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4.24. The substance of that which is written touching Britaine in a panegyrike oration ascribed to Mamertinus, which he set foorth in praise of the emperors Dioclesian and Maximian: it is intituled onelie to Maximian, whereas neuer|thelesse both the emperors are praised; and likewise (as ye may perceiue) Constantius who was father to Constantine the great is here spoken of, being chosen by the two foresaid emperors, to assist them by the name of Caesar in rule of the empire: of whom hereafter more shall be said. The xxiiij. Chapter.

The substance of that which is written touching Britaine in a panegyrike oration ascribed to Mamertinus, which he set foorth in praise of the emperors Dioclesian and Maximian: it is intituled onelie to Maximian, whereas neuer|thelesse both the emperors are praised; and likewise (as ye may perceiue) Constantius who was father to Constantine the great is here spoken of, being chosen by the two foresaid emperors, to assist them by the name of Caesar in rule of the empire: of whom hereafter more shall be said. The xxiiij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _ALl the compasse of the earth (most victorious emperor) being now re|couered through your noble prowesse, not one|lie so farre as the limits of the Romane empire had before extended, but also the enimies borders beeing sub|dued, when Almaine had beene so often vanquished, and Sarmatia so often re|streined & brought vnder, the people called Vitungi, Quadi, Carpi so often put to flight,Vitungi, Qua|di, Carpi, and people of Ger|manie and Polome. the Goth submitting himselfe, the king of Persia by offering gifts suing for peace: one despitefull reproch of so mightie an empire and gouernement ouer the whole greeued vs to the heart, as now at length we will not sticke to confesse, and to vs it seemed the more intollerable, bicause it on|lie remained to the accomplishing of your perfect renowne and glorie. And verilie as there is but one name of Britaine, so was the losse to be esteemed smal to the common wealth of a land so plentifull of corne, so a|bundant with store of pastures, so flowing with veines of mettall, so gainfull with re|uenues rising of customs and tributes, so enuironed with hauens, so huge in circuit, the which when Cesar, the founder of this your honourable title, being the first that entered into it, writ that he had found an other world, supposing it to be so big, that it was not compassed with the sea, but that rather by resemblance the great O|cean was compassed with it. Now at that time Britaine was nothing furnished with ships of warre; so that the Romans, soone after the warres of Carthage and Asia, had latelie beene exercised by sea a|gainst pirats, and afterwards by reason of the warres against Mithridates, were practised as well to fight by sea as land: be|sides this,Picts and Irishmen. the British nation then alone was accustomed but onelie to the Picts EEBO page image 58 and Irishmen, enimies halfe naked as yet & not vsed to weare armor, so that the Bri|tains for lacke of skill, easilie gaue place to the Romane puissance, insomuch that Ce|sar might by that voiage onelie glorie in this, that he had sailed and passed ouer the Ocean sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But in this wicked rebellious robberie, first the nauie that in times pat defended the coasts of Gallia, was led away by the pirat when he fled his waies: and beside this, a great number of other ships were built after the mould of ours, the legion of Romane souldiers was woon, and brought to take part with the enimie, and diuers bands of strangers that were also souldi|ers were shut vp in the ships to serue also against vs. The merchants of the parties of Gallia were assembled and brought to|gither to the musters, and no small num|bers of barbarous nations procured to come in aid of the rebels, trusting to inrich themselues by the spoile of the prouinces: and all these were trained in the wars by sea, through the instruction of the first at|temptors of this mischieuous practise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And although our armies were inuin|cible in force and manhood, yet were they raw and not accustomed to the seas, so that the fame of a greeuous and great trouble by warre that was toward by this shame|full rebellious robberie was blowne and sounded in ech mans eare, although we ho|ped well of the end. Unto the enimies for|ces was added a long sufferance of their wicked practises without punishment,Long suffe|rance of euill increaseth boldnesse in the authors. which had puffed vp the presumptuous boldnesse of desperate people, that they bragged of our stay, as it had bene for feare of them, whereas the disaduantage which we had by sea, seemed as it were by a fatall necessitie to deferre our victorie: neither did they beleeue that the warre was put off for a time by aduise and counsell, but ra|ther to be omitted through despaire of doo|ing anie good against them, insomuch that now the feare of common punishment be|ing laid aside,Caransius slaine one of the mates slue the archpirat or capteine rouer as I may call him, hoping in reward of so great an ex|ploit, to obteine the whole gouernement into his hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This warre then being both so necessa|rie, so hard to enter vpon, so growne in time to be stubborne stiffenesse, and so well prouided for of the enimies part, you noble emperour did so take it in hand, that so soone as you bent the thundering force of your imperiall maiestie against that eni|mie, ech man made account that the enter|prise was alreadie atchiued. For first of all, to the end that your diuine power being absent, the barbarous nations should not attempt anie new trouble (a thing chieflie to be foreseene) it was proui|ded for aforehand by intercession made vn|to your maiestie: for you your selfe, you (I say) mightie lord Maximian eternall em|perour, vouchedsafe to aduance the com|ming of your diuine excellencie by the nee|rest way that might be, which to you was not vnknowne. You therefore suddenlie came to the Rhine, and not with anie ar|mie of horssemen or footmen, but with the terrour of your presence did preserue and defend all that frontire: for Maximian once being there vpon the riuage, counter|uailed anie the greatest armies that were to be found. For you (most inuincible empe|rour) furnishing and arming diuers na|uies, made the enimie to vncerteine of his owne dooing and void of counsell, that then at length he might perceiue that he was not defended, but rather inclosed with the Ocean sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here commeth to mind how pleasant and easefull the good lucke of those princes in gouerning the commong wealth with praise was, which sitting still in Rome had triumphs and surnames appointed them of such nations as their capteins did van|quish. Fronto therefore, not the second, but match with the first honor of the Romane eloquence,Fronto coun|ted Ciceros match. when he yeelded vnto the empe|ror Antoninus the renowne of the warre brought to end in Britaine, although he sitting at home in his palace within the citie, had committed the conduct and suc|cesse of that warre ouer vnto the same Fronto, it was confessed by him, that the emperour sittings as it were at the helme of the ship, deserued the praise, by giuing of perfect order to the full accomplishing of the enterprise. But you (most inuincible emperour) haue bene not onlie the appoin|ter foorth how all this voiage by sea, and prosecuting the warre by land should bee demeaned, as apperteined to you by ver|tue of your imperiall rule and dignitie, but also you haue beene an exhorter and setter forward in the things themselues, and through example of your assured constan|cie, the victorie was atchiued. For you ta|king the sea at Sluice, did put an irreuo|cable desire into their hearts that were readie to take ship at the same time in the mouth of the riuer of Saine, insomuch that when the capteins of that armie did linger out the time, by reason the seas and aire was troubled, they cried to haue the sailes hoised vp, and signe giuen to lanch foorth, that they might passe forward on their iournie, despising certeine tokens which threatened their wrecke, and so set forward on a rainie and tempestuous day, sailing with a crosse wind, for no forewind might serue their turne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But what was he that durst not com|mit himselfe vnto the sea, were the same neuer so vnquiet, when you were once vn|der saile, and set forward? One voice and exhortation was among them all (as re|port hath gone thereof) when they heard that you were once got forth vpon the wa|ter, What doo we dout? what mean we to staie? He is now loosed from land, he is for|ward on his waie, and peraduenture is al|readie got ouer: Let vs put all things in EEBO page image 59 proofe, let vs venter through anie dangers of sea whatsoeuer. What is there that we may stand in feare of? we follow the empe|rour. Neither did the opinion of your good hap deceiue them: for as by report of them selues we doo vnderstand, at that selfe time there fell such a mist and thicke fog vpon the seas, that the enimies nauie laid at the Ile of wight watching for their aduersa|ries, and lurking as it were in await, these your ships passed by, and were not once perceiued, neither did the enimie then staie although he could not resist.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now as concerning that the same vnuanquishable army fighting vnder your ensignes aud name, streightwaies after it came to land, set fire on their ships; what mooued them so to doo, except the admoni|tions of yoru diuine motion? Or what o|ther reason persuaded them to reserue no furtherance for their flight, if need were, nor to feare the doubtfull chances of war, nor (as the prouerbe saith) to thinke the hazard of martiall dealings to be common, but that by contemplation of your prospe|rous hap, it was verie certeine that there needed no doubt to be cast for victorie to be obteined? There were no sufficient forces at that present among them, no mightie or puissant strength of the Romans, but they had onelie consideration of your vnspeak|able fortunate successe comming from the heauens aboue. For whatsoeuer battell dooth chance to be offered, to make full ac|count of victorie, resteth not so much in the assurance of the souldiers,The good lucke in a cap|teine. as in the good lucke and felicitie of the capteine generall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 That same ringleader of the vngratious faction, what ment he to depart from that shore which he possessed? Why did he for|sake both his nauie and the hauen? But that (most inuincible emperour) he stood in feare of your comming, whose sailes he beheld readie to approch towards him, how soeuer the matter should fall out, he chose rather to trie his fortune with your capteins, than to abide the present force of your highnes. Ah mad man! that vnderstood not, that whither soeuer he fled, the pow|er of your diuine maiestie to be present in all places where your countenance & ban|ners are had in reuerence. But he fleeing from your presence, fell into the hands of your people, of you was he ouercome, of your armies was he oppressed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To be short, he was brought into such feare, and as it were still looking behind him, for doubt of your comming after hun, that as one out of his wits and amazed, he wist not what to doo, he hasted forward to his death, so that he neither set his men in order of battell, nor marshalled such power as he had about him, but onlie with the old authors of that conspiracie, and the hired bands of the barbarous nations, as one forgetfull of so great preparation which he had made, ran headlong forwards to his destruction, insomuch (noble emperour) your felicitie yeeldeth this good hap to the common wealth, that the victorie being at|chiued in the behalfe of the Romane em|pire, there almost died not one Romane: for as I heare, all those fields and hills lay couered with none but onelie with the bo|dies of most wicked enimies, the same be|ing of he barbarous nations, or at the least-wise apparelled in the counterfet shapes of barbarous garments, glistering with their long yellow haires, but now with gashes of wounds and bloud all de|formed, and lieng in sundrie manners, as the pangs of death occasioned by their wounds had caused them to stretch foorth or draw in their maimed lims and mangled parts of their dieng bodies. And among these,Aiectus found dead. the chiefe ringleader of the theeues was found, who had put off those robes which in his life time he had vsurped and dishonoured, so as scarse was he couered with one peece of apparell whereby he might be knowne,He had despoi|led himselfe of the imperiall robes, bicause he would not be knowne if he chanced to be slaine. so neere were his words true, vttered at the houre of his death, which he saw at hand, that he would not haue it vnderstood how he was slaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus verelie (most inuincible empe|rour) so great a victorie was appointed to you by consent of the immortall gods ouer all the enimies whome you assailed, but namelie the slaughter of the Frankeners and those your souldiers also,Francones siue Franci. which (as be|fore I haue said) through missing their course by reason of the mist that lay on the seas, were now come to the citie of Lon|don,London in danger to be spoiled. where they slue downe right in ech part of the same citie, what multitude soe|uer remained of those hired barbarous people, which escaping from the battell, ment (after they had spoiled the citie) to haue got awaie by flight. But now being thus slaine by your souldiers, the subiects of your prouince were both preserued from further danger, and tooke pleasure to be|hold the slaughter of such cruell enimies. O what a manifold victorie was this, wor|thie vndoubtedlie of innumerable trium|phes! by which victorie Britaine is resto|red to the empire, by which victorie the na|tion of the Frankeners is vtterlie destroi|ed, & by which manie other nations found accessaries in the conspiracie of that wic|ked practise, are compelled to obedience. To conclude, the seas are purged and brought to perpetuall quietnesse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Glorie you therefore, inuincible empe|rour, for that you haue as it were got an other world, & in restoring to the Romane puissance the glory of conquest by sea, haue added to the Romane empire an element greater than all the compasse of the earth, that is, the mightie maine ocean. You haue made an end of the warre (inuincible em|perour) that seemed as present to threaten all prouinces, and might haue spred abroad and burst out in a flame, euen so largelie as the ocean seas stretch, and the mediter|rane gulfs doo reach. Neither are we igno|rant, although through feare of you that infection did fester within the bowels of EEBO page image 60 Britaine onelie, and proceeded no further, with what furie it would haue aduanced it selfe else where, if it might haue beene assu|red of means to haue ranged abroad so far as it wished. For it was bounded in with no border of mounteine, nor riuer, which garrisons appointed were garded and de|fended but euen so as the ships, although we had your martiall prowes and prospe|rous fortune redie to releeue vs, & was still at our elbowes to put vs in feare, so farre as either sea reacheth or wind bloweth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For that incredible boldnesse and vn|woorthie good hap of a few sillie captiues of the Frankeners in time of the empe|rour Probus came to our remembrance,The piracie of the Franke|ners called Franci or Fran|cones. which Frankeners in that season, conuei|eng awaie certeine vessels from the coasts of Pontus, wasted both Grecia and Asia, and not without great hurt and damage, ariuing vpon diuers parts of the shore of Libia, at length tooke the citie of Sara|gose in Sicile (an hauen towne in times past highlie renowmed for victories got|ten by sea:) & after this passing thorough the streicts of Giberalterra, came into the Ocean, and so with the fortunate suc|cesse of their rash presumptuous attempt, shewed how nothing is shut vp in safetie from the desperate boldnesse of pirats, where ships maie come and haue accesse. And so therefore by this your victorie, not Britaine alone is deliuered from bon|dage, but vnto all nations is safetie resto|red, which might by the vse of the seas come to as great perils in time of warre, as to gaine of commodities in time of peace.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now Spaine (to let passe the coasts of Gallia) with hir shores almost in sight is in suertie: now Italie, now Afrike, now all nations euen vnto the fens of Meotis are void of perpetuall cares. Neither are they lesse ioifull, the feare of danger being taken awaie, which to feele as yet the necessitie had not brought them: but they reioise to so much the more for this, that both in the guiding of your prouidence, and also furtherance of fortune, so great a force of rebellion by seamen is calmed, vp|on the entring into their borders, and Britaine it selfe which had giuen harbour to so long a mischiefe, is euidentlie knowne to haue tasted of your victorie, with hir onelie restitution to quietnesse.Britains re|stored to qui|etnes. Not with|out good cause therfore immediatlie, when you hir long wished reuenger and deliue|rer were once arriued, your maiestie was met with great triumph, & the Britains replenished with all inward gladnesse,The Bri|tains receiue Maximian with great ioy and hum|blenesse. came foorth and offered themselues to your presence, with thier wiues and children, reuerencing not onlie your selfe (on whom they set their eies, as on one descended downe to them from heauen) but also euen the sailes and tackling of that ship which had brought your diuine presence vnto their coasts: and when you should set foot on land, they were readie to lie downe at your feet, that you might (as it were) march ouer them, so desirous were they of you.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Neither was it anie maruell if they shewed them selues so ioifull, sith after their miserable captiuitie so manie yeeres contiuued, after so long abusing of their wiues, and filthie bondage of their chil|dren, at length yet were they now restored to libertie, at length made Romans, at length refreshed with the true light of the imperiall rule and gouernement: for be|side the fame of your clemencie and pitie, which was set forth by the report of all na|tions, in your countenance (Cesar) they perceiued the tokens of all vertues, in your face grauitie, in your eies mildnesse, in your ruddie cheekes bashfulnesse, in your words iustice: all which things as by re|gard they acknowledged, so with voices of gladnesse they signified on high. To you they bound themselues by vow, to you they bound their children: yea and to your chil|dren they vowed all the posteritie of their race and ofspring.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 We trulie (O perpetuall parents andDioclesian and Maximi|an. lords of mankind) require this of the im|mortall gods with most earnest supplica|tion and heartie praier, that our children and their children, and such other as shall come of them for euer hereafter, may be dedicated vnto you, and to those whom you now bring vp, or shall bring vp hereafter. For what better hap can we wish to them that shall succeed vs, than to be enioiers of that felicitie which now we our selues en|ioy? The Romane common wealth dooth now comprehend in one coniunction of peace, all whatsoeuer at sundrie times haue belonged to the Romans, and that huge power which with too great a bur|den was shroonke downe, and riuen in sun|der, is now brought to ioine againe in the assured ioints of the imperiall gouern|ment. For there is no part of the earth nor region vnder heauen, but that either it re|maineth quiet through feare, or subdued by force of armies, or at the lestwise bound by clemencie. And is there anie other thing else on other parts, which if will and reason should mooue men thereto, that might be obteined? Beyond the Ocean, what is there more than Britaine, which is so recouered by you, that those nations which are nere adioinign to the bounds of that Ile,Nations néere to Bri|taine obeie the emperours. are obedient to your commande|ments? There is no occasion that may mooue you to passe further, except the ends of the Ocean sea, which nature forbiddeth should be sought for. All is yours (most in|uincible princes) which are accounted woorthie of you, and thereof commeth it, that you may equallie prouide for euerie one, sith you haue the whole in our ma|iesties hands. And therefore as heretofore (most excellent emperour Dioclesian) by your commandement Asia did supplie the desert places of Thracia with inhabi|tants transported thither, as afterward EEBO page image 61 (most excellent emperour Maximian) by your appointment, the Frankeners at length brought to a pleasant subiection, and admitted to liue vnder lawes, hath peopled and manured the vacant fields of the Neruians,The printed booke hath [...], but I take the H, to be thrust in for N. and those about the citie of Trier. And so now by your victories (in|uincible Constantius Cesar) whatsoeuer did lie vacant about Amiens, Beauois. Trois, and Langres, beginneth to florish with inhabitants of sundrie nations: yea and more ouer that your most obedient ci|tie of Autun, for whose sake I haue a pecu|liar cause to reioise, by meanes of this tri|umphant victorie in Britaine, it hath re|ceiued manie & diuerse artificers, of whom those prouinces were ful, and now by their workemanship the same citie riseth vp by repairing of ancient houses,Artificers foorth of Bri|taine. and restoring of publike buildings and temples, so that now it accounteth that the old name of brotherlie incorporation to Rome, is a|gaine to hir restored, when she hath you eftsoones for hir founder. I haue said (in|uincible emperour) almost more than I haue beene able, & not so much as I ought, that I may haue most iust cause by your clemencies licence, both now to end, & of|ten hereafter to speake: and thus I ceasse.

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