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18.1. The said foure articles were these.

The said foure articles were these.

1 _FIrst, that they should faithfullie and Gods lawes to be kept, and christian reli|gion to be vsed. earnestlie regard the due and reue|rend obseruation of all Gods lawes and ordinances, made and established for the maintenance of the true christian faith and religion among hir people; and that all meanes should be vsed, aswell by doctrine and by teaching, as by good examples, that deuotion and godlinesse might increase, and contempt of religion might be restreined, punished, and suppressed. That learning Learning of the scriptures to be maintei|ned. in the scriptures might be mainteined and increased among the cleargie, and that for the reliefe of the ec|clesiasticall state, no alienations nor wasts of the lands perteining to anie church or college, should be alienated: neither anie impropriations of benefi|ces The church lands not to be alienated. be put in vre: besides sundrie other articles in|cident to this effect.

2 The second was, that the administration of law The lawes to be dulie admi|nistred. and iustice should dulie and vprightlie be executed, without respect of persons: that inquirie be made what notable faults are in anie of the iudges, or o|ther ministers of the law: that vnfit persons maie be remoued from their places, and some sufficient persons of English birth be chosen to supplie the Shirifies to be apointed in euerie shire. same. That shiriffes be appointed and renewed in euerie countie, and to execute their offices vpright|lie, according to the lawes of England.

3 The third, that the garrisons and men of warre The garisons to be looked vnto. be well ordered to the benefit of the realme, and re|pressing of disordered subiects and rebels: that they doo liue according to the orders appointed, without oppression of the good and true subiects. That there shall be once within a moneth at the least a muster A muster to be kept euerie moneth. made either by the lord deputie, or by such commis|sioners as he shall appoint méete and indifferent for that purpose; who shall make inquirie of the num|ber of the souldiors vnder euerie capteine; for the sufficiencie of their persons, their horsses, armors, and weapons, and other their necessaries: and how they were paied of their wages, and whether they were Englishmen or not.

4 The fourth article was, whether there had béene [...]rie regard to be had of hir maiesties reuenues. had a due care & regard to the preseruation of the reuenues of the crowne, & for the recouerie of that which is withdrawne. And whether euerie of the offi|cers appointed for the receiuing of anie part of the said reuenues, as namelie the receiuers of rents, That euerie officer of re|ceipts doo yearelie make his account. shiriffes, exchetors, collectors of the subsidies, cu|stomors, clerks of the crowne, of the hamper, and of the first fruits, and the farmers of customes and such others, did yearelie make and answer their ac|counts; and besides sundrie other articles incident to euerie of these principals.

After that he had receiued this booke, and his com|mission, he prepared himselfe with all the expedition Sir Henrie Sidneie ta|keth his leaue of the quéene and councell. he could, to follow the great charge committed vnto him: which being doone, he repaired to hir maie|stie and tooke his leaue: and to his farewell, she gaue him most comfortable spéeches and good counsels, promising hir fauor and countenance to all his well dooings, and a consideration for the same when time should serue. The like leaue he tooke also of the lords of the councell, who in like order gaue him the like farewell: and these things doone, be departed towards the sea side, where after he had taried a long time for a good wind and passage, he tooke ship, and arriued in Ireland the thirtéenth of Ianuarie, about fiue miles from Dublin, and from thense he trauel|led to Dublin; where he was most honorablie recei|ued Sir Henrie Sidneie ioi|fullie receiued into Dublin. by sir Nicholas Arnold then lord iustice, and the whole councell; togither with the maior and his bre|thren of that citie. And the people in great troops came and saluted him, clapping and shooting with all the [...]oie that they could deuise.

The next sundaie then next following, being the seuenth daie of his arriuall, and the twentith of the moneth, he accompanied with the lord iustice and councell, repaired to the high church in the citie na|med Christes church; where after that the diuine ser|uice was doone, be tooke his oth, receiued the sword, and assumed vpon him the gouernement: and wher|with he made a most pithie, wise, and eloquent ora|tion, which consisted vpon these speciall points. The first, what a pretions thing is good gouernement, The benefit of good gouerne|ment. and how all realmes, commonwealths, cities, and countries doo flourish and prosper, where the same is orderlie, in equitie, iustice, and wisedome, directed & gouerned. Secondlie, what a continuall care the queenes highnesse hath had, and yet hath, not onelie The quéenes maiesties con|tinuall care for Ireland. for the good guiding & ruling of the realme of Eng|land, but also of Ireland; which she so earnestlie de|sireth, and wisheth to be preserued, as well in peace as in warre: that she hath made great choise from time to time of the most graue, wise, and expert councellors for the one; and the most valiant, skil|full, and expert men of armes for the other: that both in peace and warres, the publike state of the commonwealth, and euerie particular member therein might be conserued, defended, and kept in safetie vnder hir gouernement. And for the per|formance thereof, hir maiestie ouer and besides the reuenues of the crowne of Ireland, did yearelie The quéens maiestie ex|pendeth year [...] out of hir owne co|fers for Ire|land sundrie thousands of pounds. far aboue anie of hir progenitors, expend of hir owne cofers out of England, great masses of mo|nie, amounting to manie thousand pounds. All which hir excessiue expenses and continuall cares she made the lesse account of; so that hir realme and subiects of Ireland might be preserued, defended, and gouerned.

Lastlie, notwithstanding hir maiestie might haue made better choise of manie others, who were bet|ter able to hold hir place in this realme; both for ho|nor, wisedome, and experience: yet hir pleasure was now to cast this heauie charge and burden vp|on him. Which he was the more vnwilling to take vpon him, because the greater the charge was, the more vnable & weake he was to susteine the same. Neuerthelesse, being in good hope, and well promised of hir highnesse fauor and countenance in his well dooings, and hauing his confidence in them hir high|nesse councellors associated vnto him, to ioine, aid, and assist him in this gouernement: he was and is the more readie to take the sword in hand; in hope that this his gouernement shall be to the glorie of God, the honor of hir maiestie, the benefit of the com|monwelth, and the preseruation of the whole realme and people of the same. And so making his earnest request to the said lords present, for their conjoining with him, and the aiding and assisting of him in this hir maiesties seruice, he made an end of his speeches.

The said councellors, hauing well considered the great value and weight of this his graue and wise o|ration, did most humblie thanke his lordship for the same, and promised in all dutifulnesse, faith, and o|bedience to performe and attend whatsoeuer to them in anie wise should apperteine. These things doone, they all condu [...]ed the said lord deputie in all honora|ble The congra|tulation of the people. manner vnto the castell of Dublin: the common people in euerie street and corner meeting him, and with great acclamations and ioie did congratulat vnto his lordship his comming among them in that office. Immediatlie after the performance of all EEBO page image 112 the solemnities, perteining to these actions, he called and assembled all those persons which hir highnesse had appointed, admitted, and allowed to be of hir ma|iesties priuie councell for that realme, and did sweare them according to the accustomed manner. Then from time to time they assembled and met, consul|ting and deliberating what waie and order were best to be taken for reparing of that broken common|weale The broken state of Ire|land. and ruinous state, being as it were a man al|togither infected with sores and biles, and in whose bodie from the crowne of the head to the sole of the foot there is no health. And surelie if the state of that land was euer miserable and in perill to be ouer|throwne: it was neuer more like than at these pre|sents; for as for the English pale, it was ouerwhel|med The English pale wasted and spoiled. with infinite numbers of caterpillers, who dai|lie by spoiles and robberies haue deuoured and wa|sted the same: whereby the people vniuersallie were so poor, eand the commons in such extreame penurie, that they had not horsses, armor nor weapons to de|fend them, nor apparell, vittels, nor anie other neces|saries to reléeue them; the soldiors so beggerlie that The soldiors beggerlie and out of order. they were most intolerable to the people, and so roo|ted in insolencie, loosenesse and idlenesse, that vnlesse the remedie were the more speedie, they would bée past correction: and so much the worsse, bicause ma|nie of them were alied in mariage, and companies of the Irish: who the more they were affected to them, their truth and seruice more doubtfull to hir maie|stie. The prouince of Leinster and they altogither The misera|ble state of Leinster. most miserable, the Tools, Obrines, Kinshelaghes, Odoiles, Omoroughs, Carenaughs, the Moores, and the residue in their accustomable manners who|lie bent to spoiles and all mischiefs, no place of anie safetie remaining for the good subiect; especiallie in the countie of Kilkennie, which being sometimes a The fertile soile of the countie of Kilkennie made wast. fertile rich soile, and well manured and inhabited, be|came of all others most desart and beggerlie, verie few being left to inhabit the same.

Mounster, the inhabitants there likewise for the Mounster by ciuill war de|stroied. most part being followers to the earle of Desmond, and following his wars against the erle of Ormond, made that prouince, and especiallie the counties of Tipporarie and Kirrie, being wealthie and rich, to become bare and beggerlie; and verie few of whom hir maiestie was or could be assured. Notwithstand|ing experience had taught them, and they assured, that no waie was for their recouerie and safetie so good and assured, as to humble themselues, and to be|come hir highnesse loiall and obedient subiects: yet as swine delighting in their dirt and puddles, con|tented themselues rather with a beggerlie life to be miserable, than in dutifull obedience to be at peace and assured. The prouinces also of Thomond altogi|ther almost wasted by the warres betwéene the earle Thomond all wasted by ci|uill warres. there and sir Donell Obrien. Ormond likewise by reason of dissention betwéene the earles of Des|mond and Ormond, and by the dailie inuasions and preies of Piers Grace was almost wasted and vn|habited.

Connagh, one of the goodliest, pleasantest, and most fertile soiles of that land, & in times past verie Connagh de|uoured by ci|uill warres. rich and wealthie, and well inhabited, is wasted with the wars betwéene the erle of Clanrichard and Mac William Enter: the Irish countries all wasted and impouerished, partlie by reason of their dissimu|lations, societies, and conferences with the rebelles, and partlie by the particular discords among them|selues. Finallie, all the gentlemen throughout, The gentle|men all impo|uerished. woont in times past to be kéepers of hospitalitie, were by the dailie preies made vpon them and their tenants so impouerished & distressed, that they were not able to mainteine and reléeue themselues nor their families. The prouince of Ulster for wealth Ulster weal|thie and rich. and plentie was well stored, not onlie of themselues, but by reason that it was the receptacle and place of receipt of all the preies and spoiles from out of the o|ther prouinces: but as for loialtie, dutifulnesse, and obedience to hir maiestie, they were most disloiall, rebellious, and disordered. For after that Shane O|neile Shane O|neile. by blood and murther had gotten the maisterie, he alone then ruled the rost, who in pride exceeded all the men vpon the earth, abiding no superior, nor al|lowing anie equall. And héere it were not amisse, The cause of Shane O|neiles rebel|lion. but verie expedient to set downe the first origin and cause whie the said Shane did first breake out from his due obedience, and did shake off the gouerne|ment of hir maiestie, which (as farre as the writer hereof hath gathered and collected) is as here follo|weth.

Con Oneile, the first earle of Tiron, had two sonnes, Matthew and this Shane or Iohn. And king Henrie the eight hauing good liking of this Con Oneile, and to reteine and keepe him a good subiect, he being a mightie man, and of great power in his countrie, he made and created him earle of Tiron, Con Oneile made earle of Tiron. and his eldest son Matthew he made baron of Dun|ganon, and the remainder of the said earledome to the said Matthew, and to the heirs male of his bodie. This Shane being the second brother, and of an as|piring mind, enuied his elder brother, and in no wise could he brooke him, but from time to time séeketh occasions to quarell and fall out with him, and in the end most traitorouslie and vnnaturallie murthered him: their father yet liuing, who did not so much la|ment and bewaile the same, but began much more to distrust of his owne safetie. Neuerthelesse, it is not knowen that the said Shane did offer him anie violence, but when he was dead, although he had no right to succéed into the earledome, by reason that Matthew his elder brother had left sons behind him, who by the letters patents and course of the com|mon law were to succeed the grandfather: yet Shane vsurped the name of Oneile, and entred into his fa|thers Shane vsur|peth the name of Oneile. The Irish custome in succession: inheritance according to the Irish manner, a|mong whome the custome is, that the eldest in years of the name of anie house or familie dooth succéed his ancestor, vnlesse at the time of his death he had a son of the full age of one and twentie yéers. And thus ha|uing perforce entred into his fathers inheritance, he scorneth at the English gouernement, and after the Irish manner proclameth himselfe Oneile, and the capteine of his countrie, refuseth likewise all obe|dience Shane O|neile breaketh into rebellion. to hir maiestie, and breaketh out into open rebellion.

Sir Henrie Sidneie then lord iustice, in the ab|sence of the erle of Sussex, being aduertised of these stirs, taketh aduise of the councell what was best to be doone. And then it was agreed, that the said lord iustice should take his iorneie towards Dundalke, for the fortifieng of the English pale, and should send a messenger to Shane Oneile, who then laie at a lordship of his about six miles from Dundalke, and to will him come to Dundalke to his lordship: which was doone. But Shane returned his answer, praieng pardon, and also most humblie requested his lordship that it would please him to christen a son of his, & be Shane O|neile praieth sir Henrie Sidneie to be his gossip. his gossip, & then he would come to his lordship to doo all things in seruice for hir maiestie, as his lordship should command and appoint. This answere at the first was not thought good, nor yet honorable to the lord iustice so to doo, vntill the said Shane had first come and submitted himselfe. But when it was con|sidered what great inconueniences might insue, if his request were denied; it was agréed that the said lord iustice should condescend vnto his request. And accordinglie vpon the last of Ianuarie, one thousand 1558 fiue hundred fiftie and eight, he went vnto the said, EEBO page image 113 Shanes house, and there his lordship and Iaques Wingfield were godfathers, and hauing performed the baptising of the child, they both had conference of the matter: where the said Shane, to excuse his doo|ings, Shane excu| [...]th himselfe whichée came not to the lord iustice. did allege for his defense sundrie articles as fo|loweth.

First, he said that Matthew baron of Dungan|non was the sonne of one Kellaie of Dundalke, a smith by occupation, begotten and borne during the Matthew was Kellaies sonne. spousals of the said Kellaie, and one Alson his wife, and that the said Matthew was alwaies taken and reputed to be the sonne of the said Kellaie, vntill he The ob [...]ctios of Shane Oneil against the title of Matthew to be Oneile. was of the age of sixtéene yeares or thereabouts: at which time Con Oneile his father, vpon the saieng of the said Alson, that he was the father of the said Matthew, did accept and take the said Matthew to be his sonne, & gaue him the name of Fardarough. And here vnderstand you the wickednesse of this The wicked custome of the Irishrie. countrie; which is, that if anie woman doo mislike hir husband, and will depart from him, he shall haue all such children as were borne of hir bodie during their abode togither, except such as she shall name to be begotten by anie other man: which man so named shall by their custome haue the said child: and so it should séeme to be meant of this point. Also the said Matthew did vpon this the affirmation of Matthew seeketh the seigniorie of Oneile. his mother séeke to vsurpe the name of a segniorie of the Oneiles, and the dominions apperteining to that segniorie and surname. Also that there be aboue a hundred of that name, which will not in anie wise yéeld to this the clame of Matthew, although he for his owne part would be contented therewith. Also he saith that the letters patents (if anie such be) that should intitle the sonne of the said baron to the said lands are vtterlie void, because that Con Oneile father to the said Shane had no other right nor inter|est to that countrie, but during his owne life: and therefore without the consent of the lords and inha|bitants of that countrie, could make no surrender nor conueiance, wherby he might be inabled to take and haue the said lands by force of letters patents.

Also he saith, that by the lawes in the English pale of Ireland, no letters patents, made to anie person, be of anie force or value, vntill that an inqui|sition be taken of the lands so giuen before that the letters patents doo passe: which in this case neither was, nor could be doone, sith the countrie of Tiron is no shire ground. Also if the said lands should accor|ding to the quéens lawes descend to the right heire, then in right it ought to descend to him, as next heire being mulierlie borne; and the other not so borne. Also he saith, that vpon the death of his father lord of the countrie, the whole countrie according to the custome of the countrie did assemble themselues to|gither, and by a common consent did elect and choose (without anie contradiction) him the said Shane to be Oneile, as the most worthie and ablest of that countrie. Which election by the custome of the coun|trie hath beene alwaies vsed without anie confirma|tion, asked of the kings and quéenes of England. Also he saith that as Oneile he clameth such authori|ties, iurisdictions, and duties vpon his men & coun|trie, as are due time out of mind to his predecessors, and which duties for the most part are recorded, and remaine in writing. When the lord iustice had at full heard these articles, and considered well of them togither with the councell, made answer vnto Shane that the matter was of great weight and impor|tance, & which neither he nor the councell cold deter|mine of themselues, before hir maiestie were made priuie and acquainted therewith; and therefore in the meane time willed and required him to be quiet, and to shew himselfe a dutifull subiect vnto hir maiestie, nothing doubting but that he should haue and re|ceiue at hir hands, what should be found méet, right, and iust.

And so hauing vsed manie good and freendlie Shane O|neile pro [...]|seth to be quitt. spéeches and exhortations vnto him, she said Shane promised to vse and behaue himselfe well and ho|nestlie, & as to his dutie should apperteine: they de|parted in verie freendlie manner. And thus in such wisedome and politike manner the lord iustice hand|led the matter, that by temporising and gaining of time all matters were pacified, and so continued vn|till the comming ouer of the earle of Sussex lord de|putie: who then of a new tooke the matter in hand, and he did so streictlie and seuerelie follow the same, that he ouermatched Shane Oneile. But it so gree|ued the said Shane, that notwithstanding he dissem|bled and gaue a good countenance, & promised well, yet in the end being once at libertie, he performed nothing: but as the woolfe which often casteth his haires but neuer changeth his conditions, was one Shane One [...] is become a tyrant and a reb [...]ll. and the same man or rather worse, and thenseforth tyrannized and vsed most crueltie, and of all others most disloiall and disobedient; to the deputie would he not come, nor would he in anie wise confer with him, but at his owne pleasure.

The quéenes maiestie in some termes he would honor, but indéeds he denied all obedience, subtill and crastie he was especiallie in the morning: but in the residue of the daie verie vncerteine and vn|stable, and much giuen to excessiue gulping and sur|fetting. And albeit he had most commonlie two Shane Oneil a drunkard and a surfe [...]|ter. hundred tunnes of wines in his cellar at Dun|drun, and had his full fill therof, yet was he neuer sa|tisfied, till he had swallowed vp maruellous great quantities of Uske bagh or Aqua vite of that coun|trie: wherof so vnmeasurablie he would drinke and bouse, that for the quenching of the heat of the bodie, which by that meanes was most extremelie infla|med and distempered, he was eftsoones conueied (as the common report was) into a déepe pit, and stan|ding Shane One [...] buried in the ground after his drunken|nesse. vpright in the same, the earth was cast round about him vp to the hard chin, and the [...]e he did re|maine vntill such time as his bodie was recouered to some temperature: by which meanes though he came after in some better plight for the time, yet his manners and conditions dailie worse. And in the end his pride ioined with wealth, drunkennesse, and insolencie, he began to be a tyrant, and to tyrannize ouer the whole countrie; greatlie it was feared that his intent was to haue made a conquest ouer the whole land. He pretended to be king of Ulster, euen as he said his ancestors were, and affecting the ma|ner of the great Turke, was continuallie garded Shane O|neils force. with six hundred armed men, as it were his Ianisa|ries about him, and had in readinesse to bring into the fields a thousand horssemen, and foure thousand footmen. He furnished all the pesants and husband|men The pesants in Ulster trai|ned vp in warre. of his countrie with armour and weapons, and trained them vp in the knowledge of the wars: and as a lion hath in awe the beasts of the field, so had he all the people to his becke and commandement, be|ing feared and not beloued.

Diuerse meanes and waies were practised and vsed by the lord deputie and councell for the pacifieng and recouerie of him, and commissioners from time to time sent vnto him; for and about the same, who sometimes would be verie flexible, but foorthwith as backwards and vntoward. Of all the residue of Ire|land there was the lesse doubt to recouer them, by reason that they by their owne ciuill wars had con|sumed and spoiled the one and the other: but of this man, small or no hope at all, vnlesse he might be cha|stised, and with force be reduced to conformities. Which in the end it pleased the Lord God to take the matter in hand, and to performe the same by taking EEBO page image 114 of him awaie. And bicause in these troublesome times, it were méet aduertisements should go to and from hir maiestie and councell to the lord deputie, & so likewise from his lordship to them, order was ta|taken for the more spéedie conueiance of letters Posts set be|twéene Ire|land & Lon|don. reciproke, there should be set posts appointed be|tweene London and Ireland. This was then the pre|sent state of all Ireland, altogethers denoured with robberies, murders, riots, treasons, ciuill and inte|stine The misera|ble state of Ireland. warres, and few or none assured and faithfull to hir highnesse out of the English pale, and out of cities and townes: and yet the one being gentle|men and liuing by their lands, by continuall spoiles and robberies were decaied; the other by the losse of their traffike being merchants impouerished, and brought to such extremities, as not able to relieue and mainteine themselues.

And among all other the most intollerable mise|ries vniuersallie reigning, this one excéeded all No God nor religion in Ireland. the rest, that there was scarse a God knowen; and if knowen, not all honored in the land, for the churches for the most part were all destroied & vncouered, the clergie scattered, the people vntaught, and as shéepe without their pastour wandering without know|ledge and instruction. Then where neither God is knowen, the prince obeied, no lawes currant, no go|uernement accepted, and all things infolded in most extreme miserie; how lamentable and dolefull is that state and kingdome? Wherfore sir Henrie Sid|neie now lord deputie, & the councell pondering this distressed state, and the great burden which laie them vpon to helpe and redresse the same, dailie assem|bled themselues; & deuised the best waie what might be to be taken herein. Wherin his lordships cause so much was the weaker, as that such as were chiefest of the councell, then ioined to assist him in councell and seruice, were for the most part spent and decaied men; and the lord deputie himselfe driuen to deuise, to inuent, to dispose, and in the end to execute all himselfe. Well, neuerthelesse it was concluded and agréed, that the English pale should be fortified and defended from the inuasion of the Oneile and all his complices; and that the deuises set downe for the staie and recouerie of the rest of the land should be followed from time to time, as matter, time, and o|portunitie would serue therevnto.

At this present time the earles of Ormond and Desmond were in England, and the quarrels and controuersies growen betwaene them were dailie examined before the lords of the councell, and their allegations produced in writing by the one against the other. And bicause their assertions were so con|trarious and vncerteine in denieng and affirming, as no procéeding could be had for a finall end and or|der, it was thought good and necessarie that their complaints and answers should be examined in the realme of Ireland, where their dooings were best knowen, and where their misorders were commit|ted. And then by the aduise of the councell both the said earles submitted themselues to the quéenes ma|iesties The earles of Ormond and Desmond submit them|selues to the quéens order. order & determination: and for performance thereof, they both by waie of recognisance in the chancerie were bound ech of them in twentie thou|sand pounds. And then a commission vnder hir high|nesse broad seale of England was sent to the lord deputie for taking of the forsaid examinations. But in the meane time whilest these things were in doo|ing in England, sir Iohn of Desmond, in verie out|ragious and disordered manner, fired & spoiled the te|nements Sir Iohn of Desmond spoileth the earle of Or|monds lands. of the earle of Ormond, which things were verie shortlie after appeased. In these troublesome daies Mac Artimore an ancient gentleman of the Irish race, and principall man of his sept in Moun|ster, hauing verie great possessions, and laie still in peace and did nothing at all, neither tooke he partie with one whom he liked not, neither holpe he the o|ther whom he feared not, but to the outward appée|rance misliked both their dooings.

This man made his humble sute to hir maiestie, that he might surrender all his lands, possessions and Mac Arti|more surren|dereth all his lands to the quéene & ta|keth it of [...]. territories vnto hir maiesties highnesse, and to re|cognise his dutie and allegiance to hir, and so to re|sume and haue a new estate therof from hir againe, according to the orders and laws of England. Which hir maiestie did accept, and foorthwith made him a new estate of inheritance: and for the better his state in all obedience and dutie to hir crowne, did for the worthinesse of his bloud & stocke, & for the great|nesse of his gouernement make him a baron of the Mac Arti|more made earle of Clan|care. parlement in that relme; & for his further aduance|ment created him an earle vnder hir letters patents by the name of the earle of Clancare. These newes being reported to Shane Oneile, he scoffed at it, no|thing Shane O|neile scotteth at the earle of Clancare. liking the choise of hir hignesse in aduansing such a one to that honour, and enuied and maligned him that he was so honored. And therefore not long after, when the commissioners were sent to intreat with him vpon sundrie points, they found him most arrogant & out of all good order, braieng out spéeches not méet nor séemelie. For (saith he) you haue made a wise earle of Mac Artimore, I kéepe as good a man as is he. And albeit I confesse the quéene is my soue|reigne ladie, yet I neuer made peace with hir, but at hir séeking. And where he had required to haue his parlement robes sent vnto him as earle of Tiron, The proud taunts of Shane O|neile. which title he claimed and required (which if it were denied him, then he required a triall to be made in parlement) yet now he cared not for so meane an ho|nour as to be an earle, except he might be better and higher than an erle. For I am (saith he) in bloud and power better than the best, and I will giue place to none of them; for mine ancestors were kings of Ul|ster. And as Ulster was theirs, so now Ulster is mine and shall be mine: with the sword I wan it, and with the sword I will kéepe it. Which his words Shane O|neile for his pride and ty|rannie beco|meth hatefull before God & man. fell out true, though long he inioied not the same: and foorthwith he fell into most horrible tyrannies and cruelties, wherby he became execrable and hate|full vnto all his people and countrie who were wea|rie of him.

Now hir maiestie, being gréeued and annoied with his treasons and rebellions of long time, was fullie minded either to haue him clearelie rooted out, or chastised: but therein she was staied, being borne in hand that the best waie to bring him to reforma|tion, was to yéeld to him in sundrie things of him de|sired. But now she seeing him to haue manifested himselfe a notorious traitor, and past all grace; she gaue commandement to the lord deputie to im|ploie his whole care, consideration, and wisedome, how such a cankred and dangerous rebell might be vtterlie extirped. And séeing the matter also to haue so manie accidents and circumstances belonging vnto it, as which by letters to and fro could not bée well concluded: therefore she sent ouer sir Francis Knolles vice chamberleine, to conferre with the lord deputie, who arriued at Dublin the seuenth of Maie Sir Francis Knolies sent into Ireland, 1566 1566, aswell concerning these matters of warre, as the whole state and gouernment of this realme. Who when he was arriued, and hauing at large conferred with him about the same, the time betwéene them was concluded and appointed, that the seruice should be in the winter; & accordinglie things necessarie, as well monie, men, munitions, and vittels were sent ouer, and Edward Randolph coronell of the footmen, and sundrie other capteins arriued with their souldi|ers from out of England, and all things were dispo|sed both for the garrison and the campe, as it was EEBO page image 115 conuenient to be.

Likewise the archtraitor knowing what prepara|tion was made against him, he dooth the like also on his part against hir maiestie; and at a lordship or ma|nour of his, about six miles out of Dundalke, he mu|streth all his whole armie, which was of foure thou|sand footmen, and seuen hundred horssemen. And glo|rieng much in himselfe of such his great force and puissance, which he thought to suffice to haue conque|red all Ireland withall, and that no man durst to ad|uenture vpon him: he marcheth vnto the towne of Dundalke, where he incampeth himselfe, & beseegeth Shane Oneil besiegeth Dundalke, & is repelled. the same. He was no more busie to giue sundrie at|tempts of inuasion, and to enter the towne, but the souldiers within were as valiant to resist and de|fend: which in the end turned to his reproch, and hée had the repulse, being with shame driuen to raise his siege, and to depart with the losse.

The like successe he had at Whites castell, and when he made his rode and inuasion into the Eng|lish pale, when his great multitude stood him not in so much stead, as a farre smaller companie of the English souldiers deserued commendation: which perforce and maugre of his téeth compelled him to retire with shame, and to returne with losse. About this time in the moneth of Iulie 1565, and the first yeare of the deputation of sir Henrie Sidneie, Ed|ward 1565 Randolph, a verie expert and a valiant soul|dier, was sent ouer out of England, and arriued at Coronell Ran dolph arriueth at the Dirrie where he intrencheth himselfe. the Dirrie with seuen hundred men vnder his re|giment, and he himselfe by the councell in England appointed to be the coronell. This man as seone as he was landed, intrenched himselfe at the Dirrie, where he remained in garrison without dooing of a|nie thing, vntill the comming of the lord deputie from Dublin, with the residue of hir maiesties for|ces, appointed to be ioined with the said coronell, for the better seruice against the arrogant traitour Shane Oneile.

And after that the said lord deputie was come, and had staid there about six daies, and had set all things The lord de|putie cõmeth to the Dirrie and setteth all things in or|der for the seruice. in such good order as that seruice required; he retur|ned backe to Dublin through Odonels countrie, and so thorough Connagh, leauing the coronell ac|companied with one band of fiftie horssemen vnder the leading of capteine George Heruie the elder, and with seuen companies or hundreds of footmen vnder the charges of capteine Robert Cornewall, and capteine Iohn Ward, and others; all well furni|shed, both with munitions, vittels, and all other ne|cessaries méet and requisit. Shane Oneile who knew well of the garrisons, of their forces & numbers, and he not minding that they should there rest in peace, but standing now vpon his honor and reputation, Oneil incam|peth néere the Dirrie and offereth sair| [...]sh. incamped himselfe about two miles from the gar|rison, hauing then in his armie a thousand fiue hun|dred footmen, and thrée hundred horsmen. And from daie to daie he would continuallie with his horsse|men houer and range the fields, and shew himselfe readie to trie the matter if the Englishmen durst to aduenture the same

The coronell not liking these dailie offers, and thinking it to be a verie great dishonour vnto him, and all the English nation, which were come ouer to serue against him, and now would doo nothing, but were dailie bearded by the enimie: notwithstanding that his forces when they were at the best, were but small in respect of the enimie; and by reason of the sicknesse in the campe, that his small companie was much weakened and vnable to serue: yet he was de|termined with a full resolution to take the offer of the enimic, and either he would lose his life, or re|mooue him from his so neere a seat. Wherevpon he drew out of his companie to [...]he number of thrée hundred men, whome he thought most méet to serue, The corone ll prepareth to fight with Oneile. and being accompanied with fiftie horssemen vnder capteine George Heruie, marched toward Oneils campe, who pretending a great ioy to sée the for|wardnesse of the Englishmen, he with all his forces issued out, and with spéed prepared to incounter with them; persuading himselfe that he should that daie be maister of the field, and haue a conquest to his hearts desire.

The coronell made choise of the ground to fight in, and prepared himselfe to stand and abide their charge. Oneile in great furie, and with a great mul|titude charged the coronels footmen, and his maine battell; but he was so receiued with the English shot and so galled, that he made some staie. Wherevpon capteine Heruie taking his oportunitie, most vali|antlie The valiant seruice of cap|teine George Heruie. with his small band of horssemen brake in to the battell of Oneile. Likewise coronell Randolph with his few horssemen gaue the charge vpon the left wing of them. The one of them being well follo|wed and accompanied with his band, did the seruice which he desired: but the coronell verie valiantlie The coronell Randolph is slaine. making waie through the enimies, and no man fol|lowing him, was in fighting wounded to death, and whereof immediatlie he died. The rebels being asto|nied and amazed at the valour of the Englishmen, Oneile and his companie flie, and are pursued, killed & hur [...] about 800. fled and turned their backs, whome the souldiers fol|lowed, and had the slaughter of them so long as their weapons lasted in this conflict. The rebels were slaine that daie in this chase aboue foure hundred persons, besides the like number of such as were hurt and wounded. The coronell onelie was slaine, but capteine Heruie and diuerse of the horssemen were verie sore hurt and wounded.

After the death of this valiant coronell, whose fu|nerall The lord de|putie keepeth the coronell Randolphs funerals. the lord deputie did afterwards celebrate with great honour at Dublin, Edward Sentlow was made coronell: vnder whose gouernement the gar|rison liued verie quietlie. For this last ouerthrow so quailed the spirits and courages of Oneile and his companie, that they had no desire of anie further in|countering with the Englishmen. And thus all the winter following little was doone: and being deter|mined in the spring to aduenture some péece of ser|uice, but the lord otherwise appointed it. For about the foure and twentith of Aprill, by a misfortune ne|uer The Dirrie and all the vittels and munitions are burned. yet knowne by what means, the fort and towne of the Dirrie was all burned, and the storehouses where the munitions and vittels laie were blowne vp with the gunpowder, and twentie men killed with the same: and so manie of the souldiers as laie sicke there were burned in their beds. Wherevpon the coronell calling all his capteins togither, and considering the distresse which they now were in, by the losse of their vittels and munitions, and not knowing where to be furnished otherwise, they The coronell abandoneth Dirrie, and returneth to Dublin by seas. Capteine George Her|uie returneth by land in great danger. all concluded and determined to abandon that place, and to imbarke themselues for Dublin, which immediatlie they all did, sauing capteine George Heruie: for he rather did choose to hazard his life to returne by land, than to impouerish his souldiers by killing their horsses (which perforce they must needs haue doone) for want of shipping. And therefore euen almost against all hope he returned towards Dub|lin through the enimies countrie, who followed and chased him foure daies togither without intermissi|on, both with horssemen and footmen: but at length he recouered Dublin, not without great woonder and admiration. The lord deputie he wanted not his espials, both about Oneile, and in all places through|out Ulster: and thereby knew the forces, bent, and determinations of euerie of them, whereby he knew how to meet with them euerie waie for the best ser|uice of hir maiestie. And yet considering the great EEBO page image 116 importance of the seruice, he could not be satisfied The lord de|putie maketh a iournie into Ulster. herein, but that he would make a iournie into Ulster himselfe. And being accompanied with the earle of Kildare, and certeine of the councell, and with such capteins and souldiers as he thought good: he ad|uanced & set foorth out of Drogheda the seuentéenth of September 1566, and incamped that night at 1566 Rosse Keagh, & so from thense he trauelled through|out Ulster, and passed thense vnto Athlon in Con|nagh, where he came the six and twentith of Oc|tober.

In this iournie the rebell neuer durst (for all his The pusilla|nimitie of the Oneile. brags) once to shew his face, nor to offer anie fight at all: sauing once at and néere a wood not far from Glogher, where he offered a skirmish, and gaue the charge with horssemen, footmen, and certeine Sco|tish shot: which continued a good space, and sundrie hurt on both sides, but none died of his lordships men. He shewed himselfe also once with a great multitude of horssemen and footmen, not farre from the castell of Tirlough Lenough, called the Sal|mon, but tooke his ease and durst not to giue the ad|uenture. In this iournie the lord deputie restored Odonell to the possession of his lands and castels, Odonell re|stored vnto his possessi|ons. The lord de|putie recoue|reth a great countrie in Ulster vnto the crowne. kept by Oneile from him; & sundrie lords and men of the best sort submitted themselues. By which this his lordships iournie he recouered to hir highnesse a countrie of foure score miles in length, and eight and fortie miles in bredth, without losse of anie man sa|uing Mac Gwier, who being sicke died in this iour|nie; and sauing a few persons which by the waie vp|on an occasion would aduenture the winning of a certeine Iland in the middle of a lough, wherein was supposed to be great store of wealth and vittels of the enimies, and in assailing of it they were drowned.

Immediatlie vpon the discharge of the armie at Athlon, the lord deputie fortified all the frontiers of the English pale with garrisons sufficient for the same. And as concerning the troublesome state of Mounster, the earle of Desmond was in the field The earle of Desmond is in campe and doth no hurt. with two thousand men, and incamped himselfe in places indifferent to annoie at his pleasure the earle of Ormond, the lord Barrie, the lord Roch, and sir Moris Fitzgirald of the Decies; but he did not hurt anie man at all: sauing one Mac Donogh a rebell and a disloiall sauage man. The lord deputie being ouerlaied with the continuall cares to resist Onelle, could not in person trauell into Mounster, nor yet without great perill diuide his armie: wherefore he sent capteine Herne constable of Leighlin vnto the said earle, whereby he might be aduertised of his in|tendement and meaning: which appeared to be but a méere insolencie and an outrage to be reuenged vp|on the earle of Ormond, although the rumor was, that he would conioine with Oneile. Which report when it came to his eares, and being aduertised that the lord deputie was offended with him that he had The earle of Desmond ma|keth his re|paire to the lord deputie. gathered such a force, and was in the fields. He for his purgation herein, without further delaie, tooke his horsse, and hauing in his companie onelie the ba|ron of Dunboine, and capteine Herne, with their companies, made hast to present himselfe before the lord deputie: where and before whome for purging of himselfe, and to declare his dutie, he offered himselfe to his lordships deuotion, either to go and attend him vnto Ulster in that sort as he then was, or else to follow him with all such force as he could get; the lord deputie finding him vittels: and then to abide & serue in Ulster in despite of Shane Oneile; or else that he would in his lordships absence remaine vp|on the borders there, with such a number of horsse|men, as should be appointed vnto him; shewing al|so and pretending such dutifulnesse to hir maiestie, as was méet for a subiect to shew to his souereigne. The deputie hauing some liking of his offers, and considering the fickle state of these presents, accep|teth his last offer, willing him to go backe againe, The earle of Desmond serueth in the English pale. and to prepare a crew of one hundred horssemen, at the least, and so to returne againe within fouretéene daies: which he did, and with him came sir Iohn Desmond, his vncle the baron of Dunboine, the lord Powre and others: who accompanied with the baron of Deluin, sir Warham Sentleger, and cap|teine Herne, did remaine vpon the borders, vntill his lordships returne from out of his iournie in Ul|ster.

And as the realme at large was much infested with the cruell warres of Oneile and the troubles in Mounster; so also there wanted no daily complaints of griefs vnto the lord deputie of sundrie persons one against an other. For Oliuer Sutton, a gentle|man Oliuer Sut|ton complai|neth against the earle of Kildare. dwelling in the English pale, did exhibit a cer|teine booke in writing, conteining an information of sundrie notorious disorders in that realme, hurt|full to the good policie of the same, and contrarie to sundrie good lawes and acts of parlement, whereof a great part did touch the earle of Kildare. The mat|ter was referred by hir maiesties order to the hea|ring of the lord deputie and councell. Likewise sir The ladie of Dunboine complaineth against the Butlers. Edmund Butler and Piers his brother were gree|uouslie complained vpon by the ladie of Dunboine, Mac Brian Arra, Oliuer Fitzgirald, sir William Occarell, and others; for their dailie outrages, rob|beries, murthers, preies, and spoiles taken. For the hearing and appeasing of such matters, and for the better ministration of iustice, the lord deputie had béene a long sutor to hir maiestie and councell for a chancellor to be sent ouer, who at length were resol|ued vpon doctor Weston, deane of the arches, who arriued at Dublin in Iulie 1567, a notable and a 1567 Doctor we|ston is made lord chancel|lor of Ire|land. singular man, by profession a lawyer, but in life a diuine, a man so bent to the execution of iustice, and so seuere therein, that by no meanes would he be se|duced or auerted from the same: and so much good in the end insued of his vpright, diligent, and dutifull seruice, as that the whole realme found themselues most happie and blessed to haue him serue among them. Now he taking vpon him to deale in all mat|ters of complaints, both eased the lord deputie of a great burthen, and did most good to the countrie, and acquited himselfe against hir maiestie.

But to returne to the L. deputie, who immediatlie vpon the dismissing of the armie at Athlon, he tooke order (as is aforesaid) for placing of his garrisons in such conuenient places vpon the frontiers, as then apperteined and was most méet & conuenient. The rebell on his part leaueth nothing vndoon, which might be for the furtherance of his enterprises: and being in great iollitie of himselfe deuised manie things; and to make some shew of his abilitie, ente|red The Oneile entereth the English pale with sword and fire. The Oneile besiegeth Dundalke the second time, and dexarted with great dishonor. The Oneile forsaken of friends. into the English pale, with sword and fire wa|sted the countrie, slue manie of hir maiesties sub|iects, and in the end besieged hir highnesse towne of Dundalke: where his pride and treason were iust|lie scourged, who came not with so much glorie to be|siege it, as he did returne with shame to leaue and loose it. The lord deputie not abiding the same, nor sleeping his matters, determined to make a new rode vpon him: and in the meane time, he so hand|led the matter, that he had vnfethered him of his best friends, aids, and helps. For besides the whole countrie, as is before said, gained from him the last iournie, Mac Gwier, a mightie man in his countrie Mac Gwier forsaketh O|neile, and s [...] doo the Scots. forsooke him, and submitted himselfe to hir maiestie, offering all loiall obedience and faithfull seruice, and to receiue his lands and countrie at hir highnesse hands.

EEBO page image 117 Alexander Og and Mac Donell offer to serue hir maiestie, with all the Scots vnder them against the rebell. Con Odonell late deliuered from the re|bell, offereth seruice against him. Tirlogh Lenough with the helps of his neighbours dailie backed the said Oneile, that his force was quailed that waie. The lord deputie had continuallie foure regiments residing neere the English pale, who continuallie as it were by turnes were occupied in persecuting of the rebell: & his lordship being at Drogheda did also issue out, and in one morning tooke a preie of two The lord de|putie taketh a great preie vpon the Oneile. thousand kine, 500 garrons, and innumerable other small beasts and cattell. The rebell seeing himselfe thus distressed of his goods, and forsaken of his helps and followers, his men, some by Odonell, and some by others to the number of thrée or foure thousand persons at times slaine, himselfe discomfited, his passages stopped, and all places of his refuge preuen|ted, The Oneile distressed of all comfort is in doubt what to doo. and now but one poore castell left wherein he tru|sted to commit himselfe vnto; he being thus weake|ned, and beholding his declination and fall towards, was fullie bent and determined to disguise himselfe, and so as not knowne to come with a collar or halter about his necke to the presence of the lord deputie, and in all humble and lowlie maner to submit him|selfe: hoping that by this kind of humilitie to find Oneile his owne consci|ence condem|neth him to seeke submis|sion. mercie at hir maiesties hands. But his conscience was so cauterised, and his hands so imbrued with in|finit and most horrible murthers, bloudsheds, trea|sons, whoredomes, drunkennesse, robberies, bur|nings, spoiles, oppressions, and with all kinds of wic|kednesse, that his heart was ouerlaied and ouerla|den with an vtter despaire to obteine anie grace or fauor: and therefore was the more easilie persua|ded by those whome he tooke to be his friends, to trie first and to intreat the Scots for friendship, and that they would ioine and aid him in his most wicked re|bellion. Wherevpon he tooke his iournie towards Clandeboie, where Alexander Og and his companie, to the number of six hundred persons, were then in|camped: Onelie sée|keth for helpe of the Scots. and for the better gaining of his purpose, he had a little before inlarged Charleie Boie brother to the said Alexander, and who had béene prisoner with him.

The Scots disguised the matter with him, preten|ding and promising him aid and assistance: which The Scots doo disguise with Oneile. they ment not. For assoone as Oneile togither with Odonels wife, whom he kept, & the small companie which he brought with him were come into the tent, and they assured of him; they called to remembrance the manifold iniuries which they had receiued at his hands, and namelie the murthering of one Iames Mac Conell, & one Mac Guillie their néere cousins and kinsmen: and being inflamed with malicious minds to reuenge their deths, they fell to quarelling with the said Shane Oneile, and with their slaugh|ter Shane Oneil slaine by the Scots by a draught made by capteine Piers. swords hewed him to peeces, and slue all those of his companie that were with him: his bodie they wrapped in a Kernes shirt, and so without all honor was carried to a ruinous church not farre off, and there interred; but after a few daies he was taken vp againe by capteine Piers, by whose deuise this stratagem or rather tragedie was practised, and his head was sundred from the bodie, and sent to the lord Shane O|neils head set vpon the top of the castell of Dublin. deputie, who caused the same to be set vpon a stake or pole on the top of the castle of Dublin. A fit end for such a beginning, and a iust reward for such a wicked traitor and sacrileger: who began his tyrannie in bloud, did continue it with bloud, and ended it with bloud. The lord deputie being then at Drogheda, and aduertised of the death of this Shane, and of the iust iudgements of God laid vpon him; for the same pro|strated himselfe before the high and eternall God, and gaue his most humble and hartie thanks for the deliuerie of that land from so wicked a tyrant, sacri|liger and traitor; and with all the conuenient spéed The quéene aduertised of Shane O|neils death. that might be, he dispatched the messengers to hir maiestie and councell, aduertising this hap and good successe. Which doone, his lordship with all spéed made his repaire into Ulster, and incamped himselfe in the middle and heart of the countrie, vnto whome all the noblemen and gentlemen of Tiron being glad that they were deliuered from the tyrant, made their repaire vnto his lordship: and especiallie all they The noblmen of Ulster, be|ing glad of Oneils death doo submit themselues. which were competitors of the capteinrie of Tiron, who most humblie and obedientlie presented and submitted themselues vnto hir highnesse. And when his lordship had set all things in such order as the time required, he assembled all the gentlemen of the countrie, and most pithilie and effectuallie instruc|ted and persuaded them to obedience, teaching them the great blessings of God which commeth thereby, as also putteth them in mind what inconueniences, miseries and calamities they had felt by the contra|rie: and for their greater quietnesse and peace, he promised shortlie to send commissioners amongst them, who should haue authoritie to decide all con|trouersies betweene partie and partie (title of land and death of man excepted.)

Also he proclamed and commanded hir maiesties Orders giuen by the lord de|putie to the noble men of Ulster. peace to be kept, and commanded all churchmen and husbandmen to returne to their accustomed ex|ercises: and that all men of warre should liue vpon their owne, or vpon that which their fréends with a good will would giue them: and so publishing peace vniuersallie, euerie man departed home [...]fullie. The lord deputie likewise returned to Dublin, and Oneils sonne is cõmitted to safe custodie. commanded the sonne of the late rebell, who laie for an hostage of his father, to be safelie kept in the ca|stell of Dublin, according to hir maiesties letters of commandement in that behalfe, dated the sixt of Iulie 1567. The quéenes maiestie being deliuered from this traitorous rebell, and hauing all Ulster at hir commandement and disposition, was verie desirous to haue a true plot of the whole land, wher|by she might in some sort see the same, & did send ouer Robert Léeth sent into Ire|land to draw a true plot of the whole land. into Ireland one Robert Léeth, skilfull in that art, and that he should make the perfect descriptions of the same. Likewise also she being aduertised of the outragious dealings of the earle of Desmond, in mainteining proclamed rebels, and continuing of warres against the earle of Ormond (whose inso|lencie to séeke to be reuenged vpon the said earle, was the disturbance of the whole realme, the spoile of the whole countrie, and the onelie cause of great murthers, bloudshed, and vndooing of manie people) she willed the lord deputie by hir letters to appre|hend The earle of Desmond committed to ward, and sent to the tower, togither with his brother sir Iohn Des|mond. the said Desmond, and to commit him to the castell of Dublin, which was so doone. And after both he and his brother sir Iohn of Desmond were sent into England, and there committed to the tower.

After all the foresaid broiles and ciuill wars were appeased, and the realme set in quietnesse and good or|der, the lord deputie hauing receiued hir maiesties letters for his repaire into England vnto hir pre|sence, 1567 Doctor we|ston and sir william Fitz|williams made lords iustices. he did accordinglie prepare himselfe there vn|to, and by a commission vnder hir brode seale of Ire|land did appoint doctor Weston then lord chancellor, and sir William Fitzwilliams treasuror at wars, to be lords iustices in his absence: the one of them being verie well learned, iust, and vpright; the other verie wise, & of great knowledge and experience, in the affaires of that land. Both which two being like well minded to doo hir maiestie seruice, did most louinglie and brotherlie agree therein, each one adui|sing and aduertising the other according to the seue|rall gifts which God had bestowed vpon them: by which meanes they passed their gouernment verie EEBO page image 118 well and quietlie to the great contentation of hir maiestie, the commendation of themselues, and the Sir Henrie Sidneie [...]ord deputie pas|seth into England, and caried with him the earle of Desmond. common peace of the countrie; and so the said sir Henrie hauing placed the said iustices, he passed the seas into England, and carried with him the earle of Desmond and Oconnor Sligo, he was with great honor receiued at the court, and the other was sent to the tower. Hir maiestie lay at this time at Hamp|ton court, and looking out at a window, she saw him to come in with two hundred men attending vpon him, and not knowing at the first sight who it was, Ed. Mulineux. it was told hir that it was sir Henrie Sidneie hir deputie in Ireland. Then it is well (quoth she) for he hath two of the best offices in England. So he pre|sented himselfe before hir highnesse, and was wel|come to hir. Neuerthelesse, after his departure, the particular grudges betwéene some certeine men, brake out into great and outragious disorders, as sir Edmund Butler with great hostilitie maketh inua|sion Sir Edmund Butler brea|keth out into outrages. vpon Oliuer Fitzgirald, being accompanied with Piers Grace. The outlawes of the Oconnors and Omores proclamed traitors, and hauing in the field a thousand of Gallowglasses, horssemen, and Kernes, threaten to burne the towne of Kilken|nie, and spoile Ocarell of his countrie. But they as also Oliuer Fitzgirald, a man not apt in times past to complaine, but rather bent to satisfie himselfe with double reuenge, leauing to séeke reuenge by armes, made their recourses to the lords iustices, and by law requested redresse. The erle of Clancart was puffed vp with such insolencie, that he named him|selfe king of Mounster, and did confederate with the The pride of Mac Artie More earle of Clancart. Mac Swaines, Osoliuan More, and others of the Irishrie of that prouince, and in warlike manner and with banners displaied inuadeth the lord Ro|ches countrie, and in burning of his countrie, he The earle of Clancart ma|keth warres vpon the lord Roch. Iames Fitz|moris maketh warre vpon the baron of Lixenew. destroied all the corne therein, seuen hundred shéepe, and a great number of men, women and children, and carried awaie fiftéene hundred kine, and a hun|dred garons. Also Iames Fitzmoris of Desmond maketh cruell warres against the lord Fitzmoris baron of Lixenew, which albeit they were but pri|uie displeasures, yet troublesome to the whole coun|trie: and the lords iustices being not prepared to stop the same, they did yet so temporise with them, as they gained time, till further order might be taken vpon aduertisement of hir maiesties pleasure here|in. About this time one Morice a runnigate préest, hauing latelie béene at Rome, and there consecra|ted by the popes bull archbishop of Cashell, arriued into Ireland, and made chalenge to the same see: which being denied vnto him by the archbishop which The archbi|shop of Cashell in danger to be killed. was there placed by hir maiestie, the said supposed bishop suddenlie with an Irish skaine wounded the bishop, and put him in danger of his life.

This yeare sir Peter Carew of Mohonesotreie in the countie of Deuon knight, one descended of a noble and high parentage, whose ancestors for sun|drie hundred of yeares were not onelie barons of Sir Peter Carew ma|keth sute to hir maiestie for the recoue|rie of his lands in Ire|land. Carew in England; but marquesses of Corke, ba|rons of Odron, and lords of Maston Twete; and sundrie other segniories in Ireland. When he had loo|ked into his euidences, and had found how by right these great inheritances were descended vnto him: he made the quéens maiestie and councell acquain|ted therewith, and praied that with their fauor and furtherance he might haue libertie to follow, and by order of law to recouer the same. Which was gran|ted vnto him, as also he had hir highnesse and their lordships seuerall letters to them, then lords iustices and officers there to that effect: and willing them to aid and assist him with all such hir maiesties euiden|ces remaining in the records of the castell of Dub|lin, or else where in that land; and by all such other good meanes they might. Wherevpon he sent the writer hereof to be his agent: who hauing by search found his title to be good, and confirmed by sundrie records and presidents, found in hir maiesties trea|surie and castell of Dublin, answering and agréeing with the euidences of sir Peter Carew: then the said sir Peter passed in person into Ireland, and made title and claime to the lordship of Maston, then Sir Peter Carew passeth into Ireland. in the possession of sir Christopher Chiuers knight, and to the baronie of Odron, then in the occupation of the Cauenaughs.

The first, when it was found good in law, and sir Christopher Chiuers yéelded, and compounded for it: the other was trauersed before the lord deputie and councell, and vpon good and substantiall euiden|ces, records, and proofes; a decrée passed by the lords of the councell, in the behalfe of sir Peter Carew, and the same confirmed by the lord deputie, and by Sir Peter Carew by a decrée recoue|reth the baro|nie of Odron. that meanes he recouered the possession of the baro|nie, which was before taken from his ancestors; as the records doo impart, about the eighteenth yeare of king Richard the second. But as for the mar|queship of Corke, being a matter of great weight and importance, and the prouince of Mounster then not setled in anie quietnesse: he would not as then nor yet thought it good to deale therein. Sir Hen|rie 1568 Sir Henrie Sidneie re|turneth lord deputie. Sidneie, hauing spent a long time in England, was commanded to returne to his charge in Ire|land, where he arriued at Crag Fergus, in Septem|ber 1568: and tooke the sword of gouernement vp|on him, and so discharged the lords iustices. And then he and the councell by their letters of the fourth of Nouember 1568, did aduertise hir maiestie of the state that the said realme of Ireland then stood in. Which in briefe consisted in these points imme|diatlie following.

That sir Edmund Butler had made a preie in The state that Ireland stood in. Shilelagh vpon Oliuer Fitzgarret, and doone sun|drie murders, burnings, and great spoiles vpon his countrie: who was forthwith sent for, and refuseth to come, excusing that he had businesse about the exe|cution of certeine seruices in the counties of Kil|kennie, and Tiporarie, and that the residue of all Leinster was quiet. That Connagh was in indif|ferent Connagh in reasonable peace. good order, sauing some contention betwéene the earle of Clanricard, and Mac William En|ter; and an old controuersie renewed betwéene O|donell and Oconner Sligo for the title of a rent in Enter, Connaghs countrie. In Thomond great complaints made against the earle thereof, by O|shaghnes, who by reason of the oppression of the said earle, he was compelled with his followers to for|sake his countries. As for Mounster, it was all in Mounster out of order. disorder by the warres of Iames Fitzmoris of Des|mond, against Fitzmoris baron of Lixenew: and of the earle of Clancart, against the baron of Roch: and also by the disorders of Edward Butler, who be|ing combined with Piers Grace and certeine out|lawes, did disorderlie spoile and preie the countries to féed their bellies.

The present state of Ulster the lord deputie be|ing desirous to know the certeintie thereof, imme|diatlie vpon his landing in Ireland he made a iour|neie throughout the same, and found the Irishrie to stand in wauering terms: wherevpon he sent for Turlogh Lenogh Oneile, who yéelding himselfe somewhat guiltie, because he somewhat swarued from his dutie, and differed from the articles in his lordships absence before, concluded with him in ma|king Turlogh Le|nogh breaketh the peace, but submitteth himselfe. a iourneie vpon Ferneie, and in combining with the Scots, of whome he had in retinue about one thousand; he desired pardon: which it was long and verie hardlie obteined, and not vntill his lord|ship had caused the pledges to be executed, which the EEBO page image 119 Scots had put in for their loialtie. Odoneile quiet|lie possessed the countrie of Trireconell, and conti|nued a dutifull subiect to hir maiestie; sauing the old grudge betwéene him and Turlogh did rather in|crease than decaie. Ochan lord of the land betwéene Loghfoile and the Ban, being for the same some|time molested by Turlogh Lenogh, did beare with all iniuries, and desired to be exempted from Tur|logh, and to hold the same of the queenes maiestie. The like did the two principall men, eligible for the capteinrie of Tiron, desire for their parts all the residue of Ulster in good staie and quietnesse.

The lord deputie after this iourneie returned to Dublin, and there, when by the aduise of the coun|cell he had disposed all things in good order concer|ning the gouernement: he caused the writs for sum|mons of the parlement to be awarded out vnto eue|rie noble man for his appéerance; & to euerie shiriffe for choosing of knights and burgesses for their like appéerance at Dublin the seuentéenth of Ianuarie, in the eleuenth yeare of hir maiesties reigne; at A parlemnt summoned at Dublin. which time and daie appéerance was then and there made accordinglie. On the first daie of which par|lement, the lord deputie, representing hir maie|sties person, was conducted and attended in most honorable manner vnto Christes church, and from thense vnto the parlement house: where he sat vn|der the cloth of estate, being apparelled in the prince|lie robes of crimson veluet doubled or lined with ermin. And then & there the lord chancellor made a verie eloquent oration, declaring what law was, of The lord chancellor his oration. what great effect and value, how the common socie|tie of men was thereby mainteined, and each man in his degrée conserued; as well the inferior as the su|perior, the subiect as the prince: and how carefull all good common-wealths in the elder ages haue béene in this respect: who considering the time, state, and necessitie of the common-wealth, did from time to time ordeine and establish most holsome lawes, either of their deuises, or drawen from some other good common-wealth: and by these meanes haue prospered and continued.

And likewise, how the quéenes most excellent maiestie, as a most naturall mother ouer hir chil|dren, and as a most vigilant prince ouer hir sub|iects, hath béene alwaies, & now presentlie is verie carefull, studious, & diligent in this behalfe: hauing caused this present parlement to be assembled, that by the councell and aduise of you hir nobilitie, & you hir knights and burgesses, such good lawes, orders, and ordinances maie be decréed, as maie be to the honor of almightie God, the preseruation of hir maiestie, and of hir imperiall crowne of this realme, and the safetie of the common-wealth of the whole realme: for which they were not onelie to be most thankefull; but also most carefull to doo their duties in this behalfe. And then he the lord speaker direc|ting his speeches to the knights and burgesses, who were there in the behalfe of the whole commons of the realme, willed them that for the auoiding of confusion, and for an orderlie procéeding in this ac|tion: they should assemble them selues at and in the house appointed for that assemblie; and there to make choise of some wise and sufficient man to be their mouth & speaker. And then concluding with an exhortation of obedience and dutifulnesse, he ended, and the court adiourned vntill thursdaie next, the twentith of Ianuarie. In the meane time, the knights and burgesses met in the lower house, and Stanihurst chosen to be speaker of the lower house. appointed for their speaker one Stanihurst, recorder of the citie of Dublin, a verie graue, wise, and lear|ned man; who vpon thursdaie aforesaid was pre|sented to the lord deputie, and to the lords of the high|er house: & then he hauing doone most humblie his obedience and dutie, made his oration and speech; Stanihursts oration. first abasing himselfe, being not a man sufficient|lie adorned and furnished with such gifts of know|ledge and learning, as to such an office and calling dooth apperteine: wherein he was so much the more vnfit, as the cause he had in hand was of great weight and importance. And therefore he wished, if it might so séeme good to his lordship, some man of more grauitie, and of better experience, knowledge, and learning might supplie the place. Neuerthelesse, for somuch as he might not refuse it, he was the more willing, because he did well hope his seruice being doone with his best good will, and in all duti|fulnesse, it would be accepted. And againe his com|fort was the more, because he had to deale in such a cause, as was for the establishing of some good and holsome lawes, whereof he was a professor.

And herevpon he tooke an occasion, according to the argument that was before handled by the lord chancellor, speaker in the higher house, to discourse of the nature and good effect of lawes, and what good successe there insueth to all such realmes, countries, and common-wealths, as by lawes are well ruled & gouerned. And when he had spoken at large here|of, there he declared what great causes that realme of Ireland had, to giue for euer most hartie thanks and praises to God for his goodnesse, in sending such a vertuous, noble, and a most godlie prince, as was hir maiestie; who not onlie was carefull by the sword to stand in their defense against all enimies, trai|tors, and rebels, in times of wars and rebellions: but also for their conseruation in times of peace would haue such lawes, statutes, and ordinances to be made in a parlement of themselues, as should be most ex|pedient for the common-wealth of the same land. When he had at large discoursed of this matter, then he concluded with an humble petition, that it might please hir maiestie to grant vnto them their liberties and fréedoms of old belonging to euerie assemblie of a parlement. The first was, that euerie man being The requests of the speaker for allowance of the liberties of the parle|ment house. a member of the lower house, should and might haue frée comming and going to and from the parle|ment: and during their abode at the same without molestation or impeachment of anie person or per|sons, or for anie matter then to be laid against anie of them. The second, that they and euerie of them might haue libertie to speake their minds fréelie to anie bill to be read, & matter to be proposed in that parlement. Thirdlie, that if anie of the said house shuld misorder and misbehaue himselfe in anie vnde|cent manner, or if anie other person should euill in|treat or abuse anie of the said house, that the correc|tion and punishment of euerie such offendor should rest and remaine in the order of the said house. When he had ended his spéech, and in most humble maner doone his obeisance; the lord deputie hauing paused vpon the matter, made answer to euerie particular The lord deputie an|swereth Sta|nihursts oration. point in most eloquent and effectuall manner, which consisted in these points: Nothing misliking with the speaker for so much abasing of himselfe, because he knew him to be both graue, wise, and learned, and verie sufficient for that place, doubting nothing but that he would performe the same in all dutifulnesse, as to him apperteined. And concerning the benefit which groweth to all nations and common-wealths by the vse of the lawes; besides that dailie experi|ence did confirme the same generallie, so no one na|tion particularlie could better auouch it than this realme of Ireland: and therefore he did well hope that they would accordinglie frame themselues to liue accordinglie, and also to praie for hir maies|ties safetie and long life, whereby vnder hir they might inioie a peaceable and a quiet life in all pros|peritie. And concerning the priuileges, which they EEBO page image 120 requested to be allowed, forsomuch as the same at the first were granted to the end that they might the better and more quietlie serue hir highnesse in that assemblie, to hir honor, and to the benefit of the com|mon-wealth, it pleased hir maiestie so long as she were not impeached, nor hir imperiall state dero|gated, that they should inioie the same. And so after a long time spent in this oration the court was ad|iourned.

The next daie following being fridaie the lower house met; and contrarie to the order of that house, and dutie of that companie, in stéed of vnitie there began a diuision, and for concord discord was recei|ued. For all, or the most part of the knights and bur|gesses of the English pale, especiallie they who dwel|led within the counties of Meth and Dublin, who seeing a great number of Englishmen to haue place A mutinie in the lower house. in that house began to except against that assemblie as not good, nor warranted by law. Their vantpar|ler was sir Christopher Barnwell knight, who being somewhat learned, his credit was so much the more, Sir Christo|pher Barn|well excepteth against the choise of the burgesses. and by them thought most méetest and worthie to haue béene the speaker for that house. And he being the spokesman alleged three speciall causes, whie he and his complices would not yéeld their consents. The first was, because that there were certeine bur|gesses returned for sundrie townes, which were not corporat, and had no voice in the parlement. The second was, that certeine shiriffes, and certeine ma|iors of townes corporat had returned themselues. The third and chéefest was that a number of Eng|lishmen were returned to be burgesses of such towns and corporations, as which some of them ne|uer knew, and none at all were resiant & dwelling in the same, according as by the lawes is required.

These matters were questioned among them|selues in the lower house for foure daies togither, and no agreement: but the more words, the more choler; and the more spéeches, the greater broiles; vn|till in the end, for appeasing the matter, the same was referred to the lord deputie and iudges of the realme: vnto whom the said speaker was sent to de|clare the whole matter, and to know their resoluti|ons. And they hauing at large discoursed and confer|red of this matter, returned their answer; that con|cerning the first and second exceptions, that the bur|gesses returned for townes not corporat, and for such The resoluti|on of the iud|ges. shiriffes, maiors, and souereignes as haue retur|ned themselues, shall be dismissed out of the same: but as for such others as the shiriffes and maiors had returned, they should remaine, and the penaltie to rest vpon the shiriffes for their wrong returnes. The messenger of this answer, howsoeuer he were liked, his message could not be receiued nor allowed: which The disliking of the iudges opinions. being aduertised vnto the lord deputie and the iudg|es, then Lucas Dillon hir maiesties attorneie ge|nerall was sent vnto them, to ratifie and confirme their resolutions: and yet could not he be credited, The selfewill and froward|nesse of the burgesse of the English pale. neither would they be satisfied, vnlesse the iudges themselues would come in persons and set downe this to be their resolutions. Upon this answer the speaker commanded a bill to be read, but the foresaid persons would not suffer nor abide the reading there|of: but rose vp in verie disordered manner, farre differing from their duties in that place, and as con|trarie to that grauitie and wisedome, which was or should be in them. Wherefore, for pacifieng of the same, the chéefe iustices of the quéenes bench, and the chéefe iustice of the common plées: the queenes ser|geant, attorneie generall, and sollicitor, the next daie following came to the lower house, and there did af|firme their former resolutions, which thought it might haue sufficed. Yet certeine lawiers who had place in that house, did not altogither like thereof.

And albeit this matter were orderlie compassed, and sufficient to haue contented euerie man: yet the same was so stomached, that the placing of the En|glishmen to be knights and burgesses, could not be digested, as did appéere in the sequele of that assem|blie, where euerie bill furthered by the English gen|tlemen was stopped and hindered by them. And especiallie sir Edmund Butler, who in all things which tended to the quéenes maiesties profit or com|mon-wealth, Sir Edmund Butler misli|keth with the parlement. he was a principall against it: fearing that their capteinries should be taken awaie, and coine, and liuerie be abolished, and such other like disorders redressed, which he and his complices misli|king, it did euen open it selfe of a rebellion then a brewing and towards. Which in déed followed. For immediatlie after the parlement, he returned home with a discontented mind, and gathered his forces, and followed his purpose. But to the purpose.

There were two billes put in of moment & great consequence. The one was concerning the repeale The repeale of Poining [...] act. of an act for that sessions, onelie made in the time of sir Edward Poinings lord deputie, in the tenth yere of king Henrie the seuenth, which though it were meant most for their owne benefit and common|wealth of that realme: yet so gelous they were, that they would not in long time enter into the conside|ration thereof. The other was for the granting of the impost for wines then first read. And in this mat|ter The act for imposts of wines. they shewed themselues verie froward & so vn|quiet, that it was more like a bearebaiting of disor|dered persons, than a parlement of wise and graue men. Wherewith a certeine English gentleman (the writer hereof) being a burgesse of the towne of Athenrie in Connagh, who had before kept silence, and still so meant to haue doone; when he saw these foule misorders and ouerthwarting, being gréeued, stood vp, and praied libertie to speake to the bill, who made a preamble, saieng, that it was an vsage in Pithagoras schooles, that no scholers of his should for certeine yeares reason, dispute, or determine, but giue eare and keepe silence: meaning that when a man is once well instructed, learned, and aduised, and hath well deliberated of the things he hath to do, he should with more discretion and wisdome, speake, order, and direct the same. Notwithstanding, now he being but a man of small experience, and of lesse knowledge in matters of importance, and therefore once minded to haue beene altogither silent, is in|forced euen of a verie zeale and conscience, and for the discharge of his dutie, to praie their patience, and to beare with his speeches. And then vpon occasion of the bill read, and matter offered, he entred into the discourse what was the office & authoritie of a prince, and what was the dutie of a subiect: and lastlie, how the queenes maiestie had most honorablie and care|fullie performed the one, and how vndutifullie they had considered the other: for that she neither found that obedience in that land, which still liued in rebelli|on against hir; neither that beneuolence of the bet|ter sort, which for hir great expenses spent for their defenses and safeties they ought to haue yéelded vn|to hir. It appeered manifest in sundrie things, and speciallie in this present assemblie, namelie one bill concerning the repeale of Poinings act, for this time onelie meant for your owne benefit, and for the common-wealth of this realme: and the other con|cerning the bill now in question, the one by you de|nied, and the other liketh you not. And yet hir ma|iestie, of hir owne roiall authoritie, might and may establish the same without anie of your consents, as she hath alreadie doone the like in England; sauing of hir courtesse it pleaseth hir to haue it passe with your owne consents by order of law, that she might thereby haue the better triall and assurance of your EEBO page image 121 dutifulnesse and goodwill towards hir. But as she hath and dooth find your bent farre otherwise, so dooth the right honorable the lord deputie find the like. For notwithstanding his long seruices in times past, his continuall and dailie trauels, iorneies, and hastings, with the great perill of his life against the rebels for your sake and safetie; and his endlesse turmoiles and troubles in ciuill matters and priuat sutes for your quietnesse, and to you well known, he hath de|serued more than well at your hands: yet as the vn|thankfull Israelites against Moses, the vnkind Ro|mans against Camillus, Scipio, and others: and as the vngratefull Atheniens against Socrates, The|mistocles, Meltiades, and others; you haue and doo most vngratfullie requite and recompense this your noble gouernor: against whome and his dooings you doo kicke and spurne what in you lieth. But in the end it will fall vpon you, as it hath doone vnto others to your owne shame, ouerthrow, and confusion. And when he had spent a long time in this matter, and prooued the same by sundrie histories of other nati|ons, he procéeded to the bill, which by sundrie reasons and arguments he prooued to be most necessarie, and méet to be liked, allowed, and consented vnto.

Now when he had thus ended his spéeches, he sat downe, the most part of the house verie well liking and allowing both of the person and of the matter; sauing the persons before named, who did not heare the same so attentiuelie as they did digest it most vnquietlie, supposing themselues to be touched here|in. And therfore some one of them rose vp and would haue answered the partie, but the time and daie was so far spent aboue the ordinarie houre, being well néere two of the clocke in the afternoone, that the speker and the court rose vp and departed. How|beit such was the present murmurings and threat|nings breathed out, that the said gentleman for his safetie was by some of the best of that assemblie con|ducted to the house of sir Peter Carew, where the said gentleman then laie and resided. The lord depu|tie in the meane time, hearing that the lower house were so close, and continued togither so long aboue the ordinarie time, he doubted that it had béene con|cerning the questions before proponed, and therefore did secretlie send to the house to learne and know the cause of their long sitting. But by commande|ment of the speaker, order was giuen to the doore|kéepers, that the doores should be close kept, & none to be suffered to come in or out, so long as the gen|tleman was in deliuerie of his speeches; and after the court was ended, it was aduertised to the said lord deputie, who thanked God that had raised vp vn|knowen fréends vnto him in that place.

The next daie following being fridaie, assoone as the court of the lower house was set, sir Christopher Barnewell, and the lawiers of the English pale, who had conferred togither of the former daies spéeches, stood vp and desired hearing: who leauing the matter in question, did in most disorderlie man|ner inueigh against the said gentleman, affirming, anouching, and protesting, that if the words spoken had béene spoken in anie other place than in the said house, they would rather haue died than haue borne withall. Wherevpon the speaker by consent of the residue of the house commanded them to silence, and willed that if they had anie matter against the said gentleman, they should present and bring it in writing against mondaie then next following. And for somuch as their dealings then were alto|gither disordered, being more like to a bearebaiting of lose persons than an assemblie of wise and graue men in parlement; motion and request was made to the speaker, that he should reforme those abuses and disordered behauiours; who not onelie promised so to doo, but also praied assistance, aduise, and coun|sell for his dooings therein, of such as were acquain|ted with the orders of the parlements in England. A booke of the orders of a parlement house imprin|ted for Ire|land. Which was promised vnto him and performed, and also promised that a booke of the orders of the parle|ments vsed in England should in time be set forth in print, which the said gentleman did, and presented & bestowed the same among them in forme following.

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