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1.16. Of such ports and creeks as our sea|faring-men doo note for their benefit vpon the coasts of England. Chap. 17.

EEBO page image 108

Of such ports and creeks as our sea|faring-men doo note for their benefit vpon the coasts of England. Chap. 17.

_IT maie be that I haue in these former chapters omit|ted sundrie hauens to be found vpon the shore of England, and some of them serued with backe waters, through want of sound and sufficient infor|mation from such as haue written vnto me of the same. In recompense where|of I haue thought good to adde this chapter of ports and creekes, whereby (so farre as to me is possible) I shall make satisfaction of mine ouersights. And albe|it I cannot (being too too much abused by some that haue béerest me of my notes in this behalfe) bring my purpose to passe for all the whole coast of Eng|land round about, from Berwike to the Solue: yet I will not let to set downe so much as by good hap remaineth, whereby my countriemen shall not alto|gither want that benefit, hoping in time to recouer also the rest, if God grant life and good successe thereto.

In Northumberland therefore we haue Berwike,Northum|berland. Holie Iland, Bamborow, Bedwell, Donstanborow, Cocket Iland, Warkeworth, Newbiggin, Almow, Blithes nuke, and Tinmouth hauen.

In the bishoprijc,Durham. Sonderland, Stocketon, Har|tlepoole, These.

In Yorkeshire,Yorkeshire. Dapnam sands, Steningreene, Staies, Runswike, Robinhoods baie, Whitbie, Scar|borow, Fileie, Flamborow, Bricklington, Horne|seie becke, Sister kirke, Kelseie, Cliffe, Pattenton, Holmes, Kenningham, Pall, Hidon, Hulbrige, Be|uerleie, Hull, Hasell, Northferebie, Bucke creeke, Blacke cost, Wrethell, Howden.

In Lincolneshire,Lincolne|shire. Selbie, Snepe, Turnebrige, Rodiffe, Catebie, Stockwith, Torkeseie, Gainsbo|row, Southferebie, Barton a good point, Barrow a good hauen, Skatermill a good port, Penningham, Stalingborow a good hauen, Guimsbie a good port, Clie, March chappell, Saltfléete, Wilgripe, Maple|ford, saint Clements, Wenfléete, Friscon, Toft, Skerbike, Boston, Frompton, Woluerton, Fosse|dike a good hauen.

In Northfolke,Northfolke. Linne a good hauen, Snatch|ham, Hitchham, Desingham good, Thunstone, Thorneham good, Brankester good, Burnham good, with diuers townes and villages thereto belonging, Welles good, Strikeie, Marston, Blakeleie towne, Withon Claie, Blakelie hauen good, Salthouse créeke, Sheringham hith, Roughton, Cromer, Beston, Trinningham, Mounsleie, Bromwall, Haseborow, Wakesham, Eckelles, Winterton, Custer, Helmesleie, Okell, Upton, Waibridge, Yarmouth, good all the waie to Norwich, with di|uerse villages on the riuer side.

In Suffolke,Suffolke. Becles, Bongeie, Southton, Cor|ton, Gorton, Laistow a good port, Kirtill, Pakefield, Kasseldon, Bliborow, Coffe hith, Eston, Walders|wijc, Donewich, Swold hauen, Sisewell, Thorpe, Al|borow, Orford a good hauen, Balseie good, Felixstow, Colneie, Sproten, Ypswich, Downambridge good, Pinnemill, Shoteleie, Cataweie, Barfold.

In Esse [...] we haue Dedham,Essex. Maning trée, Thorne, Wrabbesnes, Ramseie, Harwich, Douercourt, Handford, Okeleie, Kirbie, Thorpe, Brichwill, Wal|ton mill, Walton hall, Ganfléete, Newhauen good, S. Osithes, Bentleie good, Bricleseie, Thorlington (where good ships of a hundred tun or more be made) Alsford, Wiuenhall, Colchester, Cold hith, Rough hedge, Fingering ho, east Merseie, west Merseie, Salcot, Goldanger, Borow, Maldon, Stanesgate, Sudmester, S. Peters, Burnham, Crixseie, Aldon, Clements gréene, Hulbridge, Pacleston, Barling, litle Wakering, much Wakering, south Sudburie, Wakeringham, Melton, Papper hill, or Lee, Bea [...]|fléete, Pidseie range, Fobbing, Hadleie good, Muck|ing, Stanford, and Tilberi [...] ferrie.

In Kent,Kent. Harling, Cliffe, Tanfleete, Stokehow, Snodlond, Melhall, Maidston, Ailessord, New hith, Rochester, Gelingham, Reinham, Upchurch, Hal|sted, Quinborow, Milton, Feuersham, Whit [...]aple, Herne, Margate, Brodestaier, Ramsgate; and ma|nie of these good créekes: also Sandwich, Douer, Hide, reasonable ports, although none of the best.

In Sussex we haue Smalade with the créekes adioining to the same,Sussex. Ridon, Appledoure, Rie a good hauen, and Winchelseie nothing at all inferiour to the same, and so manie shires onelie are left vnto me at this time, wherefore of force I must abruptlie leaue off to deale anie further with the rest, whose knowledge I am right sure would haue beene proff|table: and for the which I hoped to haue reaped great thankes at the hands of such sea-faring-men, as should haue had vse hereof.

Desunt caetera.

1.17. Of the aire, soile, and commodities of this Iland. Cap. 18.

Of the aire, soile, and commodities of this Iland. Cap. 18.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe aire (for the most part) throughout the Iland is such,The aire of Britaine. as by reason in maner of con|tinuall clouds, is reputed to be grosse, and nothing so plea|sant as that is of the maine. Howbeit, as they which af|firme these things, haue one|lie respect to the impediment or hinderance of the sunne beames, by the interposition of the clouds and oft ingrossed aire: so experience teacheth vs, that it is no lesse pure, wholesome, and commodious, than is that of other countries, and (as Caesar himselfe here|to addeth) much more temperate in summer than that of the Galles, from whom he aduentured hither. Neither is there anie thing found in the aire of our region, that is not vsuallie seene amongst other na|tions lieng beyond the seas. Wherefore, we must néeds confesse, that the situation of our Iland (for be|nefit of the heauens) is nothing inferiour to that of anie countrie of the maine, where so euer it lie vnder the open firmament. And this Plutarch knew full well, who affirmeth a part of the Elistan fields to be found in Britaine, and the Iles that are situate a|bout it in the Ocean.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The soile of Britaine is such,The soile. as by the testimonies and reports both of the old and new writers, and ex|perience also of such as now inhabit the same, is ve|rie fruitfull; and such in deed as bringeth foorth manie commodities, whereof other countries haue néed, and yet it selfe (if fond nicenesse were abolished) néed|lesse of those that are dailie brought from other pla|ces. Neuerthelesse it is more inclined to féeding and grasing, than profitable for tillage, and bearing of corne; by reason whereof the countrie is woonderful|lie replenished with neat, and all kind of cattell: and such store is there also of the same in euerie place, that the fourth part of the land is scarselie manured for the prouision and maintenance of graine. Certes EEBO page image 109 this fruitfulnesse was not vnknowne vnto the Bri|tons long before Caesars time, which was the cause wherefore our predecessors liuing in those daies in maner neglected tillage, and liued by féeding and gra|sing onelie. The grasiers themselues also then dwel|led in mooueable villages by companies, whose cu|stome was to diuide the ground amongst them, and each one not to depart from the place where his lot laie (a thing much like to the Irish Criacht) till by ea|ting vp of the countrie about him,Criacht. he was inforced to remooue further, and séeke for better pasture. And this was the British custome (as I learne) at first. It hath béene commonlie reported, that the ground of Wales is neither so fruitfull as that of England, neither the soile of Scotland so bountifull as that of Wales: which is true, for corne and for the most part: otherwise, there is so good ground in some parts of Wales, as is in England, albeit the best of Scotland be scarselie comparable to the meane of either of both. Howbeit, as the bountie of the Scotish dooth faile in some respect, so dooth it surmount in other; God and nature hauing not appointed all countries to yéeld foorth like commodities.

But where our ground is not so good as we would wish, we haue (if néed be) sufficient helpe to cherish our ground withall, and to make it more fruitfull, For beside the compest that is carried out of the hus|bandmens yards, ditches, ponds, doouehouses, or ci|ties and great townes: we haue with vs a kind of white marle, which is of so great force, that if it be cast ouer a péece of land but once in thrée score years, it shall not need of anie further compesting. Hereof also dooth Plinie speake,Marle. lib. 17. cap. 6, 7, 8, where he affirmeth that our marle indureth vpon the earth by the space of fourescore yeares: insomuch that it is laid vpon the same but once in a mans life, whereby the owner shall not need to trauell twise in procuring to commend and better his soile. He calleth it Mar|ga, and making diuerse kinds thereof, he finallie commendeth ours, and that of France, aboue all o|ther, which lieth sometime a hundred foot déepe, and farre better than the scattering of chalke vpon the same, as the Hedui and Pictones did in his time, or as some of our daies also doo practise: albeit diuerse doo like better to cast on lime, but it will not so long indure, as I haue heard reported.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There are also in this Iland great plentie of fresh riuers and streames,Plentie of riuers. as you haue heard alreadie, and these throughlie fraught with all kinds of delicate fish accustomed to be found in riuers. The whole Ile likewise is verie full of hilles,Hilles. of which some (though not verie manie) are of exceeding heigth, and diuerse extending themselues verie far from the beginning; as we may see by Shooters hill, which rising east of London, and not farre from the Thames, runneth a|long the south side of the Iland westward, vntill it come to Cornewall. Like vnto these also are the Crowdon hils, which though vnder diuers names (as also the other from the Peke) doo run into the borders of Scotland. What should I speake of the Cheniot hilles, which reach twentie miles in length? of the blacke mounteines in Wales, which go fromHere lacks toHere lacks miles at the least in length? of the Cle hilles in Shropshire, which come within foure miles of Lud|low, and are diuided from some part of Worcester by the Teme? of the Grames in Scotland, and of our Chiltren, which are eightéene miles at the least from one end of them, which reach from Henlie in Oxford|shire to Dunstable in Bedfordshire, and are verie well replenished with wood and corne? notwithstan|ding that the most part yéeld a sweet short grasse, profitable for shéepe. Wherein albeit they of Scot|land doo somewhat come behind vs, yet their out|ward defect is inwardlie recompensed, not onelie with plentie of quarries (and those of sundrie kinds of marble, hard stone, and fine alabaster) but also rich mines of mettall, as shall be shewed hereafter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this Iland likewise the winds are commonlie more strong and fierce,Winds. than in anie other places of the maine, which Cardane also espied: and that is of|ten séene vpon the naked hilles, not garded with trées to beare and kéepe it off. That grieuous incon|uenience also inforceth our nobilitie,Building. gentrie, and communaltle, to build their houses in the vallies, lea|uing the high grounds vnto their corne and cattell, least the cold and stormie blasts of winter should bréed them greater annoiance: whereas in other re|gions each one desireth to set his house aloft on the hill, not onlie to be seene a farre off, and cast forth his beames of statelie and curious workemanship into euerie quarter of the countrie; but also (in hot ha|bitations) for coldnesse sake of the aire, sith the heat is neuer so vehement on the hill top as in the vallie, because the reuerberation of the sunne beames ei|ther reacheth not so farre as the highest, or else be|commeth not so strong as when it is reflected vpon the lower soile.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to leaue our buildings vnto the purposed place (which notwithstanding haue verie much in|creased,Husbandrie amended. I meane for curiositie and cost, in England, Wales, and Scotland, within these few yeares) and to returne to the soile againe. Certeinelie it is euen now in these our daies growne to be much more fruitfull, than it hath béene in times past. The cause is for that our countriemen are growne to be more painefull, skilfull, and carefull through recompense of gaine, than heretofore they haue béene: insomuch that my Synchroni or time fellows can reape at this present great commoditie in a little roome; whereas of late yeares, a great compasse hath yéelded but small profit, and this onelie through the idle and ne|gligent occupation of such, as dailie manured and had the same in occupieng. I might set downe exam|ples of these things out of all the parts of this Iland, that is to saie, manie of England, more out of Scot|land, but most of all out of Wales: in which two last rehearsed, verie little other food and liuelihood was woont to be looked for (beside flesh) more than the soile of it selfe, and the cow gaue; the people in the meane time liuing idelie, dissolutelie, and by picking and stealing one from another. All which vices are now (for the most part) relinquished, so that each nation manureth hir owne with triple commoditie, to that it was before time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The pasture of this Iland is according to the na|ture and bountie of the soile,Pasture. whereby in most places it is plentifull, verie fine, batable, and such as either fatteth our cattell with speed, or yéeldeth great abun|dance of milke and creame: whereof the yellowest butter and finest chéese are made. But where the blue claie aboundeth (which hardlie drinketh vp the winters water in long season) there the grasse is spearie, rough, and verie apt for bushes: by which oc|casion it commeth nothing so profitable vnto the owner as the other. The best pasture ground of all England is in Wales, & of all the pasture in Wales that of Cardigan is the cheefe. I speake of the same which is to be found in the mounteines there, where the hundred part of the grasse growing is not eaten, but suffered to rot on the ground, whereby the soile becommeth matted, and diuerse bogges and quicke moores made withall in long continuance: because all the cattell in the countrie are not able to eat it downe. If it be to be accompted good soile, on which a man may laie a wand ouer night, and on the mor|row find it hidden and ouergrowen with grasse: it is not hard to find plentie thereof in manie places of this land. Neuertheles, such is the fruitfulnes of the EEBO page image 110 aforsaid countie that it farre surmounteth this pro|portion, whereby it may be compared for batable|nesse with Italie, which in my time is called the paradise of the world, although by reason of the wickednesse of such as dwell therein it may be cal|led the sinke and draine of hell: so that whereas they were woont to saie of vs that our land is good but our people euill, they did but onlie speake it; whereas we know by experience that the soile of Italie is a no|ble soile, but the dwellers therein farre off from anie vertue or goodnesse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Our medowes,Medowes. are either bottomes (whereof we haue great store, and those verie large, bicause our soile is hillie) or else such as we call land meads, and borowed from the best & fattest pasturages. The first of them are yearelie & often ouerflowen by the rising of such streames as passe through the same, or vio|lent falles of land-waters, that descend from the hils about them. The other are seldome or neuer ouer|flowen, and that is the cause wherefore their grasse is shorter than that of the bottomes, and yet is it farre more fine, wholesome, and batable, sith the haie of our low medowes is not onelie full of sandie cinder, which breedeth sundrie diseases in our cattell, but also more rowtie, foggie, and full of flags, and therefore not so profitable for stouer and forrage as the higher meads be. The difference furthermore in their commodities is great, for whereas in our land mea|dowes we haue not often aboue one good load of haie, or peraduenture a little more in an acre of ground (I vse the word Carrucata or Carruca which is a waine load, and, as I remember, vsed by Plinie lib. 33. cap. 11.) in low meadowes we haue some|times thrée, but commonlie two or vpward, as expe|rience hath oft confirmed.

Of such as are twise mowed I speake not, sith their later math is not so wholsome for cattell as the first; although in the mouth more pleasant for the time: for thereby they become oftentimes to be rot|ten, or to increase so fast in bloud, that the garget and other diseases doo consume manie of them before the owners can séeke out any remedie, by Phlebotomie or otherwise. Some superstitious fooles suppose that they which die of the garget are ridden with the night mare, and therefore they hang vp stones which na|turallie haue holes in them, and must be found vn|looked for; as if such a stone were an apt cockeshot for the diuell to run through and solace himselfe with|all, whilest the cattell go scotfree and are not molested by him. But if I should set downe but halfe the toies that superstition hath brought into our husband|mens heads in this and other behalfes, it would aske a greater volume than is conuenient for such a pur|pose, wherefore it shall suffice to haue said thus much of these things.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The yéeld of our corne-ground is also much after this rate folowing.Corne. Through out the land (if you please to make an estimat thereof by the acre) in meane and indifferent yeares, wherein each acre of rie or wheat, well tilled and dressed, will yeeld commonlie sixtéene or twentie bushels, an acre of barlie six and thirtie bushels, of otes and such like foure or fiue quarters, which proportion is notwithstanding oft abated toward the north, as it is oftentimes sur|mounted in the south. Of mixed corne, as peason and beanes, sowen togither, tares and otes (which they call bulmong) rie and wheat named miscelin here is no place to speake, yet their yéeld is neuerthe|lesse much after this proportion, as I haue often marked. And yet is not this our great foison com|parable to that of hoter countries of the maine. But of all that euer I read, the increase which Eldred Da|nus writeth of in his De imperio Iudaeorum in Aethio|pia surmounteth, where he saith that in the field néere to the Sabbatike riuer, called in old time Gosan, the ground is so fertile, that euerie graine of barleie growing dooth yéeld an hundred kernels at the least vnto the owner.

Of late yeares also we haue found and taken vp a great trade in planting of hops, whereof our moorie hitherto and vnprofitable grounds doo yeeld such plentie & increase, that their are few farmers or oc|cupiers in the countrie, which haue not gardens and hops growing of their owne, and those farre better than doo come from Flanders vnto vs. Certes the corruptions vsed by the Flemings, and forgerie dai|lie practised in this kind of ware, gaue vs occasion to plant them here at home: so that now we may spare and send manie ouer vnto them. And this I know by experience, that some one man by conuersion of his moorie grounds into hopyards, wherof before he had no commoditie, dooth raise yearelie by so little as twelue acres in compasse two hundred markes; all charges borne toward the maintenance of his fami|lie. Which industrie God continue! though some se|cret fréends of Flemings let not to exclaime a|gainst this commoditie, as a spoile of wood, by reason of the poles, which neuerthelesse after three yeares doo also come to the fire, and spare their other fewell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The cattell which we breed are commonlie such,Cattell. as for greatnesse of bone, swéetnesse of flesh, and other benefits to be reaped by the same, giue place vnto none other: as may appeare first by our oxen, whose largenesse, height, weight, tallow, hides, and hornes are such, as none of anie other nation doo common|lie or may easilie excéed them. Our shéepe likewise for good tast of flesh, quantitie of lims, finesse of fléece caused by their hardnesse of pasturage, and a|bundance of increase (for in manie places they bring foorth two or thrée at an eaning) giue no place vnto a|nie, more than doo our goates, who in like sort doo fol|low the same order, and our déere come not behind. As for our conies, I haue séene them so fat in some soiles, especiallie about Meall and Disnege,Meall and Disnege. that the grease of one being weighed, hath peised verie néere six or seuen ounces. All which benefits we first refer to the grace and goodnesse of God, and next of all vn|to the bountie of our soile, which he hath indued with so notable and commodious fruitfulnesse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But as I meane to intreat of these things more largelie hereafter, so will I touch in this place one benefit which our nation wanteth,Wine. and that is wine; the fault whereof is not in our soile, but the negli|gence of our countriemen (especiallie of the south partes) who doo not inure the same to this commodi|tie, and which by reason of long discontinuance, is now become vnapt to beare anie grapes almost for pleasure & shadow, much lesse then the plaine fields or seuerall vineyards for aduantage and commodi|tie. Yet of late time some haue assaied to deale for wine, as to your lordship also is right well knowen. But sith that liquor when it commeth to the drinking hath bin found more hard, than that which is brought from beyond the sea, and the cost of planting and kee|ping thereof so chargeable, that they may buie it far better cheape from other countries: they haue gi|uen ouer their enterprises without anie considerati|on, that as in all other things, so neither the ground it selfe in the beginning, nor successe of their trauell can answer their expectation at the first, vntill such time as the soile be brought as it were into acquain|tance with this commoditie, and that prouision may be made for the more easinesse of charge, to be im|ploied vpon the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If it be true, that where wine dooth last and indure well, there it will grow no worse: I muse not a little wherefore the planting of vines should be neglected in England. That this liquor might haue growne in EEBO page image 111 this Iland heretofore, first the charter that Probus the emperour gaue equallie to vs, the Galles, and Spaniards, is one sufficient testimonie. And that it did grow here, beside the testimonie of Beda lib. 1. cap. 1. the old notes of tithes for wine that yet re|maine in the accompts of some parsons and vicars in Kent, & elsewhere, besides the records of sundrie sutes, commensed in diuerse ecclesiasticall courts, both in Kent, Surrie, &c: also the inclosed parcels al|most in euerie abbeie yet called the vineyardes, may be a notable witnesse, as also the plot which we now call east Smithfield in London giuen by Canutus sometime king of this land, with other soile there a|bout vnto certeine of his knights, with the libertie of a Guild which therof was called Knighten Guild. The truth is (saith Iohn Stow our countrie man, and diligent traueller in the old estate of this my natiue citie) that it is now named Port soken ward, and gi|uen in time past to the religious house within Al|gate. Howbeit first Otwell, the Archouell, Otto, & fi|nallie Geffrie erle of Essex constables of the Tower of London, withheld that portion frõ the said house, vntill the reigne of king Stephan, and thereof made a vineyard to their great commoditie and lucre. The Ile of Elie also was in the first times of the Nor|mans called Le Ile des vignes. And good record ap|péereth, that the bishop there had yearelie thrée or foure tunne at the least giuen him Nomine decimae, be|side whatsoeuer ouer-summe of the liquor did accrue to him by leases and other excheats, whereof also I haue seene mention. Wherefore our soile is not to be blamed, as though our nights were so exceeding short, that in August and September the moone which is ladie of moisture, & chiefe ripener of this li|quor, cannot in anie wise shine long inough vpon the same: a verie méere toie and fable right worthie to be suppressed, because experience conuinceth the vpholders thereof euen in the Rhenish wines.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The time hath béene also that wad,Wad. wherwith our countrie men died their faces (as Caesar saith) that they might seeme terrible to their enimies in the field, and also women & their daughters in law did staine their bodies & go naked, in that pickle to the sacrifices of their gods,Madder. coueting to resemble therin the Ethiopians,Rape. as Plinie saith li. 22. cap. 1. and also madder haue béene (next vnto our tin and woolles) the chiefe commodities, and merchandize of this realme. I find also that rape oile hath beene made within this land. But now our soile either will not or at the leastwise may not beare either wad or mad|der: I saie not that the ground is not able so to doo, but that we are negligent, afraid of the pilling of our grounds, and carelesse of our owne profit, as men rather willing to buie the same of others than take anie paine to plant them here at home. The like I may saie of flax,Flax. which by law ought to be sowen in euerie countrie-towne in England, more or lesse: but I sée no successe of that good and wholesome law, sith it is rather contemptuouslie reiected than other|wise dutifullie kept in anie place of England.

Some saie that our great number of lawes doo bréed a generall negligence and contempt of all good order; bicause we haue so manie, that no subiect can liue without the transgression of some of them, and that the often alteration of our ordinances dooth much harme in this respect, which (after Aristotle) doth séeme to carie some reason withall, for (as Cornelius Gallus hath:)

Euentus varios res noua semper habet.Eleg. 2.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But verie manie let not to affirme, that the grée|die corruption of the promoters on the one side, faci|litie in dispensing with good lawes, and first breach of the same in the lawmakers & superiors, & priuat re|spects of their establishment on the other, are the grea|test causes whie the inferiours regard no good order, being alwaies so redie to offend without anie facul|tie one waie,Principes lon|gè magis ex|emplo quàm culpa peccare solent. as they are otherwise to presume, vpon the examples of their betters when anie hold is to be taken. But as in these things I haue no skill, so I wish that fewer licences for the priuat commoditie but of a few were granted (not that thereby I denie the maintenance of the prerogatiue roiall, but rather would with all my hart that it might be yet more honorablie increased) & that euerie one which by féeed friendship (or otherwise) dooth attempt to procure oughts from the prince, that may profit but few and proue hurtfull to manie, might be at open assizes and sessions denounced enimie to his countrie and com|mon-wealth of the land.

Glasse also hath beene made here in great plentie before, and in the time of the Romans; and the said stuffe also, beside fine scissers, shéeres, collars of gold and siluer for womens necks, cruses and cups of am|ber, were a parcell of the tribute which Augustus in his daies laid vpon this Iland. In like sort he char|ged the Britons with certeine implements and ves|sels of iuorie (as Strabo saith) Wherby it appéereth that in old time our countriemen were farre more industrious and painefull in the vse and application of the benefits of their countrie, than either after the comming of the Saxons or Normans, in which they gaue themselues more to idlenesse and following of the warres.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 If it were requisit that I should speake of the sundrie kinds of moold, as the cledgie or claie, where|of are diuerse sorts (red, blue, blacke and white) also the red or white sandie, the lomie,Earths. rosellie, grauellie, chal|kie or blacke, I could saie that there are so manie di|uerse veines in Britaine, as else where in anie quar|ter of like quantitie in the world. Howbeit this I must néeds confesse, that the sandie and cledgie doo beare great swaie: but the claie most of all, as hath beene, and yet is alwaies séene & felt through plentie and dearth of corne. For if this latter (I meane the claie) doo yeeld hir full increase (which it dooth com|monlie in drie yeares for wheat) then is there gene|rall plentie: wheras if it faile, then haue we scarsitie, according to the old rude verse set downe of Eng|land, but to be vnderstood of the whole Iland, as ex|perience dooth confirme:

When the sand dooth serue the claie,
Then may we sing well a waie,
But when the claie dooth serue the sand,
Then is it merie with England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I might here intreat of the famous vallies in En|gland, of which one is called the vale of White horsse,Uallies. another of Eouesham, commonlie taken for the gra|narie of Worcestershire, the third of Ailesbirie that goeth by Tame, the rootes of Chilterne hils, to Don|stable, Newport panell, Stonie Stratford, Buck|hingham, Birstane parke, &c. Likewise of the fourth of Whitehart or Blackemoore in Dorsetshire. The fift of Ringdale or Renidale, corruptlie called Ring|taile, that lieth (as mine author saith) vpon the edge of Essex and Cambridgeshire, and also theo Marshwood vale: but for somuch as I know not well their seue|rall limits, I giue ouer to go anie further in their de|scription. In like sort it should not be amisse to speake of our fennes,Fennes. although our countrie be not so full of this kind of soile as the parties beyond the seas, to wit, Narbon, &c: and thereto of other plea|sant botoms, the which are not onelie indued with excellent riuers and great store of corne and fine fod|der for neat and horsses in time of the yeare (whereby they are excéeding beneficiall vnto their owners) but also of no small compasse and quantitie in ground. For some of our fens are well knowen to be either of ten, twelue, sixtéene, twentie, or thirtie miles in EEBO page image 112 length, that of the Girwies yet passing all the rest, which is full 60 (as I haue often read.) Wherein also Elie the famous Ile standeth, which is seuen miles euerie waie, and wherevnto there is no accesse but by thrée causies, whose inhabitants in like sort by an old priuilege may take wood, sedge, turfe, &c; to burne: likewise haie for their cattell, and thatch for their houses of custome, and each occupier in his appoin|ted quantitie through out the Ile; albeit that coue|tousnesse hath now begun somewhat to abridge this large beneuolence and commoditie, aswell in the said Ile as most other places of this land.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Finallie, I might discourse in like order of the large commons,Commons. laid out heretofore by the lords of the soiles for the benefit of such poore, as inhabit with|in the compasse of their manors. But as the true in|tent of the giuers is now in most places defrauded, in so much that not the poore tenants inhabiting vp|on the same, but their landlords haue all the commo|ditie and gaine, so the tractation of them belongeth rather to the second booke. Wherfore I meane not at this present to deale withall, but reserue the same wholie vnto the due place whilest I go forward with the rest; setting downe neuerthelesse by the waie a generall commendation of the whole Iland, which I find in an ancient monument, much vnto this effect.

Illa quidem longè celebris splendore, beata,
Glebis, lacte, fauis, supereminet insula cunctis,
Quas regit ille Deus, spumanti cuius ab ore
Profluit oceanus, &c. And a little after.
Testis Lundonia ratibus, Wintonia Baccho,
Herefordia grege, Worcestria fruge redundans,
Batha lacu, Salabyra feris, Cantuaria pisce,
Eboraca syluis, Excestria clara metallis,
Norwicum Dacis hybernis, Cestria Gallis,
Cicestrum Norwagenis, Dunelmia praepinguis,
Testis Lincolnia gens infinita decore,
Testis Eli formosa situ, Doncastria visu, &c.

1.18. Of the foure high waies sometime made in Britaine by the princes of this Iland. Cap. 19.

Of the foure high waies sometime made in Britaine by the princes of this Iland. Cap. 19.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THere are, which indeuoring to bring all things to their Saxon originall, doo affirme, that this diuision of waies, (whereof we now intreat) should apperteine vnto such princes of that nation as reigned here, since the Ro|manes gaue vs ouer: and herevpon they inferre, that Wattling street was builded by one Wattle from the east vnto the west. But how weake their coniectures are in this behalfe, the antiquitie of these streets it selfe shall easilie declare, whereof some par|celles, after a sort, are also set downe by Antoninus; and those that haue written of the seuerall iournies from hence to Rome: although peraduenture not in so direct an order as they were at the first establish|ed. For my part, if it were not that I desire to be short in this behalfe, I could with such notes as I haue alreadie collected for that purpose, make a large confutation of diuerse of their opinions concerning these passages, and thereby rather ascribe the origi|nall of these waies to the Romans than either the British or Saxon princes. But sith I haue spent more time in the tractation of the riuers than was allotted vnto me, and that I sée great cause (notwith|standing my late alledged scruple) wherfore I should hold with our Galfride before anie other; I will omit at this time to discourse of these things as I would, and saie what I maie for the better knowledge of their courses, procéeding therein as followeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 First of all I [...]ind, that Dunwallon king of Britaine, about 483 yeares before the birth of our sauiour Iesus Christ, séeing the subiects of his realme to be in sundrie wise oppressed by théeues and rob|bers as they trauelled to and fro; and being wil|ling (so much as in him laie) to redresse these incon|ueniences, caused his whole kingdome to be suruei|ed; and then commanding foure principall waies to be made, which should leade such as trauelled into all parts thereof, from sea to sea, he gaue sundrie large priuileges vnto the same, whereby they became safe, and verie much frequented. And as he had regard herein to the securitie of his subiects, so he made sharpe lawes grounded vpon iustice, for the suppres|sion of such wicked members as did offer violence to anie traueler that should be met withall or found within the limits of those passages. How and by what parts of this Iland these waies were conueied at the first, it is not so wholie left in memorie: but that some question is mooued among the learned, concerning their ancient courses. Howbeit such is the shadow remaining hitherto of their extensions, that if not at this present perfectlie, yet hereafter it is not vnpossible, but that they may be found out, & le [...]t certeine vnto posteritie. It seemeth by Galfride, that the said Dunwallon did limit out those waies by dooles and markes, which being in short time alte|red by the auarice of such irreligious persons as dwelt néere, and incroched vpon the same (a fault yet iustlie to be found almost in euerie place, euen in the time of our most gratious and souereigne Ladie Elizabeth, wherein the lords of the soiles doo vnite their small occupieng, onelie to increase a greater proportion of rent; and therefore they either remooue, or giue licence to erect small tenements vpon the high waies sides and commons; wherevnto, in truth, they haue no right: and yet out of them also doo raise a new commoditie) and question mooued for their bounds before Belinus his sonne, he to auoid all further controuersie that might from thencefoorth insue, caused the same to be paued with hard stone of eightéene foot in breadth, ten foot in depth, and in the bottome thereof huge flint stones also to be pitch|ed, least the earth in time should swallow vp his workemanship, and the higher ground ouer-grow their rising crests. He indued them also with larger priuileges than before, protesting that if anie man whosoeuer should presume to infringe his peace, and violate the lawes of his kingdome in anie maner of wise, neere vnto or vpon those waies, he should suffer such punishment without all hope to escape (by freendship or mercie) as by the statutes of this realme latelie prouided in those cases were due vnto the offendors. The names of these foure waies are the Fosse, the Gwethelin or Watling, the Erming, and the Ikenild.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Fosse goeth not directlie but slopewise ouer the greatest part of this Iland,Fosse. beginning at Dot|nesse or Totnesse in Deuonshire, where Brute som|time landed, or (as Ranulphus saith, which is more likelie) at the point of Cornwall, though the eldest writers doo séeme to note the contrarie. From hence it goeth thorough the middle of Deuonshire & Sum|mersetshire, and commeth to Bristow, from whence it runneth manifestlie to Sudberie market, Tetbu|rie, and so foorth holdeth on as you go almost to the midde waie betweene Glocester and Cirnecester, (where the wood faileth, and the champeigne coun|trie appeareth toward Cotteswald) streight as a line vntill you come to Cirnecester it selfe. Some hold EEBO page image 113 opinion that the waie, which lieth from Cirnecester to Bath, should be the verie Fosse; and that betwixt Cirnecester and Glocester to be another of the foure waies, made by the Britons. But ancient report grounded vpon great likelihood, and confirmed also by some experience, iudgeth that most of the waies crossed ech other in this part of the realme. And of this mind is Leland also, who learned it of an abbat of Cirnecester that shewed great likelihood by some records thereof. But to procéed. From Cirnece|ster, it goeth by Chepingnorton to Couentrie, Leir|cester, Newarke, and so to Lincolne ouerthwart the Watlingstreet: where, by generall consent of all the writers (except Alfred of Beuerleie, who extendeth it vnto Cathnesse in Scotland) it is said to haue an end.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Watlingstréet begun (as I said) by Dun|wallo, but finished by Gutheline,Watling stréet. of whome it is di|rectlie to be called Gutheline stréet, though now cor|rupted into Watlingstréet, beginneth at Douer in Kent, and so stretcheth through the middest of Kent vnto London, and so foorth (peraduenture by the mid|dest of the citie) vnto Verolaminm or Uerlamcester, now saint Albons, where, in the yeare of grace, one thousand fiue hundred thirtie & one, the course there|of was found by a man that digged for grauell wher|with to mend the high waie. It was in this place eighteene foot broad, and about ten foot déepe, and stoned in the bottome in such wise as I haue noted a|fore, and peraduenture also on the top: but these are gone, and the rest remaine equall in most places, and leuell with the fields. The yelow grauell also that was brought thither in carts two thousand yéeres passed, remained there so fresh and so strong, as if it had béene digged out of the naturall place where it grew not manie yéeres before. From hence it goeth hard by Margate, leauing it on the west side. And a little by south of this place, where the priorie stood, is a long thorough fare vpon the said street, méetly well builded (for low housing) on both sides. After this it procéedeth (as the chronicle of Barnwell saith) to Caxton, and so to Huntingdon, & then forward, still winding in and out till it not onelie becommeth a bound vnto Leicestershire toward Lugbie, but also passeth from Castleford to Stamford, and so foorth by west of Marton, which is but a mile from Tor|keseie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here by the waie I must touch the opinion of a traueller of my time, who noteth the said stréet to go another waie, insomuch that he would haue it to crosse the third Auon, betwixt Newton and Dow|bridge, and so go on to Binford bridge, Wibtoft, the High crosse, and thence to Atherston vpon Ancre. Certes it may be, that the Fosse had his course by the countrie in such sort as he describeth; but that the Watlingstréet should passe by Atherston, I can|not as yet be persuaded. Neuerthelesse his coniec|ture is not to be misliked, sith it is not vnlikelie that thrée seuerall waies might méet at Alderwaie (a towne vpon Tame, beneath Salters bridge) for I doo not doubt that the said towne did take his name of all three waies, as Aldermarie church in London did of all thrée Maries, vnto whom it hath béene de|dicated: but that the Watlingstréet should be one of them, the compasse of his passage will in no wise permit And thus much haue I thought good to note by the waie. Now to returne againe to Leland, and other mens collections.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next tidings that we heare of the Watling|stréet, are that it goeth thorough or neere by the parke at Pomfret, as the common voice also of the coun|trie confirmeth. Thence it passeth hastilie ouer Ca|stelford bridge to Aberford, which is fiue miles from thence, and where are most manifest tokens of this stréet and his broad crest by a great waie togither, al|so to Yorke, to Witherbie, and then to Borowbridge, where on the left hand thereof stood certeine monu|ments, or pyramides of stone, sometimes placed there by the ancient Romanes. These stones (saith Leland) stand eight miles west from Bowis, and al|most west from Richmond is a little thorough fare called Maiden castell, situate apparantlie vpon the side of this stréet. And here is one of those pyrami|des or great round heapes, which is three score foot compasse in the bottome. There are other also of lesse quantities, and on the verie top of ech of them are sharpe stones of a yard in length; but the greatest of all is eighteene foot high at the least, from the ground to the verie head. He addeth moreouer, how they stand on an hill in the edge of Stanes m [...]e, and are as bounds betwéene Richmondshire, and West|merland. But to procéed. This stréet lieng a mile from Gilling, and two miles from Richmond com|meth on from Borowbridge to Catericke, eightéene miles; that is, twelue to Leuing, & six to Catericke; then eleuen miles to Greteie or Gritto, fiue miles to Bottles, eight miles to Burgh on Stanes moore, foure miles from Applebie, and fiue to Browham, where the said stréet commeth thorough Winfoll parke, and ouer the bridge on Eiemouth and Lo|der, and leauing Perith a quarter of a mile or more on the west side of it, goeth to Carleill seuenteene miles from Browham, which hath béene some nota|ble thing. Hitherto it appeareth euidentlie, but going from hence into Scotland, I heare no more of it, vn|till I come to Cathnesse, which is two hundred and thirtie miles or thereabouts out of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Erming stréet, which some call the Lelme, stretcheth out of the east,Erming stréet. as they saie, into the south|east, that is, from Meneuia or S. Dauids in Wales vnto Southampton, whereby it is somewhat likelie indeed that these two waies, I meane the Fosse and the Erming, should méet about Cirnecester, as it commeth from Glocester, according to the opinion conceiued of them in that countrie. Of this waie I find no more written, and therefore I can saie no more of it, except I should indeuor to driue awaie the time, in alleging what other men say thereof, whose minds doo so farre disagrée one from another, as they doo all from a truth, and therefore I giue them ouer as not delighting in such dealing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Ikenild or Rikenild began somewhere in the south,Ikenild. and so held on toward Cirnecester, then to Worcester, Wicombe, Brimcham, Lichfield, Dar|bie, Chesterfield; and crossing the Watlingstréet somewhere in Yorkeshire, stretched foorth in the end vnto the mouth of the Tine, where it ended at the maine sea, as most men doo confesse. I take it to be called the Ikenild, because it passed thorough the kingdome of the Icenes. For albeit that Leland & other following him doo séeme to place the Icenes in Norffolke and Suffolke; yet in mine opinion that can not well be doone, sith it is manifest by Tacitus, that they laie néere vnto the Silures, and (as I gesse) either in Stafford and Worcester shires, or in both, except my coniecture doo faile me. The author of the booke, intituled Eulogium historiarum, doth call this stréet the Lelme. But as herein he is deceiued, so haue I dealt withall so faithfullie as I may among such diuersitie of opinions; yet not denieng but that there is much confusion in the names and courses of these two latter, the discussing whereof I must leaue to other men that are better learned than I.

Now to speake generallie of our common high waies through the English part of the Ile (for of the rest I can saie nothing) you shall vnderstand that in the claie or cledgie soile they are often verie déepe and troublesome in the winter halfe. Wherfore by EEBO page image 114 authoritie of parlement an order is taken for their yearelie amendment, whereby all sorts of the com|mon people doo imploie their trauell for six daies in summer vpon the same. And albeit that the intent of the statute is verie profitable for the reparations of the decaied places, yet the rich doo so cancell their portions, and the poore so loiter in their labours, that of all the six, scarcelie two good days works are well performed and accomplished in a parish on these so necessarie affaires. Besides this, such as haue land lieng vpon the sides of the waies, doo vtterlie neglect to dich and scowre their draines and water|courses, for better auoidance of the winter waters (except it may be set off or cut from the meaning of the statute) whereby the stréets doo grow to be much more gulled than before, and thereby verie noisome for such as trauell by the same. Sometimes also, and that verie often, these daies works are not imploied vpon those waies that lead from market to market, but ech surueior amendeth such by-plots & lanes as séeme best for his owne commoditie, and more easie passage vnto his fields and pastures. And whereas in some places there is such want of stones, as thereby the inhabitants are driuen to seeke them farre off in other soiles: the owners of the lands wherein those stones are to be had, and which hitherto haue giuen monie to haue them borne awaie, doo now reape no small commoditie by raising the same to excessiue prices, whereby their neighbours are driuen to grieuous charges, which is another cause wherefore the meaning of that good law is verie much defrauded. Finallie, this is another thing like|wise to be considered of, that the trées and bushes growing by the stréets sides; doo not a little keepe off the force of the sunne in summer for drieng vp of the lanes. Wherefore if order were taken that their boughs should continuallie be kept short, and the bushes not suffered to spread so far into the narrow paths, that inconuenience would also be remedied, and manie a slough proue hard ground that yet is déepe and hollow. Of the dailie incroching of the co|uetous vpon the hie waies I speake not. But this I know by experience, that wheras some stréets with|in these fiue and twentie yeares haue béene in most places fift [...] foot broad according to the law, whereby the traueller might either escape the théefe, or shift the mier, or passe by the loaden cart without danger of himselfe and his horsse; now they are brought vnto twelue, or twentie, or six and twentie at the most, which is another cause also whereby the waies be the worse, and manie an honest man encombred in his iourneie. But what speake I of these things where|of I doo not thinke to heare a iust redresse, because the error is so common, and the benefit thereby so swéet and profitable to manie, by such houses and co|tages as are raised vpon the same.

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