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4.25. What is to be obserued and noted out of the panegyrike oration of Mamerti|nus afore remembred, with necessa|rie collections out of other Antiquaries. The xxv. Chapter.

What is to be obserued and noted out of the panegyrike oration of Mamerti|nus afore remembred, with necessa|rie collections out of other Antiquaries. The xxv. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _NOw let vs consider what is to be noted out of this part of the foresaid oration. It should seeme that when the emperour Maximian was sent into Gallia by appoint|ment taken betwixt him and Dioclesian, after he had qui|eted things there, he set his mind foorthwith to reduce Britaine vnder the obe|dience of the empire, which was at that present kept vnder subiectionof such princes as mainteined their state, by the mightie forces of such number of ships as they had got togither, furnished with all things necessarie, & namelie of able seamen, as well Britains as strangers, among whome the Fran|keners were chiefe,Franci, or Frankeners, people of Ger|manie. a nation of Germanie, as then highly renowmed for their puissance by sea, néere to the which they inhabited, so that there were no ro|uers comparable to them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But because none durst stirre on these our seas for feare of the British fléet that passed to and fro at pleasure, to the great annoiance of the Romane sub|iects inhabiting alongst the coasts of Gallia, Maxi|mian both to recouer againe so wealthie and profi|table a land vnto the obeisance of the empire, as Britaine then was, and also to deliuer the people of Gallia subiect to the Romans, from danger of be|ing dailie spoiled by those rouers that were main|teined here in Britaine, he prouided with all dili|gence such numbers of ships as were thought re|quisite for so great an enterprise, and rigging them in sundrie places, tooke order for thier setting for|ward to his most aduantage for the easie atchiuing of his enterprise. He appointed to passe himselfe from the coasts of Flanders, at what time other of capteines with their fleets from other parts should likewise make saile towards Britaine. By this meanes Alectus that had vsurped the title & digni|tie of king or rather emperour ouer the Britains, knew not where to take héed, but yet vnderstanding of the nauie that was made readie in the mouth of Saine, he ment by that which maie be coniectured, to intercept that fléet, as it should come foorth and make saile forwards: and so for that purpose he laie with a great number of ships about the Ile of Wight.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But whether Asclepiodotus came ouer with that nauie which was rigged on the coasts of Flanders, or with some other, I will not presume to affirme either to or for, because in déed Mamertinus ma|keth no expresse mention either of Alectus or As|clepiodotus: but notwithstanding it is euident by that which is conteined in his oration, that not Maxi|mian, but some other of his capteins gouerned the armie, which slue Alectus, so that we maie suppose that Asclepiodotus was chiefteine ouer some num|ber of ships directed by Maximians appointment to passe ouer into this Ile against the same Alectus: and so maie this, which Mamertinus writeth, agrée with the truth of that which we doo find in Eutro|pius. Eutropius.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Héere is to be remembred, that after Maximi|ans had thus recouered Britaine out of their hands that vsurped the rule thereof from the Romans, it should séeme that not onelie great numbers of arti|ficers & other people were conueied ouer into Gal|lia, there to inhabit and furnish such cities as were run into decaie, but also a power of warlike youths was transported thither to defend the countrie from the inuasion of barbarous nations. For we find that in the daies of this Maximian, the Britains expel|ling the Neruians out of the citie of Mons in He|naud, held a castell there, which was called Bretai|mons after them, wherevpon the citie was after|ward called Mons, reteining the last syllable onlie, as in such cases it hath often happened.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer this is not to be forgotten, that as Humfrey Lhoyd hath very well noted in his booke intituled Fragmenta historiae Britannicae, Mamertinus in this parcell of his panegyrike oration dooth make first mention of the nation of Picts, of all other the ancient Romane writers: so that not one before his time once nameth Picts or Scots. But now to re|turne where we left.

4.26. The state of this Iland vnder bloudie Dioclesian the persecuting tyrant, of Al|ban the first that suffered martyrdome in Bri|taine, what miracles were wrought at his death, whereof Lichfield tooke the name; of Coilus earle of Colchester, whose daughter Helen was maried to Constantius the emperour, as some authours suppose. The xxvj. Chapter.

The state of this Iland vnder bloudie Dioclesian the persecuting tyrant, of Al|ban the first that suffered martyrdome in Bri|taine, what miracles were wrought at his death, whereof Lichfield tooke the name; of Coilus earle of Colchester, whose daughter Helen was maried to Constantius the emperour, as some authours suppose. The xxvj. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 _AFter that Britaine was thus recouered by the Ro|mans, Dioclesian and Maxi|mian ruling the empire, the Iland tasted of the crueltie that Dioclesian exercised a|gainst the christians, in prese|cuting them with all extre|mities, continuallie for the space of ten yéeres. A|mongst EEBO page image 62 other, one Alban a citizen of Werlamche|ster, a towne now bearing his name, was the first that suffered here in Britaine in this persecution, be|ing conuerted to the faith by the zealous christian Amphibalus,Beda and Gyldas. whom he receiued into his house: in|somuch that when there came sergeants to séeke for the same Amphibalus, the foresaid Alban to preserue Amphibalus out of danger, presented himselfe in the apparell of the said Amphibalus, & so being apprehen|ded in his stead, was brought before the iudge and examined: and for that he refused to doo sacrifice to the false gods, he was beheaded on the top of an hill ouer against the towne of Werlamchester aforesaid where afterwards was builded a church and mona|sterie in remembrance of his martyrdome, inso|much that the towne there restored, after that Wer|lamchester was destroied, tooke name of him, and so is vnto this day called saint Albons.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 It is reported by writers, that diuers miracles were wrought at the time of his death, insomuch that one which was appointed to doo the execution, was conuerted, and refusing to doo that office, suffe|red also with him: but he that tooke vpon him to doo it, Beda. Sée the booke of acts and monuments set forth by master Fox. reioised nothing thereat, for his eies fell out of his head downe to the ground, togither with the head of that holie man which he had then cut off. There were also martyred about the same time two constant witnesses of Christ his religion, Aaron and Iulius, citizens of Caerleon Arwiske. Iohn Rossus. Warwicens. in lib. de Wi|gorniens. epis. Lichfield whereof it tooke name. Moreouer, a great number of Christians which were assembled togither to heare the word of life, preached by that vertuous man Amphibalus, were slaine by the wicked pagans at Lichfield, whereof that towne tooke name, as you would say, The field of dead corpses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To be briefe, this persecution was so great and greeuous, and thereto so vniuersall, that in maner the Christian religion was thereby destroied.Gyldas. The faith|full people were slaine, their bookes burnt, and chur|ches ouerthrowne.Ran. Cestren. Matth. West. Constantius. It is recorded that in one mo|neths space in diuers places of the world there were 17000 godlie men and women put to death, for pro|fessing the christian faith in the daies of that tyrant Dioclesian and his fellow Maximian.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 COelus earle of Colchester began his dominion ouer the Britains in the yeere of our Lord 262. This Coelus or Coell ruled the land for a certeine time,Coelus. so as the Britains were well content with his gouernement,262 Fabian. and liued the longer in rest from in|uasion of the Romans, bicause they were occupied in other places: but finallie they finding time for their purpose, appointed one Constantius to passe o|uer into this Ile with an armie, the which Constan|tius put Coelus in such dread, that immediatlie vp|on his arriuall Coelus sent to him an ambassage, and concluded a peace with him, couenanting to pay the accustomed tribute, & gaue to Constantius his daughter in mariage called Helen, a noble ladie and a learned. Shortlie after king Coell died,Gal. Mon. Fabian. Caxtoa. when he had reigned (as some write) 27 yéeres, or (as other haue) but 13 yeeres.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶But by the way touching this Coelus, I will not denie, but assuredly such a prince there was: howbeit that he had a daughter named Helen, whom he ma|ried vnto Constantius the Romane lieutenant that was after emperor, I leaue that to be decided of the learned. For if the whole course of the liues, as well of the father and the sonne Constantius and Con|stantine, as likewise of the mother Helen, be consi|deratelie marked from time to time, and yeere to yéere, as out of authors both Greeke and Latin the same may be gathered, I feare least such doubt maie rise in this matter, that it will be harder to prooue Helen a Britaine, than Constantine to be borne in Bithynia (as Nicephorus auoucheth.)Lib. 7. cap. 18. But forsomuch as I meane not to step from the course of our coun|trie writers in such points, where the receiued opi|nion may séeme to warrant the credit of the historie, I will with other admit both the mother and sonne to be Britains in the whole discourse of the historie following, as though I had forgot what in this place I haue said.

4.27. A further discourse of the forenamed Constantius and Helen, hs regiment ouer this Iland, his behauiour and talke to his sonne and councellors as he lay on his death-bed, a de|uise that he put in practise to vnderstand what true Christians he had in his court, his commen|dable vertues, that the Britains in his time imbraced the christian faith is prooued. The xxvij. Chapter.

A further discourse of the forenamed Constantius and Helen, hs regiment ouer this Iland, his behauiour and talke to his sonne and councellors as he lay on his death-bed, a de|uise that he put in practise to vnderstand what true Christians he had in his court, his commen|dable vertues, that the Britains in his time imbraced the christian faith is prooued. The xxvij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _COnstantius a senatour of Rome began to reigne ouer the Britains,Constan|tius. in the yeere of our Lord 289, as our histo|ries report.Matth. West. saith 302. 289 This Constan|tius (as before ye haue heard) had to wife Helen the daugh|ter of the foresaid king Coel, of whome he begat a sonne named Constantinus, which after was emperour, and for his woorthie doo|ings surnamed Constantine the great. S. Ambrose following the common report,Orofius. Beda. writeth that this He|len was a maid in an inne: and some againe write, that she was concubine to Constantius, and not his wife. But whatsoeuer she was, it appeareth by the writers of the Romane histories, that Constan|tius being the daughters sonne of one Crispus, that was brother to the emperour Claudius,Cuspin [...]an. came into Britaine, and quieted the troubles that were raised by the Britains,Fabian. and there (as some write) maried the foresaid Helen, being a woman of an excellent beautie, whom yet [after] he was constreined to for|sake, and to marrie The odora the daughter in law of Herculeus Maximianus, by whome he had six sonnes, and finallie was created emperour, togither with the said Galerius Maximianus, at what time Dioclesianus and his fellow Herculeus Maximia|nus renounced the rule of the empire, and commit|ted the same vnto them. The empire was then di|uided betwixt them, so that to Constantius the regi|ons of Italie, Affrike, France, Spaine and Bri|taine were assigned; & to Galerius, Illyricum, Gre|cia, and all the east parts. But Constantine being a man void of ambition, was contented to leaue Ita|lie and Affrike, supposing his charge to be great i|nough to haue the gouernement in his hands of France, Spaine, and Britaine (as Eutropius saith.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But as touching his reigne ouer the Britains, we haue not to say further than as we find in our owne writers recorded: as for his gouernement in the empire, it is to be considered, that first he was ad|mitted to rule as an assistant to Maximian vnder the title of Cesar: and so from that time if you shall account his reigne, it maie comprehend 11, 12, or 13 yeeres, yea more or lesse, according to the diuersitie found in writers. Howbeit, if we shall reckon his reigne from the time onelie that Dioclesian and Maximian resigned their title vnto the empire, we shall find that he reigned not fullie thrée yéeres. For whereas betwéene the slaughter of Alectus, and the comming of Constantius, are accounted 8 yéeres and od moneths, not onelie those eight yéeres, but al|so some space of time before maie be ascribed vnto EEBO page image 63 Constantius: for although before his comming ouer into Britaine now this last time (for he had béene here afore, as it well appéereth) Asclepiodotus gouer|ning as legat, albeit vnder Constantius, who had a great portion of the west parts of the empire vn|der his regiment, by the title, as I haue said, of Ce|sar, yet he was not said to reigne absolutelie, till Dioclesian and Maximian resigned. But now to conclude with the dooings of Constantius, at length he fell sicke at Yorke, and there died, about the yeere of our Lord 306.306.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This is not to be forgotten, that whilest he laie on his death-bed, somewhat before he departed this life, hearing that his sonne Constantine was come, and escaped from the emperours Dioclesian and Maxi|mian, with whom he remained as a pledge (as af|ter shall be partlie touched) he receiued him with all ioy, and raising himselfe vp in his bed, in presence of his other sonnes & counsellours, with a great num|ber of other people and strangers that were come to visit him, he set the crowne vpon his sonnes head, and adorned him with other imperiall robes and garments,Niceph. executing as it were him selfe the office of an herald, and withall spake these woords vnto his said sonne, and to his counsellours there about him: Now is my death to me more welcome, and my de|parture hence more pleasant;Tripartit. histo.

I haue heere a large e|pitaph and monument of buriall, to wit, mine owne sonne, and one whome in earth I leaue to be empe|rour in my place, which by Gods good helpe shall wipe away the teares of the Christians, and reuenge the crueltie exercised by tyrants. This I reckon to chance vnto me in stéed of most felicitie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After this, turning himselfe to the multitude, he commanded them all to be of good comfort, meaning those that had not forsaken true vertue and godli|nesse in Christ, which Christ he vndertooke should con|tinue with his sonne Constantine in all enterprises, which in warres or otherwise he should take in hand. That deuise also is woorthie to be had in memorie, which he put in practise in his life time, to vnderstand what true and sincere Christians were remaining in his court. For whereas he had béene first a persecu|ter, and after was conuerted, it was a matter easie to persuade the world, that he was no earnest Chri|stian: and so the policie which he thought to worke, was the sooner brought to passe, which was this.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 He called togither all his officers and seruants, feining himselfe to choose out such as would doo sa|crifice to diuels, and that those onelie should remaine with him and kéepe their office, and the rest that re|fused so to doo, should be thrust out, and banished the court. Héervpon all the courtiers diuided themselues into companies: and when some offered willinglie to doo sacrifice, and other some boldlie refused: the emperour marking their dealings, sharpelie rebu|ked those which were so readie to dishonour the li|uing God, accounting them as traitours of his di|uine maiestie, and not woorthie to remaine within the court gates: but those that constantlie stood in the profession of the christian faith, he greatlie com|mended, as men woorthie to be about a prince: and withall declared, that from thencefoorth they should be as chiefe counsellours and defenders both of his person and kingdome, estéeming more of them than of all the treasure he had in his coffers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To conclude, he was a graue prince, sober, vp|right, courteous and liberall, as he which kept his mind euer frée from couetous desire of great riches: insomuch that when he should make anie great feast to his friends, he was not ashamed to borow plate and siluer vessell to serue his turne,Pomponius Laetus. and to furnish his cupbord for the time, being contented for himselfe to be serued in cruses & earthen vessels. He was woont to haue this saieng in his mouth, that better it was that the subiects should haue store of monie and ri|ches, than the prince to kéepe if close in his treasurie, where it serued to no vse. By such courteous dealing the prouinces which were in his charge flourished in great wealth and quietnesse. He was a verie wise and politike prince in the ordering of all weightie matters, and verie skillfull in the practise of warres,He died in the yéere 306. as Matt. West. hath noted, and reigned ouer the Bri|tains but 11. yéeres as Galf. saith. so that he stood the Romane empire in great stéed, and was therefore highlie beloued of the souldiers, insomuch that immediatlie after his deceasse, they proclaimed his some Constantine emperour.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 That The christian faith was imbraced of the Bri|tains in this season, it maie appéere, in that Hilarius bishop of Poictiers writeth to his brethren in Bri|taine, and Constantine in an epistle (as Theodore|tus saith in his first booke and tenth chapter) maketh mtention of the churches in Britaine: which also So|zomenus dooth affirme. For the Britains after they had receiued the faith, defended the same euen with the shedding of their bloud, as Amphibalus, who in this Constantius daies being apprehended, suffered at Redburne neere to Werlamchester,291. Iohn Bale. about 15 yéeres after the martyrdome of his host S. Albane.

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