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1.3. The description of Gallowaie, Kile, Carricke, and Cuningham, with the notable townes, lakes and riuers in the same. The third Chapter.

The description of Gallowaie, Kile, Carricke, and Cuningham, with the notable townes, lakes and riuers in the same. The third Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _ABoue Niddesdale is Gal|lowaie (named sometimes Brigantia) the people where|of were in times past called Brigantes: this region is di|uided by the water of Crée into two parts, whereof that which lieth néerest to Niddes|dale, is called nether Gallowaie, and the other that is aboue the Crée is named vpper Gallowaie. In nether Gallowaie is Kirkcowbrie, a rich towne and of a good trade in merchandize, and in vpper Gallo|waie is Whitherne, in Latine Candida Casa, an abbeie dedicated to saint Ninian the bishop, and there lieth his carcase, which is honored of the people with great superstition and errour. Aboue Whitherne is Wig|ton towne, and not far from thence is the great lake of Mirton, the one halfe whereof dooth fréeze by naturall congelation as other pooles and plashes doo; but the other is neuer séene to beare anie yee at all, which vnto me dooth séeme to be a great woonder. In Gallowaie moreouer are two other lakes, the Salset and the Neutramen, of equall length and bredth with the Lochmirton; as for Gallowaie it selfe, it yeeldeth out a great point, promontorie, or cape (which the Scots call a mule or nuke) into the Irish sea. The common sort name it the mules nuke, and by the rounding of it selfe, it maketh two great lakes, named Rean and Lois, except I be deceiued, one of these lakes or pooles is 30, and the other 16, miles of length, and both full of oisters, herrings, coongers, cockles, and other like kinds of fish.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Some are of the opinion that Brigantia was the same region of Britaine that is now called Wales, wherein the Britains inhabited manie yeares after their expulsion out of Britaine. But this opinion is false, sith the Romans write that Man the Iland lieth ouer against Brigantium and midwaie betwéene the same and Ireland: for albeit that the braies or baies are now worne wider & further distant ech from o|ther by the washing and working of the sea, yet the same latitude & eleuation of the pole that Ptolomie ascribed to the Brigants, agréeth well to the heigth of the pole ouer Gallowaie, which is verie far from Wales, fithens the Ile of Man lieth also 300 miles from thence, and in the sight of Gallowaie. In like sort by the testimonie of sundrie authors both Irish and Spanish (we affirme that out of Brigantium a citie in Spaine, now named Compostella) there came a new companie of people into Ireland called Spaniards, and out of Ireland another crew of the same nation with king Fergus into Albion, and in remembrance of the citie Brigance, wherein they inhabited whilest they were in Spaine, they called themselues Brigantes. To this opinion in like sort Cornelius Tacitus dooth séeme to leane, who saith, that the Brigantes descended from the Spaniards, which in his time dwelled in the vttermost parts of Britaine, including vnder that name all the Ile of Albion. These regions afore rehearsed, that is to say, Annandale, Niddesdale, and Gallowaie, beside fine woolls and store of cattell, dooth also a|bound with all kinds of graine, wheate onelie ex|cepted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Aboue Gallowaie is Carrike, sometime a por|tion of the region of the Silures, of whose name it is not yet certeinelie knowne, whether it was deri|ued from the famous citie Carrike, whose ruines doo yet remaine, or not. Silurie is diuided into thrée parts, to wit, Carrike, Kile, and Cuningham. In the first, as I said, was Carrike the noble citie: and in this countrie are manie strong castels, both by naturall situation and policie of man: herein al|so are faire [...]ine and oren, whose flesh is delicat and verie tender to be eaten, the tallow moreouer of their wombs is so moist and sappie that it neuer Reade in the Latine Hector. 12 foot in hith 30 foot in length, and thrée elns thicke. waxeth hard, but relenteth of the owne accord, and becommeth like vnto oile. Beyond Carrike is Kile, so called of Coile king of Britaine, sometime slaine in the said region, and therein is a stone, not much aboue 12 miles from the towne of Air, full 30 foot high, and three elns of breadth, called the deafe stone, not without cause: for when a man is on the one side thereof, he shall not heare what is said or doone on the other, though there be neuer so great noise made, no not if a canon should be discharged of set purpose; which to me dooth séeme vnpossible, neuerthelesse the further a man standeth from the same, the better shall he heare, whatsoeuer the noise be. Next to Kile is Cuningham the third part of Silurie, whose inhabitants in time past were most noisome to the Romans. In Kile is a poole named Downe, from whence the riuer Downe dooth runne through the middest of that region into the Irish sea. In Cu|ningham likewise is a lake called Garnoth, equall in quantitie vnto the Downe, and no lesse famous for the abundance of fish that is dailie found there|in; and not farre from the same is the towne called Largis, where Alexander the third king of Scotland of that name, sometime ouercame the Danes and Norwegians, whereby it grew to be famous, and of more reputation among vs.

1.4. The situation of Renfrew, Clides|dale, Lennox, Lowmund, Argile, Louchquhaber, Lorne, and Ken|tire, with all the notable things conteined in the same. The fourth Chapter.

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The situation of Renfrew, Clides|dale, Lennox, Lowmund, Argile, Louchquhaber, Lorne, and Ken|tire, with all the notable things conteined in the same. The fourth Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe water of Clide diui|deth Lennox on the north side from the baronie of Renfrew, and it ariseth out of the same hill in Calidon|wood, from whence the An|nand falleth, and goeth with a long course into the Irish sea; some call this riuer Gluda, and Cluda: but Tacitus nameth it Glota. Not far also from the foun|teines of Clide, ariseth the water of Forth, that runneth on the contrarie side into the Germane ocean. In like sort after the water of Clude hath run for a season toward the north, it gathereth some|what inward, till it come to the mounteine of Gran|zeben, & from thence holdeth on with a swift course, till it fall (as I said) into the Irish seas. The coun|trie where it runneth is named Clidesdale. Betwixt Clide and Lennox lieth the baronie of Renfrew, wherein are two pooles named Quhinsouth and Le|both, of which the first is 12 miles in compasse, the other 20, and both verie rich and plentifull of fish. But in Lennox, that lieth next aboue Renfrew to|ward the ocean (called by Ptolomie Lelgouia) is a great mere or lake that hight Lochmond, of 24 miles in length, and eight in breadth, and within this lhin or poole are 30 Ilands, well replenished with churches and dwelling houses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And in the same also are three things woorthie con|sideration, whereof the first is, that the pleasant and verie delicat fishes there bred doo want fins. The second is, that the water will often swell with huge waues though no wind be stirring, and that in such wise that the best mariners in the countrie dare not aduenture to saile thereon. There is also a ve|rie fruitfull and commodious Ile therein, verie ne|cessarie for the pasturage of cattell, which fléeteth hi|ther and thither as the wind bloweth. This lake is situat at the foot of the hill called Granzeben, which were sometime the marches or limits betwixt the Scots and Picts, and are extended from Lochlow|mund to the mouth of Dée. Certes the Picts had no part of the countrie beyond the Granzeben, nor toward the Irish seas, for this region was inhabi|ted by the Scots. Eight miles from Lochlowmond is the castell of Dumbritteme named sometime Al|cluid, and here the water of Leuen falleth into the Clide.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Beyond Lochlowmund is Argile, an hillie coun|trie and full of crags and mounteins, therein also are two lakes, Lochfine & Lochquho, that diuide the region into three parts, that in the middest being cal|led Knapdale. In Lochfine is more plentie of hering than in anie part of the coast that compasseth the I|land, but in Lochquho are such kinds of fish to be vsu|allie had, as are commonlie bred in fresh waters. There are moreouer in Argile two castels, Glenun|quhart and Enconell, & in it are 12 Iles, whose chiefe commoditie resteth rather in pasturage for cattell, than abundance of graine. In Argile furthermore are manie rich mines full of mettall, but the people there haue no skill to find and trie out the same. The constant report also goeth there, how there is a stone of such nature, that if it be hidden in straw for a cer|teine season, it will kindle of it selfe, and consume the straw to ashes. There are seuen other lakes in Argile, whereof some are thirtie miles in length and bredth, and other lesse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It was told me once by Doncan Campbell a no|ble knight, that out of Ga [...]loll, one of the pooles of Argile, there came a terrible beast, in the yeare of Grace 1510, which was of the bignesse of a grei|hound, and footed like a gander, and issuing out of the water earlie in the morning about midsummer time, did verie easilie and without anie visible force or streining of himselfe ouerthrow huge okes with his taile, & therevnto killed thrée men out-right that hunted him with thrée stroks of his said taile, the rest of them sauing themselues in trées thereabouts, whilest the foresaid monster returned to the water. Those that are giuen to the obseruations of rare and vncouth sights, beléeue that this beast is neuer séene but against some great trouble & mischiefe to come vpon the realme of Scotland. For it hath béene de|scribed also before that time, although not verie of|ten. Lorne abutteth vpon Argile, which was once a part of Argile, and reacheth out into the Irish sea, in maner of a cape or toong, full sixtie miles. This point also was called Nouantia, but now it is na|med Kintire (that is to saie) the head of Lorne, whose vttermost part is not full 16 miles from Ireland. Some authors affirme, that both Argile and Can|tire, were called Nouantia in old time, sith Ptolo|mie maketh no mention of Argile in his cosmogra|phie. In this Lorne is great abundance of barleie, which the Scots call beir. Beyond Lorne is Loch|quhaber, heretofore a portion of Murrey land, verie rich in mines of iron and lead, and no lesse benefici|all to the countrie in all kinds of cattell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There are likewise manie woods, manie lakes, and manie riuers, but two of them are most notable for the plentie of samons, and other delicate fish, as|well of the salt as fresh water, which be there taken, and almost without anie trauell; neither is there anie where else in all the Ile such store. The one of these is named Lochtie, & the other Spanze, but vpon what occasion these names were giuen to them I find as yet no certeintie. The Lochtie riseth not a|boue eight miles from Lochnes, and falleth beneath the same into the Germane ocean, and beside it, there is a rockie crag, running out at length into the sea, named Hardnomorth. In the mouth of Lochtie likewise was sometime a rich towne name Inuer|lochtie, whither the merchants of France & Spaine did make their dailie resort, till at the last it was so defaced by the warres of the Danes, that it neuer was able since the said time to recouer hir pristinate renowme. But whether the negligence of the due repare of this towne, procéedeth of the slouth of our people, or hatred that some enuious persons doo beare to cities and walled townes in our countrie, as yet it is vncerteine. Beyond Lochtie is the castell of Dunstafage, in time past named Euonium: beyond Dunstafage also is the mouth of the water of Spanze, where it falleth (as I heare) into the Ger|mane ocean.

1.5. The discourse of Ros, Stranauerne, & Murrey land, with the lakes, riuers, and notable townes in them. The fift Chapter.

The discourse of Ros, Stranauerne, & Murrey land, with the lakes, riuers, and notable townes in them. The fift Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _BEyond the water of Spanze lieth Ros, sometime called Lugia, a verie nar|row region (God it wote) but running out in great length through the middest EEBO page image 11 of the Iland, being enuironed on both sides with the ocean. That portion thereof which lieth néerest to the Irish seas, is verie difficult for such as trauell by the countrie, by reason of the high mounteins, which maketh the countrie more apt for wild beasts than mankind to inhabit: neuerthelesse waxing more fer|till on that part which stretcheth toward the German sea, it yeeldeth it selfe to culture, and rendreth some graine. In pasture also it is not altogither vnpro|fitable, sith there is good grasse and verie batable for their heards: for the vallies there, being watered with sundrie pleasant streames, doo yeeld a sweet and verie sauorie grasse, wherewith all sorts of cat|tell are verie much delighted. In Ros are sundrie lakes, but Lochbrun is the greatest. There are also manie fresh riuers, fraught with excellent fish, and finallie a notable firth or safe hauen called Cromart, wherevnto diuers in time of necessitie doo resort, to a|uoid the danger of shipwracke, that otherwise would assuredlie annoy them. The Scotish men call it Heill of shipmen. In this region moreouer is the towne called Thane, where the bones of Dutho an holy man (as they say) doo rest, & are had in greater estimation among the superstitious sort (as sometime ouer the whole Iland) than the holie gospell of God and me|rits of his sonne, whereby we are onelie saued. Two ancient houses are likewise mainteined in one vale of the Ros, whose formes resemble so manie belles, but to what end as yet I doo not find. Next vnto the said Ros lieth the Stranauerne, as the vttermost region of Scotland, the coasts whereof abutting for a while vpon the Deucalidon sea, doo afterward turne againe toward the Almain seas, hauing part|lie the Deucalidon coast, and partlie Cathnesse vp|on the north side, Southerland on the east, Rossia on the south, and Deucalidon againe vpon the west. There are thrée great crags or points lieng on the vttermost side of Stranauerne, that is to saie, the Hoie, Howbrun (the greatest of the thrée) and Dow|nisbie, which bicause they shoot farre off into the sea, doo make two great firths and lakes, each of them being seuerallie distinguished from other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Next vnto Cathnesse lieth Southerland, a profi|table region both for graine and all kinds of proui|sion, but chieflie for the nourishment of bestiall, wherevnto it chieflie inclineth, as doo the other two last before rehearsed. On the further side also of this, lieth Murrey land, sometime called Vararis, al|though the marches thereof are changed from that they were of old. For whereas in time past all the re|gion lieng betweene Spaie and Nesse to the Ire|land sea, was named Murrey; now it is knowne to be onlie beyond the water of Spaie & Kissocke, & rea|cheth on vntill it come to the Irish sea. Betwixt Ros and Murrey land, is a great baie, and likewise a descent of sundrie waters: for thereinto fall the Nesse, Narden, Findorne, Los and Spaie, whereof this latter runneth with so fierce & violent a streame, that the force of the sea at the floud striuing to enter into the same, is put back, & may not resist the inuin|cible fall, and beates backe the water that descendeth into the ocean. The Nesse issueth out of a lake of the same name (which is not passing 8 miles from the said plash, from whence the Lochtie runneth) & thence go|eth into the Irish seas: and this propertie it hath, that neither the streame, neither the lake it selfe will yeeld to be frozen in the verie deepe of winter. Such also is the force thereof, that if anie yee or anie frozen substance be cast thereinto, it will by and by relent and dissolue againe to water, whereby it becommeth verie profitable for such cattell as are benummed with cold. In the mouth of the Nesse, standeth a towne called Inuernesse, where sometime was great abundance of herring taken, but now they be gone by the secret working of God. The common people put the fault in the rich & men of higher cal|ling, who enuieng the commoditie of the poore inha|bitants, will often séeme to bereue them of this emo|lument, by force and slaughter. Whervpon (as they say) it commeth to passe, that the increase estsoones decaieth, and verie small store is taken there by manie yeares after such iniurie offered.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to procéed: beside Lochnesse, which is 24 miles of length, and foure in bredth, by reason of the great woods there standing, is great store of sauage beasts, as harts, wild horsses, roes, and such like. There are likewise martirns, beuers, foxes & wezels, whose skins and cases are sold vnto strangers at huge and excessiue prices. In Murrey land also is not alonelie great plentie of wheat, barlie, otes, and such like graine, beside nuts and apples, but likewise of all kinds of fish, and especiallie of samon. The peo|ple thereof in like sort doo vse a strange maner of fi|shing: for they make a long weele of wicker, nar|row necked, and wide mouthed, with such cunning, that when the tide commeth, the fish shoot themselues into the same, and foorthwith are so inclosed that whi|lest the tide lasteth he cannot get out, nor after the water is gone escape the hands of the fishers. In this region moreouer is a lake named Spiney, wherein is excéeding plentie of swans.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The cause of their increase in this place is as|cribed to a certeine herbe, which groweth there in great abundance, and whose séed is verie pleasant vnto the said foule in the eating, wherefore they call it Swangirs: and herevnto such is the nature of the same, that where it is once sowne or planted, it will neuer be destroied, as may be prooued by expe|rience. For albeit that this lake be fiue miles in length, and was sometime within the remembrance of man verie well stored with samon and other fish, yet after that this herbe began to multiplie vpon the same, it became so shallow, that one may now wade through the greatest part thereof, by meanes wherof all the great fishes there be vtterlie consumed. In this portion furthermore, is the church of Pette, where the bones of little Iohn remaine in great esti|mation. This was no Scot but an Englishman, fled into Ire|land, and then into Scotland Certes his carcasse hath béene 14 foot long, his members well proportioned according to his stature, and not fullie six yéeres before this booke was written (by Boetius) he saw his hanch bone, which sée|med so great as the whole thigh of a man, and he did thrust his arme into the hollownesse thereof, wherby it appeareth what mightie people grew vp in our re|gion before they were ouercome with gluttonie and excesse. In this quarter finallie is the towne called Elgin, not farre from the mouth of Spaie, and ther|in is a cathredrall church furnished with canons: there are thereto sundrie rich and verie wealthie ab|beies in Murrey, as Killos of the order of the Ciste|aux, and Pluscardie of the Cluniaks.

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