chéeflie excell in phy|sicke, wherein they go far beyond manie other, who learning of them the natures and qualities of such hearbs as grow in those quarters, doo heale all ma|ner of diseases euen by their onelie application.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes there is no region in the whole world so barren & vnfruitfull, through distance from the sun, but by the prouidence of God all maner of necessa|ries for the sustentation of mankind dwelling there are to be had therein, if the inhabitants were such as had any skill how to vse the same in order. Neuer|thelesse our elders, which dwelled continuallie vpon the marches of England, learned the Saxon toong through continuall trade of merchandize and hazard of the wars long since, whereby it came to passe that we neglected our owne language, & our owne ma|ners, and thereto both our ancient order in writing and speaking is vtterlie left among vs, that inhabit neere vnto them; whereas contrariwise those that dwell in the mounteins reteine still their ancient spéech and letters, and almost all their old rites, wher|vnto in time past their forefathers haue béene accu|stomed. One thing hereof also may euidentlie be séene (for an example) in their boats which they call carrocks, for being made of osiers and couered with bull hides, they vse to passe and repasse with them o|uer their riuers and waters in catching of samons, and when they haue doone, they beare them on their backs vnto what place soeuer it pleaseth them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But we will now leaue the maners of our anci|ent friends, and intreat of our later countriemen. In processe of time therefore, and chéeflie about the daies of Malcolme Cammor, our maners began greatlie to change and alter. For when our neigh|bors the Britons began, after they were subdued by the Romans, to wax idle and slouthfull, and there|vpon driuen out of their countrie into Wales by their enimies the Saxons, we began to haue ali|ance (by proximitie of the Romans) with English|men, speciallie after the subuersion of the Picts, and through our dailie trades and conuersation with them, to learne also their maners, and therewithall their language, as I haue said alreadie. Heereby shortlie after it came also to passe, that the tempe|rance and vertue of our ancestors grew to be iudged worthie of small estimation amongst vs, notwith|standing that a certeine idle desire of our former re|nowme did still remaine within vs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore as men not walking in the right path, we began to follow also the vaine shadow of the Germane honor and titles of nobilitie, and boa|sting of the same after the English maner, it fell out yer long, that wheras he in times past was accomp|ted onlie honorable, which excelled other men not in riches and possessions, but in prowesse and manhood, now he would be taken most glorious that went loaden with most titles, wherof it came to passe, that some were named dukes, some earles, some lords, some barons, in which vaine puffes they fixed all their felicitie. Before time the noble men of Scot|land were of one condition, & called by the name of Thanes, so much in Latine as Quaestoresregij, gathe|rers of the kings duties, in English: and this deno|mination was giuen vnto them after their desert and merit.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But how far we in these present daies are swar|ued from the vertues and temperance of our elders, I beléeue there is no man so eloquent, nor indued with such vtterance, as that he is able sufficientlie to expresse. For whereas they gaue their minds to dowghtinesse, we applie our selues to droonkennes: they had plentie with sufficiencie, we haue inordi|nate excesse with superfluitie: they were temperate, we effeminate: and so is the case now altered with vs, that he which can deuoure and drinke most, is the noblest man and most honest companion, and there|to hath no péere if he can once find the veine, though with his great trauell to puruey himself of the plen|tifullest number of new fine and delicate dishes, and best prouoke his stomach to receiue the greatest quantitie of them, though he neuer make due dige|stion of it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being thus drowned in our delicate gluttonie, it is a world to sée, how we stuffe our selues both daie and night, neuer ceasing to ingorge & powre in, till our bellies be so full that we must néeds depart. Cer|tes it is not supposed méet that we should now con|tent our selues with breakefast and supper onelie, as our elders haue doone before vs, nor inough that we haue added our dinners vnto their aforsaid meales, but we must haue thereto our beuerages and reare suppers, so that small time is spared wherein to oc|cupie our selues in any godlie exercise, sith almost the whole daie and night doo scarselie suffice for the filling of our panches. We haue also our merchants, whose charge is not to looke out, and bring honre such things as necessarilie perteine to the maintenance of our liues, but vnto the furniture of our kitchen, and these search all the secret corners of our forrests for veneson, of the aire for foules, and of the sea for fish, for wine also they trauell not only into France, whose wines doo now grow into contempt, but also into Spaine, Italie and Gréece: nay Affrike is not void of our factors, no nor Asia, and onelie for fine and delicate wines if they might be had for monie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In like sort they gad ouer all the world for swéet and pleasant spices, and drugs (prouokers vnto all lust and licentiousnesse of behauiour) as men that aduenture their owne liues to bring home poison and destruction vnto their countriemen, as if the mind were not alreadie sufficientlie bereft of hir image of the diuinitie, but must yet more be clogged and ouerladen with such a franked case, therewith|all to be extinguished outright, which alreadie dwel|leth or is buried rather in such an vglie sepulchre. The bodie likewise being oppressed with such a heape of superfluous food, although otherwise it be indued with an excellent nature, cannot be able to execute his office, nor kéepe him selfe vpright, but must néeds yeeld as ouercome, and to be torne in péeces and rent with sundrie maladies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Hereof also it commeth to passe, that our coun|trimen trauelling into the colder regions are now a daies contrarie to their former vsage taken some|time with feuers, whereby their inward parts doo burne and parch as it were with continuall fier, the onelie cause whereof we may ascribe vnto those hot spices and drugs which are brought vnto vs from the hot countries. Others of them are so swollen and growne full of humors, that they are often taken suddenlie, and die of vehement apoplexies, and al|though here and there one or two recouer for a little while, yet are they but dead people, reuiuing againe, leading the rest of their liues like shadows, and wal|king about as if they were buried alreadie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Our youth also following these vnhappie steps of their parents, giue themselues wholie to lust and licentiousnesse, hauing all vertue and knowledge in contempt, and eschewing the same as a pestilence and subuersion of their pleasures, wherevnto they applie themselues as vnto the most excellent trade. But sithens they are now inured, and as it were haunted with these vices, when time dooth come of seruice, and that our countrie shall stand in need of manhood, these will become so effeminate, that they must now ride on horssebacke as clad in heauie ar|mor, for on foot they cannot go by reason of their fat|nesse EEBO page image 23 which choketh vp their vitall forces, neither be able to performe anie thing at all in comparison of the souereigne manhood and prowesse of their el|ders. So soone also as they returne home, bicause their possessions are not otherwise able to nourish them vp in pleasure and pampering of their mawes, they must fall to couetous and gréedie practises, ther|by to inrich themselues, or else proue strong théeues, or finally sowers of dissention and discord among the noble men, thereby to preie some commoditie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes these and other vices following them ne|cessarilie, procéed generallie from none other foun|taine than voluptuous life and intemperancie, the which if we would refraine, there is no region vnder the sunne that would proue more wholsome, lesse sub|iect to pestilence, nor more commodious and profi|table for the sustentation of hir people. Certes I despaire not of the redresse of these things, but still hope that in short time these corrupt maners of my countriemen will be turned into better frame. We are not yet become impudent, neither altogither haue cast off vnshamefastnesse, sith that in a great manie some remainder of our ancient sobernesse and manhood dooth yet appeare, and thereto newnesse of life with feruent deuotion increase euerie day, through the working of the zeale of our christian re|ligion in vs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This also will I adde, without offense vnto other nations, that there was neuer people more stedfast to my knowledge in the christian faith, nor more constant in their faithfull promises, than the Scots haue béene since their first beginning: and for a con|clusion I will say more, not onelie for their praise, but also in exhorting them vnto perseuerance, that as our people now liuing doo passe their ancestors in sumptuous and curious attire, so they are more neat and fine in their houses, better giuen to learning, and much more magnificent in building and decking of their churches. God grant them also to returne to their former frugalitie, and that with spéed, Amen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶ Hitherto haue I translated Hectors description of Scotland out of the Scotish into the English toong, being not a little aided therein by the Latine, from whence sometime the translator swarueth not a little, as I haue done also from him, now and then following the Latine, and now and then gathering such sense out of both, as most did stand with my purposed breuitic. Now will I set downe the descrip|tion of an ancient Pict, as I haue gathered it out of Herodian and other, and then I will giue ouer not onelie to write more at this present, but for euer hereafter of anie historicall matters, sith I sée that this honest kind of recreation is denied me, and all time spent about the same in these daies vtterly con|demned, as vaine and sauouring of negligence, and heathenish impietie.

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