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The authors out of whome this historie of Scotland hath beene gathered.

    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • Hector Boetius.
  • Iohannes Ferrarius Pedemontanus.
  • Iohannes Maior.
  • Iohannes Fourdon.
  • Rogerus Houeden.
  • Richardus Southwell.
  • Wilhelmus Paruus, siue Neoburgensis.
  • Albertus Crantz.
  • Aeneas Syluius.
  • Edward Hall.
  • Richard Grafton.
  • Iohn Stow: and others.
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The description of Scotland, writ|ten at the first by Hector Boetius in Latine, and after|ward translated into the Scotish speech by Iohn Bellenden archdeacon os Mur|rey, and now finallie into English by W. H.

1.1. The bounds of Albion with the sundrie commodities thereof, and of the great infirmities that fall vnto the people there for their intemperancie, and final|lie of the religion vsed there in old time. The first Chapter.

The bounds of Albion with the sundrie commodities thereof, and of the great infirmities that fall vnto the people there for their intemperancie, and final|lie of the religion vsed there in old time. The first Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe Ile of At|bion conteineth in the whole cir|cumference, 2 M. miles, ha|uing in length 700, & in bredth 300, as appée|reth well by the coast therof that dooth lie ouer a|gainst France where it is broa|dest, and from whence it gathereth narrower and narrower, till it come to the vtter marches & last bounds of England and Scotland. For betwixt the Mule of Gallowaie that is on the west side ouer against the Irish seas, and saint Ebbes head, that lieth vpon the Germané ocean toward the east, are scarselie 130 miles, and thencefoorth it groweth smaller and smaller till it touch vpon the north seas, where it is not aboue thir|tie miles, as I noted before in the description of Britaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Ile is replenished with people, horsses, and all other kind of cattell and corne in most abundant maner, except it be in such places where as God of his singular goodnesse hath otherwise indued the soile with rich mines of gold, siluer, tin, brasse, copper, and quicksiluer, which for the most part are so plenti|full, that they suffice not onlie for the necessaries of the whole Iland, but also of sundrie regions that are situated round about it, if the inhabitants were skil|full and painefull to deale withall accordinglie. But the abundance of all other things requisite for the vse of man, that is found generallie in our Iland, maketh the people lesse carefull of these commodi|ties, and more giuen to idlenesse. For beside the great plentie of those things which heauen and earth doo minister, as grasse, corne and cattell, foules of sundrie kinds, there is such store of fish in all parties of our seas, especiallie towards the north, that the same would suffice to féed and susteine all the people of the Iland, if there were none other commodities to be found within the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For the inhabitants of all countries that border vpon vs, as France, Flanders, Zealand, Holland, and a great part of Germanie (especiallie those which lie néere vnto the coast) doo saile hither with great numbers of vessels dailie to fish vpon our coasts, and buy such as we haue alreadie caught, not onlie for their owne vse, but also for the Lenton prouision of such nations as lie vpon the Leuant seas, where they sell the same at their owne wils, with very spéedie vtterance. Manie other rich and pretious commodi|ties are to be gotten in the said Ile, whereof the a|forenamed nations doo make no small account, be|side Dionysius A|lexandrinus saith that the wool of Bri|taine is often spun so fine that it is in manner com|parable to the spiders draught. these common things. What shall I saie of our woolles, which are in so high estimation in all lands, bicause of their necessarie vses, and whereof a great part is so fine and soft, that of it are made the costlie skarlets, pliant gloues, and manie other grained and delicate clothes, of which I thought good to make this mention, bicause the report thereof is not yet made common and generallie knowne to all men.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Certes this I dare boldlie affirme, that if the kingdoms of Britaine had such grace giuen them from aboue, as that they might once liue in vnitie, or by any meanes be brought vnder the subiection of one prince, they should yer long féele such a sauour in this amitie, that they would not onelie liue franklie of their own, without any forren purchase of things, but also resist all outward inuasion, with small tra|uell and lesse dammage. For as touching their per|sons, and likewise their notable wits, apt both for the atteining of learning and knowledge of handi|crafts, they are inferiour to no other nation. There|vnto we find them to be couragious and hardie, of|fering themselues often vnto the vttermost per [...]s with great assurance, so that a man may pronounce nothing to be ouerhard or past their power to per|forme, if they would giue themselues to liue tempe|ratelie, and follow their predecessors in moderation of diet.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Therefore it is (as I thinke) that almightie God in his prouident disposition of all things, hath ordeined their grounds (otherwise plentifullie indued with all kinds of commodities) to be destitute and void of wine; as foreseeing that the said liquor, which brin|geth greatest benefit vnto other countries, would grow in the end to be most pernicious & noisome to EEBO page image 8 them. For they are giuen to such vnnaturall raue|ning and greedie desire of forreine things (whilest they contemne or not regard their owne) that they cannot refraine the immoderate vse of wine, and excesse vsed in drinking of the same: insomuch that we may see diuerse to be ouertaken and haunted, not onelie with sundrie kinds of grieuous maladies common to vs and them of the maine, but also ma|nie other which they haue not, neither be anie thing at all acquainted with, as experience dailie tea|cheth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Some by long sicknesse and languishing gréefes doo grow into such deformitie onelie through exces|siue feeding, and greedie abuse of wine, that if you knew them when they were children & yoong men, you shall hardlie remember them when they be old and aged; and that which more is, in comparison of o|ther that liue more soberlie, you will hardlie thinke them to be borne in the Ile, but rather suppose them to be changelings and monsters, brought out of o|ther countries to gaze and looke vpon: diuerse of them through the continuall vse of wine are mole|sted in their age, with phreneticall pangs and passi|ons. Seldome also shall you sée those that are giuen much vnto wine and such welfare, to become pa|rents of manie children, sith their naturall moisture and generatiue force is much abated, if not altogi|ther extinguished by such immoderate diet.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to returne to our purpose, the Albanes or Britains, as Caesar in his commentaries, and Ta|citus in his annales doo report, were very religious, after the maner of religion vsed in old time. For in those daies the priests of Britaine named Druides, were expert both in naturall and morall philosophie, and from thence came the first professors of that sect and opinion into France. The principall seat of their priests was in the Ile of Man, which was re|puted at that season for the welspring and fountains of all learning and knowledge, and after that their priests were once conuerted to the catholike faith, they perseuered in the same with great constancie, without anie note of heresie.

1.2. The description of the east, west, and middle borders of Scotland, with the most notable townes and flouds thereof. The second Chapter.

The description of the east, west, and middle borders of Scotland, with the most notable townes and flouds thereof. The second Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe Picts had sometimes the principall and most fer|tile part of that countrie, which now is vnder the regi|ment of the Scots, and after they had continued in the same by the space of 1171 yeares, ioined in maner in perpetuall league with the Scots, and mainteining mutuallie the warres sometimes with the Britains and Romans, and somtimes also tarring with their Scotish neighbours, at the last they fell into extreme hatred one of another, till it was brought to passe by the diuine prouidence, that the said Picts were ouerthrowne, their name extinguished, and the king|dome vnited vnto that other of the Scots for euer|more. After this time furthermore, although the Scots haue béene verie oftentimes assailed with most dangerous and terrible wars, and oftentimes inuaded by enimies from diuers regions, yet such hath beene the fauour of almightie God towards them, that still they flourish and reteine their estate inuiolate.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Whatsoeuer we haue generallie spoken of Al|bion, that is chieflie to be vnderstood of the Scots, and farre greater, especiallie among the Scots, as they call them in the high land, as people that haue lesse to doo with forreine merchants, and therefore are lesse delicate, and not so much corrupted with strange bloud and aliance. Hereby in like sort it commeth to passe, that they are more hard of con|stitution of bodie, to beare off the cold blasts, to watch better, and absteine long, whervnto also it ap|peareth that they are bold, nimble, and thereto more skilfull in the warres. As for their faith and promise, they hold it with greatest constancie, as Hector hath set downe. Towards the Almaine sea, I find, that Scotland hath the Mers, sometime the most plenti|ous region of the Picts for their march, which so long as the said people did inhabit it, was called Deera, or Dere; but after their expulsion, it was named Mers, that is to say, the marches or limits of their countrie. In processe of time also the Scots exten|ded their bounds euen vnto the Twéed, which now diuideth Northumberland from the Mers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 On the other side of the countrie towards the west, sundrie small bournes descend from the Cheri|ot hilles, and other mounteines lieng thereabout in|to the Solue, diuiding Cumberland from Annan|dale, and so being brought into one chanell, they fall togither into the Irish ocean, & stand for the bounds of Scotland vpon that halfe of the countrie. The Cheriot hilles are in like sort taken for the middle marches of the region, which with certeine small brookes that fall from the same, doo separate both the countries, whereby their limits are knowne. The Mers hath vnder marches at seuerall places (whi|ther it is extended) as sometime the Germane sea, sometime east Louthian, sometime the Twéed, and sometime the Forth, and among manie strong holds and castels, that stand vpon the borders, is the towne and castell of Barwike in time past called Ordolucium, as the inhabitants are called Ordoluci (if Hector be not deceiued.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Twéed springeth out from a meane head, and after his augmentation with other small waters that fall into the same, it descendeth with a large course into the Almaine sea. Beyond the Twéed, to the middle march vnder the Cheriot hilles lieth T [...]|uidale, that is to say, the vale of Tiffe: beyond it is Eskedale, or the vale of Eske, of a riuer so called that runneth through the same: ouer against E [...]|dale on the other side lieth Eusdale, so named of the riuer Eus that passeth thereby, and falleth into the water of Annand: but Tif and Elke doo run into the Twéed: furthermore, on the west side ouer a|gainst the Irish sea, lieth Annandale, wherevnto the Annand water giueth denomination, which mar|cheth sometimes without the bounds of N [...]sdale, where all the three riuers aforesaid, that is to say, Eus, Annand and Sulway descend togither in one bottome into the Irish seas.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Annandale is a loch or lake named Lochma|ben, fiue miles in length and foure in bredth, not onlie verie full of fish, but of such kind as few men are acquainted with. Beside this lake also there is a castell of the same name, builded of purpose to re|streine the furious dealing of théeues which doo great hurt in those quarters. For not onlie in Annandale, but in all the dales or vales afore rehearsed, are ma|nie strong théeues, which often spoile the countrie, and exercise much cruell slaughter vpon such as in|habit there, in anie troublous time. These robbers (because the English doo border vpon their drie mar|ches, and are their perpetuall enimies) doo often make forceable rodes into the English bounds, for their better maintenance and sustentation, or else EEBO page image 9 they pilfer priuilie from them, as men leading in the meane season a poore beggerlie and verie miserable life. In the time of peace also, they are so invred to theft and rapine, that they cannot leaue off to steale at home: and notwithstanding that they be often ve|rie sore handled therefore, yet they thinke it praise|woorthie to molest their aduersarie, as they call the truer sort, whereby it commeth to passe, that manie rich and fertile places of Scotland lie wast and void of culture for feare of their inuasion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Not far from the Sulwaie (a water where great plentie of fish is to be had) are manie quicke-sands, and those so perilous that no man may well go ouer the same, but with great difficultie and danger of his life. This vale of A [...]and was sometime called Ordouicia, and the people thereof Ordouices, whose ancient barbarousnesse is reported to be such, that in times past they refused not to kill and eate such pri|soners as had yéelded themselues vnto them. The verie women in like sort would s [...]ea their husbands, if at anie time they fled from the field, and returned to their houses, onelie to giue occasion vnto other men to stand to their tacklings at euerie such ad|uenture. On the west borders and also toward the northlieth Niddesdale, so called of the water of Nid|de. It beginneth with a verie narrow course, and increasing broder in the middle marches of Scot|land, it finallie restreineth it selfe againe, till it com|meth at the sea, whither it runneth with a swift course, as the Scotish writers doo report. In this dale standeth a towne named Dunfrise, wherein manie fine clothes speciallie whites are made, which are brought vp and caried into England, France, Flanders, and Germanie, where they are had in great price and estimation.

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