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18.2. ¶ The order and vsage how to keepe a parlement in England in these daies, collected by Iohn Vowell aliàs Hooker gentleman, one of the citizens for the citie of Excester at the parlement holden at Westminster, Anno Do|mini 1571, & Elisabethae Reg. decimo tertio and the like vsed in hir maiesties realme of Ireland.

¶ The order and vsage how to keepe a parlement in England in these daies, collected by Iohn Vowell aliàs Hooker gentleman, one of the citizens for the citie of Excester at the parlement holden at Westminster, Anno Do|mini 1571, & Elisabethae Reg. decimo tertio and the like vsed in hir maiesties realme of Ireland.

And here you must note, that what the kings and queenes of England do in their persons in Eng|land, the same is done in Ireland by the lord de|putie, and who in the like parlement robes and vnder the like cloth of estate representeth hir maiestie there in all things.

18.2.1. By whom and for what cause a parle|ment ought to be summoned and called.

By whom and for what cause a parle|ment ought to be summoned and called.

_THe king, who is Gods annointed, being the head and chiefe of the whole realme, and vpon whom the gouernement and estates thereof doo wholie and onelie de|pend, hath the power and authoritie to call and as|semble his parlement, and therein to séeke and aske the aduise, counsell, & assistance of his whole realme, and without this his authoritie no parlement can properlie be summoned or assembled. And the king, hauing this authoritie, ought not to summon his parlement but for weightie and great causes, and in which he of necessitie ought to haue the aduise and counsell of all the estates of his realme, which be these and such like as foloweth.

First for religion, forsomuch as by the lawes of God and this realme, the king next and immediat|lie vnder God is his deputie and vicar in earth, and the chiefest ruler within his realms and dominions: his office, function, and dutie is, aboue all things to seeke and sée that God be honored in true religion and vertue, and that he and his people doo both in pro|fession and life liue according to the same.

Also that all idolatries, false religions, heresies, schismes, errors, superstitions, & whatsoeuer is con|trarie to true religion, all disorders and abuses, ei|ther among the cleargie or laitie, be reformed, orde|red, and redressed.

Also the assurance of the kings and queenes per|sons, and of their children, their aduancement & pre|ferment in mariages, the establishing of succession, the suppression of traitors, the auoiding or eschew|ing of warres, the attempting or moouing of wars, the subduing of rebels, and pacifieng of ciuill wars and commotions, the leuieng or hauing anie aid or subsidie for the preseruation of the king and publike estate: also the making and establishing of good and wholesome lawes, or the repealing and debatting of former lawes, as whose execution may be hurtfull or preiudiciall to the estates of the prince or com|monwealth.

For these and such like causes, being of great weight, charge and importance, the king (by the ad|uise of his councell) may call and summon his high court of parlement, and by the authoritie therof esta|blish and order such good lawes and orders as then shall be thought most expedient and necessarie.

18.2.2. The order and maner how to summon the parlement.

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The order and maner how to summon the parlement.

THe king ought to send out his writs of sum|mons to all the estates of his realme, at least fortie daies before the beginning of the parlement; first to all his lords and barons, that is to wit, arch|bishops, bishops, dukes, marquesses, earls, vicounts and barons; and euerie of these must haue a speciall writ. Then to the clergie, and the writ of their sum|mons must be addressed to euerie particular bishop for the clergie of his diocesse. All these writs which are for the clergie, the king alwaies sendeth to the archbishops of Canturburie and Yorke, and by them they are sent and dispersed abroad to euerie particu|lar bishop within their seuerall prouinces, and so the bishops giue summons to the clergie.

Lastlie, for the summoning of the commons, he sendeth his writ to the lord warden of the fiue ports, for the election of the barons thereof, and to euerie seuerall shiriffe for the choise and election of knights, citizens, and burgesses within his countie.

18.2.3. How and what persons ought to be chosen for the clergie, and of their allowances.

How and what persons ought to be chosen for the clergie, and of their allowances.

THe bishop ought vpon the receipt of the writ sent vnto him for the summoning of his clergie, foorthwith to summon and warne all deanes and archdeacons within his diocesse to appéere in proper person at the parlement, vnlesse they haue some suf|ficient and reasonable cause of absence, in which case he may appéere by his proctor, hauing a warrant or proxie for the same.

Then must he also send the like summons to the deane and chapter of his cathedrall church, who shall foorthwith assemble their chapter, and make choise of some one of themselues to appéere in their behalfe, and this man thus chosen must haue their commissi|on or proxie.

He must also send out his summons to euerie archdeaconrie and peculiar, requiring that the whole clergie doo appeere before him, his chancellor or offi|cer, at a certeine daie, time, and place: who being so assembled, shall make choise and election of two men of the said clergie to appéere for them, and these shall haue their commission or proxie for the same.

These proctors thus to be chosen ought to be graue, wise, and learned men, being professors either of di|uinitie or of the ecclesiasticall lawes; and that can, will, and be able to dispute in cause of controuersie, conuincing of heresies, appeasing of schismes, and de|uising of good and godlie constitutions concerning true religion and orders of the church.

These proctors (thus elected) ought to haue resona|ble allowances for their charges, according to the state, qualitie, or condition of the person, as also a re|spect had to the time. The proctors of the deane and chapter are to be paid out of the excheker of the ca|thedrall church. The proctors of the clergie are to be paid of the clergie, among whom a collection is to be leuied for the same, according to an old order vsed a|mong them.

18.2.4. How and whatmaner of knights, ci|tizens, and burgesses ought to be chosen, and of their allowances.

How and whatmaner of knights, ci|tizens, and burgesses ought to be chosen, and of their allowances.

THe shiriffe of euerie countie, hauing receiued his writs, ought foorthwith to send his precepts and summons to the maiors, bailiffes, and head offi|cers of euerie citie, towne corporate, borough, and such places as haue béene accustomed to send bur|gesses within his countie, that they doo choose and e|lect among themselues two citizens for euerie citie, and two burgesses for euerie borough, according to their old custome and vsage. And these head officers ought then to assemble themselues & the aldermen and common councell of euerie citie or towne, and to make choise among themselues of two able and sufficient men of euerie citie or towne, to serue for and in the said parlement.

Likewise at the next countie daie to be holden in the said countie after the receipt of this writ, the shi|riffe ought openlie in the court of his shire or coun|tie, betwéene the houres of eight and nine of the fore|noone, make proclamation; that euerie freeholder shall come into the court, and choose two sufficient men to be knights for the parlement; & then he must cause the writ to be openlie & distinctlie read. Where|vpon the said freeholders, then and there present, ought to choose two knights accordinglie, but he himselfe cannot giue anie voice, neither be chosen.

These elections aforesaid so past and doone, there ought to be seuerall indentures made betwéene the shiriffe & the fréeholders of the choise of the knights, and betwéene the maior and the head officers of eue|rie particular citie & towne of the choise of their ci|tizens & burgesses & of their names, & of their main|perners and suerties. Of these indentures, the one part being sealed by the shiriffe, ought to be retur|ned to the clerke of the parlement; and the other part of the indentures, sealed by such as made choise of the knights, & such as made choise of the citizens & bur|gesses vnder the seuerall common seales of their ci|ties and townes, ought to remaine with the shiriffe, or rather with the parties so elected and chosen.

The charges of euerie knight and citizen was woont to be a like, which was thirtéene shillings and foure pence by the daie: but now by the statute it is but eight shillings, that is, to euerie knight and eue|rie citizen foure shillings, and to euerie burgesse the old vsage to haue fiue shillings: but now it is but thrée shillings and foure pence limited by the sta|tute, which allowance is to be giuen from the first daie of their iourneie towards the parlement, vntill the last daie of their returne from thense. Prouided, that euerie such person shall be allowed for so manie daies as by iourneieng six and twentie miles euerie daie in the winter, and thirtie miles in the summer, he may come & returne to and from the parlement.

In choise of these knights, citizens, and burgesses, good regard is to be had that the lawes and customs of the realme be herein kept and obserued: for none ought to be chosen, vnlesse he be resiant and dwel|ling within the shire, citie, or towne for which he is chosen. And he ought to be graue, wise, learned, skilfull, and of great experience in causes of policie, and of such audacitie as both can and will boldlie vt|ter and speake his mind according to dutie, and as occasion shall serue; for no man ought to be silent or dum in that house, but according to his talent he must and ought to speake in the furtherance of the king and commonwealth.

And the knights also ought to be skilfull in mar|tiall affaires, and therfore the words of the writs are that such should be chosen for knights as be Cincti gladio: not bicause they shall come into the parle|ment house in armour, or with their swords: but bi|cause they should be such as haue good experience and knowledge in feats of warre and martiall affaires, whereby they may in such cases giue the king and relme good aduise and counsell. Likewise they ought to be laie men, and of good fame, honestie, and credit, being not outlawed, excommunicated, or periured, or otherwise infamous: for such persons ought not to haue place or be admitted into the parlement house.

18.2.5. The degrees of the parlement.

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The degrees of the parlement.

IN times past there were six degrées or estates of the parlement, which euerie of them had their seue|rall officers and ministers of attendance; but now the same are reduced into foure degrées.

The first is the king, who in his personage is a full and whole degrée of himselfe, and without whom no|thing can be doone.

The second degree is of the lords of the clergie and of the temporaltie, and are all called by the names of barons.

The third is of knights, citizens, and burgesses, & these be called by the names of the communaltie.

The fourth is of the clergie, which are called by the name of conuocation, & these persons haue no voice in the parlement; neither can they doo anie thing o|ther than to intreat in causes of religion, which from them is to be commended to other estates.

18.2.6. Of the places and houses of the parlement.

Of the places and houses of the parlement.

AS it lieth in the king to assigne and appoint the time when the parlement shall begin, so that he giue at the least fortie daies summons: so likewise he maie name and appoint the place where it shall be kept. But wheresoeuer it be kept, the old vsage and maner was, that all the whole degrees of the parle|ment sat togither in one house; and euerie man that had there to speake, did it openlie before the king and his whole parlement. But here of did grow manie inconueniences, and therfore to auoid the great con|fusions which are in such great assemblies, as also to cut off the occasions of displeasures which estsoones did happen, when a meane man speaking his consci|ence fréelie, either could not be heard, or fell into the displeasure of his betters; and for sundrie other great gréefs, did diuide this one house into thrée houses, that is to wit, the higher house, the lower house, and the conuocation house.

In the first sitteth the king, and his lords spirituall and temporall, called by the name of barons, and this house is called the higher house.

The second is where the knights, citizens and bur|gesses doo sit, and they be called by the name of com|mons, and this house is called the lower house.

The third is, where the prelats and the proctors of the cleargie, being called by the name of the cleargie, and this house is called the conuocation house. Of euerie of these houses, their orders and of ficers, we will bréeflie subnect and declare particular|lie in order as followeth.

18.2.7. Of the higher house.

Of the higher house.

THe higher house (as is said) is where the king and his barons doo sit in parlement, where the king sitteth highest, and the lords & barons beneath him, each man in his degrée: the order is this. The house is much more in length than in breadth, and the higher end thereof in the middle is the kings seat or throne hanged richlie with cloth of estate, and there the king sitteth alwaies alone. On his right hand there is a long bench next to the wall of the house, which reacheth not so farre vp as the kings seat, and vpon this sit the archbishops and bishops, euerie one in his degrée. On his left hand there are two like benches, vpon the inner sit the dukes, marquesses, earles and vicounts. On the other, which is the hin|dermost & next to the wall, sit all the barons euerie man in his degree. In the middle of the house, be|twéene the archbishops seat and the dukes seat, sit|teth the speaker, who commonlie is lord chancellor, or keeper of the great seale of England, or the lord chiefe iustice of England, as pleaseth the king, who dooth appoint him: and he hath before him his two clerks sitting at a table before them, vpon which they doo write and laie their bookes. In the middle roome beneath them sit the chiefe iustices and iudges of the realme, the barons of the excheker, the kings serge|ants, and all such as be of the kings learned councell, either in the common lawes of the realme, or of the ecclesiasticall laws, and all these sit vpon great wooll sacks, couered with red cloth.

At the lower end of all these seats is a barre or raile, betwéene which & the lower end of the house is a void roome seruing for the lower house, and for all sutors that shall haue cause and occasion to repaire to the king or to the lords. This house as it is distinct from the others, so there be distinct officers to the same belonging and apperteinng, which all be assig|ned and appointed by the king, and all haue allowan|ces for their charges at the kings hands, of which of|ficers what they are, what is euerie of their offices, and what allowances they haue, shall be written in order hereafter.

18.2.8. Of the officers of the higher house, and first of the speaker, and of his office.

Of the officers of the higher house, and first of the speaker, and of his office.

THe chéefest officer of the higher house is the spea|ker, who is appointed by the king, and common|lie he is the lord chancelor or keeper of the great seale, or lord chéefe iustice of England, his office consisteth in diuerse points.

First, he must on the first daie of the parlement make his oration in the higher house, before the king, his lords and commons; and then and there de|clare the causes why the king hath summoned that parlement, exhorting and aduising euerie man to doo his office and dutie, in such sort as maie be to the glo|rie of God, honor of the king, and benefit of the com|monwealth.

Also he must make one other oration, but in waie of answer to the speakers oration, when he is presen|ted to the king.

Likewise he must make the like on the last daie of the parlement. And you shall vnderstand, that vpon these three daies he standeth on the right hand of the king neere to his seat, at a barre there appointed for him; but at all other times he sitteth in the middle of the house, as is before said.

When he hath ended his oration vpon the first day, he must giue order vnto the lower house in the kings behalfe, willing them to repaire vnto their house, and there (according to their ancient orders and cu|stoms) make choise of their speaker.

All bils presented vnto the higher house he must receiue, which he hath foorthwith to deliuered vnto the clearks to be safelie kept.

All bils he must cause to be read twise before they be ingrossed, and being read thrée times he must put the same to question.

If anie bill put to question doo passe with their con|sent, then the same must be sent to the lower house, vnlesse it came first from thense, and in that case it must be kept vntill the end of the parlement.

If anie bill be denied, impugned, and cléere ouer|throwne, the same is no more to be thensefoorth re|ceiued.

If any bill be put to question, & it be doubtfull whe|ther side is the greater, & giueth most voices; then he must cause the house to be diuided, and then iudge of the bill according to the greater number.

If anie bill be vnperfect, or requireth to be amen|ded, he must choose a certeine number of that house, as he shall thinke good, and to them commit that bill to be reformed and amended.

EEBO page image 124 If anie bill or message be to be sent to the lower house, it is his office to make choise of two of the kings learned councell there being, to be the messen|gers thereof.

If any bill or message be sent from the lower house, he must come from his place to the bar, and there re|ceiue the same; and being returned to his place, and euerie stranger or messenger departed, he must dis|close the same to the lords.

Item, if anie disorder be committed or doone in the house by anie lord or other person, he ought with the aduise of the lords to reforme the same: but if it be a|mong the lords, and they will not be reformed, then he must foorthwith aduertise the king.

Item, he ought at the beginning of the parlement, to call by name all the lords of the parlement, & like|wise at other times as he séeth occasion, whose de|faults ought to be recorded, & they to paie their fines, vnlesse they be dispensed withall by speciall licence from the king, or haue some iust and reasonable cause of absence.

Item, he must see and cause the clearks to make true entries & true records of all things doone there, and to see that the clearks doo giue and deliuer the copies of all such bils there read, to such as demand for the same.

Item, he shall keepe the secrets, & cause & command euerie man of ech degrée in that house to doo the like.

Also he ought not to go anie where, but the gentle|man sergeant ought to attend vpon him, going be|fore him with his mace, vnlesse he be the lord chan|cellor, for then he hath a sergeant of his owne.

His allowance that he hath is at the kings char|ges.

Also for euerie priuat bill that passeth and is enac|ted, he hath ten pounds for his part.

18.2.9. Of the chancellor of the higher house.

Of the chancellor of the higher house.

THe chancellor is the principall clearke of the higher house, and his charge is safelie to kéepe the records of the parlement, & the acts which be past.

All such statutes as be enacted, he must send to the kings seuerall courts of records to be inrolled, as namelie the Chancerie, the Kings bench, the Com|mon plees, and the Excheker.

All such acts as are to be imprinted, he must send to the printer.

All such priuat acts as are not imprinted, if anie man will haue the same exemplified, he must trans|mit the same to the lord chancellor to be ingrossed and sealed, and for the same he to take the fees ap|pointed and accustomed.

He hath for his allowance an ordinarie fée for terme of life of the king.

18.2.10. Of the clearks of the parlement.

Of the clearks of the parlement.

THere be two clearks, the one named the clearke of the parlement, & the other named the clearke of the crowne. The clearke of the parlement his of|fice is to sit before the lord speaker, and to read such bils presented as he shall be commanded.

He must kéepe true records, and true entries of all things there doone and to be entred.

If anie require a copie of anie bill there, he ought to giue the same, receiuing the ordinarie fees.

If anie bill after his ordinarie readings be to be in|grossed, he must doo it.

The councell of the house he maie not disclose.

At the end of the parlement he must deliuer vp vnto the chancellor all the acts and records of that house, sauing he may keepe a transumpt and a copie thereof to himselfe.

He hath his allowance of the king.

Also for euerie priuat bill which is enacted, he hath thrée pounds.

Also for euerie bill whereof he giueth a copie, he hath for euerie ten lines a penie, according to the custome.

¶ The clearke of the crowne, his office is to supplie the place and roome of the clearke of the parlement in his absence, & hath in all things the like charges and profits as the clearke ought to haue.

He must giue his attendance to the higher house from time to time, & doo what shall be inioined him.

All such acts as be not imprinted, if anie man will haue them exemplified vnder the brode seale, he must exemplifie them, and haue for the same his or|dinarie fées.

These two clearks, at the end of the parlement, ought to be present in the house, and within the lower bar at a boord before them, their faces towards the king: and there the one must read the bils which are past both houses, and the other must read the consent or disagréement of the king.

18.2.11. Of the sergeants or porters of the higher house.

Of the sergeants or porters of the higher house.

THere is but one sergeant, which hath the charge of keeping of the doores: for though there be di|uerse doores, yet the kéepers thereof are at his as|signment.

He ought to sée the house be cleane & kept swéet.

He ought not to suffer anie maner of person to be within the house, so long as the lords be there sitting, other than such as be of the learned councell, and of that house; and except also such as come in message from the lower house with bils or otherwise, and ex|cept also such as be sent for, and be admitted to haue anie thing there to doo.

Also he must attend and go alwaies with his mace before the speaker, vnlesse he be lord chancellor, or kéeper of the great seale: for then he hath a serge|ant of his owne.

He ought to kéepe safelie such prisoners as be com|manded to his ward, and to fetch or send for such as he shall be commanded to fetch.

This porter or sergeant hath (besides his ordinarie fée) a standing allowance for euerie daie of the parle|ment.

Also he hath for euerie priuat bill which is enacted, fortie shillings.

Also he hath for euerie prisoner committed to his ward, a certeine allowance for his fées.

Also he hath of euerie baron or lord of that house, a certeine reward.

18.2.12. Of the lower house.

Of the lower house.

THe lower house (as is said) is a place distinct from the others, it is more of length than of breadth, it is made like a theater, hauing foure rowes of seates one aboue an other round about the same. At the higher end in the middle of the lower row, is a seat made for the speaker, in which he al|waies sitteth: before it is a table boord, at which sit|teth the clarke of the house, and therevpon laieth his bookes, and writeth his records. Upon the lower row on both sides the speaker, sit such personages as be of the kings priuie councell, or of his chiefe of|ficers; but as for anie other, none claimeth, nor can claime anie place; but sitteth as he commeth, sauing that on the right hand of the speaker, next beneath the said councels, the Londoners, and the citizens of Yorke doo sit, and so in order should sit all the citi|zens accordinglie. Without this house is one other, EEBO page image 125 in which the vnder clearks doo sit, as also such as be sutors and attendant to that house. And when soeuer the house is diuided vpon anie bill, then the roome is voided; and the one part of the house commeth downe into this to be numbered.

18.2.13. The office of the speaker of the lower house.

The office of the speaker of the lower house.

THe chiefe or principall officer of this house is the speaker, and is chosen by the whole house, or the more part of them; he himselfe being one of the same number, and a man for grauitie, wise|dome, experience, and learning, chosen to supplie that office, during the time of the parlement; and is to be presented to the king the third daie folowing.

His office is to direct and guide that house in good order; and to sée the ordinances, vsages, and customs of the same to be firmelie kept and obserued.

When he is presented vnto the king, sitting in his estate roiall in the parlement house for the purpose, he must then and there make his oration in com|mendation of the lawes and of the parlement; which doone, then he hath (in the name of the house of the commons) to make to the king three requests.

First, that it maie please his maiestie to grant, that the commons assembled in the parlement, may haue and inioie the ancient priuileges, customes, and liberties, as in times past haue apperteined, and béene vsed in that house.

Then, that euerie one of that house maie haue li|bertie of spéech, and fréelie to vtter, speake, and de|clare his mind and opinion to anie bill or question to be proponed.

Also, that euerie knight, citizen, and burgesse, and their seruants, maie haue free comming and going to and from the said parlement, as also during the said time of parlement; & that they, nor anie of their seruants or retinue to be arrested, molested, sued, imprisoned, or troubled by anie person or persons.

And lastlie, that if he or anie other of that com|panie, béeing sent or come to him of anie message, and doo mistake himselfe in dooing thereof; that his maiestie will not take the aduantage thereof, but gratiouslie pardon the same.

He must haue good regard, and sée that the clearke doo enter and make true records, and safelie to kéepe the same, and all such bils as be deliuered into that house.

He must on the first and third daie, and when soe|uer he else will, call the house by name, and record their defaults.

All bils, to be brought and to be presented into that house, he must receiue & deliuer to the clearke.

He ought to cause and command the clearke to reade the bils brought in, plainelie, and sensiblie; which doone, he must bréeflie recite and repeat the ef|fect and meaning thereof.

Of the bils brought in he hath choise, which and when they shall be read: vnlesse order by the whole house be taken in that behalfe.

Euerie bill must haue thrée readings, and after the second reading he must cause the clearke to in|grosse the same, vnlesse the same be reiected and da|shed.

If anie bill or message be sent from the lords, he ought to cause the messengers to bring the same vn|to him, and he to receiue the same openlie; and they being departed and gone, he ought to disclose and open the same to the house.

If when a bill is read, diuerse doo rise at one instant to speake to the same, and it cannot be discerned who rose first; then shall he appoint who shall speake: ne|uerthelesse, euerie one shall haue his course to speake if he list.

If anie speake to a bill and be out of the matter, he shall put him in remembrance, and will him to come to the matter.

If anie bill be read thrée times, and euerie man haue spoken his mind; then shall he aske the house whether the bill shall passe or not? saieng thus: As manie as will haue this bill passe in maner & forme as hath béene read; saie Yea: then the affirmatiue part saie Yea. As manie as will not haue this bill passe in maner and forme as hath beene read, saie No. If vpon this question the whole house, or the more part, doo affirme and allow the bill: then the same is to be sent to the higher house to the lords. But if the whole house, or the more part doo denie the bill; then the same is to be dashed out, and to be reiected: but if it be doubtfull vpon giuing voices, whether side is the greater; then must a diuision be made of the house, and the affirmatiue part must arise and depart into the vtter roome, which (by the sergeant) is voided before hand of all persons that were there. And then the speaker must assigne two or foure to number them first which sit within, and then the other which be without, as they doo come in, one by one: and as vpon the triall the bill shall be allowed or disallowed by the greater number: so to be aceepted as is before said.

If vpon this triall the number of either side be like, then the speaker shall giue his voice, and that onelie in this point; for otherwise he hath no voice.

Also if anie of the house doo misbehaue himselfe, & breake the order of the house: he hath to reforme, correct, and punish him, but yet with the aduise of the house.

If anie forren person doo enter into that house, the assemblie thereof being sitting, or doo by arresting anie one person thereof, or by anie other meanes breake the liberties and priuileges of that house, he ought to sée him to be punished.

Also during the time of the parlement, he ought to sequester himselfe from dealing or intermedling in anie publike or priuat affaires, and dedicat and bend himselfe wholie to serue his office and function.

Also he ought not to resort to anie noble man, councellor, or other person, to deale in anie of the par|lement matters: but must and ought to haue with him a competent number of some of that house, who maie be witnesses of his dooings.

Also during the time of parlement, he ought to haue the sergeant of armes with his mace to go be|fore him.

Also he hath libertie to send anie offendor, either to sergeants ward, or to the tower, or to anie other prison at his choise, according to the qualitie and quantitie of the offense.

He hath allowance for his diet one hundred pounds of the king for euerie sessions of parlement.

Also he hath for euerie priuat bill passed both hou|ses, and enacted, fiue pounds.

At the end, and on the last daie of the parlement, he maketh his oration before the king in most hum|ble maner, declaring the dutifull seruice and obedi|ence of the commons then assembled to his maie|stie: as also most humblie praieng his pardon, if a|nie thing haue beene doone amisse.

18.2.14. Of the clearke of the lower house.

Of the clearke of the lower house.

THere is onelie one clearke belonging to this house, his office is to sit next before the speaker at a table, vpon which he writeth & laieth his bookes.

He must make true entrie of the records and bils of the house, as also of all the orders thereof.

The bils appointed vnto him by the speaker to be EEBO page image 126 read: he must read openlie, plainelie, and sensiblie.

The billes which are to be ingrossed, he must doo it.

If anie of the house aske the sight of anie bill there, or of the booke of the orders of the house; he hath to deliuer the same vnto him.

If anie desire to haue the copie of anie bill, he ought to giue it him, receiuing for his paines after ten lines a pennie.

He maie not be absent at anie time of sitting, without speciall licence.

He ought to haue for euerie priuat bill passed and enacted, fortie shillings.

He hath allowed vnto him for his charges (of the king) for euerie sessions, ten pounds.

18.2.15. Of the sergeant or porter of the lower house.

Of the sergeant or porter of the lower house.

THe sergeant of this house is commonlie one of the kings sergeants at armes, and is appoin|ted to this office by the king. His office is to kéepe the doores of the house: and for the same he hath o|thers vnder him, for he himselfe kéepeth the doore of the inner house, where the commons sit, and séeth the same to be cleane.

Also he maie not suffer anie to enter into this house, during the time of the sitting there; vnlesse he be one of the house, or be sent from the king or the lords, or otherwise licenced to come in.

If anie such person doo come, he ought to bring him in, going before him with his mace vpon his shoulder.

If anie be committed to his ward, he ought to take charge of him, and to kéepe him in safetie vn|till he be required for him.

If he be sent for anie person, or to go in anie mes|sage, he must leaue a substitute behind him, to doo his office in his absence.

He must alwaies attend the speaker, and go be|fore him, carieng his mace vpon his shoulder.

His allowance (during the time of the parlement) is twelue pence the daie of the kings charges.

Also he hath of euerie knight and citizen, two shillings six pence; and of euerie burgesse, two shil|lings.

If anie be commanded to his ward, he hath of euerie such prisoner, by the daie, six shillings and eight pence.

If anie priuat bill doo passe and be enacted, he hath for euerie such bill, twentie shillings.

18.2.16. Of the conuocation house.

Of the conuocation house.

THe conuocation house is the assemblie of the whole clergie, at and in some peculiar place ap|pointed for the purpose.

But as the barons and lords of the parlement haue their house seuerall and distinct from the com|mons: euen so the archbishops and bishops doo se|quester themselues, and haue a house seuerall from the residue of the clergie. And this their house is cal|led the higher conuocation house, the other being named the lower conuocation house. Both these houses haue their seuerall officers, orders, and vsa|ges; and each officer hath his peculiar charge and function; as also certeine allowances, euen as is vsed in the parlement houses of the lords and com|mons.

The archbishops and bishops doo sit all at a ta|ble, and doo discourse all such causes and matters as are brought in question before them, either of their owne motions, or from the higher court of parle|ment, or from the lower house of conuocation, or from anie priuat person. Euerie archbishop and bi|shop sitteth & taketh place according to his estate and degrée, which degrees are knowne by such degrées & offices in the church as to euerie of them is assigned: for one hath the personage of a priest, an other of a deacon, this is a subdeacon, he is a sexton, and so foorth, as such officers were woont to be in the church.

The bishops doo not sit at forenoone, but onelie at afternoone, because they, being barons of the higher house of parlement, doo resort and assemble themselues there at the forenoones with the tempo|rall lords.

The conuocation house of the rest of the clergie doo obserue in a manner the like orders as the lower house of the commons doo vse. For being assembled togither on the first daie, with the bishops, are by them willed to make choise of a speaker for them, whom they call the proloquutor: when they haue cho|sen him, they doo present him vnto the bishops: and he thus presented, maketh his oration, and dooth all things as the speaker of the lower house for the com|mons dooth, as well for the ordering of the clergie & of the house, as for the order in sitting, the order in speaking, the order of recording things doone a|mong them, and all other such like things.

And this is to be vnderstood, that the whole cler|gie can deale and intreat but onlie of matters of re|ligion, and orders of the church, which their dooings and conclusions can not bind the whole realme, vn|lesse they be confirmed by act of parlement: but yet sufficient to bind the whole clergie to the kéeping thereof; so that the king (who is the supreme gouer|nor of both estates) doo consent and confirme the same. And forsomuch as by knowing the orders of the parlement house, you may also know the orders of both the conuocation houses, which are like & cor|respondent to the others: these shall suffice for this matter.

18.2.17. Of extraordinarie persons which ought to be summoned to the parlement.

Of extraordinarie persons which ought to be summoned to the parlement.

BEsides the personages of the former degrées, which ought to be summoned to the parlement: the king also must warne and summon all his coun|cellors both of the one law and of the other; and these haue their places onelie in the higher house, name|lie the two chéefe iustices and their associats of the kings bench and the common plées, the barons of the excheker, the sergeants, the attorneie, the sollici|tor, the maister of the rolles, and his fellows of the chancerie.

The offices of these personages are to giue coun|cell to the king and parlement, in euerie doubtfull cause according to the lawes.

Also if anie bill be conceiued and made disorderlie, they ought to amend and reforme the same, vpon or|der and commandement to them giuen.

Also they must attend to come and go at the com|mandement of the king and parlement.

Also they may not speake nor giue aduise, but when they be asked and put to question.

Also they haue no voice in parlement, because they are commonlie councellors to the same.

They are all reteined at the kings charges.

Likewise all officers of the parlement are to be summoned, as namelie the chancellor of the parle|ment, the clerks, the sergeants, the porters, and such others, who likewise are reteined at the kings costs. Of their offices and charges it is alreadie particu|larlie declared.

18.2.18. Of the daies and houres to sit in parlement.

EEBO page image 127
Of the daies and houres to sit in parlement.

ALl daies of the wéeke are appointed, sauing and excepted the sundaies and all principall feasts, as namelie the feast of Alhallowes daie, Christmas, Easter, Whitsuntide, and saint Iohn the baptists daie, and also such other daies as the parlement by consent shall appoint and assigne.

The beginning is at eight of the clocke in the mor|ning, and dooth continue vntill eleuen of the clocke.

They doo not sit at afternoones, for those times are reserued for committées and the conuocation house.

In the morning they beginne with the common praier and the letanie, which are openlie read in the house.

18.2.19. Of the king, his office and authoritie.

Of the king, his office and authoritie.

HAuing declared of all the estates, degrees, and personages of the parlement, it resteth now to speake also of the king, and of his office, who is all in all, the beginning and ending, and vpon whome res|teth and dependeth the effect & substance of the whole parlement. For without him and his authoritie no|thing can be doone, and with it all things take effect. Neuerthelesse, when he calleth & assembleth his par|lement, there are sundrie orders which of him are to be obserued, and which he ought to see to be kept and executed; or else the parlement ceasseth to be a parle|ment, and taketh not his effect, of which orders these be the chéefe which doo insue.

First, the king ought to send out his summons to all the estates of his realme, of a parlement, assig|ning and appointing the time, daie, and place.

Also his summons must be at the least fortie daies before the beginning of his parlement.

Also he must appoint and prouide all such officers as ought to attend the parlement, who must be found at his charges.

Also the king ought not to make anie choise, or cause anie choise to be made of any knight, citizens, burgesses, proctors of the clergie, speaker of the com|mon house, or proloquutor of the conuocation house: but they must be elected and chosen by the lawes, or|ders, and customs of the realme, as they were woont and ought to be, and the kings good aduise yet not to be contemned.

Also the king ought to grant, permit, and allow to all and euerie of the estates, and to euerie parti|cular man lawfullie elected, and come to the parle|ment, all and euerie the ancient freedoms, priuile|ges, immunities, and customs, during the parle|ment; as also during the times and daies, comming and going to and from the parlement: but yet the same humblie to be requested of his highnesse by the speaker in his oration at the beginning of the parle|ment.

Also the king in person ought to be present in the parlement thrée daies at the least, during the time of the parlement; that is to saie, the first daie, when the whole estates according to the summons make their appearance, which is called the first daie of the parle|ment. On the second daie, when the speaker of the common house is presented, which is counted the be|ginning of the parlement. And the third daie, which is the last day, when the parlement is proroged or dis|solued: for vpon these daies he must be present, vn|lesse in case of sicknes, or absence out of the realme, for in these cases the king may summon his parle|ment by commission, and the same is of as good ef|fect as if he were present in person: and as for anie other daies, he is at his choise and libertie to come or not to come to the parlement.

Also the king ought to propone to the parlement house in writing all such things & matters of charge, as for which he calleth the said parlement. And accor|dinglie as the same shall then by the consent of all estates be aduised, concluded, and agréed: so the king either hath to allow or disallow the same, for he can (of himselfe) neither adde nor diminish anie bill; but accept the same as it is presented vnto him from the estates of the parlement, or else altogither reiect it.

Also the king as he dooth prefix and assigne the daie and time when the parlement shall begin; so also he must assigne & appoint the time when the same shall be proroged or dissolued: which ought not to be as long as anie matters of charge, weight, or impor|tance be in question, and the same not decided nor determined.

18.2.20. Of the dignitie, power, and authoritie of the parlement, and of the orders of the same.

Of the dignitie, power, and authoritie of the parlement, and of the orders of the same.

THe parlement is the highest, cheefest, and great|est court that is or can be within the realme: for it consisteth of the whole realme, which is diuided in|to thrée estates; that is to wit, the king, the nobles, and the commons, euerie of which estates are subiect to all such orders as are concluded and established in parlement.

These thrée estates may iointlie and with one con|sent or agreement establish and enact anie lawes, or|ders, and statutes for the common wealth: but being diuided, and one swaruing from the other, they can doo nothing. For the king, though he be the head, yet alone can not make anie law; nor yet the king and his lords onelie, nor yet the king and his commons alone; neither yet can the lords and the commons without the king doo anie thing of auaile. And yet neuerthelesse, if the king in due order haue summo|ned all his lords and barons, and they will not come, or if they come they will not yet appéere; or if they come and appeere, yet will not doo or yéeld to any thing, then the king with the consent of his com|mons (who are represented by the knights, citizens, and burgesses) may ordeine and establish anie act or law, which are as good, sufficient, and effectuall, as if the lords had giuen their consents.

But of the contrarie, if the commons be summo|ned and will not come, or comming will not appéere, or appéering will not consent to doo anie thing, alle|ging some iust, weightie, and great cause; the king (in these cases) cannot with his lords deuise, make, or establish anie law, the reasons are these. When par|lements were first begun & ordeined, there were no prelats or barons of the parlement, and the tempo|rall lords were verie few or none, and then the king and his commons did make a full parlement, which authoritie was hitherto neuer abridged. Againe, e|uerie baron in parlement dooth represent but his owne person, and speaketh in the behalfe of himselfe alone.

But in the knights, citizens, and burgesses are represented the commons of the whole realme; and euerie of these giueth not consent onlie for himselfe, but for all those also for whome he is sent. And the king with the consent of his commons had euer a sufficient and full authoritie to make, ordeine, and e|stablish good and wholesome lawes for the common|wealth of his realme. Wherfore the lords being law|fullie summoned, and yet refusing to come, sit, or consent in parlement, can not by their follie abridge the king and the commons of their lawfull procée|ding in parlement.

The lords and commons in times past did sit all in one house, but for the auoiding of confusion they EEBO page image 128 be now diuided into two seuerall houses, and yet ne|uerthelesse they are of like and equall authoritie, eue|rie person of either of the said houses being named and counted a péere of the realme (for the time of the parlement) that is to saie, equall: for Par is equall. And therefore the opinion, censure, and iudgement of a meane burgesse, is of as great auaile as is the best lords, no regard being had to the partie who speaketh, but the matter that is spoken.

They be also called péers, as it were fathers, for Pier is a father, by which is meant that all such as be of the parlement should be ancient, graue, wise, ler|ned, and expert men of the land: for such were the se|nators of Rome, and called Patres conscripti, for the wisedome and care that was in them in gouerning of the common-wealth. They are also called coun|cellors, because they are assembled and called to the parlement for their aduise and good councell, in ma|king and deuising of such good orders and lawes as may be for the commonwealth.

They therefore which make choise of knights, citi|zens and burgesses, ought to be well aduised that they doo elect and choose such as being to be of that as|semblie, and thereby equall with the great estates, should be graue, ancient, wise, learned, expert and carefull men for their commonwealth, and who (as faithfull and trustie councellors) should doo that which should turne and be for the best commoditie of the commonwealth, otherwise they doo great iniurie to their prince and commonwealth.

Also euerie person of the parlement, during the times of the parlement, and at his comming and go|ing from the same, is frée from all troubles, arrests and molestations: no action or sute taking effect which during that time is begun, entred, or commen|sed against him, in what court so euer the same be, except in causes of treason, murther, and fellonie, and except also executions in law, awarded and granted before the beginning of the parlement.

Also euerie person hauing voices in parlement, hath free libertie of speach to speake his mind, opini|on, and iudgement, to anie matter proponed; or of himselfe to propone anie matter for the commodi|tie of the prince and of the commonwealth: but ha|uing once spoken to anie bill, he may speake no more for that time.

Also euerie person once elected & chosen a knight, citizen or burgesse, and returned, cannot be dismissed out of that house; but being admitted, shall haue his place and voice there, if he be a laieman. But if by errour a man of the cleargie be chosen, then he ought and shall be dismissed; also if he be excommu|nicated, outlawed, or infamous.

Also euerie one of these houses ought to be incor|rupt, no briber nor taker of anie rewards, gifts, or monie, either for deuising of anie bill, or for speaking of his mind; but to doo all things vprightlie, and in such sort as best is for the king and commonwealth.

Also euerie one ought to be of a quiet, honest and gentle behauiour; none taunting, checking, or misu|sing an other in anie vnséemelie words or deeds: but all affections set apart, to doo and indeuour in wise|dome, sobrietie and knowledge, that which that place requireth.

Also if anie one doo offendor misbehaue himselfe, he is to be corrected and punished by the aduise and order of the residue of the house.

Also all the prisons, wards, gailes, within the realme and the kéepers of the same are at the com|mandement of the parlement, for the custodie and safekeeping or punishment of all and euerie such pri|soners, as shall be sent to anie of them by the said parlement houses, or anie of them: howbeit most commonlie the tower of London is the prison which is most vsed.

Also if anie one of the parlement house be serued, sued, arrested, or attached by anie writ, attachment, or minister of the Kings bench, Common plees, Chancerie, or what court so euer within this realme: the partie so troubled and making complaint there|of to the parlement house: then foorthwith a sarge|ant at armes is sent to the said court, not onelie ad|uertising that the partie so molested is one of the parlement house; but also inhibiting and command|ing the officers of the said court to call in the said processe, and not to deale anie further against the said partie: for the parlement being the hiest court, all other courts as inferior yéeld and giue place to the same.

Also as euerie one of the parlement house is free for his owne person, for all manner of sutes to be commensed against him: so are also his seruants frée, and not to be troubled nor molested; but being troubled, haue the like remedie as the maister hath or may haue.

Also no manner of person, being not one of the parlement house, ought to enter or come within the house, as long as the sitting is there, vpon paine of imprisonment, or such other punishment as by the house shall be ordered and adiudged.

Also euerie person of the parlement ought to kéepe secret, and not to disclose the secrets and things spo|ken and doone in the parlement house, to anie man|ner of person, vnlesse he be one of the same house, vp|on paine to be sequestred out of the house, or other|wise punished, as by the order of the house shall be appointed.

Also none of the parlement house ought to depart from the parlement, without speciall leaue obteined of the speaker of the house, and the same his licence be also recorded.

Also no person, being not of the parlement house, ought to come into the same, during the time of the sitting: so euerie one comming into the same oweth a dutie and a reuerence, to be giuen when he entreth and commeth in.

If a baron or a lord come and enter into the high|er house, he ought to doo his obeisance before the cloth of estate, and so to take his place.

Also when he speaketh, he must stand bareheaded, and speake his mind plainlie, sensiblie, & in decent order.

If anie come in message or be sent for to the high|er house, they must staie at the inner doore vntill they be called in, and then being entred, must first make their obeisance; which doone, to go to the lower end of the house, and there to staie vntill they be called: and being called, they must first make one lowe courte|sie and obeisance, and going forwards must in the middle waie make one other lowe courtesie; and then being come foorth to the barre, must make the third courtesie; the like must be doone at the depar|ture.

Also when anie knight, citizen or burgesse dooth enter and come into the lower house, he must make his dutifull and humble obeisance at his entrie in: and then take his place. And you shall vnderstand, that as euerie such person ought to be graue, wise, and expert; so ought he to shew himselfe in his appa|rell. For in time past, none of the councellors of the parlement came otherwise than in his gowne, and not armed nor girded with weapon. For the parle|ment house is a place for wise, graue, and good men; to consult, debate, and aduise, how to make lawes and orders for the commonwealth, and not to be ar|med as men readie to fight, or to trie matters by the sword. And albeit the writ for the election of the knights haue expresse words to choose such for EEBO page image 129 knights as be girded with the sword: yet it is not meant thereby that they should come and sit armed, but be such as be skilfull in feats of armes, and be|sides their good aduises can well serue in martiall af|faires. And thus the Romane senators vsed, who being men of great knowledge and experience, as well in martiall affaires, as in politike causes, sat al|waies in the senat house and places of councell in their gownes and long robes. The like also was al|waies and hath béene the order in the parlements of this realme, as long as the ancient lawes, the old customes, and good orders thereof were kept and ob|serued.

Also if anie other person or persons, either in message or being sent for, d [...]o come: he ought to be brought in by the sergeant, and at the first entring must (following the sergeant) make one lowe obei|sance, and being past in the middle waie, must make one other; and when he is come before the speaker, he must make the third, and then do his message; the like order he must kéepe in his returne. But if he doo come alone, or with his learned councell, to plead a|nie matter, or to answer to anie obiection: he shall enter, and go no further than to the bar within the doore, and there to doo his three obeisances.

Also when anie bill is committed, the committées haue not authoritie to conclude, but onelie to order, reforme, examine, and amend the thing committed vnto them, and of their dooings they must giue re|port to the house againe, by whome the bill is to be considered.

Also euerie bill which is brought into the house, must be read three seuerall times, and vpon thrée se|uerall daies.

Also euerie bill, which vpon anie reading is com|mitted and returned againe, ought to haue his thrée readings, vnles the committées haue not altered the bill in anie substance or forme, but onelie in certeine words.

Also when anie bill vpon anie reading is altogi|ther by one consent reiected, or by voices after the third reading ouerthrown, it ought not to be brought anie more to be read, during the sessions of parle|ment.

Also if anie man doo speake vnto a bill, and be out of his matter; he ought to be put in remembrance of the matter by the speaker onelie and by none o|ther, and be willed to come to the matter.

Also whensoeuer anie person dooth speake to anie bill, he ought to stand vp, and to be bareheaded, and then with all reuerence, grauitie, and séemelie spéech to declare his mind. But whensoeuer anie bill shall be tried either for allowances, or to be reiected: then euerie one ought to sit, bicause he is then as a iudge.

Also euerie knight, citizen, and burgesse, before he doo enter into the parlement, and take his place there, ought to be sworne and to take his oth, ac|knowledging the king to be the supreme and onelie gouernour of all the estates within this realme, as also to renounce all forren potentates.

18.2.21. The order of the beginning and ending of the parlement.

The order of the beginning and ending of the parlement.

ON the first daie of the summons for the parle|ment, the king in proper person (vnlesse he be sicke or absent out of the realme) being apparelled in his roiall and parlement robes, ought to be conduc|ted and brought by all his barons of the cleargie and laitie, and the commons summoned to the parle|ment, vnto the church, where ought a sermon to be made by some archbishop, bishop, or some other fa|mous learned man. The sermon ended, he must in like order be brought to the higher house of parle|ment, and there to take his seat vnder the cloth of estate: likewise euerie lord and baron (in his degree) ought to take his place.

This doone, the lord chancellor, or he whom the king appointeth to be the speaker of that house, maketh his oration to the whole assemblie, declaring the cau|ses whie and wherefore that parlement is called and summoned, exhorting and persuading euerie man to doo his best indeuour in all such matters as shall be in the said parlement proponed, as shall be most ex|pedient for the glorie of God, the honor of the king, and the commonwealth of the whole realme. Then he directeth his talke vnto the knights, citizens, and burgesses, aduertising them that the kings pleasure is, that they doo repaire to their house; and there ac|cording to the old and ancient custome, doo choose and elect some one, wise, graue, and learned man among themselues to be speaker for them, and giueth them a daie when they shall present him to the king. And these things thus doone, the king ariseth, and euerie man departeth. This is accounted for the first daie of the parlement.

The second or third daie after, when the speaker is to be presented: the king with all his nobles (in like order as before) doo assemble againe in the high|er house, and then come vp all the commons of the lower house, and then and there doo present their spea|ker vnto the king. The speaker foorthwith maketh his dutifull obeisances; beginneth and maketh his ora|tion before the king, and prosecuteth such matters as occasion serueth, and as is before recited in the of|fice of the speaker; and this doone, euerie man depar|teth. And this is accounted for the beginning of the parlement, for before the speaker be presented, and these things orderlie doone, there can no bils be put in, nor matters be intreated of.

Lastlie when all matters of weight be discussed, ended, and determined, the king commandeth an end to be made. And that daie the king, his nobles, and commons doo againe assemble in the higher house in their robes, and in like order as is before re|cited, where the speaker maketh his oration, and is answered by the lord chancellor or speaker of the higher house. Then all the bils concluded and past in both houses, that is to saie, in the higher house of the lords, and in the lower house of the commons, are there read by the titles: and then the king giueth his consent or dissent to euerie of them as he thinketh good. And when the titles of all the bils are read, the lord chancellor or lord speaker, by the kings com|mandement, pronounceth the parlement to be pro|roged or cleane dissolued. And this is called the last daie or the end of the parlement, and euerie man is at libertie to depart homewards.

The mondaie following, sir Christopher Barne|well and his complices, hauing better considered of themselues, were quiet and contented, and the parle|ment begun with some troubles had his continu|ance and end with better successe. In the time of this parlement, and after the same, sundrie grieuous complaints were exhibited to the lord deputie and councell by the late wife of the deceased baron of Dunboin, Mac Brian Arra, Oliuer Fitzgirald, sir William Ocarell, and diuerse others the quéenes good subiects, against sir Edmund Butler and his brethren, for sundrie routs and riots, spoiles and out|rages Commissio|ners sent to heare the cõ|plaints made against the Butlers. which they were charged to haue doone vpon hir maiesties subiects. Wherevpon first letters and then commissioners were sent in to the counties of Kilkennie and Tiporarie for the hearing and redres|sing thereof: but they returned without dooing of a|nie thing. For sir Edmund, conceiuing some hard dealings to be meant toward him by the lord depu|tie, EEBO page image 131 and minding to stand vpon his defense and gard, did not appéere before the said commissioners, but both he and his brethren combined themselues with Iames Fitzmoris Odesmond, Mac Artie More, Mac Donagh, and the seneschall of Imokilie and o|thers The noble|men & gen|tlemen in Mounster sent their messengers to the pope. of Mounster, who before (and vnwitting the Butlers) had sent the vsurped bishops of Cashell and Emelie togither with the yoongest brother of the erle of Desmond vnto the pope & to the king of Spaine, for reformation of the popish religion, & for fréeing the land from the possession of hir maiestie and of the imperiall crowne. Which mater in the end brake out into an open and actuall rebellion, and the lord deputie by proclamation published them all to be traitors, and against whom he prepared an hosting. The noble|men & gen|tlemen in Mounster proclamed traitors. But before the same was fullie prepared, he sent his letters and commandement vnto sir Peter Carew knight then being at Leighlin, to enter into the acti|on of warres against sir Edmund Butler, who be|ing accompanied with capteine Gilbert, capteine Sr Peter Carew is cõ|manded to serue against the Butlers. Malbie, capteine Basenet, and others, latelie sent vnto him from the lord deputie, followed his com|mandement, and first assaulted the castell of Clough|griman in the Dullogh belonging to sir Edmund Cloughgri|man taken. Butler, and tooke it, and gaue the spoile vnto the soul|diers.

From thense they remooued to Kilkennie towne, where they laie for a time, where a man of the earle of Ormonds, espieng vpon a certeine daie sir Pe|ter Carew to be walking in the garden of the castell of Kilkennie alone, he charged his peece, and leueled the same vnto the said Peter Carew, and minded to Sir Peter Carew in danger to haue béene killed. haue discharged it vpon him out of a window in the castell. At which verie instant a chapleine of the said earls & his steward, comming by him, & suspecting some euill thing towards, turned vp the mouth of the péece, which therewith was discharged, and so no bodie hurt; and vnderstanding the thing was meant against sir Peter Carew, blamed the fellow, and for a time thrust him out of the house. Whilest these capteins laie at Kilkennie, it was aduertised vnto them, that a great companie of the rebels were in|camped about thrée miles out of the towne, & were there marching in verie good order. Wherevpon sir Peter Carew, being then the generall, assembled all the capteins, and taking their aduise what was best to be doone, they concluded that Henrie Dauels a verie honest and a valiant English gentleman, who had serued long in that countrie, and was verie Henrie Da|uels sent to discouer the enimie. well acquainted, especiallie in those parts, for he had maried his wife out of that towne, and him they sent out to discouer the matter, who about three miles off had the view, and espied a great companie of a|bout two thousand, resting vpon a little hill in the middle of a plaine, being all armed and marching in battell araie. When he returned with this report, then sir Peter Carew appointed the voward to cap|teine Gilbert, who togither with Henrie Dauels and twelue other persons of his companie galloped before the rest, and finding as it was before aduerti|sed, gaue the charge. The residue of the companie followed with the like hast vnder sir Peter Carew, Sir Peter Carew and the English capteins gi|ueth charge vpon the re|bels & haue the victorie. and then capteine Malbie, and capteine Basenet, séeing and assured that all things were cléere be|hind them, followed so néere, that all the companie euen as it were at one instant gaue the like charge, where they slue foure hundred Gallowglasses at the least, besides others. The residue of the companie were fled into the mounteins fast by, and none or few escaped but the horsemen and Kerns. And of hir maiesties side no one man slaine, but a man of cap|teine Malbies was hurt.

Sir Peter Carew, hauing had and obteined this victorie, and marching in good order, did returne with all his companie to the towne of Kilkennie, euerie capteine and souldier carieng two Gallowglasses axes in his hand, but left the spoile to their follow|ers. Sir Edmund Butler at this instant was not in the campe, but was at his vncles house at din|ner. The townesmen of Kilkennie were verie sorie for this the slaughter of so manie men. And yet ne|uerthelesse not long after, Iames Fitzmoris came Iames Fitz|moris besie|geth Kil|kennie. to this towne, and besieged it; but the towne being well garonised with certeine soldiers, & they them|selues well appointed, did so carefullie and narowlie looke to themselues, that they defended and kept the towne, notwithstanding all his force. But yet the countrie and other small townes did not so escape, for the countie of Waterford, and the lord Powre, the countie of Dublin, and all the countrie were spoiled, preied, and ouerrun; and among all others the old Fulco Quimerford a gentleman, of long Fulco Qui|merford spoi|led & robbed. time seruant to thrée earles of Ormond, was robbed in his house at Callon of two thousand pounds, in monie, plate, and houshold stuffe, besides his corne and cattell. When they had taken their pleasure in this countrie, they went to the countie of Wexford, which thing had not lightlie béene séene before, and at a faire kept then at Enescorth, there the souldiers A wicked ma|sacre at Ene|scorth. committed most horrible outrages, lamentable slaughters, filthie rapes, and deflourings of yoong women, abusing mens wiues, spoiling the towne, & slaughtering of the men, and such as did escape the sword were caried captiues & prisoners. From hense they went into Osserie and into the quéenes countie, A wicked conspiracie & combining of the traitors. and spoiled the countrie, burned townes and villa|ges, murthered the people: and then they met with the earle of Clancare, and Iames Fitzmoris O|desmond, with whom they then combined; and agre|ed to cause Tirlough Lennough to procure in the Scots, they sent new messengers to the pope, and to the king of Spaine. Finallie, nothing was left vndoone, which might anie waies tend to the subuer|sion of hir maiesties imperiall crowne of England, and to discharge that land from all Englishmen and English gouernement, and by these means (the English pale and the good cities & townes excepted) the most part, if not the whole land, was imbrued & infected with this rebellion.

The earle of Ormond himselfe, a man of great honour and nobilitie, was all this time in England: but from time to time was aduertised of the trouble|some state in that land: and whereof no little detri|ment redounded to his lordship, by reason that a great and most part of all his lordships throughout The earle of Ormonds lands spoiled. that land were spoiled and wasted, which did not so much gréeue him as the follies of his brethren. For great were his griefs, & verie much was he vnquie|ted therewith: for when he bethought himselfe of his brethren, nature mooued him, and reason persuaded The good af|fection of the earle of Or|mond to his brethren. him, that no such outragious parts could proceed from them, which in anie waies should either con|cerne hir maiestie, or the dishonour of him and his house, which hitherto hath béene alwaies found sound and true. Wherefore, when he heard of anie matter against them herein, he would plead their innocen|cies, and defend their causes, vntill such time as by credible letters, aduertisements, and reports, he saw apparant matter and manifest proofes of the contra|rie. Which reports albeit they greeued him verie much, yet (as I said) nothing gréeued him more, than their disloialtie and breach of dutie against hir ma|iestie, and the dishonour of his owne house. Where|fore to acquite himselfe and his dutie towards hir The earle of Ormond offe|reth to serue against his brethren. highnes: he offereth to serue against them & others, by the sword, or by some other means, to recouer and reclaime them.

Wherevpon hir maiestie, standing assured of EEBO page image 131 his fidelitie, and hauing a speciall trust in him, sent him ouer into Ireland, who arriued at Wexford the fouretéenth of August 1569, at that verie time when The earle of Ormond ar| [...]ueth at wexford. that wicked massaker was committed and doone at the faire at Innescorth. Immediatlie vpon his lan|ding, he aduertiseth vnto the lord deputie his com|ming, and with all conuenient spéed maketh his re|paire The earle re|paireth to the lord deputie. vnto him, who then was incamped and laie néere Limerike: and then and there offereth his ser|uice with all his best power, and brought with him his brother Edmund Butler, who in the open view and sight of the whole campe did yéeld and submit himselfe simplie to hir maiesties mercie, confessing Edmund Butler sub|mitteth him selfe. his follie and crauing pardon. And then was he deli|uered to the earle his brother vpon his bonds, to bée foorth comming before the said lord deputie at his comming to Dublin: and also promised to doo the like with his two other brothers, which he did vpon the sixtéenth of October 1569. At which time when they all appeared before the lord deputie and councell, they were charged with manie and sundrie things: but sir Edmund Butler for himselfe alledged, that others were the causers whie he did that which he did. Sir Edmund Butlers excuses. And for himselfe he alledged, first that the lord depu|tie did not brooke nor like him, for he could haue no iustice at his hands, nor against sir Peter Carew, who claimed and had entered vpon some part of his lands, nor yet against any other person. Then that the said lord deputie had threatned him that he would lie in his skirts, and would pull downe his loftie lookes. Thirdlie, that the said lord deputie should go about to kill all the Butlers in Ireland, and would then go into England, and there would doo manie things.

When all these things were heard at full, and no|thing in proofe falling out as was auouched, the thrée brethren were committed to ward into the castell of Dublin, out of which sir Edmund escaped, and made breach: neuerthelesse the earle brought him againe. And vpon the last of Februarie 1569 he brought al|so 1569 his two other brethren, for whome he had vnder|taken, and presented them before the lord deputie and councell, where the matter being heard at large, the councell conferred hereof among themselues, and in the end they all the thrée brethren were againe cal|led before the lord deputie and councell, and then and there knéeling vpon their knées, did confesse their fol|lies, and submitted themselues in all dutifulnesse and simplicitie to the quéens mercie: where the earle not onlie naturallie as a brother made humble peti|tion for them: but grauelie as a father recited their The loue and grauitie of the earle of Or|mond to his brethren. errors, reprooued them of their outrages, and coun|selled them to their duties: and in the end condescen|ded in the due consideration of hir maiesties roiall estate. And therevpon they were committed to safe kéeping within hir maiesties castell of Dublin, at hir highnesse disposition; and not long after vpon hope of amendment were pardoned. But to the mat|ter againe.

The lord deputie followed his first begun hosting, who when he was incamped neere Clomnell, where it was thought he should haue béene fought withall, he wrote to the maior and his brethren of the citie of Waterford, to send vnto him the assistance of a few souldiers onelie for thrée daies; who did verie inso|lentlie The citie of waterford standing vpon their liberties refuse to send aid to the lord deputie. and arrogantlie returne an answer by waie of disputing their liberties with hir maiesties prero|gatiue, and so sent him no aid at all. Wherein the more they shewed their affection to the rebels; the more was their ingratitude & disloialtie to hir high|nesse, the reward whereof they felt in the end. The camp at this time being within half a mile of Clom|nell, The lord de|putie went into Clomnell & vseth verie good spéeches vnto them. the lord deputie before his dislodging from thense went into the towne, where the souereigne and his brethren receiued him with all the honour they could, and gaue him a banket in their towne|house; where, vnto them & the whole multitude then present, he made a verie eloquent speach, teaching them the dutifulnesse and obedience of a subiect, and the great inconuenience which groweth by the con|trarie to all commonwealths, and each member of the same: and therefore laieng before them their pre|sent estate for example, did mooue and persuade them to hold fast the dutie & obedience which they owght to hir maiestie, and not to be dismaid at the dooings of the rebels and disobedient: who though for a time they had their will and pleasure, yet God, in whose hand is the heart of the prince, and vnder whome all kings and princes doo rule, hath béene alwaies, is, and will be, a swift reuenger against them for the same: euen as of the contrarie he sendeth his mani|fold blessings of peace, wealth and prosperitie to the obedient and dutifull subiect. And so hauing vsed sundrie and notable sentences and examples to this effect, he left them and returned to his campe.

And from thense he remooued and marched to|wards Cashell, which lieth in the countie of Tippo|rarie, néere vnto which place Edmund Butler had warded a castell: who when he saw the armie appro|ching, he set all the out houses on fire, and prepared themselues to defend the pile. The lord deputie ta|king the same as a defiance, approched there vnto and besieged it: and whilest the assault was in preparing, it was yéelded by composition, and after restored to one Cantrell the owner thereof. From thense by iourneies he marched and went to Corke, being met in the waie by the vicounties of Roch and Barrie, and by sir Corman Mac Teege: and being aduer|tised that Fitzedmund seneschall of Imokillie, a principall rebell, and combined with Iames Fitz|moris, had spoiled and preied the whole countrie, and had also warded and vittelled his castell of Ba|lie Balie martyr a castell of the seneschals besieged and taken. martyr, which by his tenure he was of himselfe bound to mainteine and defend it, he marched thi|ther and laid siege to the same, and in the end tooke it full of vittels. But the seneschall in the dead of the night fled out through a hole of the house in a bog, The sene|schall escapeth out of his castell. and there escaped.

The spoile was giuen to the souldiers, & the castell with a gard of twentie men was giuen to Iasper Horseie, & so he returned to Corke, and from thense he tooke iourneie to Kilmallocke, and finding that place most necessarie for a fort, he appointed and na|med Humfreie Gilbert made coronell of Mounster. Humfreie Gilbert hir maiesties seruant to be coronell, and besides his owne band of an hundred horssemen he appointed foure hundred footmen, and certeine Kernes there to remaine. And there he did knit and conioine vnto him by oth, and vnder good pledges, the vicounties of Roch and Dessis, with the lord Powre, the lord Courcie, sir Corman Mac Téege, sir Donogh Clancartie, and Barrie Oge, and the most part of the freeholders in the counties of Limerike and Corke. And this doone he passed by iourneies to Limerike, and from thense he went to Gallewaie, and there established a president and a councell, and placed sir Edward Fitton to be lord president, the earles of Thomond and Clanricard, Sir Edward Fitton made president of Connagh. and all the noble men & septs of gentlemen of that prouince yéelding to the same.

Thense he marched to Athlon, taking in the waie the castell of Rosocomen, which he left with the ward of twentie horssemen, to Thomas le Strange, and then dismissed the armie; but himselfe by iour|neies trauelled and came to Dublin, and there re|mained. Capteine Gilbert in the meane time, ha|uing a speciall respect and regard to his charge, his valiancie and courage was such, and his good hap so Capteine Gilberts good seruice. well answering his woorthie and forward attempts, that he in short time broke the hearts, and appalled EEBO page image 132 the courages of all the rebels in Mounster, and no rebell knowne left in effect, which dare to withstand and make anie resistance against him. And to such an obedience he brought that countrie, that none did or would refuse to come vnto him, if he were sent for but by a horsse boy: for all yéelded vnto him, some by putting in recognisances, & some by giuing of pled|ges, and all in séeking mercie and pardon.

And that proud earle of Clancare, which in his The earle of Clancare sub|mitteth him|selfe to cap|teine Gilbert. glorie not long before vsurped this name to be king of Mounster; euen he now, and Mac Donagh his chiefe follower, went to Limerike vnto him, and there falling vpon their knées acknowledged their tresons, and most humblie desired hir maiesties par|don: and offered to put in his eldest sonne, and the sonnes of his chiefest fréeholders for pledges and ho|stages. Likewise the president of Connagh in such wisedome, courage, & vprightnesse, directed his go|uernement, The good ser|uice of sir Ed|ward Fitton lord president in Connugh. that he was obeied of all the whole peo|ple in that prouince, as well the nobilitie as the commons. The wicked he spareth not, but being found faultie either in open sessions, or by martiall inquisition, he causeth to be executed: and by these meanes hauing rid awaie the most notable offen|dors and their fosterers, the whole prouince rested in good quietnesse and in dutifull obedience to hir ma|iestie and hir lawes.

The Cauenaghs, the ancient enimies to the Eng|glish gouernement, and who in the rebellion were The Caue|naghs sub|missions. conioined with the Butlers: these bordering vpon the frontiers appointed to sir Peter Carew, were so by him chased and persecuted, that finding no place of rest or quietnesse, he hath brought them to submit themselues simplie to hir maiesties mercie, and haue put in their pledges to abide such orders and conditions as shall be laid vpon them. Turlogh Turlogh shot through with two bullets. Lennogh in Ulster, being at supper with his now wife, aunt to the earle of Argile, was shot through the bodie with two pellets out of a caliuer, by a iea|ster or rimer of the Doniloghs. Wherevpon the Scots whome he reteined were in a maze, and the countrie standing vpon the election of a new cap|teine: howbeit, he was in hope of recouerie. And thus after long troubles was the state of the whole realme recouered to quietnesse. Whervpon capteine Gilbert, when he had setled Mounster in outward appéerance in a most perfect quietnesse, and brought it to good conformitie: he made his repaire to Dub|lin to the lord deputie, where he aduertised and re|counted all his dooings at full.

And hauing matters of great importance in England, he desired licence to depart ouer: whome the said deputie did not onelie most courteouslie re|ceiue; but also most thankefullie did accept his good seruice, and in some part of recompense, vpon Newyeares daie in the church at Drogheda, he did Drogheda bestow vpon him the order of knighthood; which he well deserued, and at his departure gaue him let|ters Capteine Gilbert dub|bed knight. of credit to hir highnesse, and to the lords of the councell. And now by the waie, if without offense a man maie, after the maner of Cambrensis in his historie, and after the vsage of noble gouernors and capteins in other realmes, who for the increase of vertue, and incouraging of woorthie persons, doo at|tribute to such as doo deserue well their due praises & commendations, I hope it shall not be offensiue to the reader, nor impertinent to the historie, to set downe somewhat of much, what maie be said of these two woorthie personages, sir Peter Carew, and sir Humfrie Gilbert: both which were of one countrie and birth, borne in the countie of Deuon, and of néere bloud, kinred, and consanguinitie.

Sir Humfreie Gilbert, he was a second brother, and borne of a great parentage, whose ancestors The descrip|tion of sir came and descended from the earle of Cornewall, a Humfreie Gilbert, and his descent. man of a higher stature than of the common sort, & of complexion cholerike; from his childhood of a ve|rie pregnant wit and good disposition: his father died leauing him verie yoong, and he conceiuing some great good thing to come of his towardnesse, proui|ded some portion of liuing to mainteine and kéepe him to schoole. And after his death, his mother, being no lesse carefull of him, did cause him to be sent to schoole to Eton college: from thense, after he had pro|fited in the elements & principall points of gram|mar, he was sent to Oxford, & did there prosper & in|crease verie well in learning and knowledge. And being (as his friends thought) verie well furnished, they would haue put him to the ins of court. But an aunt of his, named mistres Katharine Athleie, who was attendant to the queenes maiestie, after that she saw the yoong gentleman, and had had some conference with him, she fell in such liking with him, that she preferred him vnto hir maiesties ser|uice: and such was his countenance, forwardnesse, and behauiour, that hir maiestie had a speciall good liking of him; and verie oftentimes would fami|liarlie discourse and conferre with him in mat|ters of learning. After a few yeares spent in the court, he passed ouer into Ireland, being com|mended by hir highnesse to sir Henrie Sidneie then lord deputie: who gaue him interteinement, and made him a capteine ouer an hundred horssemen: wherein he so well acquited himselfe, that he was also made coronell of Mounster; and had appoin|ted vnto him, besides his owne band of one hundred horssemen, foure hundred footemen, besides such Geraldines as Thomas of Desmond, brother to the erle of Desmond had procured, & vpon his oth of loi|altie and pledges had promised his faithfull seruice.

And albeit he were but yoong of yeares, which might séeme to hinder his credit: yet such was his deuout mind to serue hir maiestie, and so effectuallie to his great praise he followed the same; that with manie good gifts and excellent vertues he so supplied euen as much as manie men of elder yeares & grea|ter experience did not commonlie atteine vnto. For in seruice vpon the enimie he was as valiant and couragious as no man more; and so good was his hap to answer the same: for he alwaies for the most part daunted the enimie, and appalled their courage; as did appéere in the ouerthrow giuen néere Kilken|nie in the Butlers warres, when he with twelue persons gaue the onset vpon a thousand men, of which six hundred were armed Gallowglasses, who then were ouerthrowne: and likewise in Mounster, which was altogither vp in rebellion; and he coro|nell, The valiant|nes in seruice, and the wise|dome in go|uernement of sir Humfreie Gilbert. did not onelie in martiall affaires shew him|selfe most valiant; and in short time reduced the whole troope of the rebels, and the proudest of them to obedience, hauing vnder him but fiue hundred a|gainst sundrie thousands; and inforced that proud earle of Clancart to follow him to Limerike, and there humblie vpon his knees to aske pardon and mercie: but also, after that he had subdued and ouercome them, did most vprightlie order and direct his gouernement, and with all indifferencie would heare, decide, & determine the complaints & griefs, and compound all the causes of euerie sutor. Which was so rare a thing in one of his yeares, as scarse was credible, had not eiewitnesses and dailie expe|rience prooued and iustified the same.

After that he had established peace and tranquilli|tie in that countrie, he went to Dublin: where when he had recounted all his seruices, and the good suc|cesse thereof; and in what quiet state he left the coun|trie, he desired leaue to passe ouer into England, for and about certeine matters of great importance, EEBO page image 133 which he had to follow, which he did obteine: as also in reward of his seruice, and for his good deserts he (as is before said) was honored and dubbed a knight; and with letters in his praise and commendation to hir maiestie, and the lords of the councell, he depar|ted. Assoone as he had presented himselfe before hir highnesse, hir good countenance and fauour, in re|spect of his good seruice to hir maiestie was increa|sed and doubled; and he speciallie aboue all others magnified and well accepted. Not long after, he was maried to a yoong gentlewoman, and an inhe|ritrix: and thensefoorth he gaue himselfe to studies perteining to the state of gouernement, and to na|uigations. He had an excellent and readie wit, and therewith a toong at libertie to vtter what he thought. Which being adorned with learning and knowledge, he both did and could notablie discourse anie matter in question concerning either of these, as he made good proofe thereof, as well in familiar conference with the noble, wise, and learned; as al|so in the open assemblies of the parlements, both in England and in Ireland: in which he shewed the great value of knowledge, wisedome, and learning which was in him, and the great zeale he had to the commonwelth of his countrie. He had a great de|light in the studie of cosmographie, and especiallie in nauigations; and finding out by his studies, cer|teine nations and vnknowne lands, which being found, might redound to the great benefit of his countrie: he made hir maiestie acquainted there|with, and obteined of hir a licence to make a naui|gation, which he tooke in hand. But before he could Sir Humfreie Gilbert is drowned. compasse the same to effect, he was in a foule storme drowned at the seas. Onelie he of all his brethren had fiue sonnes and one daughter, children by their countenances giuing a hope of a good towardnesse. And albeit he in person be deceassed, yet in their vi|sages, and in the memoriall of his great vertues, and a life well spent, he shall liue in fame immortall. Thus much without offense, and not altogither impertinent, concerning this gentleman, and now to the historie.

Turlogh Lenough thinking to inuade vpon the English pale, for the bending of the lord deputies Turlogh Le|nough prepa|reth to inuade the English pale. force against him, he was repressed, and driuen to kéepe himselfe within his owne limits, and by that meanes brought to disperse his power: for being not able to paie and satisfie the Scots, the one was wearie of the other; and his wife and he not agrée|ing, they were vpon a point to sunder. The earle of Thomond reuolteth from his due obedience, and The earle of Thomond re|uolteth. becommeth a rebell: whome the earle of Ormond so hardlie pursued, that he draue him out of that land, and he fled into France, and from thense into England. For the discouerie of whose treasons and The earle of Ormond fol|loweth the [...]arle of Tho|mond, and b [...]ueth him out of the land. rebellions to hir maiestie & to the lords of the coun|cell, one Rafe Rockeleie chiefe iustice of Connaugh was sent into England, where after long sute made for his submission, he was sent backe into Ireland, there to receiue according to his deserts: hir ma|iesties pleasure yet being such, that if he were not found culpable of treason against the state, that he should be spared from iudgement of death.

This yéere the queenes maiestie, considering the Lucas Dil|l [...] made chéef baron. good seruice of Lucas Dillon hir generall attorneie in Ireland, was vpon the death of baron Bath made chéefe baron of the excheker there; & capteine Piers for his good seruice at Knockfergus was liberallie confidered and countenanced by hir maiestie. And likewise after manie motions, sutes, and requests made to hir maiestie for a president and councell to be established in Mounster; and the same once deter|mined and appointed: but by the sicknesse and vna|bilitie of sir Iohn Pollard, appointed to be the presi|dent, it was lingered and deferred, is now reuiued and renewed: and sir Iohn Perot knight was made Sir Iohn Per [...] ap|pointed to be lord pr [...]ne of Mounster. lord president, and a councell of good assistants chosen, as also his diet houses, interteinment, and all other things necessarie ordered, assigned, and appointed. This knight was borne in Penbrokeshire in South|wales, and one of great reuenues and worship, vali|ant, and of great magnanimitie; and so much the more méet to gouerne and tame so faithlesse and vn|rulie a people, as ouer whome he was now made ruler. They heard no sooner of his comming, but as a sort of wasps they fling out, and reuolting from The rebelling of Mounster against the president. their former feined obedience, became open rebelies and traitors vnder Iames Fitzmoris an archtrai|tor, and as dogs they returne to their vomit, and as swine to their durt and puddles.

And here may you sée the nature and disposition of this wicked, e [...]renated, barbarous, and vnfaith|full nation, who (as Cambrensis writeth of them) The nature of the Irishmen. they are a wicked and peruerse generation, constant alwaies in that they be alwaies inconstant, faithfull in that they be alwaies vnfaithfull, and trustie in that they be alwaies trecherous and vntrustie. They doo nothing but imagin mischeefe, & haue no delite in anie good thing. They are alwaies working wicked|nes against the good, and such as be quiet in the land. Their mouths are full of vnrighteousnesse, and their toongs speake nothing but curssednesse. Their feet swift to shed blood, & their hands imbrued in the blood of innocents. The waies of peace they know not, & in the paths of righteousnesse they walke not. God is not knowne in their land, neither is his name cal|led rightlie vpon among them. Their quéene and so|uereigne they obeie not, and hir gouernment they allow not: but as much as in them lieth doo resist hir imperiall estate, crowne, and dignitie. It was not much aboue a yeare past, that capteine Gilbert with the sword so persecuted them, and in iustice so executed them, that then they in all humblenesse sub|mitted themselues, craued pardon, and swore to be for euer true and obedient: which, so long as he mai|stered and kept them vnder, so long they performed it; but the cat was no sooner gone, but the mise were at plaie; and he no sooner departed from them, but foorthwith they skipped out, and cast from themselues the obedience and dutifulnesse of true subiects. For such a peruerse nature they are of, that they will be no longer honest and obedient, than that they cannot be suffered to be rebelles. Such is their stubbornesse and pride, that with a continuall feare it must be brideled; and such is the hardnesse of their hearts, that with the rod it must be still chastised and subdu|ed: for no longer feare, no longer obedience; and no longer than they be ruled with seueritie, no longer will they be dutifull and in subiection; but will be as they were before, false, trucebreakers & traitorous. Being not much vnlike to Mercurie called quicke siluer, which let it by art be neuer so much altered The nature of quicke siluer. and transposed, yea and with fire consumed to ashes; yet let it but rest a while vntouched nor medled with, it will returne againe to his owne nature, and be the same as it was at the first. And euen so dailie experience teacheth it to be true in these people. For withdraw the sword, and forbeare correction, deale with them in courtesie, and intreat them gentlie, if they can take anie aduantage, they will surelie skip out; and as the dog to his vomit, and the sow to the durt & puddle they will returne to their old and for|mer insolencie, rebellion, and disobedience. This is to be meant of the Irishrie and sauage people, who the further they are from the prince and court, the further from dutie and obedience; the more they are vnder their Obrian gouernment, the lesse dutifull to their naturall souereigne and prince. But concern|ing EEBO page image 134 the inhabitants in the English pale, and all ci|ties and towns, the contrarie (God be praised) is dai|lie seene.

Well, this worthie knight knowing that he The gouern|ment of sir Iohn Perot. should haue to doo with a sort of netles, whose nature is, that being handled gentlie, they will sting; but be|ing hard crushed togither, they will doo no harme: e|uen so he began with them. The sword and the law he made to be the foundation of his gouernement, by the one he persecuted the rebell and disobedient, and by the other he ruled and gouerned in iustice and iudgement. Great troubles he had in both, but lit|tle His seruice against the rebelies. he did preuaile in the latter, before he had ouer|come the first: and therefore minding to chastise the rebelles, and to bring them to obedience, he follow|ed and chased them from place to place: in the bogs he pursued them, in the thickets he followed them, in the plaines he fought with them, and in their cas|tels and holds he beseeged them, and would neuer suffer them to be at rest and quietnesse, vntill he had tired and wearied them out, and at length inforced Iames Fitzmoris and his complices to come vnto Iames Fitz|moris seeketh for peace, and submitteth himselfe. Killmalocke vnto him, and there simplie to submit himselfe, and vpon his knees in the open sight of all the people to confesse his disloialties, and in all hum|ble manner to craue mercie and pardon. Whome though vntill hir maiesties pleasure knowne he did for beare, yet the residue he spared not; but after their deserts he executed in infinit numbers. And hauing thus rid the garden from these wéeds, and rooted vp the fields from these thornes, he entreth into the go|uernement by order of law, and from place to place throughout all Mounster he trauelleth and kéepeth his sessions and courts, hearing euerie mans com|plaints, The ciuill go|uernement of sir Iohn Perot. and redresseth their gréefes, and in short time brought the same to such a quietnesse and peace|able estate, that whereas no man before could passe through the countrie, but was in danger to be mur|dered and robbed, and no man durst to turne his cat|tell into the fields without watch, and to keepe them in barnes in the night time: now euerie man with a white sticke onelie in his hands, and with great The quietnes and safetie in Mounster. treasures might and did trauell without feare or danger where he would (as the writer hereof by tri|all knew it to be true) and the white shéepe did kéepe the blacke, and all the beasts laie continuallie in the fields, without anie stealing or preieng.

Now when he had thus quieted this prouince, and setled all things in good order, then he beginneth to reforme their maners in life and common conuersa|tion and apparell, suffering no glibes nor like vsages of the Irishrie to be vsed among the men, nor the E|gyptiacall rolles vpon womens heads to be worne. Whereat though the ladies and gentlewomen were somewhat greeued, yet they yéelded: and giuing the same ouer, did weare hats after the English man|ner. In this his seruice he had two verie good & no|table assistants, the one concerning the martiall af|faires, Sir Iohn Perots as|sistants. and the other for his gouernement by the course and order of the law. Concerning the affaires martiall George Bourchier esquier was ioined with George Bur|chier his birth and seruices. him in commission, and did him notable good seruice, he was the third sonne to Iohn earle of Bath, whose ancestors were descended from out of the loines of kings, and men of great honor and nobilitie; and they were no more noble of bloud than valiant, wise and prudent in all their actions, both in the seruices of chiualrie and matters of policies, and whereof the histories of England in manie places doo make mention and report. And this gentleman, hauing some motion of the value and valiantnesse of his ancestors deriued and descended vpon him, was af|fected and giuen to all feats of chiualrie, and especi|allie to the seruice in the warres, wherein he prooued a verie good souldior, and an expert capteine, both as an horsseman, and as a footeman, both which waies he serued, as the seruice and time required. If he ser|ued vpon foot, he was apparelled in the manner of a Kerne and a foot souldior, and was so light of foot as no Kerne swister: for he would pursue them in bogs, in thickets, in woods, in passes, and in streicts what|soeuer; and neuer leaue them, vntill he did performe the charge and seruice committed vnto him. If he were to serue vpon his horssebacke, his dailie seruice can witnes sufficientlie how much, and how often he preuailed against the enimie, and appalled their courages, and with whome he would incounter if he might by anie meanes.

Notwithstanding, as couragious and circum|spect as he was, that he would not be lightlie intrap|ped in the field, yet was he deceiued in the house. For vnder the colour of a parlée, and vpon a truce taken, he was inuited to a supper: and little thinking that George Bur|chier taken prisoner. anie breach of the truce should be made, he went in|to the castell whereas he was bidden. But in his be|ing there, he was taken prisoner, and handfasted, and so kept for a space; but yet not long after he was re|stored and set at libertie. Concerning his other assi|stant, his name was George Welsh borne in Wa|terford, George Welsh a lawier, well learned, and vpright. and a gentleman of an ancient familie, he was brought vp in learning, and was a student in the innes of court at London, and prospered verie well therein: and albeit his yeares were but yoong, yet his knowledge, grauitie, and sinceritie counter|uailed the same with an ouerplus. In deciding of all matters he was vpright and iust, being not affectio|nated nor knowne to be corrupted for anie mans pleasure. In iudgement vpright, in iustice seuere, and without respect of persons would minister what the law had prescribed, he spared neither partie, nor would be affected to anie; by which meanes he did maruellous much good in that seruice, and happie was that gouernor that had so good a counsellor.

Immediatlie vpon the placing of this gouerne|ment 1571 Sir Willi|am Fitzwilli|ams made lord deputie. in Mounster, sir Henrie Sidneie had libertie and licence to returne ouer into England, and re|ceiued hir maiesties letters dated the thirtéenth of December one thousand fiue hundred seuentie and one, & in the thirtéenth yeere of hir maiesties reigne, for the placing of sir William Fitzwilliams to be lord deputie in his place. Which when he had doone, he passed ouer the seas, and by iourneies came to the court. He was verie honorablie receiued, and by hir highnesse well commended, there being sundrie no|blemen and gentlemen of the court, which met him before he came to Whitehall, where hir maiestie then laie, who (as time conuenient serued) did re|count vnto hir the whole estate in all things of the realme of Ireland, which hir maiestie liked verie well.

But this sir Iohn Perot president of Mounster continued still in his office, and there remained for certeine yeares vntill he was reuoked, which was too soone for that countrie. For neuer man was more fit gouernour for that eftrenated and hardnecked people than was he, nor was that countrie euer in better estate for wealth, peace and obedience, than he in the time of his gouernement did reduce the same vnto. Happie was that prouince, and happie were those people, which being eaten out, consumed and de|uoured with caterpillers, he had brought and refor|med to a most happie, peaceable, and quiet estate; and he left it euen in the same maner. Which if it had béene continued by the like, to haue followed him in the gouernement, the same would so haue continu|ed: but the want of the one was in short time the de|caie of the other, and that reformed countrie brought to a most miserable estate, as by the consequence EEBO page image 135 may appéere.

Sir William Fitzwilliams, hauing a speciall care and respect to his charge and office, disposeth all things in the best order he could by the aduise of the councell, and finding the state somewhat quiet, sa|uing Mounster, his care and studie was so to keepe and mainteine it. And he being a wise and a graue man, and of so great experience in that land, he dra|weth the plot of his gouernement into certeine spe|ciall points and articles. First, that the religion e|stablished according to Gods holie woord, should The points o [...] sir William Fitzwilliams lord deputies gouernement. haue a frée passage through the whole land, and by e|uerie man aswell of the clergie as of the laitie to be receiued, imbraced and followed. Then that the com|mon peace and quietnesse throughout the whole land Religion. might and should be conserued, and all occasions of The common peace. the breach thereof, and of all mutinies and diuisions to be cut off. Thirdlie, that hir maiesties great and excessiue charges to the consuming of hir treasure The sauing of expenses. might be shortened, and hir reuenues well husban|ded and looked vnto, according to hir sundrie com|mandements tofore giuen. Lastlie, that the lawes Lawes to be executed. and iustice might haue their due course and be cur|rent throughout the whole land, and the iudges and officers should vprightlie minister iustice to each man according to his desert, and that all the souldi|ers Souldiers to be kept in their disci|pline. should be kept in that discipline as to them ap|perteineth.

These considerations and such like, being ordered and established with the consent and aduise of the whole councell, and well liked of euerie good subiect, bicause the same was grounded vpon verie good reasons: yet it tooke not that effect as it was meant and wished it should. For that wicked race of the I|rishrie, in whom was no zeale in religion, and lesse obedience to hir maiestie, and least care to liue in an honest conuersation and common societie, but al|waies watching the best opportunitie and time to breake out into their woonted outrages, robberies, and rebellions: these (I saie) in sundrie places be|gin to plaie their pagents. The first was Brian Brian Mac Kahir his warres in Wexford. Mac Kahir of Knocking in the countie of Cater|lough Cauenagh, who vpon certeine wrongs which he complained he had receiued by one Robert Browne of Malrenkam, he tyrannized ouer the whole countrie, committed manie outrages and spoiles, preied the countrie, & burned sundrie towns. Likewise the gentlemen of the countie of Wexford, and namelie sir Nicholas Deuereur knight, being gréeued with the death of Robert Browne, who was his nephue, being his sisters sonne; were as vnquiet on their parts, and all rose vp in armour against Brian Mac Kahir, and each one with all the forces they could make did resist the other, so that all the whole countrie was thereby in a verie troublesome state; and no end could be had before they had tried it with the sword. For the Wexford men following their matters verie egarlie, and being in a great companie well appointed, they sought out Brian Mac Kahir, and gaue the onset vpon him; but he so watched the matter, and tooke them at that aduan|tage, that although he and his companie were but small in respect of the others, yet he gaue them the Brian Mac Kahir hath the victorie of the Wexford men. foile and ouerthrow, and killed the most principall gentlemen of that shire about or aboue thirtie per|sons.

In this companie was an English gentleman, who after was in great credit & office among them, Thomas Masterson. and he in danger to haue drunken of the same cup, was driuen to leape vp on horssebacke behind ano|ther man, and so escaped, or else he had neuer béene seneschall of that prouince. After this fight, though the grudge were not forgotten nor a reuenge vn|sought, yet by little and little it quailed. About two yeares after, Brian Mac Kahir made humble sutes Brian Mac Kahir his submission. to the lord deputie for his pardon, and submitted himselfe to his lordships deuotion, confessing in wri|ting his fowle disorders and outrages; and yet firm|lie auouching that the quarell did not begin by him nor by his meanes: his submission was such and in so humble sort, as that he obteined the same. And ac|cording to his promise then made, he did thenseforth vse and behaue himselfe most dutifullie, and liued in a verie good order. This Brian was a Cauenaugh, Brian Mac Kahir what he was. and the sonne of Charels, the sonne of Arthur, which Arthur was by king Henrie the eight made a ba|ron for terme of his life: for he was a man of great power within the counties of Wexford & Cather|lough. And this Brian Mac Kahir Mac Arthur was a yoonger sonne to Charels, but the chiefest for vali|antnesse, magnanimitie and wisedome; and none of all the sept of the Cauenaughs, though they were manie and valiant men, to be compared vnto him euerie waie, and vnto whom they all would giue place.

Now he being assured of them, and also being a|lied The strength of Brian Mac Kahir. by marriage vnto Hewen Mac Shane, whose daughter he married, he was also assured of the O|birnes and of the Omeroughs, & so a man of great strength and abilitie. He became in the end to be a follower vnto sir Peter Carew, with whom he ne|uer Brian Mac Kahir is a fol|lower to sir Peter Ca|rew. brake his promise, but stood him in great stéed aswell in matters of counsell, as of anie seruice to be doone in those parts. A man (which is rare among these people) verie constant of his word, and so faith|fullie he serued, and so much he honoured sir Peter Carew, that after his death, being as one maimed, he consumed and pined awaie, and died in peace.

The Omores, notwithstanding the earle of Kil|dare The Omores rebell. was waged by hir maiestie to persecute and chastise them, yet without anie resistance or impech|ment they rage and outrage in all traitorous man|ner and rebellious disorders. They inuaded the En|glish pale, spoiled and burned sundrie townes and villages, and carried the preies and pillage with them without anie resistance. The whole prouince All [...]onnagh in actuall re|bellion. of Eonnagh was altogither in actuall rebellion by the earle Clanricard sonnes, and they for their aid had called & waged a thousand Scots. And though they and the Irishrie were of diuerse nations, yet of one and of the same dispositions and conditions, being altogither giuen to all sinne and wickednes, and their harts were altogither imbrued in bloud and murther. The earle himselfe was at this time The false dis|sembling of the earle of Clanricard. prisoner in the castell of Dublin for the same rebel|lion, who hearing of the outrages of his sonnes, made sute to the lord deputie, that if he might be set at libertie, he would vndertake to bring in his sons, and to quiet the countrie.

The lord deputie, desiring nothing more than peace, after sundrie conferences had with him, did by the aduise of the councell inlarge him, in an assured hope that he would effectuallie performe in déed what he had promised in word. But he came no soo|ner home among his people, and had conferred with his sonnes, but he forgat his promise and performed nothing at all. Likewise the Ochonners and the O|mores, The Ochon|ners and the Omores re|bell. accompanied with a rable of like rebels, fall into open rebellion, spoile the countrie, deuoure the people, and make all wast and desolate. Tirlough Lenough in Ulster was readie to reuolt, but that he stood in doubt of the earle of Essex, who lieng vpon the fines and marches in Ulster, was not onelie in readinesse to haue bearded him: but also he had set Odoneile in open warres against him. Mounster was likewise in open rebellion. But sir Iohn Pe|rot then president so coursed and followed them, that notwithstanding a great combination and league EEBO page image 136 was betwéene Iames Fitzmoris and all the rebels The distres|sed mind of the lord de|putie. in Connagh and Leinster, yet he kept them asunder and so sharpelie pursued Iames, that he left him no one place to rest in, nor anie followers to follow him. Besides these vniuersall troubles, which were sufficient to haue apalled the best and wisest gouer|nour, these three things increased his griefe and sor|row. First the losse of a most faithfull councellor and one of his chiefest and trustiest assistants doctor We|ston then lord chancellor, whom it pleased God to call The death of doctor Weston lord chancel|lor. out of this miserable life, a man in his life time most godlie, vpright and vertuous, and such a one as that place was not possessed of the like in manie cur|rents of yeares, in his life most vertuous and god|lie, in matters of councell most sound and perfect, in iustice most vpright and vncorrupted, in hospita|litie verie bountious and liberall, and in manners and conuersation most courteous and gentle, faith|full to his prince, firme to his friend, and courteous to all men. And as was his life so was his death, who a little before the same called his houshold, and gaue them such godlie instructions, as to their cal|lings apperteined. Then he set his priuate things in order, and he spent all the time that he had in prai|ers and exhortations.

At last, feeling a declination towards, he ap|pointed a generall communion to be had of his houshold and friends in his chamber, vnto which all the councell came and were partakers. And then these godlie actions finished, he gaue a most godlie exhortation to the councell, persuading them to be vertuous and zelous in Gods true religion: then to be mindfull of their duties to hir maiestie, and lastlie remembring their callings and estate, and the great charge of the gouernement laid vpon them and committed vnto them, that they would be vali|ant, carefull, and studious to performe the same, as might be to the glorie of God, honor to the quéene, & benefit to the whole realme. Which points he hand|led so godlie, learnedlie & effectuallie, that he made their teares to trill, and their hearts to be heauie. After this doone he bid them farewell, and not long after he being feruent in his praiers, he died most godlie, vertuouslie, and christian like.

The next was the breach of the earle of Desmond, who was a prisoner in the castell of Dublin, and he The earle of Desmond breaketh prison. hauing giuen his faith and oth to be a true prisoner, and to shew himselfe a dutifull subiect, did yet make his escape: which being doone in so troublesome a time, it was doubted verie much what would insue thereof. Wherefore not onelie in that land, but in England also, hir maiestie vpon knowledge did cause musters to be made in all the parts vpon and towards the south and west parties, and men to be in readinesse to be transported, if anie occasion by his escape should happen to follow. For it was greatlie doubted what would follow of that his breach, sa|uing that the president in Mounster was thought to be sufficientlie prepared and furnished against him, if he did or would attempt anie disorder that waie.

The third was the reuocation of the earle of Es|sex, who had taken vpon him to recouer the whole The reuoca|tion of the erle o [...] Essex. prouince of Ulster to obedience, with hir maiesties aid. And he hauing with great charges brought the same to a great likelihood and towardnesse, the armie was cashed, and he dismissed and discharged, and the enterprise dissolued. These with sundrie other acci|dents of the like nature, were sufficient to haue swallowed vp anie man in the gulfe of despaire, had not the lord God looked vpon him, and hir maiestie most gratiouslie pondered his manie & sundrie most humble requests for his reuocation, which hir high|nes by hir letters vnto him granted; and immediat|lie wherevpon he (after foure yeares painfull seruice) Sir William Fitz Williams discharged of the deputiship. was discharged of his office, & returned into Eng|land. Manie good & notable things were doone in the time of this mans deputation worthie to be remem|bred, and for euer to be chronicled. But forsomuch as the records and presidents of the same cannot bee had, and the imprinter cannot staie his impression a|nie longer time, the same with patience must be borne withall, vntill a better opportunitie shall serue as well for it, as for the commendation of this hono|rable & ancient gentleman, who hath deserued well and honourablie of his prince and countrie for his seruice and gouernment. After that this man was cleane discharged, the sword and office was deliue|red 1575 Sir Henrie Sidneie lord deputie the third time. vnto sir Henrie Sidneie, who now the third time entred into the gouernment of this cursed land, and arriued at the Skirries the twelfe of September 1575, who at his comming found the infection of the plague so generallie dispersed, and especiallie in the English pale, that he could hardlie find a place where to settle himselfe without danger of infection. And The pestilẽce great in the English pale. euen as this plague reigned, so the old rebellious minds of the northerne Ulsterians brake out. For he was no sooner knowne to be entred into the land, but for a bien veneu to welcome him into the coun|trie, Serlo Boie with his companie came to Knock|fergus, there to make preie of the towne, & so proud|lie Serlo Boie assaulteth Knockfergus assailed the same, that he slue a capteine named Baker, and his lieutenant, with fortie of his souldi|ers, besides diuerse of the townsmen, of whome some were hurt, some maimed, and some slaine; and yet ne|uerthelesse by the valour & courage of the rest of the souldiers and townsmen, the preie was rescued, and the Scots perforce driuen awaie.

The lord deputie, considering with himselfe that of such beginnings euill would be the euents and se|quels thereof, if the same were not out of hand pre|uented; and knowing also by his owne experience, how perillous delaies be in such cases, thought it ve|rie necessarie and expedient (according to the old sai|eng Principijs obstaserò medicina paratur, &c) foorthwith to withstand the same. And therefore by the aduise of so manie of hir maiesties priuie councell, as could in that quesie time be assembled, he tooke order for the safe kéeping of the English pale, and committed the custodie thereof in his absence, to certeine gentle|men of best account and wisedome, to sée the same to be kept and quieted. And he himselfe in his owne person, taking with him hir maiesties armie, which was then about six hundred horssemen and footmen, and accompanied with such gentlemen and councel|lors The lord de|putie maketh a iourneie in|to Ulster. as he had appointed for that seruice, tooke his iourneie towards Ulster. And as he passed, he found the whole countrie throughout wasted, spoiled, and impouerished, sauing the Newrie, which sir Nicholas Bagnoll knight marshall did inhabit, and the Glins and Routs which Serlo Boie with the Scots posses|sed, and Killultagh.

Now in all that iorneie few came to submit them|selues, sauing Mac Mahon, and Mac Gwier, & Tir|lough Lenough, who first sent his wife; and she being a woman verie well spoken, of great modestie, nur|ture, parentage, and disposition, and aunt to the then earle of Argile, was verie desirous to haue hir hus|band to liue like a good subiect, and to be nobilitated. Tirlough himselfe followed verie shortlie after his wife, & came before the lord deputie without pledge, promise or hostage, and simplie & without anie con|dition did submit himselfe in all humblenesse and re|uerence Tirlough Lenough sub [...]eth him in all humilitie to his lordship, making the like sutes as his wife before his comming had motioned vnto his lordship, referring himselfe neuerthelesse to be orde|red and directed by his lordship in all things. And af|ter that he had spent two daies, vsing himselfe in all the time of his abode in all dutifulnesse, subiection, EEBO page image 137 and reuerence, did in like maner take his leaue, and returned to his owne home. And as for Odonell lord of Tirconell, and Mac Gwier lord of Farmanaugh, albeit they came not in persons, yet they wrote their most humble letters of submission, and offered all such rents and seruices, as to them apperteined to yéeld, making request that they might onelie serue vnder hir highnesse, and be discharged from the ex|actions of all others.

After that the lord deputie had performed this iourneie, and was returned to Dublin, then he made The iourneie of the lord de|putie in Leinster. the like iourneies towards the other parts of the land. And beginning in Leinster, he found the whole countie of Kildare, and the baronie of Carberie, ex|treamelie impouerished by the Omeries, both in the time of the late rebellion, and also since, when they were vnder protection. The kings and queenes coun|ties were all spoiled & wasted by the Oconners and the Omores, the old natiue inhabiters of the same, and of them Rorie Og had gotten the possession and the setling of himselfe in sundrie lands there, whether the tenants will or no, and as a prince occupieth what he listeth, and wasteth what he will. Neuerthe|lesse, Rorie Og vp|on the word of the earle of Ormond came vnto the lord deputie, and submitteth himselfe. vpon the word of the earle of Ormond, he came to the lord deputie at his being in Kilkennie; and in the cathedrall church there he submitted himselfe: and in outward appearance repented his former faults, and promised amendment: but how well he kept and performed it, his rebellions in the yeare following can witnesse.

The lord deputie at his comming to Kilkennie was receiued by the townsmen in all the best maner they could, and the earle of Ormond himselfe feasted The lord de|putie intertei|ned verie well in Kilkennie. and intreated him most honourablie, and had great care that his lordship and all his traine should not want anie thing. At this towne the two cousins and kinsmen of sir Peter Carew late deceassed, that is, Sir Peter Carew his death. Peter Carew, and George Carew, and the gentle|man who had béene his agent in all his causes with|in that land, came before the lord deputie, and there communicated with his lordship the state of the de|ceassed knight, and of his countrie; submitted the same to his order and direction, as also made humble sute vnto his lordship for his presence at the funerals at Waterford, where it was appointed he should be buried. Whose lordship as vpon the first newes of this knights death, so now also vpon the new recitall thereof, maruellouslie lamented and bewailed the losse of so worthie a knight, and the want of so wise and faithfull an assistant and councellor. And then he tooke order therein, shewing most honourablie not onelie the offices of a faithfull and good friend to the dead; but also the like good will to the two yoong gen|tlemen, of which one was then his heire, and to inioy his baronie. And according as things were determi|ned, the corps was remooued from Rosse where he died, and caried to Waterford against his comming thither, where it was buried in verie honourable ma|ner, Sir Peter Carew died at Rosse, & was buried at Wa|terford verie honourablie. as shall hereafter appeare, being not imperti|nent to the historie to set downe some short discourse of this most woorthie gentleman and of his life.

Sir Peter Carew was descended of noble and high parentage, whose first ancestor was named Sir Peter Carew his life, birth and conditions. His descent. B [...]ron of Carew. Montgomereie, and in the time of king Henrie the second he maried the ladie Elisabeth daughter to Roesius prince of Southwales, by which mariage he was aduanced to honour, and made baron of the ca|stell of Carew, whereof his posteritie in time tooke their surnames, being called Carews. And some of them passing into Ireland did grow to be mightie men, and of great honor and possessions in that land, being marquesses of Corke, barons of Hidron and Lexnew, lords of Maston, and inheritors to sundrie great lordships and seigniories in that land. And likewise in England they were men of great cre|dit, seruice, and honour, and by waie of mariages matched and combined with honourable and great houses.

This foresaid sir Peter, who was lineallie descen|ded His stature. from them, was of stature meane, but verie stronglie and well compacted; of complexion chole|rike, from his childhood vpwards vent and giuen to an honest disposition, and in his tender yeares he ser|ued His disposi [...]. vnder, and was page to the prince of Orenge beyond the seas, and by that means had the greater delight & skill in martiall affaires, wherein he had His skill and seruice in the warres. good knowledge, as did well appeare in the manifold seruices he did vnder king Henrie the eight, king Edward the sixt, and quéene Elisabeth, in sundrie places beyond as also on this side the seas. He was in his yonger years a great traueller, and had béene at Constantinople in the Turkes court, at Ui [...]nna His trauels. in the emperours palace, at Uenice, and in the French kings court, and in the houses of the most of all christian princes; in euerie of which places he left some tokens of his value. He was blessed of God with manie singular good gifts, as well of the mind as of the bodie, being vertuouslie disposed euen from his verie infancie, sincere in religion (and for which His religion. he was partlie an exiled man in the Marian daies) dutifull to his prince, and faithfull to his countrie, vp|right His qualities. in iustice, politike in gouernement, and valiant in armes, skilfull in the Italian and French toongs, and a great student in such bookes as those toongs His learning. did yéeld; and by that means some knowledge ioined with his pregnancie of wit, he would discourse verie substantiallie in anie matter concerning policie or religion, peace or warres, good to euerie man, hurt|full His cõditions to no man; bountifull & liberall, abhorring coue|tousnesse and whordome: a great housekéeper, and of great hospitalitie. And if anie fault were in him, it was rather of too much spending, than in reasonable sauing; he would be soone warme, but without gall, His anger without ma|lice. and against his enimie most stout and valiant: fi|nallie such was his vpright dealing, honest conuer|sation, and zeale to the commonwealth, as no man His zeale. was more honoured nor vniuersallie beloued than was he.

When he had spent the greater part of his age, he His title to his lands in Ireland. bethought himselfe vpon such lands as his ancestors had in Ireland, and which in right did descend vnto him: and finding his title to be good, he acquainted hir highnesse therewith; and obteined hir fauour and good will to passe ouer into Ireland, to follow the recouerie thereof. Which he did, and made such He recouereth some part of his lands in Ireland. good proofes of his title, as well by records as by eui|dences, that he recouered so much as he did then put in sute, namelie the lordship of Maston, of which he had béene dispossessed of about seauen score yeares, which he departed with vnto sir Christopher Chiuers knight, then tenant to the same, and the baronie of Hidron then in the possession of the Cauenaughs, the ancient enimies of the English gouernment, and who had expelled his ancestors about two hun|dred yeares past. But being put once in possession, His good d [...]a|ing with his tenants. he dealt in such good order with them, and so honou|rablie vsed himselfe, that they all voluntarilie yeel|ded vp their lands, and submitted themselues to his deuotion; and finding him to be a verie rare man in manie and sundrie respects, as of the like they had not heard nor knowne, they much reioised of him, and counted themselues happie and blessed to be vn|der his gouernment. At his first comming he resu|med the whole baronie into his owne hands, and thereof he gaue some péeces in frée hold, to such gen|tlemen as he thought good; and for the residue euerie of them what he had before, he tooke it againe vnder writing by lease. He diuided the baronie into cer|teine EEBO page image 138 manors and lordships, and in euerie one he did erect a court baron, and there all matters in variance betwéene them were ended and determined after the English maner, according to iustice & truth. He would not suffer anie wrong to be doone vnto them, neither would he beare with anie of them dooing wrong. Their complaints he would heare, and with indifferencie he would determine them: he dwelled His housekée|ping and hos|pitalitie. among them, and kept a verie liberall and a bounti|full house, and such hospitalitie as had not béene to|fore knowne among them; and for which he was maruellouslie beloued, and his fame spred through|out that land.

He kept continuallie of his owne priuat familie, aboue or néere a hundred persons in house, he had al|waies in readinesse fortie horssemen well appointed, besides footmen, & commonlie one hundred Kerns, and all that his countrie at commandement; by which meanes he chased and pursued such as laie vp|on the frontiers of his countrie, that they if anie had offended, would come and submit themselues sim|plie to his mercie: & the residue willing to serue him at all néeds. If anie noble man or others did passe by his house, there he first staied and was intertei|ned according to his calling, for his cellar doore was neuer shut, & his butterie alwaies open, to all com|mers of anie credit. If anie garrison either came to assist and attend him, or passed through his countrie, he gaue them interteinment, and vittelled them at his owne charges, and paied readie monie both for it, and for all things taken of the countrie; for with|out present paiment he would haue nothing: which Readie pai|ment for all things. was a rare thing and not heard of in that land. And as concerning hir maiesties seruice, it was so ho|nourable for hir highnesse, and so profitable to the countrie, and accomplished with such a disposition and a good will, as all and euerie the gouernours in his time thought themselues happie to be assisted with such a man. In matters of counsell he was ve|rie graue and considerate, in matters of policie ve|rie wise and circumspect, and in martiall affaires verie valiant and noble, and in all of great know|ledge and experience: in euerie of which (as occasion serued) his seruice was readie and at commande|ment, so long as his abode was in that land.

In the Butlers warres, vpon commandement His seruice in the Irish wars. from the deputie, he did first serue at Cloghgreman, a castell of sir Edmund Butlers, where being ac|companied with capteine Gilbert, capteine Mal|beie, and capteine Basnet, and Henrie Dauels, and their bands, assaulted the castell, tooke it, and gaue the preie to the souldiers. Then they went to Kilkennie where they issued out and made a sallie vpon the whole armie of sir Edmund Butler: which being a|bout three miles from the towne, gaue them the o|uerthrow, and put all the Gallowglasses and the rest to the sword, sauing the horssemen and Kernes which fled into the woods: and then méeting the lord depu|tie, attended him in the whole iourneie and seruice of the said warres vntill the same was ended. In which he assisted the said deputie with his faithfull aduise and counsell, and with all such dutifull seruice as which his lordship could not lacke, and which he so aduertised to hir maiestie. Likewise in Ulster he was in the whole or the most part of that seruice with the earle of Essex, whom he aduised and assisted with Sir Peter Carewes ser|uice in Ulster. all the best seruice and counsell he could, to the great comfort of the earle, and commendation of him|selfe.

The fame and report of this noble gentleman, for his wisedome, valiantnesse, experience, vprightnes, houskéeping, bountifulnesse, liberalitie, and his iust His title to his lands in Mounster. dealings with euerie man, was spred through out all that nation, and he fauoured and beloued of all men. And certeine gentlemen in Mounster, know|ledging and confessing that he had a iust title to their lands and possessions, and that he (as descending li|neallie from the marquesse of Corke) was their The offer of the gentlemen to be his te|nants. lawfull lord, and to whome they ought to yéeld their lands; some of them made their repaire, and some wrote their letters vnto him: and all with one con|sent acknowledged him to be their right and lawfull lord, and offered not onelie truelie to instruct and to aduertise him throughlie of his whole inheritance; but if it would please him to come to the citie of Corke, they would all appeare before him, and sub|mit themselues, and yéeld vp their lands into his hands. Sir Peter Carew, when he had considered and well bethought of these offers, and had taken ad|uise with his fréends, thought it not good to refuse the same; and that so much the sooner, bicause he had made hir highnesse acquainted with his title, and had before obteined hir letters to sir William Fitz|williams then lord deputie of Ireland, and to sir Iohn Parret then lord president of Mounster, that they should assist him in his sutes, and to call the con|trarie parts, and to persuade them with all quiet|nesse to yéeld to his iust titles. And againe, finding that part of the realme to be now verie quiet, & the people well disposed, he sent first his agent the wri|ter heereof to Corke, where and before whome there came Mac Artie Riogh, Corman Mac Teege, Bar|rie Og, the Omalions, the Odriscots, the Odallies, & sundrie others, who of their owne fréewill offered to giue in recompense of that which was past, and to|wards the setting vp of his house, if he would come and dwell among them, thrée thousand kine; and so manie shéepe and hogs and corne, as according to to that proportion; and would also yéerelie giue him in the like maner such a portion as should be to his contentation and good liking. When his agent had aduertised these things vnto him, and according to his order had prepared a house in Kinsale, and one other in Corke for him: the said sir Peter did set the house of Leighlin to his kinsman and cousine Peter Carew, who afterward was his heire, and prepared his ship to passe himselfe with his houshold stuffe to Corke. And being in readinesse for the same, it plea|sed God to call him to another passage; for falling sicke at the towne of Rosse, he died the seauen and The death of sir Peter Carew 1575. twentith of Nouember 1575, and was buried verie honorablie and in warlike manner at Waterford, the fiftéenth of December in the cathedrall church, His buriall. with all such ensignes of honor as to his degrée ap|perteined, there being then present sir Henrie Sid|neie lord deputie, and the councell. And thus much concerning that worthie knight sir Peter Carew.

The lord deputie, being accompanied from Kil|kennie with the earle of Ormond vnto the citie of The recei|uing of the lord deputie at Waterford. Waterford, he was verie honourablie receiued at his entrie into the citie, by the maior & his brethren, and an oration congratulatorie made vnto him in the Latine toong by a yoong scholar clad in white at|tire, verie well and eloquentlie pronounced. Great triumphes were made, both vpon the land and vpon the water; with all such shewes and tokens of ioie and gladnesse, as could be deuised. And whiles he re|mained in the citie, there wanted not anie thing méet and conuenient for the interteinement of his lordship, and of all his traine: which his lordship did verie well accept and take in good part; as also ad|uertised it to the lords of hir maiesties honourable priuie councell in England. This citie is a verie an| [...]nt The descrip|tion of the ci|tie of Water|ford. The situa|tion. citie, and first builded (as the common opinion is) by Sitiracus one of the thrée brethren, which came out of Norwaie, called Easterlings. It standeth and is situated vpon the riuer of Suire, which riseth in the hill or mount Blandina, named in Irish Slough EEBO page image 139 blome: and fléeteth by Thurles in Tipporarie, where|of the earles of Ormond are vicounts: from thense to the Holie crosse, Ardmale, Cahir Doweske, Ard|finan, Inislouagh, Clomnell, Caricke Mac Griffin, and so to Waterford.

It was of it selfe a verie little pile, but strong and well walled, and of late yeares (vpon occasion of warres) inlarged in the time of king Henrie the se|uenth and inclosed with a strong wall: when Lam|berd (named Perkin Warbecke) was crowned king at Dublin, about which king fell great contro|uersies A controuer|sie betwéene the earle of kildare and the Waterfor|dians. The Water|fordians re|fuse to ac|knowledge Perkin to be their king. The Water|fordians in fauor with the kings of England. betwéene them and Gilbert erle of Kildare. For the said erle being then lord deputie sent his let|ters to the said maior & his citizens, requiring them to receiue into their citie the new king, as other good cities had doone: who refusing to acknowledge anie other king, than king Henrie of England, he threatened them that he would take their citie per|force and hang the maior. Wherevpon hot words grew on euerie side, & the same like to haue growne to hand fight: the Waterfordians offering to wage the battell where the erle would appoint. Which their truth at that time auailed them much afterwards, and they in speciall fauour with king Henrie the se|uenth and king Henrie the eight, by whome their li|berties and franchises were inlarged.

The soile about it is verie barren and full of hils and rocks, and the lesse profitable for lacke of good The commo|ditie of the ri|uer. manurance and husbandrie: but what faileth in the land, is recompensed with the sundrie commodities which the riuer yéeldeth, which is not onlie plentifull and abundant of all sorts and kinds of fishes, but also it is a goodlie hauen and a receptacle for all sorts of ships: & for this it is called Larga porta, The great or large hauen. The resort of merchants from out Larga porta. of all countries to this citie maketh the same verie populous and rich, & is the chiefest Emporium of that prouince. Great be the priuileges which the kings of England gaue to the maior & citizens, as well con|cerning the riuer as the citie, by king Iohn, king Henrie the third, and king Edward the first.

The riuer was bounded and limited from the mouth of the seas, betwéene Rindowan where Hoke The riuer at Waterford. tower standeth vpon the east side, and Rodibanke vpon the west side, and from thense vnto Caricke vpon Suire: and so farre beyond, as the said riuer ebbeth and floweth that waie: & from the said mouth vnto the Inostiage vpon the riuer of Oire, and so far as the same water ebbeth and floweth; and likewise from the said mouth, vnto saint Molins vpon the ri|uer A controuer|sie betwéene the Waterfor|dians and the towne of Rosse for the riuer of Barrow. of Barrow; and so farre beyond the same, as the water ebbeth & floweth. Yet notwithstanding great controuersies haue beene betwéene this citie and the towne of Rosse, which lieth vpon the riuer of Bar|row, concerning the bounds and limits that waie, bicause they of Rosse doo claime a priuilege vpon that riuer as of the gift and grant of Roger Bigod earle marshall: who married Isabell the eldest daughter of Walter earle marshall, and in hir right was lord of Rosse and of the riuer of the Barrow. Wherevpon certeine inquisitions were taken in the A verdict pas|sed in the be|halfe of the Waterfordi|ans. time of king Edward the third, and of king Richard the second: and then at Clomnell vpon the othes of six knights and eighteene esquiers, it was found for the citie of Waterford. And these are the bounds of the port or hauen of Waterford; within the which The priuile|ges of Water|ford vpon the water. bounds and limits the citie of Waterford, by the grants of sundrie kings vnder their charters, haue these priuileges: That no ship shall be laden nor vn|laden, but at the citie of Waterford, and there to paie all such customes and duties as belong and are due for their merchandize: Also that they haue the prisage wines and the iurisdiction of the admeraltie, within the limits of the said riuer.

The citie it selfe was first incorporated by king The incorpo|ration of the citie. The priuile|ges of the ci|tie of Water|ford. The sword of iustice. Henrie the second, & after confirmed by king Iohn, Henrie the third, and king Edward the first with augmentations. The maior hath the sword borne before him by the gift of king Edward the fourth, and king Henrie the seauenth, by the name of the sword of iustice. They haue cognisance of all maner of plées as well reall, personall, & mixt. They are iusti|ces of oier and determiner, & maie sit vpon triall of treasons, murthers, and felonies, without anie spe|ciall commission to be sued out for the same. Also that no officer nor officers of the kings or quéenes of England, nor their deputies shall intermeddle, nor exercise anie authoritie nor iurisdiction, within the citie and liberties, but onelie the maior & officers of the same. Also they haue a maior and officers of the staple yearelie to be chosen, who haue the liberties for taking of statutes and recognisances staple, not onelie within their owne towne & concerning them|selues, but also of sundrie townes in Leinster and Mounster, and the counties of Waterford, Kilken|nie, Wexford, and Tipporarie. Also they haue liber|tie from time to time to transport, lade, and carrie a|waie corne, vittels, wooll, horsses, & hawks; and to li|cence anie other within the limits of their iurisdicti|on to doo the like. Also all forfeitures, amerciaments, fines, felons goods, and deodands goods, they haue to their owne vse. Also that in all doubts, the words of their charters should be expounded to the best sense, and if then there were anie further doubt, the same should be determined and decided by the king or his councell in the realme of England. Also that they should not at anie time be compelled to go and serue in anie hosting, except the king himselfe or anie of his sonnes were present in person.

These and manie other like priuileges of the kings of England from time to time, of their boun|teous liberalitie, and in consideration of their du|tifull and good seruices, did giue and bestow vpon them. All which, O you the inhabitants of Mana|pia An admoniti|on to the citi|zens of Wa|terford. and citizens of Waterford, the ofspring of so good ancestors, ought to be lessons and presidents vn|to you, for your continuance in the like offices and duties: that you maie thereby shew your selues to be as were your predecessors, faithfull, loiall, and obedient: and that your apophthegme maie be for e|uer found true, Waterfordia semper manet intacta. O|therwise Waterfordia semper manet intacta. brag neuer so much of your worthinesse, & glorie neuer so much of your values (as the Iewes did of their father Abraham) yet it shall so little a|uaile you, that their honour shall be your reproch, and their glorie your shame, if you doo not also the like; and in the end your vtter confusion. For as the holie scripture saith: If you be the children of light, then as children walke you in the light; other|wise that light which is in you shall be darkenesse. If you be the children of Abraham, then doo you the workes of Abraham: otherwise God, who is able and will raise vp the verie stones to be sonnes to A|braham, shall reiect you, and giue your citie to a people which shall bring foorth the fruits of dutie and obedience. For so did he with his owne peculiar peo|ple, the Iewes, whom for their disobedience against himselfe, and against his annointed princes, did af|ter sundrie punishments and no amendment giue them ouer vnto their enimies hands: who put their yoong men to the sword, & their priests to slaughter, their virgins were deflowred, their widows defiled, their citie vtterlie destroied, and not one stone left vpon an other; and all the people which escaped the sword, carried awaie captiues, & made vagabonds, euen to this daie vpon the face of the earth. If he did this to his owne peculiar people, doo not you of Wa|terford, whom God hath blessed manie waies, thinke EEBO page image 140 that you dooing the like wickednesse, shall escape the like iudgements. Wherefore if you will eschew the An exhortati|on to the citi|zens of Wa|terford. wrath to come, beware by their examples, and hum|ble your selues in all dutifulnes & obedience to God and to your prince. Examine not his authoritie, nor decipher his power: compare not your priuileges with his authoritie, nor doo you dispute your liberties with his prerogatiue. For notwithstanding your pri|uileges, liberties, and grants be great and manie: yet they can not abate nor impugne the least part of the princes prerogatiue: which is so great, as nothing can be greater, if you will take the view of Gods owne ordinances, when he first erected and establi|shed a king, who gaue him so high and so absolute au|thoritie, The princes prerogatiue. that (as the apostle saith) it must be with all humblenesse obeied: bicause he is Gods minister especiallie when it concerneth the interest of hir ma|iesties imperiall crowne of that land, the suppression of rebels and traitors, & the deliuerie of your selues and that realme from the enimies and rebels.

And doo not you thinke that this digression is im|pertinent to the historie. For as your ancestors good dooings are set downe to their praises and commen|dations; so the same shall be doone of yours, either to your praises for your well dooings, or for your re|proch to the contrarie. But to the historie. When the lord deputie had giuen thankes to the maior and his brethren for his good interteinement, he departed thense by iournies towards Corke, and by the waie at Dungaruon the earle of Desmond came vnto The earle of Desmond humblie offe|reth his ser|uice to the lord deputie. him, and verie humblie offered him all the seruice he was able to doo to hir maiestie, and did accompanie him from thense vnto the citie of Corke, where the said lord deputie was receiued in the best manner the citizens could, with all humblenesse, and with all The lord de|putie receiued honorablie in|to Corke. such triumphs and other shewes and tokens of good will and dutifulnesse as they could giue, without grudging or complaining either of the townesmen or of the souldiers. To this towne resorted vnto him All the noble|men in Moun ster repaire to the lord depu|tie. the earles of Desmond, Thomond, Clancar, and all the noblemen and best gentlemen in all Mounster, and their wiues, and there kept their houses the whole Christmasse. During his being there, manie complaints were made of great outrages, mur|thers, Executions at Corke. spoiles, and thefts doone throughout that pro|uince; wherevpon dailie sessions were kept, and the malefactors of which thrée and twentie verie nota|ble and notorious offendors were executed and put to death.

It was also ordered, that for the cutting off and abolishing of the great swarmes and clusters of the idlers, which like waspes troubled the whole land, and liued onelie by spoile and rapine; that euerie noble|man and gentleman should giue and deliuer in the Euerie noble man and gen|tleman to an|swer for his men. names of euerie seruant and follower which he had, and should sée the same to be booked and registred. And if any of them were found vnbooked and not re|gistred, that he should be vsed as a fellon where so euer he was taken; and for all such, as whose names were registred, his lord and master should answer for him. To this order all the noble and gentlemen gaue their full consents, and foorthwith the same was openlie proclamed in their presence, who séemed to receiue it with all ioy, and promised that it should be followed with effect, and immediatlie they gaue in their pledges. When all things were thus in these parts setled in good and quiet order, he tooke his iour|nie towards Limerike, and there he was receiued The lord de|putie honora|blie receiued at Limerike. with much more pompe and shewes than in anie place before. But as before, so here he spent a few daies in kéeping of sessions, in executing of iustice, and in hearing of poore mens complaints, and tooke the like order for registring of euerie noble and gen|tlemans follower, as he had doone at Corke. Which when he had doone, he rode thense vnto Thomond, Thomond in cleane out of order. where he was complained vnto of manie great murthers, rapes, thefts, and other outrages, whereof he found great plentie. And for want of sufficient time to proceed throughlie to doo iustice and iudge|ment therein; he referred the same to certeine com|missioners appointed for the purpose: sauing that he committed the principall offendors to ward, and some he banished and abandoned out of those parts, vntill further order were taken for them.

From thense he entred into Connagh, and came The towne of Gallewaie in great deca [...]e. to the towne of Gallewaie, where he found the towne much decaied and almost desolated, sundrie of the good housholders hauing sought new habitati|ons vnder Mac William Eughter, and the countie through out altogither spoiled and deuoured by the Mac an Earles, the hopeles (but much better if they had beene hoplesse) sonnes of the earle of Clanri|card, whose outrages were most heinous and horri|ble. But when these graceles impes perceiued of the great complaints made against them, and doubting what would be the sequele if some waie were not ta|ken, they voluntarilie went to Gallewaie towne, The earle of Clanricards sonnes sub|mit them|selues. and came to the church vpon a sundaie at the publike seruice, where the lord deputie then was; and there kneeling vpon their knées confessed their faults, submitted themselues, and most lamentablie cra|ued pardon, promising vnfeinedlie amendment, and neuer to reuolt more from their dutifull obedience to hir maiestie and hir lawes. The deputie mooued herewith, and hoping the best, did by the aduise of hir maiesties councell thinke it good, with some sharpe reprehensions and a little punishment for this time to release them, & so he tooke his iournie towards Du|blin, where he came the thirtéenth of Aprill 1576, 1576 but kept sessions in euerie place as he passed through the countrie, and placed his garrisons in places con|uenient.

In this his iournie he found a verie ruinous state and most lamentable disorders, which required a spéedie reformation. And though the outrages in the ciuill gouernment were great, yet nothing to be The ruine of the ecclesiasti|call state. compared to the ecclesiasticall state, for that was too too far out of order; the temples all ruined, the pa|rish churches for the most part without curates and pastors, no seruice said, no God honored, nor Christ preached, nor sacraments ministred. And therefore it appéered, yea and it was openlie preached before the Manie in I|reland not christened. lord deputie himselfe, that manie were borne which neuer were christened: and the patrimonie of the church wasted & the lands imbezelled. A lamentable case, for a more deformed and a more ouerthrowne church there could not be among christians. The de|putie The spoile of the churches. considering and bethinking with himselfe, how the church of God was abused, and that God had in store some wrath and indignation for this de|filing of his holie sanctuarie, did for the auoiding thereof write his letters of aduertisement to hir highnesse, and most earnestlie praied hir princelie authoritie for redresse thereof; and therewith most humblie requested, that the commonwealth being destitute of a chancellor, and other most necessarie magistrates for the gouernement, might likewise with all spéed be sent ouer. When hir maiestie and An order for the reforma|tion of reli|gion. councell had considered this aduertisement, and had entered into the depth thereof, order for a re|dresse was taken foorthwith: and the matters con|cerning religion and reformation of the church, it was committed to the said lord deputie, and to arch|bishops and certeine bishops, with others, to sée the William Ge|rard to be lord chancellor. Sir William Drurie to be lord president. same to be put in execution. And for the gouernment one William Gerard esquier a professor of the laws was sent to be lord chancellor, & sir William Dru|rie to be president of Mounster, which arriued at EEBO page image 141 Dublin, the one the sixteenth of Iune, and the other the three and twentith of the same 1576. The lord 1576 chancellor he did foorthwith settle and place in his roome. And then his lordship prepareth to take a iournie towards Waterford, to doo the like with sir William Drurie. But when he was passed a daies iournie, word was brought vnto him from the bi|shop of Meth, who laie then vpon the confines of The earle of Clanricards sonnes brake out into re|bellion. Meth and Connagh for ordering of matters in these parties; and the like from the maior of Gallewaie, and from diuerse others, who affected well the state, crieng out with trembling termes and dolefull re|ports, that the earle of Clanricard his sonnes that basterlie brood, which not scarse two moneths past had humbled themselues to the lord deputie, confes|sed their faults, and craued pardon, and had most firmelie protested and sworne most dutifull and con|tinuall obedience.

These (I saie) not without the counsell and con|sent The earle consented to his sonnes disloialtie. of their father, were on a night stollen ouer the riuer of Shennon, and there cast awaie their Eng|lish apparell, and clothed themselues in their old woonted Irish rags, and sent to all their old friends to come awaie to them, and to bring the Scots whom they had solicited, and their Gallowglasses, and all other their forces with them. Who when they met togither, they foorthwith went to the towne of Athenrie, and those few houses which were newlie Athenrie spoiled. builded, they sacked, set the new gates on fire, beat awaie the masons and labourers which were there in working, brake and spoiled the quéenes armes, and others, there made and cut to be set vp. Bad and wicked they were before, but now ten times worse than euer they were; being come, euen as it is said in the scriptures, that the wicked spirit was gone out of the man, and wanting his woonted diet, retur|neth vnto the house from whense he came, and fin|ding the same swept cleane, he goeth and séeketh out other seuen wicked spirits, and entreth and dwelleth where he did before, and the last state of that man is woorse than the first. And if a man should aske of these bastardlie boies, and of their sier, what should be the cause that they should thus rage, and so wickedlie and suddenlie reuolue, as dogs to their vomits, so they to their treasons and treacheries, hauing beene so courteouslie vsed, so gentlie interteined, so friend|lie countenanced, so fatherly exhorted, so pithilie per|suaded, & so mercifullie pardoned in hope of amend|ment: surelie nothing can they answer, but that they Selfewill cause of the rebellion. would not be honest, nor in anie part satisfie a little of infinite the robberies, thefts, and spoiles which they had made. For bastardlie slips cannot bring foorth better fruits, neither can thornes bring foorth grapes. It is the good trée onelie that bringeth foorth good fruits, & which is to be cherished, and to be much made of; but thornes and briers are prepared for the fire, and to be burned. For let the husbandman be|stow neuer so much husbandrie vpon the thorne, he will still be but a thorne: yea let him graffe neuer so good a peare vpon him, the same shall be but a stonie peare; and lacking continuall husbandrie, will re|uolt to his old nature againe. As the husbandman then prospereth best, when his fields and gardens are weeded and clensed from thornes, brambles & briers, prepared for the fire: euen so shall the magistrate inioie the quiet state of a commonwealth, when iu|stice Punishment of the wicked maketh a quiet common wealth. taketh place, and iudgement is executed; when the good are preserued and cherished, and the wicked (prepared for the gallowes) according to their de|serts are punished.

The instrument, when euerie string is streined to his proper tune, then the musike is sweet, and the harmonie pleasant; but if that one string be out of order, the discord of that one marreth and disgraceth all the whole musike of the rest: euen so is it in a commonwealth, when euerie subiect is dutifull to his prince, obedient to his magistrate, and liueth ac|cording to his vocation and calling, the same prospe|reth and flourisheth; but let the wicked be left at li|bertie, and be vnpunished, the whole state is distur|bed, & the commonwealth (as a garden ouergrowne with wéeds) in perill and danger to be ouerthrowne. The best commonwealth in all ages then prospe|red best, when the wicked were as well punished, as the good conserued. And experience teacheth, that a théefe, murtherer, a traitor, & such malefactors doo ne|uer better seruice to their prince & commonwealth, than when they be hanged on the gallowes, and so fa|stened to a gibbet. But to the matter.

The lord deputie vpon these aduertisements, fin|ding The lord de|putie altereth his course, and entreth into Connagh. the matter to be of such importance, which requi|red some expedition to withstand the same, or else the whole land like to be in danger, altereth his inten|ded iourneie, and returneth to Dublin, vsing such ex|pedition, that within three daies following he was entered into Connagh. The brute thereof when it was blowne abrode, it was scarse credited by the rebels, bicause it was so sudden and with such spéed. But finding it to be true, and they affraid of their shadowes, they all one and other fled into the moun|teins, sauing certeine gentlemen of the earls coun|trie, The earle of Clanricard is sent to the ca|stell of Dublin and kept in close prison. which left the traitorous boies, & came to the de|putie, and offered their loialtie and seruice with fide|litie. The earle their father would faine haue excused himselfe, but in the end when no excuses could be ac|cepted, his castels were taken, and he brought to the lord deputie: who notwithstanding his humble sub|missions and crauing of pardons, he was sent to the castell of Dublin, and there kept in close prison. But the lord deputie he passed thense to Gallewaie, and after he had there staied a few daies, for the comfor|ting Sir William Drurie placed to be lord pre|sident in Mounster. of the townesmen, who stood much dismaied of their estate, and in feare to be surprised and taken for pledges: he passed through Thomond, and came to Limerike, where he setled sir William Drurie (who had accompanied him in all this seruice) to be the lord president. And from thense being accompanied and attended vpon with him and the nobilitie of that prouince, and diuerse gentlemen of account, they The gouern|mẽt of sir Wil|liam Drurie. passed to Corke, & there the lord president remained.

Now he the said president, being thus placed in the gouernement of that prouince, did beare himselfe so vprightlie, and in so honourable a sort, that he re|formed the same maruellouslie both in life and ma|ners: and of a fierce people he tamed them to obe|dience. For the euill men he spared not, but by law and iustice in the open sessions, or by sword without respect of persons he punished according to their de|serts: euen as of the contrarie the good subiects he would fauour and protect. If anie seruice were to be doone vpon the enimie and rebell, he would be the first in the field, and neuer ceasse to pursue him, vntill he had either taken him, or driuen him out of the countrie. If anie matters were in variance be|twéene man and man, or anie bils of complaints exhibited vnto him, the same he would either deter|mine, or referre them to the law, for which he kept courts continuallie, & where the same were heard and ended, and at which for the most part he would be pre|sent. The rude people he framed to a ciuilitie, & their maners he reformed and brought to the English or|der. And by all these means he did maruellouslie re|forme that whole prouince to a most peaceable, quiet and ciuill estate, sauing the countie palatine in Kerie: which the earle of Desmond claimed to be his The earle of Desmond will haue no officer to intermeddle in his countie palantine. libertie, and that no person was to intermeddle nor yet to vse any iurisdiction there, other than his owne officers. But when his lordship had looked into the EEBO page image 142 most loose and dissolute life there vsed, and that it was The countie palantine a sanctuarie of sinne and wickednesse. a sanctuarie for all lewd and wicked persons, and how that liberties granted at the first for the main|tenance of iustice was now become a cloke and a shrowd for all licentiousnesse: he purposed and was fullie determined to make a iourneie into that pri|uileged The lord pre|sident purpo|seth to doo instice in Kerrie. place, to make a passage for law and iustice to be there exercised, euen as he had tofore doone in other places, knowing that it could not be safe a|mong a great flocke to leaue a scabbed sheepe, nor good for a commonwealth to haue nursseries for sinne.

The erle, when he perceiued this, he was in a great furie and agonie, and vsed all the waies he could to dissuade the lord president from the same. Which when he by no means could compasse, then according to his accustomable dissimulations he maketh faire weather, and offereth all the seruice he could doo to his lordship, and requested him that it would please him to vse his house and countrie at his pleasure, and that it would likewise please his lordship to lie at his house at Tralie when he passed that waie; the earle minding nothing lesse than his welcome thi|ther, but practising in the end openlie what he had dissemblinglie and in secret deuised and determined. The lord deputie, nothing mistrusting anie secret practise to be imagined against him, granteth the earles request; and when he saw time, he taketh his iourneie into Kerrie, hauing no more men with him than sufficient, to the number of six score, or seuen The lord pre|sident entreth into Kerrie. score persons: and as he passed through the coun|trie, he kept courts and sessions, and heard euerie mans complaint: and at length as his iourneie laie, he rode vnto Tralie, where he minded to lodge with the earle. The earle hauing the gouernor (as he thought) within his cl [...]ches, and minding to practise that openlie, which he had deuised secretlie; had ap|pointed The treache|rous practise of the earle to haue intrap|ped thrlord president. in a readinesse seuen hundred, or eight hun|dred of his best followers to haue intrapped his lord|ship; and insted of a bien venu into the countrie, to haue cut him off for euer comming more there. Which his villanous treacherie when his lordship saw and vnderstood; and considering that he was so néere vpon them, as that he was either to aduenture vpon them, or with dishonor to hazard himselfe and his companie: he calleth all his companie togither, The lord pre|sident giueth the charge vpon the earle of Desmond. and with verie good and pithie words incourageth them to giue the onset vpon them: and foorthwith with a good courage they all march forwards, and gaue the charge vpon them. But they, notwithstan|ding they were all well armed, and seuen to one of the other: yet being as it were astonied at the bold|nesse of this noble man, and at his great courage; for which he was famous in & through all that land: both the earle and his companie turned their heeles, forsooke the field, and dispersed themselues into the woods, and elsewhere, for their best safetie

The countesse, when she heard hereof, fell in a great sorow and heauinesse for hir husbands so bad dealings; and like a good Abigaell went and met the lord president, fell vpon hir knées, held vp hir hands, and with trilling teares praied his lordships pati|ence and pardon, excusing as well as she could hir husbands follie, saieng that he had assembled all that companie onelie for a generall hunting, no|thing thinking vpon his lordship; and that the men séeing his lordship could not be persuaded to make anie staie: and so praied his lordship to take it. And herein she so wiselie and in such modestie did be|haue hir selfe, that his lordship granted hir request, and temporised with the earle. But he followed his determination, and vsed his authoritie to decide matters in and throughout the palantine of Kerrie. This gréeued the earle to the hart, who hauing no o|ther waie to be reuenged, he deuiseth certeine arti|cles The eale [...]|plemeth a|gainst the lord president. against the president, which he with great ex|clames exhibited vnto the lord deputie. The lord de|putie, when he departed from Corke, he returned to Dublin, where he was aduertised that the Mac an The Mac an Earles in Connagh rise in rebellon. Earles in Connagh had hired a new supplie of two thousand Scots, and were in actuall rebellion. Wherevpon he prepared a new iourneie thither|wards: and being come thither, he found the mat|ter to be true, and that they were vp in campe and in outragious maner spoiling the countries. But The earls sons doo be|siege Bailie Riogh. before his comming they had besieged Bailie Riogh which was the earles their fathers house, and for his treacherous dealings confiscated.

In this house the lord deputie, at his last departure from thense, had placed Thomas le Strange, and capteine Colier with one hundred footmen, and fiftie horssemen to lie in garrison; but the earls sons, thin|king themselues of sufficient strength to recouer the same againe, laid siege vnto it, and inuironed it round about: but they were so resisted, that they did not onelie not preuaile; but the garrison with|in did make sundrie assaults vpon them, and slue at sundrie times six of their principall capteins, and one hundred and fiftie of their men. And in the end, when they saw they could not preuaile, they raised their siege, and followed their accustomed robbing and spoiling of the countrie; but especiallie vpon Maister wil|liam Eughter his countrie spoiled. Mac William Eughter, from whome they tooke sundrie of his castels, and spoiled him of his goods and cattels. The lord deputie, not slacking nor flow|ing his businesse, followed out of hand the foresaid The lord de|putie follow|eth the rebels. rebels, who skipped to and fro in such sort, that in no case could he find them at any aduantage. Wherfore he did disperse his companies, and according as in|telligence was giuen, he caused pursute to be made vpon them. And by that meanes, although he could not méete with the whole troope of them, whereby to haue a full aduantage vpon them; yet manie times he met with some of them, flue them, hanged and executed them, tooke their preies from them, and gained awaie their holds and castels. And at length hauing good espials, it was aduertised vn|to him, that the Scots were incamped in the confins and marches of Mac William Eughters countrie: The Scots incamped in Connagh. and there vpon he forthwith marched thitherwards, and in his waie manie of them fell into his lap, who had their rewards. Unto whose lordship resorted the said Mac William with all the force he had, & could Mac william Eughter com|meth with all the force he could make vnto the lord deputie. make; who in this rebellion, being the onelie man of power in Connagh, & yet not able to saue himselfe a hole from their inuasions, did shew himselfe most loiall, and did the best seruice that was doone vpon the rebels: and by the meanes of the said deputie, he recouered, and was repossessed of sundrie his ca|stels, which in this rebellion had béene taken from him.

The Scots, when they heard of the approching of the deputie towards them, they raised their campe, and suddenlie dispersed themselues, and the most The Scots forsake Con|nagh and re|turne home. of them, being werie of their abode and intertein|ment, fled into the rout in Ulster. The residue like vnto the bare arssed rebels sculked to and fro; but in the end, they and the others were all dispersed, & durst not to appeare. Wherefore the deputie, when he had broken the galles of them, & had thus disper|sed them, he by iournies returned towards Dublin, and hauing a little before receiued hir maiesties let|ters in the behalfe of Nicholas Malbie hir seruant, Sir Nicho|las Malbie appointed go|uernor of Cõ|nagh. whome she commended for his sufficiencie, both for martiall and ciuill causes: and as well for the in|couragement of him, as for the nourishing of the like vertues in others of his profession; hir pleasure was to commit vnto him the chéefe charge and go|uernement EEBO page image 143 vnder the said deputie in Connagh, and willed that he should be forthwith established in that office, & to be sworne one of hir priuie councell, & to haue that countenance, authoritie, & interteinement as was méet, conuenient & agréeable for the place, of|fice, & person. Which the said deputie most willinglie & gladlie performed, dubbed him knight, and made him gouernor by the name of a coronell of Con|naugh: thinking himselfe most happie, that he was assisted with such a man, as who for his experience in iudgement, his discretion in gouernement, and his painefulnesse and skill in martiall seruice was sufficient and compleat; and best able, partlie by force, partlie by persuasion, and chieflie by mini|string of iustice, was (I saie) best able, and would frame the rude and barbarous people of that pro|uince to ciuilitie and good order. And thus much he aduertised vnto hir maiestie by his letters, with thankes for hir choise of so méete and apt a man. During the time of this seruice and being of the lord deputie in Connagh, the earle of Essex, a man of great nobilitie and parentage died in Dublin. Great doubts were made of his death; some thin|king that he should be poisoned, because he was then in the best time of his age, of a verie good con|stitution of bodie, and not knowne to haue beene sicke anie time before his death. But the matter examined by all the meanes that could be deuised, there was no such thing then found: but supposed, The death of the earle of Essex. that for so much as he had a flux, which was a spise of a Dysenteria, and wherewith he had beene often|times before troubled, by the inspection and iudge|ment Dysenteria. of such physicians & others who were present, The sundrie opinions of his death. Poisoning. witchcraft. it was iudged and found that it was some cause of his death. Some thought rather that he should be be|witched, as that countrie is much giuen to such dai|lie practises. But how far is that from all christi|anitie, all wise and godlie doo know, and euerie good christian should vnderstand. It is against the word of the Lord and all christian religion; and therefore not to be credited. It was thought and so affirmed by the most part of all men, that some inward griefe Sorrow and griefe of mind. of the mind and secret sorrow of the hart had haste|ned that, which no infirmitie of the bodie nor anie o|ther deuises extraordinarie could compasse. For where that maladie is once entered, and hath seized No physicke against the sorow of the mind. and taken possession, and which by no physicke can be releeued or cured: it is but in vaine to minister the same to the bodie, which can not indure when the o|ther faileth, no more than can an accident remaine, when the substance is gone; or else as the imbers or ashes giue heat, when the wood is burned and consu|med.

He was no more honorable of birth and paren|tage by his ancestors, of whome some descended out of kings loines; but as singular a man for all the gifts both of mind and bodie, as that age had not manie better. Towards God he was most deuout The vertues of the earle of Essex. and religious, whome he serued according to his ho|lie word in all truth and sinceritie, and his whole life according to his vocation he framed after the same; being not spotted with drunkennesse, coue|tousnesse, whoredome, incontinencie, or anie other notorious crime: a great fauourer of the godlie, a friend to the professors of the gospell, & an extreame enimie to the papists & enimies of the true religion: to his prince & souereigne most dutifull and humble, faithfull & obedient: his superiors he honored, his el|ders he reuerenced, his equals he loued, his inferiors he fauored: to his countrie trustie, to the common|wealth zealous, to all men courteous, and to the poore and oppressed bounteous and liberall.

In matters of policie he was verie prudent, and of a great reach: in causes of counsell sound, and of a déepe iudgement: in martiall affaires most valiant and of great courage, and of so heroicall a mind, that if his abilitie had answered his good will, he had not bin a second, neither to Lacie, nor to Courcie, nor to anie the first conquerors of Ulster to the crowne of A plot for the regaining of Ulster. England. For such a plot he had laid for the regain|ing therof, that it could not be denied, but if the same had béene followed, great good would haue insued in processe of time to hir maiestie, in obedience and re|uenues, and a great suertie to that estate, and the like increase of benefit to the whole commonwealth. The more noble were his good and worthie attempts, the more he was crossed and contraried: but by such se|cret meanes, as which he did rather for the most part coniecture amisse, than hit aright: but yet such was the great valour of his mind, and the magnanimitie of his stomach, that his good meanings & attempts, for the honor of his prince, and the benefit of the com|monwealth, being so contraried and ouerthwarted, The earle of Essex contra|ried in all his attempts. he whome no trauels, no paines, no seruice, no hard|nesse could breake; the verie griefe of mind and sor|row of heart (as it was thought) did onelie consume and ouerthrow. He was also verie learned, and of great reading, and sometimes a scholer in the vni|uersitie, The earle be|rie well lear|ned. and had verie good knowledge in all kind of letters, as well theologicall as humane, and of a ve|rie quicke wit to conceiue, of a good capacitie to vn|derstand, and of a readie toong to vtter and deliuer in a verie good order what he had conceiued; and so well he would discourse and argue anie matter, as few scholers better, and not manie so skilfull in anie one, as he was generallie in all good vertues. A more noble man euerie waie, not England, nor anie other nation hath lightlie affoorded. And certeinlie, if it had pleased God that Lachesis had bene idle, or had spun a longer thread, that he might haue liued to haue beene imploied according to his excellent ver|tues, either in matters of counsell, of policie, or mar|tiall, no doubt he would haue prooued a most worthie and beneficiall member vnto hir maiestie, and hir whole commonwealth. As his life was, so also was his death most godlie, comfortable, and vertuous, the one answerable to the other, euen as S. Augustine writeth; Vix malè moritur qui benè vix [...]t. In all the A godlie life hath a godlie end. time of his sicknesse, which was about twentie or one and twentie daies, although he were manie times tormented with greeuous pangs in the bellie: yet was he neuer heard to grudge or murmur, nor to speake anie angrie or idle word, but most patientlie and méekelie tooke all things in good part. After he His patience in his sicknes perceiued that nature began to faile and defect, he yéelded himselfe to die, and was verie desirous that his friends and welwillers should haue accesse vn|to him, and to abide by him at their pleasure. And by that meanes he had continuallie about him diuerse men of all degrees, as well of the clergie, as of the laitie, both men and women, gentlemen & seruants, before whom he did shew most apparant arguments of a godlie and vnfeined repentance of his life past, His repen|tance and cha|ritie. and of a most christian and perfect charitie with all the world, fréelie forgiuing euerie offense doone vnto him, and asking the like of all others. His faith he o|penlie confessed, and witnessed a most vndoubted as|surance of his saluation in Christ Iesus, purchased He confesseth his faith. for him in his bloud and death: and manie times he would with a lowd voice saie; Cupio dissolui & esse cum His praieng and hearing the word. Christo. He spent most part of the time, when the ex|tremitie of his sicknesse did not let him, in praiers, and in hearing the word read vnto him, and would vse such godlie admonitions, such pithie persuasions, & so graue instructions, as he neuer did, nor thought he could doo in all his life time: for he neuer séemed in all his daies to be halfe so wise, learned, and elo|quent. The néerer that death drew, the more feruent EEBO page image 144 he was in praier, and requested all his companie to doo the like; and the verie last words that he spake was, The lord Iesus. And when his toong gaue ouer to speake anie more, he lifted vp his hands & eies to the Lord his God, vntill most swéetlie, mildlie, and godlie he did yéeld vp his ghost, which manie times before he had commended to his Lord and God. And thus this noble man vpon the two and twentith daie Sée more of this earle of Essex in the chronicles of England, pag. 1263. of September, and in the yere of our Lord one thou|sand fiue hundred seuentie and six, left this world, to the great sorow of his fréends, and losse of the com|monwealth; but to the gaine of himselfe, who by all apparant arguments and testimonies of his vndou|ted faith, dooth assure vs of his euerlasting ioie, and eternall felicitie.

About thrée daies before his death, he wrot his last letters to the lord deputie, being then in the remote His letters to the lord de|putie. parties of Connagh; and verie desirous he was to haue spoken with him. In which letters he gaue his lordship most hartie thanks for all the good freend|ships past betweene them, and wished that the good and faithfull dealings betweene them were knowne The effect of the earles let|ters to the de|putie. as well in England as elsewhere. Then he commen|ded to him all his seruants generallie, and some by particular name; and therein a speciall request for his sonne and heire, that though he himselfe should die to his freends, yet his sonne the earle of Essex might liue to the seruice of his prince, and the good of the commonwealth. And lastlie, he touched some|what concerning his buriall, and herewith he sent vnto his lordship a little George and a garter, the ensignes of the order of the garter, whereof they both were knights and companions, to be a memoriall of the loue and goodwill past betweene them. And now leauing this honorable earle in his heauenlie ioie and blisse: let vs returne to the historie of this effere and effrenated nation.

The prouince of Mounster was indifferent qui|et, but some repinings were betwéene the earles of The disa|gréements be|twéene the earls of Des|mond and Thomond. Thomond and Desmond, the one not abiding nor digesting the orders, which vpon sundrie complaints were made against him, which he refused to obeie, vntill Volens nolens he were pressed therevnto by the lord president: the other, who was alwaies a verie wilfull man, notwithstanding he had at Corke yéel|ded himselfe (of his owne frée consent) to abide the orders there made for the quietnesse of the countrie, yet now hauing taken the aduise of his disordered fo|lowers, he would not be withdrawen from his woon|ted exactions, and therefore repined to beare further The earle of Desmond re|pineth against all good or|ders, and com|plaineth a|gainst the cesse. anie cesse; and wrote his letters to the lords of hir maiesties priuie councell in England, complaining much, and proouing nothing, and aggrauating the taking of the cesse, with most manifest vntruths. And so far he was carried in misliking the gouern|ment, bicause he saw his owne woonted swaie was much abated, that he would verie faine haue slipped out if he could. And it was verelie thought that he was combined in a secret conspiration with the fore|lorne sonnes of the earle of Clanricard, as was his brother sir Iohn of Desmond, who for his confe|rence had with Shane Burke, was suspected to haue Sir Iohn of Desmond committed to ward. ioined with him in his rebellion; as also because he had promised him aid out of Mounster, if he would hold out, and for which he was committed to ward. Which caried the more likelihood, bicause his intenti|on was to put awaie his owne wife, & to haue mat|ched himselfe in marriage with Shanes sister, who was Orwackes wife, & of late forsaken by him. Ne|uer Sir P. Des|mond putteth away his wife and marrieth another mans wife. the lesse, the erle was fearefull to offend the state, for the president was so watchfull to espie out both his and all the rest of their dooings, and in such a rea|dinesse to be at inches with them, and vpon their bones if they started out neuer so little, that he kept himselfe quiet, and came in to the said president, and deliuered in his men that were demanded, & which before he denied, being verie notorious malefactors and practisers of vnquietnesse.

And now that the whole land was (as was thought) in quiet, or at least in outward shew more quiet than in times past, the noblemen & gentlemen in the En|glish pale, of whome least suspicion of anie euill was The gentle|men in the pale begin to repine a|gainst the cesse. thought, they begin veris inconsideratlie to repine against the cesse: who if they had entred into the due consideration thereof, they (although somewhat to their further charge) should haue mainteined it: be|cause that the same was procured for the defense of themselues, and they onelie had the benefit thereof. For you shall vnderstand that the lord deputie, being a man of great wisdome, knowlege, and experience, when he considered the fickle state of that wauering and rebellious nation of the Irishrie, who notwith|standing they had neuer so firmly promised, sworne, and vowed all allegiance and obedience to hir ma|iestie: yet vpon euerie light occasion, without anie respect of faith and dutie, would fling out into secret conspiracies, and so into open rebellion; and then for the appeasing thereof, and the preseruation of hir good subiects, hir highnesse was driuen to inlarge hir garrisons, and to increase hir armie to hir excessiue charges, and all which companies were vittelied by the English pale: and further, considering that the benefit which grew hereby, was generallie ex|tended to the whole pale, who in equitie should be contributorie to the burthen, as they were parta|kers of the ease, and yet manie of them, pretending to haue liberties and priuileges, claimed to be ex|empted from anie contribution at all, whereby the Liberties claimed to be discharged of the cesse. residue were the more gréeued, & the greater burthe|ned, to their impouerishing, & the hinderance of their seruice: the lord deputie caused a through search to be made in hir highnesse court of the excheker in Ire|land, The records searched for liberties. of all the records, for and concerning all and all manner of liberties which at anie time had tofore bin granted to anie person or persons whatsoeuer: and in the end found that (verie few ancient liberties excepted) all were vsurped, or by statute repea|led.

Wherevpon to ease the oppressed, and to make the burthen to be borne more vniuersallie, and so more indifferentlie; and for the better furtherance of hir highnesse seruice: he commanded by proclamation Liberties dis|solued by pro|clamation. all such liberties and fréedoms to be dissolued, as which either had no grant at all, or which had not that continuance of times out of memorie of man. And of this latter sort were manie made by a statute but to indure onelie for ten yeares, and all which were expired. And for this cause they neuer found fault be|fore now that they are greeued, and therefore doo re|pine against cesse; and with open mouths crie out, that they were so poore that they could not beare anie cesse, and that it was against the law. And here for your better vnderstanding what cesse is, and what What cesse is. is meant thereby; it is a prerogatiue of the prince, to impose vpon the countrie a certeine proportion of all kind of vittels for men and horsse, to be deliuered at a reasonable price called the quéens price, to all and euerie such souldiors as she is contented to be at charge withall, and so much as is thought competent for the lord deputies house; and which price is to be yeerelie rated and assessed by the lord deputie and the councell, with the assistants and assent of the nobili|tie of the countrie, at such rates and prices as the souldiors may liue of his wages, and the said depu|tie of his interteinment.

These things although they were orderlie doone, The mal [...]|cõtents make their suppli|cation to the lord deputie [...] councell to be discharged of the cesse. yet certeine malecontents, finding themselues grée|ued, bicause they should also now heare a portion, and EEBO page image 145 be contributaries: first they draw their heads togi|ther, and make there supplication to the lord deputie and councell, which was receiued verie willinglie, and offer made that conference should be had with them, how and what waie it might best be deuised to ease there griefes, & not to charge the quéene. Wher|vpon at a time appointed they all met, and came in persons before the deputie and councell, where the said malecontents first opened their griefes, that they had certeine old and ancient priuileges and li|berties which were taken from them; then that they were compelled to yeeld to an vnreasonable cesse, which they were not able to beare, and that was will and pleasure onlie, and contrarie to all law and rea|son, that anie such charge should be imposed vpon them without a parlement or grand councell.

When the lord deputie and councell heard them at full, they appointed a daie, when they should come and receiue their answer. In the meane time the lord deputie and councell consulted and considered of the matter, and resolued themselues vpon an an|swer. And when the daie came and they appeered, an|swer was made vnto them by the mouth of the lord chancellor, that they had no charters nor liberties at all to be found in hir highnesse records, other than such as were expired and of no validitie. And as for the greatnesse of the cesse, the burden whereof they had alleged to be vnreasonable and not to be borne, bicause they said & auouched that it was ten pounds & twelue pounds of ech plough land; it was offered that they should be discharged, if they would paie but fiue markes for euerie plough land. And whatso|euer they said in deniall of the paieng of the cesse, it was and is to be proued, that it was not onelie hir maiesties prerogatiue which may not be impeached; but also to be prooued by most ancient records, that euer since the time of king Henrie the fourth, for the space of eight or nine score yeares, there hath bin still from time to time, as occasion hath required, the like charges imposed by the name of cesse by the de|putie and councell, and such nobilitie as were sent for and did come to the same, now in question and by them repined at. Neuerthelesse, they repined and flatlie denied that they would yéeld to anie cesse, saieng and alledging as before, that it was a|gainst reason and law, and therefore praied that they might haue his lordships libertie to make their re|paire ouer into England, and to acquaint hir high|nesse with their case. Wherevnto he answered, that he would neither giue any such leaue nor denie them to go. Wherevpon they assembled themselues togi|ther againe, and by the aduise of certeine busie hea|ded lawiers and malecontented gentlemen, who had stirred and set them a worke to conioine themselues to follow this sute, and contributed a masse of mo|nie amongst themselues, for the charge of the said lawiers, namelie Barnabie Scurlocke, Richard Neteruill, and Henrie Burnell, who hauing béene sometimes students in the ins of the court in Lon|don, & acquainted with Littletons tenures, thought themselues so well fraughted with knowledge in the laws, as they were able to wade in all matters of the deepest points of the law. But if they had first (as it becommeth dutifull subiects) to haue looked in the booke of God, they should haue found it written The prero|gatiue of a prince by the law of God. there, that it was God himselfe who first made kings and established their thrones, and gaue them most excellent preeminences next to himselfe, that they should be vnder him the supreme gouernours vpon the earth; and haue that authoritie and prerogatiue, that all inferiors and subiects should and ought in all humblenesse and dutifulnesse submit themselues vnto the obedience of them for the Lords sake: bi|cause so is it the will of God, without sifting of his authoritie or examining his gouernment. For there is no power (as the apostle saith) but of God, & they are ordeined of God; wherfore who so resisteth them, resisteth God, and whose resistances & disobediences the Lord himselfe hath reuenged oftentimes on the disobedient. Wherfore euerie man is to be subiect in all humilitie & obedience vnto them in all maner of ordinances, being not against God, not onlie bicause of wrath, but also for conscience sake, especiallie in matters being well considered, & which doo concerne their one benefit and safetie. If this be the infallible truth, how farre were these men ouershot, that thus would dispute the princes prerogatiue with their Littletons tenures; and measure the same with their owne rules and deuises? It had bin much better for them, & more to their commendations, if they had (as the scholers of Pythagoras) kept silence and had held their peace, vntill such time as they had beene better studied in their owne lawes: and then they should haue found it written that the prince or king is the The kings prerogatiue by the lawes of the realme. head and most excellent part of the bodie of the com|monwealth; and through his gouernance the preser|uer and defender of the whole bodie, and (as the pro|phet termeth them) to be nourishing fathers of the people which are the rest of the bodie, and for which causes the lawes doo attribute vnto him all honor, dignitie, prerogatiue, and preeminence aboue all o|thers; and which his prerogatiue dooth not onelie ex|tend to his owne person, and all that which he hath of his owne, but also to all his subiects. And the law|yers themselues doo so far stretch this for a Maxime, that whatsoeuer lawes be made and established ei|ther for the benefit of holie church or common pro|fit, it is alwaies implied Salua in omnibus regis praero|gatiua; and that nothing shall be intended to be preiu|diciall to his crowne and dignitie. But by all likeli|hood these men were not so farre read; or if they had, their malice or desire of some pelting lucre, which blindeth manie of that profession, had made them forgetfull of themselues & of their duties. Well, these great lawiers beare the malecontented lords & gen|tlemen in hand, that their cause & sute was good and reasonable, and by the law to be warranted, & not to be doubted but the same would haue good successe. Whervpon they made vp their supplication and let|ters The impaled gentlemen send into En|gland their a|gents to com|plaine. to hir maiestie, with the like letters to hir hono|rable priuie councell, dated the tenth of Ianuarie, 1576, and vnder the hands of Rowland vicount of Baltinglas, Ed. of Deluin, Christopher of Hoth, Peter of Trimleston, Iames of Kellew, and Pa|trike Naugle barons; sir Oliuer Plunket, sir Tho|mas Nugeat, sir Christopher Chiuers, and sir Wil|liam Searefield knights; Edward Plunket, Pa|trike Naugle, Patrike Husseie, George Plunket, Francis Nugeat, Laurence Nugeat, Nicholas Tasse, Iames Nugeat, and William Talbot, in the names of all the inhabitants within the Eng|lish pale, had subscribed. And then also they deliuered in the like order their letters of atturneie vnto their said agents, and so much monie for their expenses as was thought sufficient, with their order and pro|mise to supplie what soeuer they should need. And thus being furnished with all things to their con|tentments, they past ouer the seas, and made their repaire vnto the court of England, and there at time conuenient did exhibit their supplications and letters to hir maiestie and the lords of the councell, which in effect consisted in these points.

First, that where there was a cesse imposed by [...]e 1 lord deputie and councell vpon the English pale for The effect of the letters & complaints exhibited to hir maiestie and councell. hir maiesties garrisons, they finding themselues grieued therewith, made their complaint thereof vnto the said lord deputie and councell for redresse, and could not be heard.

EEBO page image 146 Secondarilie, they affirmed that the said cesse, 2 or anie other like to be imposed vpon them, was against the lawes, statutes, and vsages of that realme.

Thirdlie, that the cesse was a most intollerable and grieuous burden, there being exacted out of eue|rie 3 plough land ten and twelue pounds.

Fourthlie, that in the leuieng and exacting, there were manie and sundrie abuses doone and commit|ted. 4

When hir maiestie had throughlie read both the complaints and letters, she foorthwith sent and set The matter is referred to the councell. them ouer to the lords of hir priuie councell to be considered, and the same to be throughlie examined; who foorthwith assembled themselues, and hauing read and heard the contents thereof, did compare them with the like letters sent vnto them from the said malecontented lords & gentlemen; as also with the instructions and aduertisements, which they likewise had receiued from the lord deputie and councell out of Ireland, concerning the same. And after long debating of the matter, that they might the better proue and vnderstand the greatnesse ther|of, did by hir highnesse commandement call before them the earles of Kildare and Ormond, the vi|count of Gormanstone, and the baron of Dunsanie, who then were attendant at the court, and declared vnto them the whole matter, and the maner of these mens procéedings both héere and in that realme, whose intent and meaning was in verie déed, vnder color to séeke some reliefe, to haue taken awaie who|lie the imposing of anie cesse, and so consequentlie to haue taken awaie the right & prerogatiue, which hir maiestie & predecessors haue alwaies inioied, and without which that realme could not be defended, nor themselues preserued.

These foure noblemen, when they had heard the whole matter, séemed to be sorie, and to mislike of their vnaduised procéedings: they confessing and ac|knowledging that cesse hath beene alwaies vsed to be taken, and they thought him not to be a dutifull subiect, who would denie or impugne the same: al|though they wished and did praie, that the poore inha|bitants in times of scarsitie might be eased of some part of the burthen which they now presentlie did beare. When the lords of the councell had proceeded herein so farre as they could, they deliuered vp their The answers of the councell to the articles of the com|plainers. opinions to hir maiestie, aduertising that concer|ning the first article they could say nothing; but that they supposed that the dooings of hir highnesse depu|tie was not so strict as was complained: bicause he had written otherwise.

To the second their opinion was, that it touched hir maiesties prerogatiue, so much to be denied of that imposition, which hath béene vsed, allowed, and continued for manie yeares, and in times of hir sun|drie predecessors; that now it might not be suffered to be impeached, vnlesse hir highnesse would loose and forgo hir title, right, and interest to the crowne of Ireland, or else support the whole burthen and charge to defend the same of hir owne pursse: neither which extreamities could or might in anie wise be tolle|rated.

To the third, that the cesse was intollerable, and not able to be borne, they thought that to be true, if ten pounds and twelue pounds should be demanded out of euerie plough land, as they complained: but they vnderstood by credible informations from the d [...]tie and councell the contrarie, & that they were offered at fiue marks the plough land: which was supposed to be verie easie and reasonable.

To the fourth article their opinion was, that if a|nie such abuses were doone, it were good the same were set downe and knowne, and a redresse thereof to be ordered.

When hir highnesse had read and thoroughlie con|sidered Hir maiestie offended with the com|plainers. their opinions and resolutions, and finding hir selfe vndutifullie to be handled by hir subiects, commanded by the aduise of hir councell the said a|gents which followed their sute, to be committed to the Fleet, and foorthwith wrote hir letters to the said The agents of the com|plainers sent to the Fleet. hir deputie and councell, finding hir selfe grieued with the said hir subiects of the pale, that the relée|uing of hir armie with vittels by waie of cesse, should be auouched to be a matter against law, and ancient custome: and yet the same both in hir time and in the times of hir progenitors, hath vsuallie béene imposed, and now impugned by some such as in times past had subscribed therevnto, in preiudice of hir prerogatiue, and hinderance of hir seruice. And therfore she did not onelie mislike, & was great|lie Hir maiestie offended with the lord depu|tie and coun|cell for suffe|ring the com|plainers vn|punished. offended with these their presumptuous and vn|dutifull maner of procéeding; but also found fault with the said deputie and hir councell there, that they would and did suffer hir prerogatiue in contempt of hir highnesse and authoritie to be so impugned, & the parties not committed & punished: by which meanes the matter at the first and in the beginning might haue beene remedied. And therefore as hir highnesse had alreadie giuen order for committing them to the Fléet, for the punishment of the agents which were sent ouer with the complaints and letters, for such their iustifieng and mainteining the imposition of the said cesse to be against the lawes and customes of that hir realme, and therefore séeking to impeach hir prerogatiue and roiall authoritie: but also willed and commanded him and all hir whole councell to send for those lords and gentlemen, which subscribed the letters sent vnto hir highnesse, who if they will stand to mainteine their assertions, and auow the The complai|ners which subscribed to be sent and committed to ward. imposition of the cesse to be against the lawes and customes of the realme, and not warrantable by hir prerogatiue, that then hir pleasure was, that these persisting and auowing to be likewise committed.

And concerning the abuses perpetrated in the maner of the leuieng the said cesse, hir commande|ment and order was, that whosoeuer were culpable therein, he should be punished with all seueritie. And herewith also she was contented, and had giuen or|der for some qualification to be yeelded vnto, as by the said hir deputie and councell should be thought méet: considering the scarsitie and the dearth which was then in the said English pale. And in case the The complai|ners acknow|ledging their faults to be gentlie vsed. said lords and gentlemen vpon better consideration will be contented to acknowledge their offenses, and submit themselues simplie, and vnder their hand|writings: that then they to receiue fauour. And as for those and such hir learned men, as were present at the debating of the matter, and did forbeare (con|trarie to their dutie & knowledge) to stand in main|teinance against the said prerogatiue, to be displa|ced The lawyers of hir maie|sties fee main|teining the complaints, to be displa|ced. and discharged out of hir fée, and their places to be supplied by such others as by the deputies shall be thought méet. Immediatlie vpon the receipt of hir maiesties letters, and the like from the councell, the lord deputie and councell by their letters sent not onelie for those malcontents, which had before sub|scribed to the letters sent to hir highnesse and coun|cell; but also in discretion for such others who for their disguised and cunning manner of dealings were speciallie noted to be councellors, ringlea|ders, The malcon|tents & their abbettors sent for. and procurors of these letters to hir maie|stie and the lords of hir councell: who when they were come, and then being dealt withall, touching their claime of fréedome from cesse: their answers were arrogant and wilfull, and repining against The proud answers of the malcon|tents. hir maiesties prerogatiue, and affirming boldlie in plaine spéeches and without anie sticking, that no EEBO page image 147 cesse could be imposed but by parlement or a grand councell; [...]id whatsoeuer was otherwise set downe, was against the law: and so stubbornelie they were bent therein, that they would not yéeld to anie con|ference: wherevpon they were all committed to the castell of Dublin, notwithstanding some of them The malcon|tents are all committed to prison. (after they had better aduised themselues) yéelded a submission and praied mercie.

Which dooings when the lord deputie and coun|cell had foorthwith aduertised to hir highnesse & the councell in England; they nothing liking these ar|rogant and disloiall parts of these impaled male|contents, sent for their agents; and hauing the like conference with them, found them of like dis|position, being as a fit couer to the pot, verie fro|ward, arrogant, and wilfull: wherevpon they were remooued from the Fléet to the Tower: a place appointed for the offendors in capitall causes, and for The agents for their fro|wardnesse sent to the Tower. such (being impugners of hir prerogatiue) as be sup|posed to offend in the néerest degrée to the highest. These things when they were notified vnto the lords and gentlemen in Ireland, they were maruellous|lie gréeued; but not the one nor the other would giue ouer, vntill their arrogancies and insolencies were by apparant matter and good records fullie conuin|ced, and condemned: for which the lord chancellor of The lord chancellor of Ireland sent [...]o Eng|land. verie purpose was sent ouer into England, who so fullie, effectuallie, and discréetlie did resolue hir ma|iestie and councell in euerie point, which the parties agents could not denie.

Now in the end they considered better of them|selues, and sent their humble submission in writing The agents submit them|selues. vnder their hands to the said lords of hir maiesties priuie councell, confessing that they had disloiallie and insolentlie, both in words and writings offen|ded most gréeuouslie; protesting yet that their in|tent was neuer to denie hir roiall prerogatiue, to vse the same as occasion should serue, but onelie to redresse certeine abuses; and therefore most humblie praied they might find some mercie, and that the hard and painfull imprisonment which they had susteined, might be a sufficient punishment for the same. Wherevpon they were released, putting in bonds of one thousand pounds, that within fiue daies they The agents were released vpon their bonds to ap|peare before the lord depu|tie and coun|cell. should depart homewards into Ireland; and after their transportation & arriuall thither, should make their immediat repaire, without staie or lingering, to the lord deputie and councell, and there to giue their attendance, vntill by them they should be licen|ced to depart. At their comming home they perfor|med the conditions of their obligations, and most humblie in like order submitted themselues to the lord deputie and councell, and then (according to an order thought good by the lords of the councell in England, and referred to the liking of the lord depu|tie and councell in Ireland) the same was after long trauerse ended and determined. But heere to set downe what practises, informations, & deuises were made against the said deputie, by the said malecon|tents, and some (by their means) of no small calling had informed that he had alienated the hearts of the subiects from loiall obedience, that he had farmed The false ac|cusations made against the lord depu|tie. all the whole relme, that he had wasted hir maiesties treasures and reuenues, that he wanted policie in his gouernement, that he should for this dealing with hir subiects be reuoked, that he did all things by his owne mind without the aduise of others, con|trarie to the course of other deputies before him, that he did grant manie pardons, to the imbolde|ning of manie which offended the more.

These and manie such other like vntruths they spred. But truth, which is the daughter of time, did manifest it to the whole world, that their ouerthrow was his credit, and his preuaile was to their reproch and shame. And albeit manie were the pangs and inward gréefes, which for a time by the meanes of their false suggestions he susteined, and with great paines he couered: yet in the end it turned to his great ioy and comfort. And here by the way, if a man without offense should fall into the consideration of this their resistance, and repining against the cesse, which was then enterprised and taken in h [...]nd; when the whole land stood in a broken and doubtfull state, and the time verie dangerous; when the earle of Des|mond frowardlie kicked at the like, and all the lords in Mounster had contrarie to their owne orders and promises, denied, and commanded their tenants to denie after the manner of the English pale, to paie anie cesse; when Iames Fitzmoris being furni|shed with men, monie, and munition, by the pope and king of Spaine, was dailie looked for to come and inuade the land; and when the great ones ha|uing hollow harts, and addicted to papistrie, did dai|lie gape and expect for the same; when the disloiall Irishrie in Mounster and Connaugh were combi|ned and ioined in these conspiracies; when Rorie Og, Omore, Connor Mac Cormake, Oconnor & o|thers, animated by the forsaid conspiracies, were vp in open rebellion, and vsed most execrable outrages; when some of the best townes in Leinster did aid, comfort, and mainteine these rebels, and besides manie other circumstances concurring héerewith: might it not be well presumed (and as it was so doubted) that the cause being like, they should also be combined and linked alike? And might not the whole world iudge that neither barrell was the better her|ring? And yet notwithstanding it fell in the end to a better effect. For the lords and inhabitants in the English pale, since the time of the conquest by The fidelitie of the Eng|lish pale to the crowne. king Henrie the second, and since their first arri|uall into this land, it hath not béene lightlie knowne that they had broken their faith and their allegiance, and not to rebell in anie warres against the crowne of England, and the kings of the same; sauing as now in respect to saue their pursses, rather than mea|ning anie breach of dutie, had ouer shot themselues: which vpon a further consideration of the truth they repented, and vpon their submission were pardoned, in hope and vpon their promise that they would ne|uer thensefoorth offend, nor be found faultie with the like. During the trauerse about the cesse, manie things happened in the land worthie to be reprehen|ded (as great and sundrie were the aduertisements from out of France by such Englishmen as were there imploied) of an intention of Iames Fitzmoris to inuade Ireland, who had béene at Rome with the pope, and there was he princelie interteined, and re|turned from thense with a good masse of treasure, making his returne through Spaine, and by the king thereof was furnished with men, munitions, & treasures, and all things necessarie. Which things were by letters from him signified vnto the chéefest of all Mounster his secret confederats, and they be|ing papists both in bodie & soule, desirous of change of gouernement, and to be vnder a prince of their owne superstition, did dailie languish and expect his comming. Wherefore hir maiestie and councell, ha|uing the like intelligences, doo also prepare monie, munitions, vittels, and men, and all other things necessarie for the withstanding of him.

Rorie Og, Omore, and Connor Mac Cormake, Oconnor, and their coparteners, contrarie to their othes, submissions, and promises, hoping for aid out of Connaugh, began anew to gather their fréends and confederats out of seuerall places, to the num|ber of a hundred swords, which with his owne made aboue seau [...]n score; and being animated by Shane Burke to continue a rebell, he burned diuerse mens EEBO page image 148 haggards, poore mens houses, and sundrie villages, and committed manie outrages: and being not re|sisted, he tooke such incouragement of his successe, that leauing poore villages, he went to great towns, as to the Naas, distant from Dublin about ten The burning of the Naas by Rorie Og. miles. The verie same daie that he came thither at night, was the patrone daie of the said towne, com|monlie called the church holie daie, which daie after the maner of that countrie, and not much vnlike the festiuall daies which the Ethniks and Pagans were woont to celebrate to their idoll gods of Bacchus and Uenus, they spent in gluttonie, drunkennesse, and surfetting. And after they had so filled their panches, and the daie was gone, they somewhat late in the night went to their beds, hauing forgotten to make fast their towne gates, or put anie watch to ward them. Which thing Rorie Og when he knew, and ha|uing intelligence that euerie man was in his bed a|sléepe, then he in the dead night came to the towne with all his companie, who like vnto a sort of furies and diuels new come out of hell, carried vpon the ends of their poles flankes of fier, and did set as they went the low thatched houses on fier. And the wind being then somewhat great and vehement, one house tooke fier of another, and so in a trise and mo|ment the whole towne was burned; and yet in the towne supposed to be fiue hundred persons in out|ward appearance, able to haue resisted them: but they being in their dead sléeps, suddenlie awaked, were so amazed, that they wist not what to doo, for the fier was round about them and past quenching, and to pursue the enimie they were altogither vnfurni|shed, and durst not to doo it, neither if they would they could tell which way to follow him. For he taried ve|rie little in the towne, sauing that he sat a little while vpon the crosse in the market place, and beh [...]ld how the fire round about him was in euerie house kindled, and whereat he made great ioy and tri|umph, that he had doone and exploited so diuelish an act. And then after a short space he arose and depar|ted with great triumph according to his accustomed vsage in all his euill actions, but yet contrarie to his vsage, he killed no one person in the towne. As he returned he preied and spoiled the countrie, and ran|ging to and fro, as his wauering head carried him, Rorie Og burneth the towne at Leighlin bridge. he came verie shortlie vnto the towne at Leighlin bridge, and there burned part of the towne.

But George Carew brother vnto Peter Carew, then constable of the said towne and fort, hauing then but a small ward to defend the violence of the George Ca|rew with twelue per|sons against 240 setteth vpon them & driueth them to flie. enimie, and yet thinking it should be too great a dis|honour vnto him to be bearded with a traitor, and to let him depart vnfought withall: he issued out vpon him, hauing with him onelie seuen horssemen and fiue shot, and gaue the charge vpon the said rebels, being two hundred and fortie, with such a courage and valiantnesse (and they astonied bicause it was so sudden and in the night time) that he killed some of them: and then they with the losse of those men be|gan to flie. But at last when they perceiued his force to be but small, and too weake to resist their great number, they returned and chased him to the verie walles of the castell; where if he and his small com|panie had not like valiant and good souldiers acqui|ted The castell in danger to be taken. themselues, the rebels had entred into the house; for they were within the gate and there fought, but driuen out and the gate shut. At this bickering they lost sixtéene men, and one of their chiefe capteines named Piers Moinagh, who died verie shortlie after of his hurt. Capteine Carew lost but two men and one horsse, but euerie one of the rest of his companie was hurt.

The enimie, nothing triumphing nor liking this interteinement, presentlie retired and departed, by which meanes the one halfe of the towne was saued. The enimie is driuen to retire and flie awaie. After their returne from hense, they spoiled sundrie townes and villages vpon the confines & borders of the English pale. And albeit they were verie eger|lie followed and pursued, and oftentimes with losse of his companie, yet he was so mainteined, and his watch and spiall was so good, that partlie by the helpe of his acquaintance, and partlie by meanes of the water bogs and fastenesse in euerie place, he was in safegard and safetie. In this pursute made vpon him, it happened that a parlée was appointed betwéene capteine Harington and him: vnto whom Rorie Og swore and promised most faithfullie to yeeld himselfe to some conformitie and order. The capteine nothing mistrusting him, gaue too much credit to his subtill promises, and did so open him|selfe vnto him, that through his owne follie Rorie tooke aduantage, and perforce tooke him and Alexan|der Rorie Og by slight and de|ceipt taketh capteine Ha|rington priso|ner. Cosbie, who was with him in hand, both which he handfasted togither, and caried them along with him as his water spaniels, thorough woods and bogs, threatening them still to kill them. This thing being knowne, great sorow and greefe was conceiued of the lord deputie, and of all good Englishmen, and dai|lie practises were deuised for their deliueries; and at length by treatie of friends an agreement was in a manner concluded. But before the same was fullie perfected, a draught was made by Robert Harepole A draught made vpon Rorie Og by Harepole. constable of Catherlough, to intrap and to make a draught vpon Rorie: for he knowing where the said Rorie was woont to hant, and by good espials lear|ning where his cooch and cabine was, he being ac|companied with Parker lieutenant to capteine Furse and fiftie of his band, earelie in the mor|ning, about two houres before daie, he went and marched to the verie place where Rorie laie, and be|set the same. Rorie hearing an vnwoonted noise, and suspecting the worst, he came suddenlie vpon Ha|rington and Cosbie, thinking to haue slaine them, Capteine Ha|rington is hurt. and gessing in the darke to the place where they laie, gaue him diuerse wounds, but none deadlie; the greatest was the losse of the little finger on his left hand. Robert Harepole when he had broken open the doore of the cabin, he tooke as manie as were within prisoners: but Rorie himselfe and one other Rorie Og escapeth. priuilie in the darke stole awaie and crept among the bushes so that he could not be found. The soul|diers in the meane time, making spoile of all such goods as they found, killed all the men who were there, but saued capteine Harington and Cosbie.

Rorie Og albeit he was glad that he was so esca|ped, Capteine Ha|rington is deliuered. yet in a great griefe for the losse of his prisoners, and minding to be reuenged, priuilie with all the companies which he could get, besides them which Shane Burke had sent vnto him out of Connagh, he went to Catherlough earlie in the morning, and burned a few haggards of corne and a few houses, Rorie Og burneth Ca|therlough. and so retired. Robert Harepole hearing hereof, foorthwith followeth them with ten or twelue horsses which he had in a readinesse, and at a foord not far off he ouertooke them, and killed sixtéene or seuentéene of his best men, and Rorie himselfe escaped verie narowlie; and so continued still in his former out|rages, vntill he was intrapped and taken by a deuise of his owne to intrap others, which was in this manner. Upon the nine and twentith of Iune 1578, 1578 he set foorth of purpose an espiall, whom he had cun|ninglie framed, and made apt for the purpose to go to sir Barnard Fitzpatrike lord of vpper Osserie, A bait laid for the lord of vp|per Osserie. and to tell him by the waie of great friendship and in secrecie, that Rorie Og had béene of late in the countie of Kilkennie, and there had taken a great preie and spoile of pots, pans, and other houshold|stuffe, which he might easilie take if he would aduen|ture EEBO page image 149 the matter; and if he did wiselie [...] it, he might also take Rorie himselfe and all his compa|nie, which as he said (but vntrulie) that they were but few in number. The lord of vpper Osserie, neither beléeuing nor yet mistrusting this newes, and yet forecasting the worst, did put himselfe in readinesse to follow the occasion that was offered; and taking with him a good companie of horssemen and foot|men, went towards the place where the bait was laied; and being come néere vnto it made staie, or else he had béene intrapped, and sent thirtie of his men into the woods to serch for Rorie. But the baron himselfe with certeine of his horssemen and shot staied in the plaines, to attend the issue of the mat|ter. The companie were no sooner entered into the woods, but Rorie the rebell shewed himselfe with a thirtie persons, the rest lieng in ambush; and he was of the opinion that his fame and estimation was so great, and of such value among the Irishrie, that no man durst to aduenture vpon him if he once saw his presence. But he was deceiued. For at the first sight and view of him, the lord of Osseries Kerne Rorie Ogis slaine. gaue the charge vpon him, and at their incounter one of them lighted vpon him, and with his sword presentlie thrust him through the bodie: which was no sooner doone, but two or three hacked vpon him, & gaue him such deadlie wounds that he fell downe and died, the same being the last daie of Iune be|foresaid; and so this bloudie caitife, deliting all in bloud, perished and died in his owne bloud.

But before Rorie Og was thus brought to de|struction, the lord deputie made a iournie to the bor|ders of Offallie and Lex, to haue met with the fore|said The lord de|putie maketh a iournie vpõ Rorie Og. Rorie Og & his companions the Oconnors for the suppressing of their insolencie, who were grow|en into such a pride by taking of capteine Haring|ton, and their strength so increased, that with most vndutifull termes they breathed out slanderous spéeches against hir maiestie, as which were not to be indured. Wherefore he beset the whole countrie & confines as he thought best, to stop their passage and to annoie them, & so he went to Kilkennie, and thereby sundrie examinations found people of all degrees in that towne to haue relieued the said Ro|rie with vittels and all other necessaries, for his fee|ding and defense, with whome he tooke order accor|ding to their deserts. At his being there he sent for the earle of Desmond to come vnto him, bicausehe had refused to come to the lord president when he sent for him sundrie times, and for which cause the said lord president was there to complaine vpon him, The earle of Desmõd sent for to come to the lord depu|tie to Kilken|nie. as also that he had of his owne authoritie, without anie warrant, gathered togither a rable of lewd and vnrulie followers, which harried vp and downe the countrie, eating and spending vpon the same, con|trarie to all good orders, and which was not to be suf|fered.

Which earle foorthwith, vpon the receipt of the said letters, came to Kilkennie to the lord deputie, and there being examined of those his vnséemelie parts, confessed some part: and for excuse he alledged and much mistrusted and doubted the president, least he would haue staied him, and haue vsed him hardlie, for which he was blamed and reprooued by the lord depu|tie. But in the end, when they came togither, they The earle of Desmond and the lord presi|dent of Moun ster are recon|ciled. were reconciled and made good friends, and then he promised vpon his returne home to disperse abroad his companions, and to obeie the president as hir maiesties principall officer of that prouince, and to come vnto him at all commandements, and which things he performed. For not long after he vttered and bewraied to the said lord president the practises of Iames Fitzmoris, who by the arriuall of certeine The earle of Desmond dis|couereth to ye lord president Iames Fitz|moris his practises. Frenchmen and Irishmen vnto Sligo, in a ship of saint Malowes, did what he could to stirre & make a rebellion in Mounster and Conuagh, whereby a plot was laied for the staie of those Frenchmen, and the apprehension of the Irishmen. These were good de|monstrations to the vtter shew of the obedience and loialtie of the said earle, but in truth méere dissimu|lation, as afterwards it appeared.

Connagh was in some part troubled, by means of Orwarke capteine of his surname; in whose Coiners in Connagh. countrie there were certeine coiners of monie, and mainteined by him. The coronell vnderstanding hereof, he sent vnto Orwarke for them, and who de|nied to deliuer anie of them: wherefore to correct Orwarke re|fusing to deli|uer ye coiners his castell is taken, and he submitteth himselfe. that his pride, disobedience, and insolencie, he sent a priuat band of footmen, who distressed Orwarke, slue his men, tooke his castell, and put all the ward to the sword. Wherevpon he came with all humilitie, and submitted himselfe, and craued pardon. All the resi|due of Connagh was verie quiet, and increased hir maiesties reuenues to the yearelie summe of eigh|téene hundred pounds by the yeare, with good con|tentation. And now when it was thought that all things were quiet throughout all Ireland; behold sudden aduertisements were giuen both vnto hir maiestie and councell in England, and to the lord deputie in Ireland, that Thomas Stukeleie was ar|riued Tho. Stuke|leie suspected to come into Ireland. out of Italie vnto Cadis in Spaine, with cer|teine men, ships, and munitions assigned vnto him by the pope. And being accompanied with certeine strangers attending vpon him, he was come to the seas, to land vpon some part of the realme of Ire|land, in traitorous maner to inuade the same, and to prouoke the people to ioine with him in rebellion. All Great prepa|ration made against Stukeleie. things, as well men, munitions, monte, vittels, and all other things necessarie were prouided and pre|pared for the preuenting of them, as well by sea as by land: but in the end, aduertisement was giuen from out of Portugall, that his enterprise was di|uerted another waie, and to another purpose, and so all things were quiet. Neuerthelesse, it appeared that The pope his fauour to Stukeleie. he was in great fauour with the pope, and was ap|pointed to some speciall seruice against hir maiestie, if opportunitie would haue serued, & all other things had fallen out as it was deuised. And for the incou|raging of him, the pope besides great treasures libe|rallie bestowed vpon him, he gaue him sundrie ti|tles of honour, and made him knight, baron of Rosse and Idron, vicount of the Morough & Kensh|lagh, Stukeleie his honour and titles. and earle of Wexford and Catherlough, and marquesse of Leinster, and generall to the most ho|lie father Gregorie the seuenth Pontifici maximo.

In the middle of these broiles, the vicount Bal|tinglasse, one of the chiefe impugners and malecon|tents against the cesse, wrote his letters to the earle of Ormond, then attendant at the court of Eng|land, and complaineth of great iniuries and spoiles to the value of two hundred pounds in monie, be|sides The vicount Baltinglasse complameth to the earle of Ormend a|gainst sir Ni|cholas Bag|noll. numbers of shéepe and kine, doone vpon him and his tenants by the English souldiers, vnder sir Nicholas Bagnoll knight marshall, when they were lodged one night in his house at Baltinglasse, in the time that they serued vpon the rebell Rorie Og. Which letter was by the said earle shewed to hir ma|iestie, and to the lords of hir most honourable priuie councell. Upon which complaint, bicause it seemed somewhat pitious and lamentable, and hir maiestie The earle of Ormond ad|uertiseth the complaint of the vicount to hir maiestie and councell. Hir maiestie sendeth letters in the behalfe of the vicount Baltinglasse. partlie persuaded (as a matter verie likelie to be true) that such gréeuous extortions suffered vncor|rected, made hir gouernement more hatefull to that nation, than did anie of the Irish exactions: letters were sent to the lord deputie, to take care with all diligence, that the poore oppressed might be satisfied, and the offendors also be punished, according to the quantities and qualities of their offenses.

EEBO page image 150 The lord deputie, before the receipt of these letters, The vicount Baltinglasse complaineth to the lord de|putie against sir Nicholas Bagnoll. was complained vnto by the said vicount, and sir Nicholas Bagnoll was called to answer such hurts as were obiected against him. And vpon the replica|tion of the vicount, sir Lucas Dillon and sir Tho|mas Fitzwilliams knights were appointed to exa|mine all such witnesses, as were brought foorth for proofe of the surmises, which in the end fell out to none effect, for nothing could be prooued to anie purpose. But it appeared manifest of the contrarie, by the re|port and testimonie of sundrie gentlemen of verie good credit, and how that the said marshall at his first comming to that towne, had giuen great charge to euerie capteine, to foresee that no iniurie should be offred, no spoiles committed, nor anie thing to be ta|ken by anie souldier or other person without present paiment, protesting and proclaming execution ac|cording to marshall law, vpon such as should doo the contrarie.

Likewise at his departure from thense, he made the like proclamation, that if there were anie which had anie cause of complaint for anie wrong or iniu|rie doone, or that anie thing were taken and not paied for, he should come and be heard, and be satis|fied. And by this it dooth appeare, that the surmises The vicount Baltinglasses complaints are vntrue. were made rather to aggrauat his greéefe conceiued against the imposition of the cesse, than for anie good matter in truth. Wherefore as he and his complices preuailed little in the one, no more had he successe or credit in the other. For the matter was fullie cer|tified vnto the lords of the councell, and a request therewith made verie earnestlie, that the said vi|count might be reprooued, and also terrified to profer or practise any such vntrue and indirect dealings. By these and other the like practises of the said vicount, that bicause he did not brooke nor like of the cesse, he thought by waie of exclames to aggrauat his owne case, that thereby the lord deputie might fall into the dislike of hir maiestie, and be out of fauour, but the contrarie in the end fell out to his owne reproofe and discredit.

When the lord deputie had ended and finished all his businesse, and had set the whole realme in order The whole land in peace and peace, being now deliuered from inward and ci|uill warre, and from the feare of Stukeleies inuasi|on, he prepared (according to hir maiesties former letters of the six and twentith of March last past) to take his passage for England, and to make his re|paire to hir highnesse. And so when all things were accordinglie prepared, and the wind & weather so ser|uing, 1578 The sword is deliuered to sir William Drurie as lord iustice. he deliuered vp the sword according to hir ma|iesties commandement, the six & twentith of Maie 1578, vnto sir William Drurie, then lord president of Mounster. And then being conducted by the said now lord iustice and councell, and all the nobilitie, ci|tizens & people to the waters side, he imbarked him|selfe, taking his leaue in most honourable, louing, and courteous maner of euerie man. And at his ve|rie The depar|ture of sir Henrie Sid|neie, and of his last saiengs. entring into the ship for his farewell vnto that whole land and nation, he recited the words of the 114 psalme, In exitu Israel de Aegypto, & domus Ia|cob de populo barbaro: alluding thereby to the trouble|some state of Moses in the land of Aegypt, and of his departure from out of the same: who notwith|standing he had in great wisedome, care, and policie The notable works of Moses, & yet he not ac|cepted. gouerned the stifnecked people of Israell, had doone many miracles and woonderous works to their com|fort, had deliuered them from manie great perils and dangers, had preserued and also kept them in peace and safetie, had in the end through the mightie hand of God brought them out of the hands of Pha|rao, and from out of the land of Aegypt, and had gi|uen them the sight of the land of promise: yet he found them alwaies a froward and peruerse genera|tion, a stiffenecked and an vngratefull people: euen no lesse as this noble man, and most woorthie gouer|nour hath found of the people of this most curssed nation. Who notwithstanding he was a verie pain|full traueller both by daie and night, in fowle and in The painfull trauels of the lord deputie not considered. faire weathers, in stormes and in tempests, in troubles and in dangers, in scarsitie and in penurie, in danger of the enimie and perill of his life: and yet continuallie studieng, deuising, trauelling, toiling, and labouring to doo them good (as he did full manie and often times) which so long as they felt the ease & comfort, so long were they contented and quiet: but otherwise most vngratefull and vnthankefull. And offering vnto him the like reward as Licurgus re|ceiued of the most vnthankfull Lacedemonians, who when he had recouered that sauage nation to a ciuill life, and a politike gouernement, and in the end redu|ced them to that order and maner, as they became to be feared of all their neighbors, they in recompense The ingrati|tude of the Lacedemoni|ans to Li|curgus. euill intreated him in verie bad speaches, and strake out one of Licurgus his eies. But these men for thousands and infinit commodities, would not one|lie haue béerest his lordship of both his eies, but also doone him a further inconuenience (if successe had happened) according to their malice.

And now here by the waie, let it not be offen|siue to set downe somewhat of much concerning this woorthie and noble man for the course of his life. He was borne and descended of a noble house and pa|rentage, his father named sir William Sidneie, a The paren|tage of sir Henrie Sidneie. knight of great reputation and credit in the countie of Kent, and in great fauour with king Henrie the eight, in whose time, and with his great good liking, he and others lustie yoong gentlemen of the court trauelled into Spaine and other nations, to visit and to sée the maner of the emperours and other prin|ces courts: his mother descended of the house of Charles Brandon duke of Suffolke, vnto whom she was verie néere alied. This yoong gentleman, his father being deceassed, and he of verie tender and yoong yéeres, was brought vp in the court vnder the same maister as was king Edward the sixt, and pro|fited verie well, both in the Latine and French toongs, for he had a verie good wit, and was verie forward in all good actions, and whereof was concei|ued some good things would come of him: his coun|tenance was verie amiable, and his behauiour verie Sir Henrie Sidneie was brought vp in the court. gentle and courteous, in whome king Henrie the eight (being his godfather) had a verie great liking, and made him be attendant and plaiefellow with prince Edward.

This prince fell in such a good familiaritie and Sir Henrie Sidneie the king his com|panion and bedfellow. good liking of him, that he vsed him not onelie as a companion; but manie times as a bedfellow, and so delighted in his companie, that for the most part they would neuer be asunder, neither in health, nor in sickenesse, vntill the dieng daie of the prince: who then departed his life in this gentlemans armes. The king di|ed in sir Hen|rie Sidnei [...] armes. Somewhat before his death, the king gaue the order of knighthood to this gentleman, for a memorie and a recompense of his good will and loue: vpon which daie also he did the like vnto sir William Cicill, now lord Burghlie and lord high treasuror of all The king dubbeth sir Henrie Sid|neie and sir William Ci|cill knights in one daie. England: by meanes of which their conioined ad|uancement, there entred a verie feruent affection and good will betwéene them, with a reciproke an|swering of beneuolence each one to the other, vntill their dieng daies. This noble gentleman for his for|wardnesse in all good actions, was as it were the pa|ragon Edm. Moli|neux. of the court, by reason of the manie good gifts which God had bestowed vpon him euerie waie. For concerning the bodie, he was goodlie of person and well compact, and well beseene; he was comelie and of a good countenance, he was so courteous and EEBO page image 151 of so good behauiour, he was so wise and so modest, so vertuous and so godlie, so discréet and so sober, as he was another Scip [...]; being but yoong in years, and old in behauiour, and finallie so rare a man, as that age had not affoorded manie better. This man for his excellent good gifts, he was made ambassa|dor into France, being but about one and twentie Sir Henrie Sidneie an ambassador [...]drie times. yeares of age; and twise in one yeare after that in|to Scotland: and by quéene Marie ioined in com|mission with others to attend king Philip his com|ming into England, for the mariage betwéene their maiesties. And now in this hir maiesties reigne, he was sent ambassador into France, to treat a peace or pacification betweene the prince of Con|die and the duke of Guise.

In the beginning and about the second or third yeare of hir maiesties reigne, he was made knight Sir Henrie Sidneie lord president of Wales and knight of the garter. of the garter, and lord president of Wales; and after one of hir maiesties most honorable priuie councell. But before this, immediatlie vpon his re|turne from out of Spaine, he accompanied the lord Thomas lord Fitzwaters his brother in law in|to Ireland: where he was made treasuror at the wars, one of the principall offices in the land: and in Sir Henrie Sidneie lord treasuror at armes. He was lord iustice foure times. The plot of Sir Henrie Sidneis go|uernement. course of time & yeares for his excellencie in know|ledge and experience in that land, he was made lord iustice foure times, and was lord deputie thrée times. In which offices, how he did most honorablie ac|quite himselfe, his acts doo declare, and the sum|marie recitall shall partlie discouer and set downe. He was no sooner placed in gouernement, but first and foorthwith he laid downe his plot, wherevpon he would ground & laie the foundation of his gouerne|ment, and according to it would he frame and di|rect all his actions: which plot and deuise consisteth in these points; religion towards God, obedience to the prince, the peace of the people, and the well gouernement in all things concerning the com|monwealth, either in causes ciuill or martiall.

Concerning religion, he was no more carefull in his owne person, but the like also in his priuat fami|lie, Religion. where he had dastie exercises of praiers, both earlie and late, morning & euening, neither would he haue anie to serue him, who was not affected to religion, and of an honest conuersation. Atheists and papists he detested, dronkards and adulterers he abhorred, blasphemous and dissolute persons he could not abide. And at his first being in authoritie in Ire|land, & finding the whole land generallie (a few pri|uat places excepted) to be either of no religion, or of papisticall religion; and being openlie by a preacher out of a pulpit aduertised, that in the remote places of that land, manie a soule was borne which neuer receiued baptisme, nor knew anie christening; great Manie borne in Ireland neuer christe|ned. was his gréefe, and much was he vnquieted, vntill he had found the redresse thereof. Wherfore he aduer|tised hir maiestie, & most earnestlie sued & praied for redresse & reformation, which in the end was gran|ted, & a commission sent to him for the same: which foorthwith he committed to the archbishops & bishops to execute, with whom he ioined, furthered and holpe them accordinglie to the vttermost. But yet it tooke not that good effect as he wished and willed it might. And as for ecclesiasticall liuings which were of his gift and disposition, he would neuer bestow, but vp|on such, as of whome he conceiued a good opinion, both for his religion and honestie.

The prince, who was scarse knowne in manie pla|ces in that land, he brought both to knowledge and obedience. The wild he tamed, the froward he refor|med, the disobedient he punished, the traitors he per|secuted, the rebels he chastised, the proud he made to stoope, and that arrogant and most insolent Shane One [...]e, who could abide no equall, nor acknowledge Shane O|n [...]e slaine. a superior, by a draught was brought to his deser|ued confusion: & whose head for a tropheie, & for the ex|ample of Gods iustice laied vpon him, was set vpon a pole vpon the gate of the castell of Dublin. The All Ulster brought to obedience. whole prouince of Ulster, with all the mightie perso|nages of the same, he brought to the quéenes peace & obedience. The earle of Clanricard he tooke and im|prisoned, and his vntamed springals he draue to The earle of Clanricard imprisoned. The mightie earles in Mounster brought to submission. submission, and to sweare dutie and obedience. The vnconstant earle of Desmond and all his Giral|dines and followers, and the proud and vngratefull earle of Clancar, and all the Irishrie of his ad|herents, he made them perforce to submit them|selues, and to craue pardon. The Cauenaghs, the Otooles, the Obirnes, the Ocomores, the Omores, The rebels in Leinster ta|med. and a rable of other like septs, togither with Ro|rie Og, Pheon Mac Hew, and other their leaders and guides in Leinster he tamed, and perforce com|pelled to sweare loialtie and subiection. Lastlie, the malecontents against hir maiesties prerogatiue for the cesse in the end cried Pecc [...]i, and conformed The male con|tents against the cesse refor|med. themselues in all dutifulnesse. And when he had tra|uelled long in these affaires, which he saw could not haue continuance, vnlesse they by some other meanes might be kept vnder gouernement: he by pithie persuasions, sound arguments, great reasons, and continuall sutes to hir maiestie and councell, ob|teined to haue rulers and gouernors to be placed in the remote prouinces and sound, learned, and vp|right iust lawiers out of England to be sent ouer, for the direction of the gouernement, according to the lawes of England: which in the end hir maiestie most gratiouslie granted, and he most ioifullie ob|teined.

In Mounster therefore first he placed a coronell to breake the ise; namelie sir Humfreie Gilbert, a va|liant; Sir Hum|freie Gilbert coronell in Mounster. Sir Iohn Perot, Sir William Drurie lord presidents in Mounster. a worthie, and a notable man, both for his mar|tiall seruice, and his ciuill gouernement: after him followed the like and worthie gentleman sir Iohn Perot knight: and lastlie the valiant and prudent sir William Drurie, which both were lord presi|dents. This man was afterwards lord iustice, and the other at these presents is lord deputie of that land. In Connagh sir Edward Fitton knight, a ve|rie wise and a modest gentleman, late treasuror at Sir Edward Fitton and sir Nicholas Maib [...]e go|uernors in Connagh. armes, was lord president: and after him was sir Nicholas Malbie knight a valiant and expert man in martiall matters, and verie wise and of good knowledge in publike and ciuill causes: who could verie exactlie handle the sword, and vse the pen, he (I saie) was made coronell of all Connagh. And how well the foresaid rulers and gouernors did rule by the sword, with the assistance of their capteins, and how vprightlie they ministred law and iustice by the aduise of the councellors in their seuerall pro|uinces, the records and registers of their dooings doo at large witnesse and set foorth. The like order he tooke also at Dublin, which being the metropole and chiefe citie of the whole land, and where are hit maiesties principall and high courts, to answer the law to all sutors throughout the whole realme: and he considering that a great defect was in the admi|nistration of iustice in those courts, by reason of kinred, affinitie, and priuat affections among the English law|yers placed to be iustices in the courts. chiefe iudges and officers of that countrie birth: he by his like earnest sutes to hir maiestie, procured them to be remoued, and their roomes to be supplied with such wise, graue and learned Englishmen, as were sent from out of England to be chiefe iustices, at turneie, and sollicttor. And further also, whereas there were manie good lawes & statutes established The statutes to be revewed and printed. in the realme, which hitherto were laid vp and shrou|ded in filth and cobwebs, and vtterlie vnknowne to the most part of the whole land, and euerie man ig|norant EEBO page image 152 in the lawes of his owne natiue countrie, he caused a through view, and a review to be made, and then a choise of all such statutes as were most necessarie to be put in vre and execution: which be|ing doone, he caused to be put in print, to the great benefit of that whole nation.

And likewise for the records, which were verie e|uill kept, not fensed or defended from raine and The records searched and set vp in pla|ces conueni|ent. foule weather, but laie all in a chaos and a confused heape, without anie regard; he caused to be viewed and sorted, and then prepared méete roomes, presses, and places for the kéeping of them in safetie, and did appoint a speciall officer with a yearelie fée for the kéeping of them: and for all such matters as were to be heard and determined in the castell chamber, The castell chamber dulie kept. before the lords, as it is in the starchamber in Eng|land; he would be for the most part present at euerie court, and alwaies would haue the assistants and persons of hir maiesties learned councellors. Ne|uerthelesse, he himselfe had a maruellous head to conceiue, a déepe iudgement to vnderstand, and a most eloquent toong to vtter whatsoeuer was requi|sit to be spoken, either in that place, or in anie other assemblie; which he would deliuer in such an eloquent phrase, and so pleasantlie it would flow from him, with such pithie reasons, sound arguments, and ef|fectuall discourses, as that the lesse learned he was, the more strange it was that such great good things could come out of his mouth. And such was his ami|able countenance, his comelie behauior, his com|mendable personage, that he would and did conquer Edm. Moli|neux. their hearts, and gaine the loue of euerie man; and the people of all sorts would and did fall in loue with him for his vprightnesse, indifferencie, and iustice, in determining of euerie mans cause. And he know|ing the nature and disposition of that people, who could not abide anie long sutes in law, he was so af|fable and courteous, that euerie sutor should haue accesse vnto him, and foorthwith he would heare his cause, and with such expedition would cause the same to be determined, that he purchased to himselfe the vniuersall loue of all the Irishrie, who thought them|selues the more happie, if their causes might be once brought to his hearing, & the more willing to leaue their Obrian law, & to imbrace the course of the En|glish lawes. Wherevpon he deuised, and consequent|lie with great policie and wisedome executed the di|uision and distribution of the wild, sauage, and Irish grounds into shire grounds and counties, appointing The Irish grounds re|duced into counties and shires. in euerie of them shiriffes, constables, and all such kind of officers as are vsed to be in all other coun|ties: by which meanes hir maiesties writ had passage amongest them, and they brought to the order of the English lawes & gouernement, which neuer tofore was heard or knowne among them.

When he had doone all such things as are before recited, for and concerning the due course of gouern|ment by order of low: then also he bethought him|selfe vpon such other things as were necessarie in sundrie respects to be doone, as the castell and house The castell of Dublin re|pared. of Dublin, which before his comming was ruinous, foule, filthie, and greatlie decaied. This he repared, and reedified, and made a verie faire house for the lord deputie or the chiefe gouernor to reside & dwell in. The towne of Carigfergus, being open to the The towne of Carigfergus fortified. northerne rebelles, he began to inclose with a wall and to fortifie, which for shortnesse of time he could not finish. A gaole at Molengar he builded, a verie A gaole at Molengar builded. The towne of Athenrie re|edified. The bridge of Athlon new builded. necessarie thing in those parties, for restreining and safe kéeping of malefactors. The towne of Athen|rie in Connagh he caused to be reedified, & the faire bridge of Athlon vpon the déepe and great riuer of the Shenin he builded with masonrie and frée stone, and raised vp the walles & battlements verie faire. By building of which bridge a passage (neuer tofore had) was made open & frée betwene the English pale and Connagh, which more danted, apalled, and kept the rebelles in awe and obedience than any thing be|fore had doone. Sundrie like common workes he made and did, and more would, if his residing there had continued. All which his forsaid doings, no doubt, were verie chargeable to hir maiestie. And for [...]asing The quéenes great charges to be releeued. whereof he (as it became him) & in verie deed had also promised and deuised how and by what means these charges might be answered, and hir highnesse be re|léeued of the great and intollerable charges which she dailie was at in that land, he did by good means inlarge and increase hir reuenues and yearelie re|ceipts Hir maiesties reuenues in|creased. to about eleuen thousand pounds by the yeare more than he found it, and much more would he haue doone, if he had staied there but a short time longer than he did.

Thus much brieflie of his generall actions, and concerning his priuat dealings and conuersation. The good ver|tues and dis|position of sir Henrie Sid|neie. Religious. Eloquent. He was godlie disposed, & a zelous promoter of the true religion, a notable orator, & out of whose mouth flowed such eloquent spéeches, such pithie sentences, such persuasorie reasons, as it was verie strange, that he by a naturall course should performe that which manie by learning could not reach nor atteine vnto. He had some sight in good letters and in histo|ries and armories, and would discourse verie well in all things; he was affable and courteous to all Affable. men, verie familiar with most men, and strange to none; verie temperat and modest, seldome or neuer Temperat. in anie distempered or extraordinarie choler, vpright in iustice, frée from corruption, and liberall to euerie Liberall. A housekée|per. deseruing person, a bounteous housekéeper, and of great hospitalitie, and had all officers in verie hono|rable order, according to his estate & honor; a thing much allowed and liked in that nation: verie fami|liar, and a louer of all such as were learned and were men of vnderstanding, whome he would honor and estéeme verie much; gratefull to all men, and a most louing maister to all such as serued him, whom he lo|ued full dearlie. And albeit he were a man of a great Sée more of this sir Hen|rie Sidneie in the English chronicles, An. Dom. 1586, noted by Edm. Mo|lineux. reach and iudgement, yet he would not doo anie thing without aduise & counsell, for which purpose he made a speciall choise of two singular men, who were priuie to all or most part of his actions; sir Lucas Dillon knight, and Francis Agard esquier: the one a lawier, and yet not ignorant in anie thing pertein|ing either to the marshall affaires, or to the ciuill gouernement: the other a verie wise man, and of a déepe iudgement and experience in all matters of policies. And so true and trustie these were, that he named the one Meus fidelis Lucas; and the other Me|us fidus Achates. And notwithstanding in sundrie and almost infinit respects, as partlie by the course of this historie it dooth appeare, he hath deserued most hartie thanks, and a gratefull remembrance for euer a|mongst The ingrati|tude of Ire|land. them: yet most vnnaturallie and vngratful|lie they haue requited and recompensed him. Not much vnlike the viper, who when he hath doone the act of generation with his female, which (as the wri|ters of naturalles saie) it is doone by the mouth, she immediatlie biteth off his head, and so destroieth The nature o [...] the viper. him; and likewise the yong, conceiued with the death of their sire or father, and nourished in the wombe of their mother, and readie now to be borne & brought foorth; they not abiding their due time, most vnna|turallie doognaw out hir wombe and bellie to hir confusion; and so they are conceiued with the destru|ction of their father, and borne with the confusion of their mother. This vngratfull people (I saie) notwith|standing the innumerable benefits bestowed vpon them and that whole commonwealth, yea and the dailie purchasing of their wealth, preseruation, and EEBO page image 153 safetie, could ne would be euer thankfull. As besides manie examples it appeared at the parlement hol|den This was a troublesome parlement. in the eleuenth yeare of hir maiesties reigne, where when lawes were to be established for their be|nefit, and the abolishing of certeine wicked and lewd vsages, which were among the Irishrie, they not onelie did impugne and resist that assemblie, as much as in them laie: but recompensed the good things (for their benefits established) with open war and rebellion against hir maiestie. Also, when a rea|sonable and a vsed cesse was to be set and leuied for the benefit of the inhabitants and dwellers in the The cesse im|pugned. English pale; and for the represse of their enimies which thirsted after their confusion: they immediatly repine and doo resist the same. For this is their cor|rupt nature, that if he did at anie time pursue the e|nimie for their peace and quietnesse, and did aduen|ture The corrupt and vngrat|full nature of the Irish|men. neuer so great dangers for them, were his suc|cesse neuer so good, yet would they enuie at him. If he by the aduise of the councell did determine anie thing for their behoofe, yet would they mislike it. If anie thing well meant had euill successe, they would like it; and vpon neuer so little occasion offered they would make their complaints, libels should dailie be exhibited, and accusations be deuised, with open mouths they would exclame, and nothing would they leaue vndoone which might turne to his discredit and impechment of his gouernement. But truth the daughter of time, which in the end was manifested; and when he had yéelded before hir highnesse and councell a true and a perfect account of all his doo|ings, and had trulie manifested the course of his go|uernement, then their glittering gold was found to be worse than copper, not abiding the hammar; he ac|cording to his desert receiued thanks, and they re|proch and ignominie. Wherefore great good cause had he to be glad and ioifull, that he was to be deli|uered from so vngratfull a people and vnthankfull a nation. But shall a man saie the truth? It is a fa|tall and an ineuitable destinie incident to that nati|on, The fatall de|stinie vpon all gouernors in Ireland. that they cannot brooke anie English gouernor; for be he neuer so iust, vpright, & carefull for their be|nefit, they care not for it: let him be neuer so bene|ficiall to their commonwealth, they account not of it; let him be neuer so circumspect in his gouerne|ment and aduised in his dooings, they will discredit and impeach it. If he be courteous and gentle, then like a sort of nettles they will sting him; if he be se|uere, they will cursse him; and let him doo the best he can, he shall neuer auoid nor escape their malice and spite.

This noble and worthie man, who aboue all o|thers had best triall thereof, thought himselfe most happie when he was deliuered from them, and gone out of their Egypt, and now returned to his owne natiue countrie of Chanaan, who thenseforth some|times attended the court, and serued hir maiestie as a most faithfull, graue, and wise councellor: some|times he followed his charge and calling of president in Wales, which office he did most honorablie vse and discharge. In the end, when Lachesis had spun out the thread of his life, and Atropos readie to exe|cute hir office, he fell sicke at Worcester: and fée|ling a decaie of nature, and that he did dailie wax weaker and weaker, he yéelded and humbled him|selfe to die; and holding vp his hands, and lifting vp his eies, he continued in most hartie and inces|sant praiers vnto God, crauing with a most penitent hart, pardon for his sins, and commending his soule into the hands and mercie of God, thorough the bloud of Iesus Christ. And when his hands gaue o|uer, The death of sir Henrie Sidneie. his toong ceassed, and his sight failed, he yéelded vp his spirit, and departed this life in a most godlie and christian maner the fift daie of Maie, one thou|sand fiue hundrd eightie and six. His bodie was im|bowelled, and his entrails were buried in the deans chappell of the cathedrall church in Worcester: his hart was carried to Ludlow, & there intoomed in the toome that his welbeloued daughter Ambrosia was buried, which he had builded in the collegiat church of the same towne; wherin he had erected a certeine mo|nument for a perpetuall remembrance to that town & to Tikenhill, to which he was verie much affected, & made his most abode during the time of his presi|dencie. And from thense his bodie by easie iournies was verie honorablie caried to his house of Pene|shurst Edm. Mo|lineux. in Kent, & in his parish church there he was in|terred in all honorable maner, as to his estate did a|grée vpon the one and twentith of Iune, in the yeare one thousand fiue hundred eightie and six, he being then about the age of seauen and fiftie yeares. And thus this noble and worthie knight, who had spent the whole course of his life in the dutifull seruice of his prince, and to the great benefit of the common|wealth, is now deliuered vnto the euerlasting ser|uice of the eternall God, in whose celestiall heauens he resteth in blisse and ioie with the foure and twentie elders, who there are now beholding the face of God, and praising his holie name for euer.

But to returne to the lord iustice, who being en|tered into the gouernement, and finding it in some Sir William Drurie the lord iustice fo|loweth the course of his predecessor to rule in peace. quiet state, did by the aduise of the councell follow that course as néere as he could, as which was left vnto him; and by that meanes kept the whole land verie quiet and in peace. For almost a yeare after his entrie into that office and gouernement, vntill that Romish cockatrice, which a long time had set abrood vpon hir egs, had now hatched hir chickins; which be|ing venemous as were their sire, raised, wrought, and bred great treasons, open warres, and hostilitie through out that land. For Iames Fitzmoris a Gi|raldine & cousine germane to the earle of Desmond, Iames Fitz|moris an archtraitor. who not manie yeares before had beene an archtrai|tor, and a principall capteine of the warres and re|bellion in Mounster; and wherein he was then so fo|lowed at inches and pursued by sir Iohn Perot, then lord president of Mounster; that after manie and sundrie conflicts, he was in the end compelled and inforced to yéeld and submit himselfe, and to craue Iames Fitz|moris submit|teth himselfe and sweareth obedience. hir maiesties gratious pardon: insomuch that he came in simplie into the towne of Kilmallocke, and there in the church before all the people did humble and prostrate himselfe before the said lord president, and asked pardon, swearing and promising then all dutifulnesse, truth, & obedience for euer to hir high|nesse, and to the crowne of England.

Euen this periured caitife, who for his treasons and great outrages, villanies, and bloudsheds, had Iames Fitz|moris hath his pardon sent vnto him. deserued a thousand deaths, and yet in hope of a mendement hir maiestie gaue him his pardon, and sent it vnto him by hir seruant Francis Agard es|quier: euen this man (I saie) most traitorouslie fled into France, and there comming into the kings pre|sence, did offer to deliuer into his hands the whole realme and land of Ireland, if that his maiestie Iames Fitz|moris fléeth into France and offereth the crowne of Ireland to the French king. would giue him aid, and furnish him with men and monie, and such furniture as he should haue néed of in such an action. The king at the first gaue him good countenance, great rewards, & liberall interteine|ment, and accepted his offer: but when he had well considered the matter, and had further looked into the same, he changed his mind. Iames Fitzmoris, The French king misli|keth to deale in Ireland matters. who had staied there in the French court about two yeares, and saw nothing go forward, & the French king waxed cold; who in the end gaue him no other answer, but that he would commend him by his let|ters to his sister the queene of England, for obtei|ning of a pardon for him, and for hir good counte|nance EEBO page image 154 towards him: he forsooke France, and Iames Fitz|moris seeketh to king Phi|lip and to the pope. made a iournie into Spaine vnto king Philip. The king who had receiued the gift of Ireland of the pope by meanes of the bishop of Cashell, being not wil|ling to deale therein, without his assistance & aduise; Iames Fitzmoris made his iourneie from thense to the pope, vnto whom he declared that he had béene with king Philip, as dooth appeare by his letters of Iames Fitz|moris his promise to king Phi|lip and the pope. credit to his holinesse; and that he would deliuer and cause to be deliuered the kingdome of Ireland vp in|to their hands, and reduce the same againe to the ho|lie church of Rome, if he might haue men, monie, and such furniture of munitions, & other necessaries as should be requisit in that seruice. The pope was verie glad of this sute, and liked it verie well, and did accept this offer, as also gaue him good countenance The pope is glad of Iames Fitz|moris offer. and interteinement. And in the end vpon sundrie conferences betwéene the pope and king Philip, it was agréed betwéene them, that Fitzmoris should be furnished with men, monie, and all things neces|sarie for this seruice. Iames Fitzmoris during his being in Rome, he fell acquainted with doctor San|ders Iames Fitz|moris falleth acquainted with doctor Sanders and doctor Allen. an English Iesuit, & doctor Allen an Irish Ie|suit, and both traitors to hir maiestie and crowne; and these two men being glad of such a sute, & they in great fauor with the pope, folowed the sute verie earnestlie, [...]nd promised to follow it to the vttermost in their owne persons.

Now when all things were concluded betwéene the pope and king Philip, doctor Sanders, doctor Al|len, and Iames Fitzmoris made their last repaire to the pope, who foorthwith made Sanders his legat, & gaue him the holie ghost, with authoritie to blesse and cursse at his will and pleasure; and to him and the others he gaue then also his blessing: and there|with Iames Fitz|mor [...]s is fur|nished w [...]th ships an [...] all necessaries. his letters of commendation to king Philip, who according to the conclusion made betwéene them both, he was furnished with all things méet and necessarie for them. Wherevpon when time ser|ued they imbarked themselues, and their companie in thrée ships well appointed for the purpose, and ar|riued at Smereweeke, aliàs saint Marie wéeke, in the Iames Fitz|moris landeth at Saint Marie wéeke in Ireland with foure score Spa|niards. beginning of Iulie 1579, néere the Dingle a cush in Kerrie in Ireland: where he landed, and all his com|panie, being about the number of foure score Spa|niards, besides a few Englishmen and Irishmen, and there builded a fort in the west side of the baie for their safetie: and drew their ships close vnder the said fort.

The two doctors, when they had hallowed the place after their popish maner, promising all safeties, and that no enimie should dare to come vpon them, and trouble them: neuerthelesse they were be guiled. For at that instant, there was in Kensale a Deuonshire gentleman and a man of warre, named Thomas Iames Fitz|moris ships are taken a| [...] by one Thomas Courtneie a gentleman of Deuon. Courtneie, and he hearing of the landing of this Iames Fitzmoris, and of the popes traitorous le|gats, was contented, and by the persuasion of Hen|rie Dauels, being then in those parts; and hauing a good wind, did come about and doubled the point, came into the baie of Saint Marie wéeke or Smer|weeke; and finding the three ships of Iames Fitzmo|ris at anchor, was so bold in the waie of good speed to take them. And after that he had staied there a while in that seruice, he tooke them all along with him: whereby Iames Fitzmoris and his companie lost a péece of the popes blessing, for they were alto|gither destituted of anie ship, to ease and reléeue themselues by the seas, what néed soeuer should hap|pen. Sir Iames and sir Iohn of Desmond the earles brethren come to Iames Fitzmoris. As soone as they were thus landed, newes was sent and carried abrode foorthwith to Iames & Iohn brethren to the earle of Desmond, and so consequent|lie to the whole countrie. These two brethren, who had long looked for the arriuall of this their cousine, and archtraitor, assembled all their tenants, folow|ers, and friends; and out of hand made their present repaire vnto him: whose commings and companies he accepted verie thankefullie, sauing that he had not a thorough and a full liking of his cousine sir Iohn of Desmond. Which when sir Iohn perceiued, he deuised how he would salue that sore, as most wic|kedlie afterwards he did.

The earle of Desmond at this time was in reedi|fieng The erle hea|ring of the landing of Iames Fitz|moris giueth ouer his buil|dings. of a castell, which he had in the confines of Brenne Agonessis countrie, who assoone as he heard of the arriuall of his cousine Iames Fitzmoris, he foorthwith did discharge and dismisse his whole com|panie of workemen and labourers, pretending in outward shew what he neuer meant, that he was to withstand and resist his cousine and all his compa|nie, and foorthwith maketh his repaire into Kerrie, and there assembleth all his followers and force, as The earle of Desmond pretending some seruice against the rebels sendeth to the earle of Clancar to ioine with him. though he would doo great things and worke mira|cles. And foorthwith likewise he sent his letters to Mac Artie More earle of Clancar, & willeth him in all hast to assemble all the force he could make, and to make his spéedie repaire to him, for vanquishing (if they could) of the enimies now landed at S. Ma|rie weeke. The earle of Desmond in the meane time had receiued a péece of the popes blessing, and his heat was abated. But the erle of Clancar returned The earle of Clancar at|tendeth the earle of Des|mond. his answer, that he would come vnto him with all spéed, and lie in campe with him where he would, as néere to the Dingle as he might: and accordinglie he came to the place appointed. Which Desmond sée|med to like well though it were against the splene; Desmond li|keth not Clancars readinesse. neuerthelesse when he saw the forwardnes of Clan|car, albeit he would not, nor yet well could in open termes fall out with him, yet he deuiseth matters wherevpon he might haue some occasion to dislike Clancar de|parteth from Desmond. with him, & to make him wearie of his companie. Which when Clancar perceiued, and saw the vnwil|lingnesse of Desmond to doo anie seruice against the rebels, but rather inclined towards them, he tooke the best opportunitie he could, and departed awaie from him, and dismissed his companie.

The lord iustice, who was at Dublin, as soone as The lord iu|stice prepareth to march in [...]o Mounster. he was aduertised of Iames Fitzmoris landing, he maketh all the preparation he can, & marcheth with all the quéenes force towards Mounster, dispatch|ing also a messenger to hir maiestie of these toward broiles and rebellion. But before he could prepare all things, as to such a great action did apperteine, he sent Henrie Dauels an English gentleman before Henrie Da|uels sent to the earle of Desmond. him, that he being verie well acquainted with the earle of Desmond and his brethren, should practise with them to prepare themselues to be in a readi|nesse to assist his lordship, for the resisting against those enimies. Who being accompanied with one Arthur Carter prouost marshall of Mounster, made his spéedie repaire to the earle of Desmond & his bre|thren Henrie Da|uels persua|deth Desmõd to serue a|gainst the rebels. being in Kerrie, and aduertised vnto them the lord iustices pleasure, as also as much as in him laie did persuade them to the like, who as then had all his force and souldiers about him. From thense he departed to the fort, whereof when he had taken the view, & saw the force as yet not so great but might be easilie as yet ouerthrowne; he returned backe to the earle, and gaue him aduise to draw all his force and companie towards the fort, persuading him to assaile it while it was but weake, of small force, and easie to be taken, and that in so dooing it should be greatlie to his honour. But the earle being not of so Desmond refuseth to giue the onset vpon I [...]es [...]. good a mind, or bent to doo so good a péece of seruice, answered; that he would not aduenture to take so|great an enterprise in hand with so small acompa|nie as he then had. Then Dauels went to sir Iames and to sir Iohn of Desmonds the earles brethren, EEBO page image 155 and persuaded them to aduise their brother the earle, either to doo that seruice which would be to his great honour and commendation, or else that they would take it in hand; which if they would also refuse it, that then the earle would spare to him a companie of his Gallowglasses, and about thrée score of his shot, and he would ioine with capteine Courtneie who laie then within the baie with his mariners, & he would giue the assault by land, and the other should doo the like by sea.

But the earle, being mooued hereof, would not The earle re|fuseth to doo anie seruice. yéeld to this motion, but answered that his shot was more méet to shoot at foule than fit to aduenture such a peece of seruice, and his Gallowglasses were good men to incounter with Gallowglasses, and not to answer old souldiers. Wherevpon when he saw the bent and disposition of the earle, that he minded not to annoie, but rather to ioine, aid, and helpe the trai|tors: he togither with the prouost marshall tooke their leaue of the earle, and minded to returne backe Henrie Da|uels depar|teth from Desmond. vnto the lord iustice, to giue his lordship to vnder|stand how all things stood, & what successe he had had in his message. And by the waie they laie that night at Traleigh, which is about fiue miles from castell Maine, and laie that night in one Rices house, who kept a vittelling house and a wine tauerne, the house being both strong and defensible, but so little that their companies and seruants were dispersed, and laie abroad in other places where they might haue lodging. But sir Iohn of Desmond, whose hart Sir Iohn of Desmond fol|loweth Da|uels and cor|rupteth the porter. was imbrued with a bloudie intent, followed him, but somewhat late, and came to the towne of Tra|leigh, and immediatlie set spies vpon Dauels, as also had corrupted the man of the house which kept the gate, that he should leaue the doores open. Henrie Dauels mistrusting no hurt, and least doubting of that tragedie which was so néere at hand, especiallie to be done by him, whom of all the men borne in that land he least doubted, & best trusted, gat him to his bed; & Arthur Carter the prouost marshall with him. Now about the dead of the night, when they were in their déepe sléepes, sir Iohn according to his wic|ked deuise came to the house, the castell doore being left open for the purpose, with all his companie, eue|rie one being armed and their swords drawne, and went forthwith vp into the chamber where Dauels & his companie were in their beds fast asléepe, but with the noise they were suddenlie awaked. When Dauels saw sir Iohn of Desmond armed and his sword drawn, he was somwhat astonied at that sight, and rising vp in his bed said vnto him (as he was euer woont to saie verie familiarlie) What sonne! what is the matter? But he answered him; No more sonne, nor no more father, but make thy selfe readie, Henrie Da|uels most cruellie mur|thered. for die thou shalt. And foorthwith he & his companie strake at him & his companion, both naked in their shirts, and most cruellie murthered them both. Then they searched the whole house & spared none, but put all to the sword, sauing a boie named Smolkin, who laie in the chamber, and had béene a continuall mes|senger betweene Dauels and this Iohn Desmond. This boie séeing his maister to be thus murthered ran vpon Iohn of Desmond, and held him by the The faithful|nesse of a boie to his maister armes as well as he could, crieng; What wilt thou kill my maister? But he answered; Go thy waies Smolkin, thou shalt haue no harme. But the boie seeing blowes still to be giuen, cast himselfe downe vpon his maister, crieng; If thou wilt kill him, then kill me also. And so saued him as well, and so long as he could. But it auailed not, for slaine and most cruellie he was there murthered.

This Henrie Dauels was a gentleman, borne in Henrie Da|uels what he was, and of his conditions Deuon, and descended of a verie ancient and a wor|shipfull house, and being but a yoonger brother, and hauing but a verie small portion left vnto him, when he came to some yeares and knowledge, he gaue himselfe to serue in the warres. And king Henrie the eight, hauing then warres against the French king, he entred into France to séeke his aduenture: and there he had verie good interteinment, and proo|ued to be a verie good souldiour. After whose warres he serued in Scotland, and was in garrison at Bar|wike: and from thense he was remooued into Ire|land, where he serued vnder sir Nicholas Herne knight conestable of Leighlin, and seneshall of Wexford; and so well he behaued himselfe there, that he was commended for his good seruice towards the prince, well beloued of his countriemen, and in mar|uelous fauour of the Irish people; for no seruice was too hard for him in the kings causes: and so well he was acquainted with the countrie, as no man better knew and had the skill to serue than he could there. As for his countrimen, he was so déere and louing towards them, as he was more like a father than a The loue of Dauels to his countri|men. fréend, and more like a fréend than an vnacquainted countriman: for he was an host and a harborer to euerie one of them, of what estate and condition so euer he were of. For were he rich or poore, a gentle|man or a begger, he was fréendlie to euerie one; and no man did or could lacke that interteinment, that he was by anie manner of waie able to giue and af|foord: which a number of Englishmen tried and found to their great comfort, and to his euerlasting fame.

And as for the Irishmen, the longer he liued the better beloued among them: for as he would not iniurie them, no more would he suffer them to be op|pressed or iniured: a great housekéeper amongst them, which they maruelouslie estéemed. When he was in office among them, he was vpright and iudged righteouslie; if out of office, louing & fréendlie to euerie man, and by that means so well (as no man better) beloued and trusted. For what he had once said and promised, that would he surelie kéepe and performe, and thereof it came into a bie-word in the The credit of Dauels word. countrie where he dwelled, that if anie of them had spoken the word, which was assuredlie looked to be performed, they would saie; Dauels hath said it: as who saith, it shall be performed. For the nature of the Irishman is, that albeit he kéepeth faith for the most part with no bodie, yet will he haue no man to breake with him. But Henrie Dauels, he was so carefull of his word, that if he once promised, he would not breake it for anie mans pleasure; and by that means he was so well beloued, that his verie horsseboies had frée passage euen through the eni|mies, if he were knowne to be Dauels man. And that which is more, as the writer hereof speaketh vp|on knowledge, that if anie Englishman had anie occasion to trauell in that countrie thoroughout Leinster or Mounster, if he had but a horsseboie of his, he should not onelie passe fréelie thorough the countries without impeachment, but should haue also verie good and fréendlie interteinment. Among the noblemen he was greatlie estéemed, and was in great fauour with the earles of Ormond and Des|mond: who although they were for the most part at iarres and contentions, yet Henrie Dauels was in such fauour, as he could and did passe to and fro in the greatest matters of importance betwéene them: wherein he bare so indifferent a hand, as both parties imbraced him for his vprightnesse and in|differencie. The erle of Ormond himselfe loued him so well, as no Englishman better; and all his bre|thren found such a fréend of him, and such intertein|ment with him and especiallie sir Edmund Butler, that at all needs and in all distresses they were sure to haue him to their fréend; and manie times it stood EEBO page image 156 them in good stéed.

And as for the earle of Desmond, though he were a verie vncerteine and a mutable man, yet Henrie Dauels could preuaile with him; and were his furie neuer so hot, and he neuer so hastie, yet could he ap|pease and quiet him. And as for sir Iohn of Des|mond the earles brother, such was his profession and outward affection towards him, of a most firme freendship; that it was thought to be impossible, that the loue and goodwill betweene them could by anie meanes be dissolued. For in what distresse so euer sir Iohn of Desmond was (as he was in manie) Hen|rie Henrie Da|uels alwaies a fast freend to sir Iohn of Desmond. Dauels did alwaies helpe him, and at sundrie times redéemed him out of prison, yea out of the ca|stell of Dublin, when he was committed for capi|tall crimes, and became suertie for him in great sums of monie, and became pledge bodie for bodie for him; Dauels pursse was at his commandement, his house at his deuotion, and what he had at his dis|position. And so farre this good will grew betweene them, that Iohn of Desmond, as one knowledging himselfe most bounden to him, did call him father; euen as the other called him sonne. And now sée, when treason and treacherie was entred into him, how contrarie to all faith, fréendship, and humanitie, the sonne most vnnaturallie bereft the father of his life, and most cruellie murthered him. Wo worth to so wicked a villaine, that so bereft the prince of so faithfull a subiect, the gouernors of so trustie a serui|tor, the commonwealth of so good a member, of a man most dutifull to his superiors, vpright in iustice, trustie in seruice, expert in the warres, faithfull vn|to his freend, louing to his countrie, fauoured of all men, hurtfull to no man, of great hospitalitie to all good men, good to all men, a father vnto the distres|sed, and a succorer of the oppressed; finallie such a rare man of his degree and calling, as few like haue béene found in that land; and yet against all pittie and mercie, most cruellie murthered by a traitor to God and his prince, euen to the gréefe of the traitors of his owne brood. But here it falleth out that is of old said; Saue a murtherer or a theefe from the gallowes, and he shall be the first that shall cut thy throte.

When this bloudie murtherer had executed this crueltie vpon his good freend, he foorthwith made his repaire to Iames Fitzmoris, and to his doctors and companie in great brauerie, recompting vnto them what a noble act and a valiant seruice he had doone in murthering of an honest, faithfull, & friendlie gentle|man, saieng I haue now killed an English churle (for so maliciouslie the Irishmen terme all English|men) The brags of Iohn Des|mond for kil|ling of Da|uels. & said to his cousine Iames; Now thou maist be assured of me and trust me, for now that I haue begun to dip my hand in blood, I will now stand to the matter with thee to my vttermost. Iames Fitz|moris when he had heard him at full, although both His crueltie misliked. he and his doctors, and the whole companie of the Spaniards did reioise and were glad of his death, yet Iames did blame and abhorre the maner of his death, blaming and reproouing him verie much, that he should murther him in his bed, being naked and scarse awaked out of his sléepe, which he said was too cruell, bicause he might otherwise haue had aduan|tage vpon him either by the high waies or otherwise to his commendation. Howbeit, doctor Sanders The popes doctors doo allow and commend the murther. terming his bloudie murther to be a sweet sacrifice before God did both allow it, and gaue him plenarie remission of all his sinnes. The earle himselfe like|wise, when he heard hereof, he was maruelouslie gréeued and offended with his brother and gaue him such sharpe spéeches and reproofes as it was thought they would not so soone haue b [...]ene fréends againe: but wicked dooings amongst the wicked establish and confirme them in their wickednesse. At this present time, there was with the earle (as verie often he had béene) one Appesleie an English capteine, who could doo verie much with him, and vpon the hea|ring of the death of his good friend Henrie Dauels, he began to doubt and mistrust of himselfe and of his owne assurance. Wherefore he goeth to the earle, and The earle of D [...]mond re|mooueth to Asketten. dissembling his griefe, persuadeth him to draw his companie togither, and to remooue from thense to his house of Asketten, which is about fourtéene miles from Limerike, and there to abide the comming of the lord iustice, and to ioine with him in this seruice against the enimie. The earle, who minded nothing lesse than so to serue, dissembled the matter, and fol|lowed this counsell, and remooued from thense to As|ketten, where he laie close and did nothing, but still séemed in speeches and outward shewes to mislike with Iames Fitzmoris and all his companie; and yet dailie his best followers and soldiers flocked and repaired to Iames Fitzmoris, manie of them for The earles chiefe men turne to the enimie. zeale to the popish religion, wherin they were as de|uout as the popes legates and the Spaniards: but manie of them knowing the earles intent, did it for feare and auoiding of his displesure. The Spaniards, who had continued there in the fort and elsewhere, and not finding the repaire of the souldiers, nor yet anie other thing answerable to that seruice as it The Spani|ards like not their coming. was promised them, began to mislike it; and distrust|ing of anie good successe, did repent and were sorie, wishing themselues at home againe: but such was their case, that they could not shift for themselues to escape neither by sea nor by land; and therefore ne|cessitie so compelling, they resolued themselues to abide the brunt.

Iames Fitzmoris, perceiuing their discontented Iames Fitz|moris persua|deth the Spa|niards to pa|tience. minds, had conference with them, & persuaded them to be of a good comfort, for they should verie shortlie haue a greater supplie and companie which he dailie looked for, and all things should be had according to their owne minds: aduertising them that in the meane time he was to take a iournie to a place of thrée or foure daies iournie from thense, called the ho|lie rood or crosse in Tipporarie, and there to performe Iames Fitz|moris preten|deth a pilgri|mage. a vow which he had before made when he was in Spaine, praieng their patience. But in verie truth his intent was to trauell into Connagh and into Ulster, and in both his waies, his neerest waie was through Tipporarie, and there to flocke and draw vn|to him all and so manie of the rebels as he could wage to ioine with him, whereof he made no doubt, but assured himselfe to find as manie readie to go as he willing to haue. And so taking his iournie with thrée or foure horssemen, and a dozzen Kernes, he passed through the countie of Limerike, & came into the countrie of sir William Burke his verie néere cousine and kinsman, and who before in the last rebellion did ioine with him, to the great danger of his life and losse of all his goods.

And when he came so farre in his iournie, being now about thrée score miles from S. Marie wéeke, his cariage horsses (which they terme garons) waxed faint, and could not trauell anie further: wherefore he commanded some of his men to go before, & looke Iames Fitz|moris stealeth garrons. what garrons they first found in the fields, they should take them and bring them vnto him. And as it fell out they espied a plow of garrons pl [...]wing in the field, which they foorthwith tooke per force from the poore husband men two of them, and caried them awaie. Wherevpon according to the custome of the countrie, the hobub or the hue and crie was raised. Some of the people followed the tract, & some went to their lords house, which was sir William Burke being néere at hand to aduertise the matter, [...]o ha|uing The Burkes follow the [...]eie three or foure of his sonnes and verie tall get|tlemen EEBO page image 157 at home with him, they tooke their horsses and a few Kernes and two shot with them, and fol|lowed This was a draught made by the lord president. the tract, and ouertooke them at a fastenes fast by the woods side, where they found Iames Fitzmo|ris, whome before they knew not to be come into those parties, to make head to answer them. But Iames Fitz|moris maketh head to resist. when he saw that it was his cousine Theobald Burke and his brother and his companie, who had béene his companions in the late rebellion when sir Iohn Perot was lord president of Mounster, he spake ouer vnto them, and said; Cousine Theebald (who was the eldest son to his father) two carriage horsses shall be no breach betweene vs two; and I hope that you which doo know the cause that I haue now in hand, you will take my part therein, and doo Iames Fitz|moris persua|deth the Burkes to rebellion. as I and others will doo: and so continuing some spéeches, did what he could to draw him and all his companie to be partakers in this rebellion. But he answered that he and his father had alreadie dealt too much that waie with him, and that he will neuer doo the like againe: for his father, he, and all his bre|thren, had sworne to be true, obedient, and faithfull to the quéenes maiestie, and which oth they would ne|uer breake: cursing the daie and time that euer they ioined with him in so bad a cause against hir maie|stie, and therefore required to haue his garrons a|gaine, or else he would come by them aswell as he could.

Iames Fitzmoris standing vpon his reputation, thought it too much dishonorable vnto him to depart with that which he had in hand; and therfore vtterlie denied the deliuerie, and therevpon each partie set spurre to the horsses and incountered the one the o|ther. The skirmish was verie hot and cruell, and Theobald Burke & one of his yoonger brethren were slaine, & some of their men. Iames Fitzmoris like|wise and his companie had the like successe, for he himselfe was first hurt and wounded, and then with a shot striken thorough the head, and so was Iames Fitz|moris slaine. slaine, with sundrie of his companions: wherein he found that the popes blessings and warrant, his Agnus Dei, and his graines had not those vertues to saue him, as an Irish staffe or a bullet had to kill him. Thus was hir highnesse most happie, and that Some thinke that this péece of seruice was a draught made by sir william Drurie lord Iustice. whole land most happiest, that they were deliuered from so wicked and bloudie a traitour, and that the great & venemous hydra was thus shortened of one of his heds. For otherwise it was to be doubted that if he had liued, he would haue bin the cause of much bloudshed, and all the rebels in that land would haue ioined with him. For he was of verie good credit & estimation through the whole land, he was of a verie The conditi|ons of Iames Fitzmoris. good gouernement, and of a great read; but a déepe dissembler, passing subtill, and able to compasse anie matter which he tooke in hand, familiar to all men, and verie courteous, valiant, and verie expert in martiall affaires, but so addicted to poperie and that baggage religion, that he became a most horrible traitour to hir maiestie, and a mortall enimie to e|uerie good man: and so far he was imbrued herein, that a man might saie that he was borne to the same end, euen to be a traitor and a rebell to God, to his prince, and to the whole commonwealth.

After that he was thus dead, and the same made knowen to the lord iustice, he gaue order that he should be hanged in the open market of Kilmal|locke, & be beheaded & quartered, & the quarters to Iames Fitz|moris his quarters set vpõ the gates of Kilmal|lorke. be set vpon the towne gates of Kilmallocke, for a perpetuall memoriall to his reproch for his tresons and periuries, contrarie to his solemne oth taken in that errour. Hir maiestie, when she was aduertised of this péece of good seruice of sir William Burke and the losse of his eldest sonne, she wrote hir letters of the good acceptation of his seruice, comforted him for the losse of his son, and in recompense did create Sir william Burke being made a baron sowned for ioy & shortlie after died. him baron of the castell of Connell by hir letters patents dated the fourth of Maie, the twentith yeare of hir reigne, & gaue him the yearelie pension of a hundred marks, to be paid at hir maiesties excheker yearelie during his life, wherof he tooke so sudden ioy that he sowned, and séemed to be dead.

When newes of the death of Iames Fitzmoris was brought to the fort at S. Marie weeke, great so|row The Spani|ards amazed with the deth of Fitzmoris. was amongest them all, they being all amazed and wist not what to doo, especiallie the Spaniards who depart could not, and to submit themselues they would not, and yet they were of the mind to giue o|uer and to intreat for a licence to depart. Which pur|pose they would haue followed, if that sir Iohn of Sir Iohn of Desmõd sup|plieth Iames Fitzmoris roome. Desmond had not taken the matter in hand: for he hauing imbrued himselfe so vnnaturallie in bloud, and doubting the same would neuer be pardoned, did follow the matter. The lord iustice (as is afore|said) immediatlie vpon the newes of the arriuall of Sir william Drurie lord iustice ma|keth a iournie into Moun|ster. these Spaniards, and of the death of Henrie Da|uels, made his preparation of all the forces which hir maiestie had in that land, which was but foure hun|dred footmen and two hundred horssemen, a verie small companie for so great seruice towards: yet considering that the victorie consisteth not in the arme of man, nor in horsse or mule, but onelie in the good gift of God; he marcheth foorth in his iournie, hauing in his companie of Englishmen sir Nicho|las Bagnoll knight marshall, sir Nicholas Malbie coronell of Connagh, Iaques Wingfield master of the ordinance, and Edward Waterhouse one of hir maiesties seruants, Edward Fitton, Thomas Ma|sterson, and others. And of the Irish lords he was ac|companied with the earle of Kildare, sir Lucas Dil|lon chiefe baron, the vicount Mountgarret, the ba|ron of vpper Osserie, and the baron of Dunboine, who had of themselues two hundred horssemen, be|sides The lord iu|stice incam|peth néere to Kilmallocke. footmen and Kernes: and so they marched for|ward by ieurneis vntill they came to Kilmallocke, where not farre from the towne they all incamped: & then he sent from thense a messenger to the earle of Desmond, and so likewise to all the principall gentlemen of the best accompt in those parties, to come vnto him.

The earle in outward appéerance seemed verie willing to come, but vntill he had receiued some pro|mise of fauour from the lord iustice, he still lingered and trifled the time and came not. But in the end his The earle of Desmond cõ|meth to the lord iustice to the campe. lordship being verie well accompanied with horsse|men and footmen, he went to the campe, and presen|ted himselfe before the lord iustice, and made a shew of all dutifulnesse, obedience, & fidelitie, whereas in|déed no such thing was ment. For though his bodie were there, his mind was elsewhere; for whiles he was in the campe, sundrie trecheries were practised by him; yet they were not so secretlie doone but they came to light, & were discouered to the lord iustice. Wherevpon he was committed to the custodie of the The earle of Desmond is committed to ward. knight marshall. Whiles he was in his ward, and fearing least some greater matters would be re|uealed against him, he praied accesse to the lord iu|stice; and then he humbled himselfe verie much, and The earle of Desmond: doeth humble himselfe and sweareth to serue trulie. promised and sware vpon his honour & allegiance, that he would faithfullie and to the vttermost of his power serue hir highnesse against the rebels. Whose humblenesse and promise the lord iustice by the ad|uise of the councell did accept, and so inlarged him: which was in the end the vtter confusion of the earle himselfe and all his familie, and in the meane time great troubles, causes of much bloudshed, and vndoo|ing of all Mounster.

Whiles the lord iustice laie thus in campe about Kilmallocke, newes was brought vnto him, that sir EEBO page image 158 Iohn of Desmond was incamped with a great Iohn of Des|mond incam|peth at Slew|lougher. companie of the rebels vpon the borders of Slew|lougher. Wherevpon his lordship remooued and marched thitherwards, the earle then promising that he would in person incounter and fight hand to hand with his brother. Now when they were come to the place of seruice, the earle being best acquainted with the countrie, gaue aduise to the lord iustice, that he should diuide the armie into two parts, and the lord iustice should take one waie, and he the earle would take another waie: which aduise was followed. But bicause that place of the present seruice is adioining to a great wood, and wherein were manie fastnesse, the lord iustice did diuide the rest of his companie into two other parts, and so euerie of these three com|panies tooke waie into the wood & serched it through|out, but there they found no bodie. For sir Iohn had some secret knowledge of the lord iustices comming, and so was gone before.

The daie being spent to small purpose, & the night drawne towards, he incamped that night in the same places where the rebels had lien before, & there he remained somewhat longer than he thought: bi|cause he would spend and wast the forrage of that countrie, which was one of the chiefest places of re|liefe that the enimies had. And from thense he went backe againe towards Kilmallocke, where he in|camped himselfe at a place called Gilbons towne which lieth in the plaines betwéene Limerike a [...] Kilmallocke towards Emeleie and Harlo; & there he continued about nine wéekes in continuall toi|ling and trauelling to and fro, in all such seruices as was dailie offered to be doone vpon the enimie, from which he had no rest neither day nor night. Whervpon for the better seruice he diuided his bands, and tooke out of the Irish companies one hundred, and deliue|red them to the guiding of capteine Iohn Herbert, a man of verie good seruice, and one other hundred to capteine Prise.

These two capteins had made spiall vpon cer|teine rebels, which shrowded themselues in the great wood called the blacke wood, vpon whom they made a sallie, and did verie good seruice vpon them. But as they were to returne to the campe, which laie beside Getenbre castell, the said Iohn of Desmond, who laie in ambush for them, met and incountered them, Sir Iohn of Desmõd lieth in an ambush for the Eng|lish capteins and discomfi|teth them. where was a sharpe fight betwixt them, and the two capteins with the most part of their companie slaine: & Iohn of Desmond himselfe was there hurt in the nose. The losse of those two capteins and their men was a great weakening to the lord iustice his armie; his enimies being strong and manie: and his com|panie weake and few, sauing at that instant the soul|diers sent out of Deuon and Cornewall arriued at Waterford to the number of six hundred men, vn|der the leading of capteine George Bourchier, cap|teine The Deuon|shire souldiers arriue at Wa|terford. Peter Carew, capteine George Carew his brother, and capteine Dowdale, whose comming at so present a distresse was both ioifull and also glad|some.

And néere about this time, it was aduertised vn|to the lord iustice, that Iohn of Desmond was at Connell, which was about sixteene miles from the campe; and his lordship being well furnished & pre|pared, and he minding to doo some peece of seruice vpon him, made verie secretlie a iourneie thither: but Desmond wanting not his good espials, had an inkling and a knowledge thereof, and so shifted him|selfe awaie, wherevpon the lord iustice returned to his campe. The queens maiestie and councell, being alwaies mindfull of hir Ireland, and by reason of the newes that the enimies were dailie stronger and stronger, she sent ouer sir Iohn Perot late president Sir Iohn Perot sent to serue on sea. of Mounster, with six ships well furnished and ap|pointed, whereof he was admerall; and William Gorge master porter of the tower and a pensioner, viceadmerall: and all these arriued vnto the citie of Corke. Whereof the lord iustice being aduertised, was verie glad, and did appoint one hundred vnto sir William Stanleie, who before was capteine of certeine horssemen, and one other hundred he assig|ned vnto capteine Hind. And séeing now some good seruice towards, and to incourage certeine gentle|men to be the more wlling to follow the same, called before him George Bourchier, William Stanleie, Knights dub|bed in ye field. Peter Carew, and Edward Moore, and vsing vnto them verie good spéeches, to incourage and persuade them to doo hir maiestie good seruice in these hir af|faires, and in hope they would performe the same, he dubbed them knights: who accordinglie did acquit themselues, and some of them with the losse of their liues ended their daies in this seruice.

And he further also for his owne part, the more hée bethought himselfe of the great seruice and charge laid vpon him, the more carefull he was to doo what the same required: where, in his owne person he so toiled and trauelled, and so ouercame himselfe with studieng, watching, labouring and trauelling, that he ouerthrew his owne health, and was no longer able to indure the same: but being ouercome by Sir William Drurie falleth sicke & goeth to Waterford. sicknesse, and driuen to yéeld therevnto, was deter|mined to haue dissolued his campe, and so to haue re| [...]ned to Waterford, and there to staie for a time. But the capteins séeing the necessitie of the present seruice, persuaded him not to dissolue the armie, but to take some order herein for hir highnesse seruice, and he to sequester himselfe for a time for his health. Upon whose aduises he prepared himselfe to trauell Sir Nicho|las Malbie made gouernor of Mounster. towards Waterford, and for the continuance of the seruice did commit the gouernement to sir Nicholas Malbie, who was then gouernour by the name of co|ronell of Connagh; and then by easie iourneies hée came to Waterford, and there he found himselfe eue|rie daie more weaker than other, and in the end did distrust his owne recouerie.

And yet mindfull of hir maiesties seruice, he to in|courage other therein, sent & called before him Wil|liam Knights dub|bed at Wa|terford. Pelham esquier, William Gorge esquier vice|admerall of the six ships, Thomas Perot sonne and heire to sir Iohn Perot, and Patrike Welsh maior of the citie of Waterford, and gaue vnto them the order of knighthood, vsing the like persuasions as heretofore he had doone vnto others in the like case. And albeit he were of a good heart and courage, yet that was no sufficient physicke to recouer his helth of bodie, but that still decaied. And douting verie much of his recouerie, he sent to Dublin to the lord chan|cellor, and to the ladie Thame his wife, for their spee|die comming vnto him, who accordinglie satisfied his request. But he inioied their companie a verie short time: for he died within two daies after their com|ming, Sir William Drurie lord iustice dieth. being the last of September 1579, and after his death his bodie was caried vnto Dublin, where it was buried.

But here by the waie (which should before haue béene said) as he came towards Waterford through Tipporarie, the countesse of Desmond met with him, The countesse of Desmond giueth hir son to be a pledge for his father. and brought with hir hir onelie sonne and heire to the earle; and being a sutor in the behalfe of hir husband, presented him to the lord iustice to be a pledge for the truth and fidelitie of the earle hir husband. For after the time that he was set at libertie in the campe neere Kilmallocke, he neuer repaired any more to the lord iustice, but stood vpon his owne kéeping; not|withstanding by his letters he professed all loialtie and obedience, which he neuer meant. For in verie truth he was (notwithstanding hisdissembling) a ve|rie ranke traitor, as in open fact and action did verie EEBO page image 159 shortlie appeare, to his owne deserued confusion.

But to returne to sir Nicholas Malbie, who im|mediatlie vpon the departure of sir William Dru|rie vnto Waterford, according to the office & charge laid vpon him, he set in hand foorthwith to follow and The commen|d [...] of sir Nicholas Malbie. performe the same. For he was able to do it being of great experience in martiall affaires, hauing béene seruitor that waie vnder sundrie kings, & in strange nations; as also was verie wise, lerned, and of great knowledge in matters of policie, hauing béene a stu|dent in good letters, and a great traueller in sundrie nations, and therein did obserue the maner of the se|uerall gouernments in euerie such place as where he trauelled. He had vnder him in the whole an hundred and fiftie horssemen, and nine hundred footmen, to command; and diuiding them according to the ser|uice then in hand, he sent sir George Bourchier, cap|teine Dowdall, and capteine Sentleger, vnto Kil|mallocke with three hundred footmen, and with fiftie horsmen, there to lie in garrison, and a speciall place meet for the same, & which the enimie most speciallie coueted to possesse. But the more his care was that waie, the like was their diligence, vigilancie, & care of the other waie to kéepe the same. Then with the re|sidue of the companie he marched himselfe to the ci|tie of Limerike, where he staied and remained for a time to refresh his souldiors.

During his abode and being there, it was thought good by him and his capteins, to send vnto the earle The gouernor [...]edeth for the earle of Desmond. of Desmond for his repaire vnto him, and to haue conference with him, to vnderstand his bent and ad|uise for hir maiesties seruice against the enimies. The earle hauing receiued the gouernours letters, gaue verie good woords, & promised much, but perfor|med nothing. Wherefore he was againe and againe The earle gi|ueth onelie words and dissembleth. sent for from time to time, but he came not, but laie still at his house of Asketten, which is about fourtene miles from Limerike. For albeit as yet he was not in anie actuall rebellion, yet it was not vnknowne but that he was secretlie combined with his two bre|thren which as open traitors were in open rebellion and in armes against hir maiestie. Which the earle, suspecting the same might be laid vnto his charge, would not aduenture himselfe to come in person to the gouernor; but still fed him with faire words and friuolous answers. Wherefore the gouernor thought good to spend no more time in vaine to looke for him, but left Limerike, and went into the fields, where he incamped himselfe, and so set forwards to doo some seruice vpon the enimie, hauing then in his compa|nie six hundrd footmen vnder the ensigns of sir Wil|liam Stanleie, capteine George Carew, capteine The gouernor re [...]ueth [...]rom Limerike to Connilo. Fisher, capteine Furse, capteine Piers, & capteine Hind; and he himselfe and capteine Apestie reserued one hundred horssemen betweene them. Now being aduertised that a great companie of the rebels were incamped in Connilo vnder their capteine Iohn of Desmond, he marched towards them. And being come néere to an abbeie or monasterie called Mona|ster Neuagh, seuen miles from Limerike, there appeared a great companie in a plaine field both of horssemen and footmen, in estimation two thousand or there abouts, marching in battell araie, and had [...]ast out their wings of shot, and placed euerie thing verie well and orderlie.

When the gouernor perceiued and beheld this, being verie glad that some péece of seruice was to|wards, he likewise conferreth with his capteins, and by their aduises setteth his companie in like good or|der, The gouernor marcheth to incounter with Iohn of D [...]ond. and brought them into a quadrant proportion, setting out his flankers in seuerall places according to the seruices, & appointed verie good leaders for the same: but his cariages he placed in the rereward, with shot sufficient for their safegard. Now when all things were thus ordered, he marched forwards to the enimies. Iohn of Desmond, when he saw that he must fight or flie, and that brags would not beare out the matter, by the councell of d [...]tor Allen, who had the holie ghost at commandement, to giue them the victorie, caused the popes banner to be displaied; and then marching forwards in verie good order, hee The popes banner dis|plaied. tooke a plaine ditch in the open field: and minding to abide the fight, disposeth his horssemen, footmen, Ga|lowglasses, and his shot for his best strength and ad|uantage.

The gouernor setteth onwards, & giueth the onset The battell betwéene the gouernor and sir Iohn of Desmond. vpon them with his shot, who valiantlie resisted the first & second volées, & answered the fight verie well, euen to the couching of the pikes, that the matter stood verie doubtfull. But the Englishmen so fierce|lie & desperatlie set vpon them afresh with the third volée, that they were discomfited and had the ouer|throw giuen them, and fled. Iohn of Desmond, as a woorthie Xerxes, who (as the historiographers write of him) was Primus in fuga, postremus in bello, sat vp|on his horsse all this while and gaue the looking: who soeuer turned first, he was the first that was [...]one: The Irish lost the [...]eld. for he put spur to the horsse & fled awaie as fast as he could, shewing a faire paire of héeles, which was better to him than two paire of hands. In this fight were manie slaine, of which doctor Allen was one, and three score others of good account. And in the Doctor Allen is slaine. chase, there were slaine and hurt, which died shortlie after, about two hundred men. This doctor Allen was an Irish man borne, and the chiefest cause of this fight. For he trusting to the Spaniards, whom Doctor Allen incouraged the campe to fight. he knew to be verie skilfull, and also dreaming the victorie by his inchantments to be at his com|mandement, incouraged Iohn of Desmond for|wards: and in the campe in the waie of good spéed would néeds saie masse, and as the prophets of Baal in the time of king Achab, he offered to his God Ma|zim, and cried out for his aid, but none would come; for his God was asléepe and could not heare. Not|withstanding, he stood so much vpon the credit of his offrings and sacrifices, that he assured them of a vic|torie, and that he himselfe would be the first that should that daie giue the first blow; but whether he so did or not, there was he slaine: where he had the iust reward of a traitor, who most wickedlie and dis|loiallie forsooke the dutie and allegiance, which by the word of God he did owe vnto hir highnesse, and de|uoted himselfe a professed Iesuit to the Romish anti|christ, and an open traitor vnto his lawfull prince. The earle of Desmond himselfe was not present in this fight, but he and the dissembling baron of The earle of Desmond was in vi [...] of the fight. Lexnew stood in the view & sight of it, vpon a little hill in a wood about a quarter of a mile from thense: but the whole companies were there, and had part of the breakefast.

This baron of Lexnews eldest sonne, named Pa|trike, was seruant to hir maiestie and sworne, and The baron of Lexnews son, seruant to the quéene and sworne, bea|reth armes a|gainst hir. serued in the court; but had leaue of hir maiestie to come into Ireland to see his father: but he was no sooner come, and entred into his fathers house and home, but he forsooke his faith and oth to hir high|nesse, and became a wicked rebell, and most trai|torouslie bare armes against hir, and so continued a ranke traitor to the verie end. Wherein appeareth the nature of himselfe, and of the brood of that cursed generation, among whome there is neither faith, No faith [...]or regard of an oth among the Irishrie. nor truth. And therefore they maie be verie well re|sembled to an ape, which (as the common prouerbe is) an ape is but an ape, albeit he be clothed in purple and veluet: euen so this wicked impe. For not|withstanding he was trained vp in the court of England, sworne seruant vnto hir maiestie, in good fauour and countenance in the court, and apparel|led EEBO page image 160 according to his degrée, and dailie nurtured and brought vp in all ciuilitie: he was no sooner come home, but awaie with his English attires, and on with his brogs, his shirt, and other Irish rags, be|ing become as verie a traitor as the veriest knaue of them all, & so for the most part they are all, as dai|lie experience teacheth, dissemble they neuer so much to the contrarie. For like as Iupiters cat, let hir be Iupiters cat. transformed to neuer so faire a ladie, and let hir be neuer so well attired and accompanied with the best ladies, let hir be neuer so well estéemed and hono|red: yet if the mouse come once in hir sight, she will be a cat and shew hir kind: but to the historie.

When the battell was ended, & the retreat soun|ded, the gouernor incamped himselfe fast by the ri|uer side of the monasterie aforesaid, and there laie that night. About midnight, when all things were quiet, & euerie man was at his rest: euen then the The earle of Desmonds dissembling, & his counsell. often named earle of Desmond sendeth a messen|ger with letters of congratulation vnto the gouer|nor, bearing him in hand that he was verie glad and ioifull of his good successe and victorie: and like an hypocrite pretending verie good will to hir maiestie, gaue him aduise that for the auoiding of hir great charges, he should dislodge himselfe from that place; which as he thought was not best for an armie to lie in. The gouernor answered his letters with the like, and requested him to come vnto him, that they might haue conference togither, and ioine in this hir maiesties seruice, and wherein he would be glad to follow his aduise in anie thing that might fur|ther hir highnesse seruice: but to withdraw him|selfe and his companie from thense, vnlesse he could giue him a good reason, he would not yéeld to his motion, nor take his warrant for anie warrantise. And therefore he remained thensefoorth in the same place thrée or foure daies, expecting still the earles The eale of Desmond sheweth him|selfe to be an open rebell. comming: but he so little meant anie such thing, that henseforth he became a rebell in open action, and in armes against the gouernor, finding nothing in the earle but dissembling, and to vse delaies and faire spéeches to gaine time to serue his turne, re|moued The gouernor remoueth to Rekell. from thense to a towne of the earles named Rekell, and there incamped himselfe. They were no sooner settled, but the scoutmaister, hauing béene a|broad, declareth to the gouernor that he had disco|uered a great companie of horssemen and footmen which were within a mile of the campe, & therewith was the alarum made, & sundrie horssemen & shot ac|cording to the direction of the gouernor issued out, & met with the enimies, and skirmished with them, of whom they killed manie, and tooke some prisoners.

These men, being examined, declared that the earle was now in the fields and in armes, and so had The earle of Desmond in open rebellion. beene euer since the last ouerthrow of his brother Iohn of Desmond; and likewise declareth the whole bent of the earle and his brother. This péece of ser|uice being doone, and the night drawing néere, the The earle of Desmond se|cretlie in the night stea|leth to the go|uernors campe to in|trap it. watch was charged, and euerie man tooke his rest. But the earle and his brother minding to doo some mischiefe, they watched, and in the dead of the night then following, taking aduantage of the time, when men were wearie and in their sléepes, came with all their companies, and meant to haue set vpon the whole campe. But they came too short and missed of their purpose: for the campe was too well warded for them to take anie aduantage. The gouernor considering the intent of the enimies was to doo what they could to remoue him from that place, which could not be kept but to the great damage of the enimies sundrie waies, and that the same was a verie necessarie place for a garison and a ward, whereby to stop the continuall intercourse of the eni|mies, A garison pla|ced at Rekell. which by the means of a bridge ouer that water, they had a continuall recourse to & fro that waie: he before his departure from thense did plant & place a ward in the castell adioining to the bridge, which did from that time annoie the enimies verie much: and then from hense he marched towards the earles house of Asketten, and by the waie he met with sun|drie of the earles companie, and skirmished and fought with them to the losse of manie of them.

This house of Asketten is a verie strong castell, Asketten the earle of Des|monds chiefest house. standing vpon a rocke in the verie midst of the ri|uer, and the chiefest house of the earles, wherein he had a strong ward: but he himselfe at this present time and his brother Iohn were assembled vpon a little hill on the further side of the riuer, standing there vpon their whole force. The gouernor hoping of some good seruice towards, drew all his compa|nie into the abbeie house of Asketten, not far from the castell house; and there conferring with the cap|teins what were best to be doone, it was agréed and thought good, that a letter or two more should be written to the earle, and to persuade him to submis|sion. The gouernor, who was a verie good secreta|rie, A letter sent to the earle of Desmond to persuade him to submission. and could pen a letter verie excellentlie well, did draw a letter, vsing manie good words, termes, and reasons to persuade him to conformitie and obe|dience to hir maiestie: & that he should not be the oc|casion of the vtter fall & end of so noble a house, which descended from Roesius the great prince of South|wales by his mother Nesta, daughter vnto the said Roesius, as Giraldus one of the same familie wri|teth. The house of Desmond. And herewith by the waie of a parenthesis, it dooth not appeare by anie sufficient authoritie, vn|lesse a sonet and a deuise of a noble man be a suffici|ient authoritie, that the Giraldines came out of I|talie; but perhaps out of Normandie: and the first of them placed in England had some interteine|ment and liuing at Windesor, and thereof was cal|led Giraldus de Windesora: and he gaue not the armes of Richard Strangbow earle of Chepstow, as some haue written: but as he was a gentleman of himselfe, gaue the armes incident to his owne house, which is argent a salter gules.

For certeine it is, he was and is a verie ancient gentleman, whose ancestors were planted and pla|ced in that l [...]d by king Henrie the second, and haue euer since continued in this land in much honor, wishing, aduising, and persuading, that if there were anie feare of God, obedience to the prince, or regard of himselfe, and of his name and familie; that he would reclaime himselfe vnto dutie and obedience: and that the honor of his ancestors might not be bu|ried in his treacheries and follies. These letters be|ing The earle of Desmond will not be persuaded. well penned were sent vnto him. But notwith|standing the most pithie, true, and effectuall reasons and arguments were sufficient to haue persuaded anie honest or reasonable man: yet was his Pha|raos heart so hardened and indurated in disobedi|ence, rebellion, and treacherie, that nothing could make him to yéeld and relent: but leauing his for|mer and woonted dissimulations, returneth the mes|senger with a flat deniall that he will not yeeld anie further obedience to hir highnesse. And foorthwith to The earle of Desmond for|tifieth his ca|stels. confirme the same, he fortifieth his strongest and best houses and castels: as namelie Asketten with his chosen followers and men of best trust; the castels of Carigofoile and Strangicullie with Spaniards and some Irishmen. The gouernor, vpon the re|ceipt of the earles answer, and minding to frame his seruice accordinglie; news was brought him that sir William Drurie lord iustice was dead, who deceassed at Waterford, vpon the third of October Sir William Drurie dieth. 1579, which was a dolefull hearing to all good Eng|lishmen, and a great hinderance vnto hir highnesse seruice.

EEBO page image 161 This sir William Drurie was verie valiant, wise, The conditi|ons and man|ners of sir William. Drurie. and a gentleman of great experience, descended of a verie ancient and a worshipfull house, being a yoon|ger brother, but the birthright excepted, nothing in|ferior to his elder brother anie kind of waie in the gifts of wisedome, valiantnesse, knowledge, and ex|perience of matters politike or martiall. In his youth he was a page, and serued in the court; and as in yeares, so in knowledge of all courtlie serui|ces he did grow and increase, and became to be as gallant a courtier as none lightlie excelled him. He was verie deuout, and a follower vnto the then lord Russell lord priuie seale, and after earle of Bedford, who gaue him good countenance and interteinment: for vnder him he serued in France at Muttrell and [...]s seruice at Bullongue. Bullongnois, and after the warres ended, he went to Calis, and oftentimes being there he issued out, and did manie good seruices about Cambraie and in Artois: and in the end about Bruxelles he was ta|ken prisoner. Not long after he was redéemed and He is taken prisoner. ransomed, and then he would néeds serue at the seas, and hauing gotten a ship well appointed for the pur|pose, he aduentureth that seruice. The beginning of He serueth at s [...]as. it was so hard, that in nine daies he was in a conti|nuall storme, and in great despaire for euer to reco|uer: neuerthelesse, whom the sword could not make afraid, the seas could not dismaie; but was euer one and the same man, of a good mind and great corage: and the storme being past, he followed the seruice which he had taken in hand, and became to be an ex|cellent maritimall man, and verie expert in all ser|uices at the seas. When the time of this his seruice was expired, he returned into England; & attending vpon the earle of Bedford, he accompanied him in the seruice against the rebels of Deuon, at the com|motion His seruice at the commoti|an in Deuon. or rebellion in the third yeare of the reigne of king Edward the sixt one thousand fiue hundred fortie and nine, and did there verie good seruice. Af|ter which in course of time, he went to serue at Ber|wike, where his valor and behauior was such, that he His seruice at Berwike. He is prouost marshall. was made prouost marshall vnder the earle of Sus|sex being lord lieutenant, and for his sundrie nota|ble good seruices he rewarded him with the degrée He is dubbed knight. of knighthood.

Not long after that, there was a péece of ne|cessarie seruice to be doone in Scotland by the said earle vpon the quéenes commandement; but he was verie sicke, and at that time he could not performe the same: wherfore he deputed in his place this wor|thie knight, whome he then made generall of the ar|mie: He is generall of the armie, and dooth a good péece of seruice in Scotland. and with such forces as were thought méet he entreth into the seruices appointed vnto him, being accompanied with the earle of Lennox, sir Thomas Manners, sir George Carie, and sir Robert Con|stable, with sundrie other capteins, to the number of twelue hundred footmen. And his commission be|ing to serue at Edenborough, which then by the rea|son of the diuision among the noblemen, about the murthering of the earle of Murreie, he tooke, spoiled, and burned sundrie forts and castels: and in the end besieged and tooke the towne and castell of Edenbo|rough, and deliuered the same, according as he was He besiegeth and taketh Edenborough castell. commanded, to the vse of the king: and so he retur|ned againe to his old charge, with great praise and commendation, as in the chronicles of England and Scotland is at large recorded.

In verie short time after, hir maiestie hauing good experience of the valor of this knight euerie waie, aswell for his valiantnes in martiall affaires, as for his wisedome in ciuill gouernement, she cal|leth Sir William [...]rurie sent into Ireland to be lord pre|sident of Mounster. and draweth him from his office and charge at Berwike, and remooueth him into Ireland, there to be imploied in the office of a lord president, and as|signeth unto him the gouernement of the whole pro|uince of Mounster, where he shall haue sufficient matter and occasion to vse both the sword & the law, iudgement and mercie. And hauing receiued hir highnes commandement in this behalfe, he maketh his voiage & repaire into Ireland: & being now set|led in his roome and office by the right honorable sir Henrie Sidneie lord deputie, he acquiteth him|selfe verie well euerie waie, being as seuere a iudge and earnest persecutor of the wicked and rebelli|ous, as a zealous defender of the dutifull and obedi|ent, to the great good liking of hir maiestie, the ter|ror of the wicked, the comfort of the good, and the be|nefit of the commonwealth. After some time of his triall in this office, and sir Henrie Sidneie lord de|putie being reuoked into England, he who had ser|ued Sir William Drurie is made lord iu|stice of all Ireland. well in part, is called now to serue in all: and from a particular president is called to be a generall gouernor: and is in place of the departed deputie made lord iustice. He was no sooner entred into the office, but forthwith the rebellion and warres of the The rebellion of the Des|monds in Mounster. Desmonds began in Mounster vnder Iames Fitz|moris, and the Italians latelie come from the pope, and vnder the earle of Desmond and his brethren, who had long breathed and looked for this time. For the pacifieng, or rather subduing of this wicked re|bellion, he tooke such continuall trauels and troubles, & so brused his bodie, that being not able to hold out any longer, he fell sicke & died (as is beforesaid) in the citie of Waterford, and from thense his corps was The death of sir William Drurie. remooued to Dublin, and there buried; his bodie re|sting in peace, his soule in euerlasting blisse, and his fame in this world for euer immortall.

Sir Nicholas Malbie, who was chéefe gouernor of Mounster, now that his commission by the death of sir William Drurie was expired and ended, gaue The campe is dissolued and dispersed into garrisons. ouer to follow anie actuall warres or ciuill admini|stration in Mounster; but remooued himselfe and the whole campe vnto Lougher, and there dispersed them abrode in townes and villages to lie in garrison, and vpon their owne gards, vntill it were knowne who should haue the sword, and be the principall officer. Amongest the capteins thus dispersed into seuerall places, sir William Stanleie, and capteine George Sir William Stanleie and capteine George Ca|rew are assig|ned to Adare. Carew were assigned to lie at Adare. The traitors & rebels, hearing of the death of the worthie knight, of whose prowesse and valiantnesse by the sword, & of whose wisedome & vprightnes in gouernement, they had good triall; yet not abiding to be alienated from their old leauened and wicked vsage, they were not a little glad that he was dead, euen as the other were most sorowfull for the losse & lacke of him. Wherefore now they pull vp their spirits, & confer togither how they may in this inter-reigne win the spurs, and be vtterlie deliuered from the English gouernement. Wherefore it is agreed among them, that vpon eue|rie seuerall garrison of the most principall capteins, they would set seuerall companies to watch & keepe The garri|sons are besie|ged and inui|roned by the Irishrie. them in their holds, that they should not issue out, but to their perill. Some therefore are appointed at Kilmalocke, some at Carigofoile, some at Asketten, and some at one place, and some at another. And at Adare, where these two gentlemen sir William Sir Iames of Desmond be|siegeth Adare. Stanleie & George Carew laie, sir Iames of Des|mond brother to the earle with foure hundred Kerns and fiftie horsses was appointed to serue and watch; which he did so carefullie & narowlie, that none durst to peepe nor looke out but in danger of some perill. But when vittels wared short within doores, the soul|diors, who could nor would be pined, gaue the aduen|ture to fetch that which was without doores: and as want of vittels did increase, so did their issuings out vpon the enimies grow and increase. And so often The Irish|men leaue to i [...]iron the garrison. were their sallies and incountrings with the eni|mies, that in the end they finding & féeling the cou|rage EEBO page image 162 of the Englishmen, they had alwaies the worst side; and at euerie bickering euer lost some of their companie. Wherevpon they raised their siege, gaue place to the garrisons, and returned to the earle of Desmond. For albeit as yet they wanted a gene|rall gouernor to rule aboue all, yet the captens were not to séeke, nor yet failed to doo the seruice which vnto them did apperteine, either for seruice or safetie. And among all the rest sir William Stanleie and capteine George Carew (as is before said) lieng in garrison at Adare, and vpon an occasion minding to doo a peece of seruice, verie earlie, and before the breake of the daie, they tooke a bote or a cote trough, The knight of the vallie his countrie spoiled. which could not hold aboue eight or ten persons at a time, and passed ouer their soldiors vnto the other side of the riuer, which lieth betwéene Adare and the Ker|rie, minding to haue burned & wasted all the lands and countrie belonging & apperteining to the knight of the valleie, who then was in actuall rebellion a|gainst The knight of the valleie a rebell. hir maiestie, with the earle of Desmond and his brethren, where they then laie at a castell named Balliloghan, the chiefest & strongest place which the enimie had in that place and countrie, and this was furnished with a strong ward of the Spaniards. Af|ter that these two capteins had burned and spoi|led the countrie, and put to the sword whomsoeuer they thought good: in their returne before they could recouer the riuer, sir Iames of Desmond, the Sir william Stanleie and capteine George Ca|rews seruice at Adare. knight of the valleie, and the foresaid Spaniards with all their forces, to the number of foure hundred footmen and thirtie horssemen, gaue the charge vpon these two ensignes verie fiercelie, they hauing not in their companie aboue six score persons to the vt|termost. These two capteins answered the charge, and most valiantly skirmished with them at the push of the pike without intermission aboue eight hours, and killed of them aboue fiftie shot and Kernes; and sir Iames himselfe with others gréenouslie hurt and wounded, without the losse of anie one of their owne men, sauing sundrie were shrewdlie hurt and wounded. At length these two capteins recouered their bote, and caused all the souldiors to be trans|ported; they themselues being the verie last that pas|sed ouer, and the enimies doubting of the safetie, stood afterwards vpon a better force.

The lords of the councell at Dublin in the meane time, considering the distressed state of the whole land for want of a principall officer, did assemble them|selues, and tooke aduise for the choise of some one wise man, méet and fit for the gouernement. And in the end they resolued vpon sir William Pelham, whom they chose to be lord iustice. And vpon sundaie being the eleuenth of October 1579, he receiued the sword Sir william Pelham cho|sen to be lord iustice. 1579 and tooke his oth in Christs church of Dublin: there being present the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Dublin, the earles of Ormond and Kildare, and the whole councell: besides a great number of ba|rons, knights, and gentlemen. The sermon being ended, he returned to the castell, before whome sir Nicholas Bagnoll knight, marshall of Ireland, by his office did beare the sword before him, & the whole companie there did attend him: being come to the castell, he was receiued with the shot of all the great artillerie. As soone as he was entered into the cham|ber of presence, and the sword there deliuered, he cal|led Sir william Pelham ha|uing taken the sword, dubbeth the lord chancel|lor knight. the lord chancellor before him: and in considera|tion of his good seruices in causes of councell, and of hir maiesties good acceptation of the same, he re|warded & honoured him with the degrée of knight|hood, by the name of sir William Gerard.

Likewise, he called Edward Fitton the sonne and heire of sir Edward Fitton, late treasuror of Ireland, and dubbed him knight. After dinner the councell sat, consulting vpon causes of the estate: and for quieting of the realme, letters were sent vn|to all the noblemen and gentlemen of anie counte|nance and calling, persuading them to the continu|ance of their loialties and dutifull obedience. And for the gouernement of the prouince of Mounster, in The earle of Ormond made gouer|nor of Moun|ster. absence of the lord iustice, a patent was sealed and deliuered to the earle of Ormond: who hauing the kéeping and custodie of the yoong lord Girald sonne and heire to the erle of Desmond, was by a warrant willed to deliuer him to capteine Mackworth, and he to bring or conueie him to the castell of Dublin. Likewise, a warrant vnder the brode seale was sent to sir Warham Sentleger, to be knight or prouost Sir warham Sentieger made prouost marshall of Mounster. marshall of all Mounster. These and other things doone concerning the kéeping of the English pale in quiet: the lord iustice, who had a speciall eie to the troublesome state of Mounster, prepareth to make presentlie a iournie into Mounster. But first it was The lord in|stice maketh a iournie into Mounster. The lord chancellor sent into England. concluded and agreed, that the lord chancellor should passe ouer into England, with letters of aduertise|ment to hir maiestie and councell of the present state of Ireland, and of his lordships iournie towards against the rebels: who had also in commission to vt|ter by speech what was to be aduertised & answered vpon hir maiesties demands and councels. When all things were prepared for his iournie, he appointed the erle of Kildare to defend the borders northward, and his lordship marched southward toward Moun|ster, taking with him the three bands latelie come from Berwike, vnder the leading of capteine Wal|ker, capteine Case, and capteine Pikeman: with so manie others as he thought méet and necessarie for that seruice. And when he came in his waie to Kil|kennie, being the nineteenth of October, there he re|mained two daies and kept sessions, whereat he sat The lord iu|stice keepeth sessions at Kilkennie. in person, and determined manie matters, and did cause Edmund Mac Neile a notable traitor, & sun|drie other malefactors, to be executed to death: and also he made a peace and reconciliation betwéene the earle of Ormond and sir Barnabie Fitzpatrike, The earle of Ormond and the baron of vpper Osserie reconciled and made frends. baron of vpper Ossorie: betwixt whome was a mor|tall hatred. And bonds were taken betwéene them for restoring ech one to the other the preies, which ei|ther of their men had taken. During his abode and being in Kilkennie, the earle gaue his lordship verie honourable and good interteinment.

From this towne he departed the two and twen|tith of October, and by iournies he came to Cashell, where the earle of Ormond with a band of two hun|dred and thirtie men came and met him. And here the lord iustice sent his letters of the foure and twen|tith of October to the earle of Desmond, for his re|paire The earle of Desmond is sent for to come to the lord iustice. vnto him, for the appeasing of the quarrell and controuersie betwéene him & sir Nicholas Malbie, referring vnto him to come either to Cashell or to Limerike. And from this towne he rode to Lime|rike, and about a mile before he came to the citie, sir Nicholas Malbie and sundrie other capteins & gen|tlemen met his lordship; and for his welcome gaue him a braue volée of shot: and so brought him to the citie, where the maior in all dutifull maner receiued him, and presented him with a thousand well weapo|ned The lord iu|stice honora|blie receiued into Lime|rike. and appointed men of the same citie. The next daie he departed thense, and went to a towne named Fanings, where sir Nicholas Malbie presented vn|to his lordship a letter, which he receiued from Ulike Burke: the same being the letter of doctor Sanders sent vnto the said Ulike, and with most pestilent rea|sons Doctor San|ders wicked letters to U|like Burke. persuaded him to rebellion. And to this towne came the countesse of Desmond from hir husband, with letters of hir husband to the lord iustice, in ex|cusing his not comming vnto him.

The lord iustice séeing the earle to vse but delaies, tooke aduise of the councell which was with him, EEBO page image 163 what was best to doo. And in the end it was conclu|ded, that the earle of Ormond should go vnto him, and to conferre with him vpon such articles as were deliuered, and now sent by him vnto the said Des|mond, and to require his resolute answer.

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