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1.13. Of such waters as fall into the sea in compasse of the Iland, betweene the Sauerne a [...]d the Humber. Chap. 14.

Of such waters as fall into the sea in compasse of the Iland, betweene the Sauerne a [...]d the Humber. Chap. 14.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe Sauerne being thus de|scribed, it resteth that I go forward with the names of those that lie vpon the coast of Southwales, making my en|trie at the ferrie ouer be|tweene Aust in Glocester|shire, and a village on the fur|ther banke of Sauerne,Wie mouth. not farre from Tarenda|cus chappell, in the mouth of the riuer Wie, which ferrie is about three miles ouer (saith Leland) or else my memorie dooth faile me.Guie aliàs Wie. This riuer Guie or Wie beginneth (as I said before) on the side of the hilles where the Sauerne dooth arise, and passing through Wenceland, that is, southeast by Raiader Guie to Buelt (where the Irwon meeteth withall) it goeth to Glasburie, Hereford, Monmouth, and finallie into the Sauerne sea at Chepstow: for so they call Mon|hafren, which seuereth Wales from Summerset|shire, Deuonshire, Cornewall: as for the Rhidoll which is the third sister, it hath the shortest course of all, for it runneth northward, and into the sea at A|beristwith, which is not farre off, as the writers doo report.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Leland writing of this riuer Guie or Wie saith thus; The Wie goeth thorough all Herefordshire by Bradwarden castell, belonging to sir Richard Ue|han, and so to Hereford east, thence eight miles to Rosse,Umber a fish onelie in the Wie. a market towne in Herefordshire: and in this riuer be vmbers, otherwise called grailings. It is also found by common experience, that the salmon of this riuer is in season, when the like fish to be found in all other riuers is abandoned and out of vse; wher|of we of the east parts doo not a little maruell. But let vs not staie vpon these descriptions, sith an other is come to my hand more exact than either of these.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Guie therefore riseth out of the blacke moun|teines of Wales, out of which the Sauerne spring|eth in Radnorshire, and comming by Lhangerike, and Raiadargoie, it receiueth one rill from the west called Darnoll,Darnoll. and another from by northeast com|ming by saint Harmon. Thence it goeth to Lhanu|thell, and in the waie betwixt Raiader and Lhanu|thell, it ioineth with the Elland,Elland. whose head is neere to Comerrstwith, and taketh likewise into him the ClardwenClardwen. that diuideth for a season Radnorshire from Brecknoch, which Clardwen is likewise in|creased by the Clarthie within thrée miles of his head and lesse, hauing his course from southwest & hillie soile adiacent. From Lhanuthell it goeth west of Dissart, where it receiueth the Ithan,Ithan. a riuer rising aboue Lhanibister, and from whence it runneth to Landwie, and Lambaderne vawr: beneath which it crosseth a water on ech side, whereof that on the right hand consisteth on the DulesseDulesse. and the Clue|doch,Cluedoch. after their confluence: the other hight Loma|ron, whose head is aboue Lanihangle,Lamaron. and in the for|rest of Blethwag. After these confluences, it run|neth on crinkeling in strange manner, vnder the name of Ithor, till it come to Dissart, taking in the HawieHawie. on the left side yer it come there, and then in|to the Wie on the north side, which directeth his course further to Bealt, where it receiueth the Yr|won,Yrwon. a notable streame, descending from the hilles aboue Lanihangle Abergwessen, and thence com|ming downe by Lanurid Lang marsh, Lanauan, Uechan, Langantan, and so to Beth or Bealt, being inlarged by the waie with sundrie faire waters, as the Weuereie,Weuereie. whose head is about Lanauan moore, the Dulasse,Dulasse. or (as some call it) the Dowlasse, that commeth from the hilles west of the head of Weue|reie. The Comarch whose head and course is west of the Dowlasse on the north side, and likewise by two other on the southwest, and Dilasse from by south|west, which last rehearsed falleth into him halfe a mile and more aboue the influence of the ComarchComarch. which lieth on the other side. After this our Yrwon goeth to Lhanuareth,Dulesse. where it crosseth the DehonDehon. on the southwest side, then to Aberedwie, and there re|ceiueth the EdwieEdwie. on the northeast, which ariseth in the hilles aboue Botins chappell, and commeth downe by Crigend and Lanhaderne, thence the Guie goeth on to Lanstephan, and there (or a little aboue)Machaweie. taketh in the Machaweie that commeth by castell Paine, and so going on in processe of time with the Leuenni,Leuenni. whereof Leland in his commen|taries doth write as here insueth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Leuenni, otherwise called the EuerEuer. or Eue|rie,Euerie. is a farre streame rising in Welch Talgarth hard by Blaine Leuenni, among the Atterill hilles, from whence it goeth to Brecknoch mere, which is two miles long, and a mile broad, and where men doo fish in Vniligneis or botes of one peece, as they doo in Lhin Seuathan, which is foure miles from Breck|noch. Finallie, bringing great store of red sand withall,Brennich. and there with the Brennich water (that hath his originall issue at Mennith gader, and is in|creased with the Trufrin)Trufrin. it falleth into the Wie aboue Glesbiri [...] three miles from Haie, at a place that of the onelie fall of this brooke is named Aberle|nenni, after this the Guie. Being come to Haie, a pretie towne where much Romane coine is found, which they call Iewes monie: and after it hath pas|sed or crossed a little brooke, which commeth from La|nigon, it meeteth with the DulesseDulesse. that commeth also from the Atterill by Kersop, and from thence go|eth to Clifford castell (being now entred into Here|fordshire, and leauing Radnor, wherevnto it hath for a long course béene march) then to the Whitneies, Winferton, Letton, Bradwarden, Broberie, Mo|nington, Biford, Bridgesalers, Eaton, Brinton, and Hereford, without anie influence of riuer wor|thie of memorie, and yet with manie windlesses, & there méeteth with a water rising short of Wormes|leie, which goeth by Maunsell, Lacie, Brinsop, Crod|nell, Stretton, and Huntington, and soone after into the Wie, beside a little rill that runneth betwéene them both euen into Hereford towne. From hence in like sort the Wie hasteth to Rotheras church, Hampton, and Mor [...]ford, where it taketh in sundrie waters in one chanell, of which the Lug or LuieLug. is the principall, and next of all to be described, before I go anie further with the course of the Wie, wherein|to it dischargeth the chanell. It riseth in the edge of the forrest of Kemples aboue Langunlo: from whence it goeth to Momonacht, Pilleth Whitton, Fuldibrooke, Prestaine, so into Herefordshire, where betwéene Bonie & Beton, or Bitton, it receiueth in the Somergill, whose crotched head being march EEBO page image 73 to Radnor forrest, directeth his streame betweene the new and old Radnors, to Knill, to Nash, and so into the Lug, which presentlie passeth by Kinsham, Shir|leie, Ailmister, Kingsland, Eaton chappell, and so in|to Lemister, where it crosseth the Oneie (a streame|let rising short of Shobden, and going by Chorlester) a little before it come to the west side of the towne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At Lemister it selfe in like sort three waters doo méet, and almost inuiron the towne, that is to saie, the Lug, the Pinfulleie or PinsellPinsell. (a riueret rising at Kingsland two miles from Lemister) & the Ken|brooke,Kenbrooke. which commeth out of the blacke mounteins, from Lemister, otherwise called Leofminster, of the builder, and also Leonminster, the Lug or Luie goeth on to Eaton, and there taketh in a rill beneath Hampton, and aboue Hope, whereof one head is be|twéene Hatfield and Bickleton, another neere vnto Marston, and méeting of both at Humber. From Hampton it goeth to Bodenham, Wellington, Morton, Sutton, Shelwijc, Lugwardin, and Long|ward, where it crosseth the FromeieFromeie. or Frome, a pretie water, and worthie to be remembred. It ri|seth about Wolferelaw, from whence it commeth downe toward the southest by Edwinsloch to Brom|yard, Auenburie, Bishops Frome, Castell Frome, Can Frome,Loden aliás Acton. to Stretton vpon Frome, and there taking in a water called Loden, comming from a|boue Bishops Grendon, by Pencombe, Cowarne, Stoke Lacie, Cowarne, and Engleton, our Frome goeth on to Yarkeleie, Dornington, and Long|ward, and so into the Lug, betweene Longward and Suston, which runneth foorthwith to Mordford, or Morthford, and there into the Wie, vnto whose de|scription I now returne againe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being come therefore vnto Mordford, it goeth to Fawnehope, Hamlacie, Ballingham, Capull regis, where it receiueth a water called Treske, from little Berch by Treske,Treske. Fawleie, How, Capull Inkeston, Foie, Brampton, Bridstow, Wilton castell, the Rosse, and there a rill from Bishops Uptonward by Rudhall, Weresend, Ham, Glewston, Godderich, here in like sort meeting with another that commeth from Ecleswall in the confines of Glocestershire, by Peniard castell & Coughton, to Welch Bicknor, English Bicknor, Huntesham, including a parcell of Monmouthshire, being an outliggand, as ye may find in that parcell of Herefordshire which butteth vpon Glocestershire (as you shall find the like peece of Herefordshire in the confines of Salop and Wor|cester, wherein Rochford standeth, beside manie o|ther which I haue elsewhere spoken of) Whitchurch, where it taketh in Gainar water that commeth from Much Birch, by Lanwarne, Michaell church, and at Langarran crosseth the GarranGainar. brooke,Garran. that riseth in Gregwood, short of Arcop, six miles from Monemouth by northwest: after which these two doo runne as one to Marston, and almost Whitchurch, and so into the Wie, which goeth from thence to Gunnarew, S. Michaell, Dixton, and Monemouth, where I will staie a while, till I haue described the Mone,Mona. next of all to be remembred here.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Mona or Monbecke, riseth in the forrest of Hene, twentie miles from Monemouth by west in Eirisland, and going by Creswell, or Craswall chap|pell not farre from the marches of Brecknocke, and northeast of Hatuill hils,Elkon. which after it hath run a good distance from the head receiueth first the Eskle,Eskill. and passeth by La [...]hangle and the old Court, from northweast, then the Olcon, from southwest, which meeteth withall neere Cledoll or Knedoch, & passing by the old towne, it hasteth to Altrinis, where it be|commeth march betwêene Hereford and Mone|mouth shires, and taketh in a water comming by Trewin, & likewise the HordwieHordwie. or Hodneie which riseth in Brecknocke among the Saterelles, & run|neth by Capell a fin, Lantonie, Cumroie, Michaell church in Monemouthshire, and ioineth with our Mona at Altrinis, which after this confluence hast|eth to Walderstone, Lansillo Langua, betwéene which and Kinechurch it ioineth with the Doure that riseth about the Bache aboue Dourston, which is six miles aboue DoureDoure. abbie, so that it runneth through the Gilden dale, by Peterchurch, Fowchurch, More|hampton, Newcourt, Doure, and beneath Doure ta|keth in the Dulesse,Dulesse. from southwest and Lanihan|gle, by Harleswas castell on the one side, and yer long the Wormesbecke,Wormesbecke. descending from aboue Ke|uernall by Didleie, Deuerox, Workebridge, and Kenderchurch on the other, and so running all in one chanell vnto Mona, that riuer goeth on to Kinech church, Grismond, Cardwaie, Skenfrith, Warne|thall, Perthire, and so to Monemouth, where it mee|teth with the Wie, ouer each of which riuers Mone|muth towne hath his particular bridge.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Guie or Wie therefore being incresed with thus manie brookes and waters, passeth on from hence, and going toward Landogo, it meeteth with the TrollieTrollie. becke, whose head is aboue Lannam fer|rie in the north part of Monemouth shire, and goeth from thence by Lhantellio, Lanhangle, Grace|diue, Diggestow, Wonastow, Troie, and so into Wie, that runneth also by Wies wood chase, taking in there the ElwieElwie. that commeth from aboue Lan|delwie by Langowen, Lannissen, Penclase, Tri|legh, and Langogo, where méeting with the aforesaid streame, the Wie directeth his course from thence by Tinterne abbeie (where it crosseth a rill from Trile grange) Chapell hill, Parcasicke, Penterie chapell, Lancante, Chepstowe, and so into the sea, leauing the Treacle (a chappell standing on a rocke) on the hand betweene it & Sauerne, ouer against the point that lieth south of Betteslie. Next vnto the Wie, I find a rill of no great course, comming downe from Mounton chappell, by a place of the bishops of Lan|daffe. Thence passing by Charston rocke, and the point whereon Trinitie chappell standeth, I come vn|to the fall of Trogie,Trogie. which riseth short of Trogie ca|stell, and runneth toward the sea, by Landuair, Dew|ston, Calicot, and so into the Ocean, ouer against the Charston rocke. The next fall is of a water that com|meth from aboue Penho by saint Brides,Dennie I|land in the middest of the Sauerne, and likewise an|other litle one called Beue|rage. north and by west of Dennie Iland, which lieth midwaie be|tweene that fall & Porshot point, and before I touch at Goldcliffe point, I crosse another fall of a fresh brooke, whose head is aboue Landueigo in Wence|wood, and course by Lhanbed, Langston, Lhan|warme, and through the More to Witston.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Next vnto this is the Aberwish, or Wiske,Wiske. in Latine Osca, whereon Caerleon standeth, sometime called Chester and Ciuitas legionum, bicause the Ro|mans soiourned there, as did afterward Arthur the great, who also held a noble parlement in the same, whereof Galfride maketh mention Lib. 7. cap. 4. affirming thereto, that in those daies the maiestie thereof was such, as that all the forefronts of their houses were in maner laid ouer with gold, accor|ding to the Romane vsage. There was in the same in like sort a famous vniuersitie, wherein were 200 philosophers; also two goodlie churches erected in the remembrance of Iulius and Aaron, two Brittish martyrs, whereby it might well be reputed for the third metropoliticall sée in Britaine. But to our wa|ter, whereof I read that it is furthermore one of the greatest in Southwales, and huge ships might well come to the towne of Caerleon, as they did in the time of the Romans, if Newport bridge were not a let vnto them; neuerthelesse, big botes come thereto. It is eight Welsh or twelue English miles from EEBO page image 74 Chepstow or Strigull, and of some thought to be in base Wenceland, though other be of the contrarie opinion. But howsoeuer the matter standeth, this ri|uer is taken to be the bounds of Brechnockshire, as Renni is middle to Wenceland & Glamorganshire. But to leaue these by-matters, and come to the de|scription of the water.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 You shall vnderstand that the Uske or Wiske,Uske. in Latin Osca riseth in the blacke mounteins ten miles aboue Brechnocke toward Carmardine, the hill be|ing properlie called Yminidh Duy out of which it falleth, and situate in the verie confines betwéene Brechnocke and Carmardine shires, from whence winding into the northeast, it commeth to Treca|stle, and in the waie betwéene it and Capell Rid|burne, it taketh in the Craie brooke,Craie. on the right hand before it come to Ridburne chappell. Going also from thence toward Deuinocke, it crosseth the Sen|neie on the same side (which riseth aboue Capell Senneie) next of all the Camblas,Sennie. & at Aberbraine, the Brane,Camblas. or the Bremich, whose head is thrée miles from Brechnocke,Brane. and running by Lanihangle, it méeteth I saie with the Uske, about master Awbries manor.yster. Beneath Aber Yster, it receiueth the Yster, which riseth northwest aboue Martyr Kinoch, and commeth by Battell chappell, and going from thence by Lanspithed and Newton, it runneth in the end to Brechnocke,Hodneie. where it taketh in the Hodneie or Hon|thie on the one side, whose head is in Blaine Hod|neie, and comming downe from thence by Defrune chappell, Lanthangle and Landiuilog, it méeteth with the Uske or Brechnocke townes end, which of the fall of this water was sometime called Aberhodni, as I haue beene informed: on the other halfe likewise it receiueth the Tertarith that riseth among the Bane hils,Tertarith. fiue miles from Brechnocke, and commeth like|wise into the verie suburbs of the towne, beneath Trenewith, or new Troie, whereby it taketh the course.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After these confluences, the Uske procéedeth on toward Aberkinurike,Kinuricke. or the fall of a water whose head is in the roots of Menuchdennie hill, and passage by Cantresse. Thence it goeth by Lanhamlaghe, Penkethleie castell, Lansanfreid, Landettie, Lan|gonider, and soone after receiuing the RiangallRiangall. (which riseth about the hill whereon Dinas castell standeth, and runneth by Lanihangle and Tretoure) it passeth betwéene Laugattocke and Cerigkho|well, to Langroinie, and there about crosseth the Groinie brooke,Groini. that descendeth from Monegather, Arthur hill, by Peter church, as I find. When the Uske is past this brooke, it taketh in thrée other short rils, from by south within a little distance, whereof the first hight Cledoch Uaur,Cledoch vaur. the second Fidan,Fidan. and the third Cledochvehan.Cledochvehã. Of these also the last falleth in néere to Lanwenarth. From hence the Uske run|neth to Abergeuenni towne, where it méeteth with the Kebbie water from by north,Kebbie. Geuenni. that riseth short of Bettus chappell aboue the towne, and the Geuennie that descendeth from aboue Landilobartholl beneath not farre from Colbroke, and so goeth on to Hard|wijc, beneath which it crosseth thrée namelesse rilles, on the right hand or southwest side before it come at Lanihangle vpon Uske, of whose courses I know not anie more than that they are not of anie length, nor the chanell of sufficient greatnesse seuerallie to intreat of.Birthin. Caer vske standeth on one side of Uske, and Caerleon on the other, but Caer vske by diuerse miles further into the land. Betwéene Kemmeis and Trostreie it meeteth with such an other rill that commeth downe by Bettus Newith. Thence it goeth to Caer Uske or Brenbigeie (whose bridge, I mene that of Uske, was ouerthrowne by rage of this riuer, in the six and twentith yeare of king Henrie the eight, vpon saint Hughes daie after a great snow) but yer it come there, it receiueth the Birthin on the right hand, which is a pretie water, descending from two heads, whereof the first is northwest of Manihilot, as the other is of Lanihangle and Pentmorell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Next vnto this it ioineth with the Elwie aboue Lanbadocke,Elwie. whose head is east of Penclase, and running westwards by Penclase, Lanislen, Lan|gowen (and beneath Landewie taking in a brooket from Ragland castell, that commeth downe thither by Ragland parke) it bendeth southwest, vntill it come at the Uske, which crinkling towards the south, and going by Lanhowell, méeteth with three rilles before it come to Marthenie chappell, whereof the first lieth on the right hand, and the other on the left: the midlemost falling into the same, not farre from Lantressen, as I haue béene informed. From the mouth of the Romeneie to the mouth of the Taffe are two miles. Certes the Taffe is the grea|test riuer in all Glamorganshire, called (by Ptolo|mie Rhatostathybius, as I gesse) and the citie Taffe it selfe of good countenance, sith it is indued with the cathedrall see of a bishop. The course of the water in like maner is verie swift, and bringeth off such logs and bodies of trées withall from the wooddie hilles, that they doo not seldome cruth the bridge in peeces, but for so much as it is made with timber it is repai|red with lighter cost, wheras if it were of hard stone, all the countrie about would hardlie be able to a|mend it. It riseth in Brechnockshire among the woo|die hilles, from two heads, whereof one is in Mo|nuchdenie, the other west of that mounteine, of which the first called Taffe vaure, goeth by Capell lan ve|han, Uainor, and Morlais, the other by Capell Nan|tie, and ioining at southwest beneath Morlais castle, they go to Martyr Tiduill, and toward Lannabor, but by the waie it taketh in from northwest a brooke called Cunnon, which commeth out of Brechnock|shire by Abardare, and afterward the Rodneie com|ming out of the same quarter (but not out of the same shire) which runneth by Estridinodoch, a crot|ched brooke, & therefore diuided into Rodneie vaure, & Rodneie vehan, that being ioined with the Taffe, doth run on withall to Eglefilian, castle Coch, Whit|church, Landaffe, Cardiffe, and so into the sea, not far from Pennarth point, where also the Laie dooth bid him welcome vnto his chanell or streame. Further|more, from Marthellie it hasteth to Kemmeis, and yer it come at Caerleon or Chester in the south, ta|keth in two waters on the right hand, of which the first commeth downe from the north betweene Landgwie, Landgweth, and by Lhan Henoch, with|out anie further increase: but the other is a more beautifull streame, called Auon, and thus described as I find it among my pamphlets.Auon. The Auon riseth in the hilles that séeme to part Monemouth and Brechenocke shires in sunder, and after a rill recei|ued from Blorench hill on the northside of the same, running downe from thence by Capell Newith and Triuethin, it receiueth a water from by south almost of equall course, and from that quarter of the coun|trie, and in processe of time anotehr little one from the same side, yer it come to Lanurgwaie and La|nihangle, from whence it goeth to Euennocke and Penrose, & so in Uske before it go by Caerleon. But here you must note, that the course of this streame ioining beneath Quenocke chappell, with the other which descendeth (as I said) from the hilles about foure miles aboue Landgwaie and Langweth, dooth make an Iland aboue Caerleon, where Penrose standeth, & much Romane coine is found of all sorts, so that the influence of the one into the other séemeth to me to be but a draine deuised by man, to kéepe the citie from the violence of such water as other|wise would oft annoie the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being past Caerleon it runneth to Crindie, where EEBO page image 75 maister Harbert dwelleth, and there carieng ano|ther brooke withall, that riseth north of Tomberlow hill, and descendeth by Henlis and Bettus chappell, it runneth forth to Newport (in Welch castle, Newith) and from thence vnder a bridge, after thrée or foure miles course to the sea, taking the Ebowith water withall,Ebowith. which méeteth with the same almost in the verie mouth or fall, and riseth in the edge of Breck|noch shire, or (as Leland saith) high Winceland, from two heads, of which one is called Eberith Ue|han, the other Eberith Mawr, as I haue beene infor|med. The course of the first head is by Blamgrent, and after the confluence they passe togither by Lan|hileth, and comming by west of Tomberlow hill (crossing a rill, from north east by the waie) it taketh in thereabout the Serowie,Serowie. that runneth by Tre|strent, & is of lesse race hitherto than the Ebowith, and from that same quarter. After this confluence it goeth to Risleie, Rocheston castell, next of all tho|rough a parke, and so by Greenefield castell, and is not long yer it fall into the sea, being the last issue that I doo find in the countie, which beareth the name of Monemouth, and was in old time a part of the re|gion of the Silures.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Romeneie orRomeneie. (as some corruptlie call it) the Nonneie, is a goodlie water, and from the head a march betwéene Monemouth & Glamorgan shires. The head hereof is aboue Egglins Tider vap Hoell otherwise called Fanum Theodori, or the church of Theodorus, whence commeth manie springs, & ta|king one bottome, the water is called Canoch and not Romeneie till it be come to Romeneie. It recei|ueth no water on the east side, but on the west di|uerse small beckes, whereof three (and one of them called Ifra) are betwéene the rising and Brathetere chappell, the fourth cõmeth in by Capell Gledis, and Kethligaire, the first from betwéene the Faldraie and Lanuabor, the sixt & seuenth before it come to Bed|was, and the eight ouer against Bedwas it selfe from chappell Martin, Cairfillie castell, and Thauan, after which confluences it runneth on by Maghan, Keuen, Mableie and Romeneie, & yer long crossing a becke at north west that commeth from aboue Lis|uan, Lamssen and Roch, it falleth into the sea, about six miles from the Wishe, and albeit the mouth ther|of be nothing profitable for ships, yet is it also a march betwéene the Silures and Glamorganshire.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Laie falleth into the sea a mile almost from the Taffe,Laie. and riseth in the hilles aboue Lantrissent (for all the region is verie hillie.) From whence com|ming by Lantrissent and Auercastell, it runneth by Coit Marchan parke, Lambedder, S. Brides, Lhan|nihangle, saint Fagans and Elaie, Leckwith, Lan|dowgh, Cogampill, and so into the sea, without anie maner increase by anie rils at all sauing the Dune|lais,Dunelais. which riseth foure miles from his fall,Methcoid. east north|east, and meeteth withall a little more than a quar|ter of a mile from Pont Uelim Uaur,Pedware. and likewise by west, the Methcoid that commeth from Glinne Rodeneie, and wherein to the Pedware dischargeth that small water gathered in his chanell. Here will I staie a little and breake off into a discourse, which Leland left also as parcell of this coast who toucheth it after this maner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From Taffe to Laie mouth or Ele riuer a mile,Laie. from Laie mouth (or rather Penarth, that standeth on the west point of it)Thawan. to the mouth of Thawan ri|uer (from whence is a common passage ouer vnto Mineheued in Summersetshire of 17 miles) are a|bout seuen Welth miles, which are counted after this maner. A mile and a halfe aboue Thawan is Scilleie hauenetScilleie. (a pretie succour for ships) whose head is in Wenno paroch two miles and a halfe from the shore.Barrie. From Scilleie mouth to Aber Bar|rie a mile, and thither commeth a little rill of fresh water into Sauerne,This Ile went fiftie yeares agone for x. pounds. whose head is scant a mile off in plaine ground by northeast, and right against the fall of this becke lieth Barrie Iland a flight shot from the shore at the full sea. Halfe a mile aboue A|ber Barrie is the mouth of Come kidie,Come kidie which riseth flat north from the place where it goeth into the Sa|uerne, and serueth oft for harbour vnto sea-farers. Thence to the mouth of Thawan are thrée miles, wherevnto ships may come at will.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Two miles aboue Thawan is Colhow,Colhow. whither a little rill resorteth from Lau Iltuit, thence to the mouth of Alen foure miles, that is a mile to saint Dinothes castell, and thrée miles further.Alen. The Alen riseth by northeast vp into the land at a place called Lhes Broimith, or Skirpton, about foure miles a|boue the plot where it commeth by it selfe into Sa|uerne. From thence to the mouth of Ogur aliàs GurOgur. thrée miles. Then come they in processe of time vnto the Kensike or Colbrooke riuer, which is no great thing,Kensike. sith it riseth not aboue three miles from the shore.Auon. From Kensike to Aber Auon two miles, and herein doo ships molested with weather oftentimes séeke harborough. It commeth of two armes, whereof that which lieth northeast is called Auon Uaur, the o|ther that lieth northwest Auon Uehan. They meet togither at Lhanuoie Hengle, about two miles a|boue Aber Auon village, which is two miles also from the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From hence to the Neth is about two miles and a halfe,Neth. thereon come shiplets almost to the towne of Neth from the Sauerne. From the mouth of Neth vnto the mouth of Crimline becke is two miles, and being passed the same we come vnto the Tauie,Tauie. which descendeth from the aforesaid hilles and falleth into the sea by east of Swanseie. Being past this we come vnto the Lichwr,Lochar. or Lochar mouth, and then gli|ding by the Wormes head,Wandres. we passed to the Wan|dresmouth, wherof I find this description following in Leland. Uendraith Uaur, Uen|draith Uehan. Both Uendraith Uaur and Uendraith Uehan rise in a péece of Carmardineshire, called Issekenen, that is to saie, the low quarter about Kennen riuer, and betwixt the heads of these two hils is another hill, wherein be stones of a gréenish colour, whereof the inhabitants make their lime. The name of the hill that Uendraith Uaur riseth in, is called Mennith Uaur, and therein is a poole as in a moorish ground, named Lhintegowen, where the principall spring is, and this hill is eight or nine miles From Kidwellie: the hill that Uendraith Ue|han springeth out of, is called Mennith Uehan, and this water commeth by Kidwellie towne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But about thrée or foure miles yer it come thither, it receiueth a brooke called Tresgirth, the course whereof is little aboue a mile from the place where it goeth into Uendraith, and yet it hath foure or fiue tucking milles and thrée corne milles vpon it. At the head of this brooke is an hole in the hilles side, where men often enter and walke in a large space. And as for the brooke it selfe, it is one of the most plentifull and commodious that is to be found in Wales. All along the sides also of Uendraith Uaur, you shall find great plentie of sea-coles. There is a great hole by head of Uendraith Uehan, where men vse to enter into vaults of great compasse, and it is said, that they maie go one waie vnder the ground to Wormes head, and another waie to Cairkemen castell, which is three miles or more into the land. But how true these things are, it is not in me to deter|mine; yet this is certeine, that there is verie good hawking at the Heron in Uendraith Uehan. There are diuerse prints of the passage of certeine worms also in the caue, at the head of Uendraith Uehan, as the inhabitants doo fable: but I neuer heard of anie EEBO page image 76 man that saw anie worme there, and yet it is belée|ued that manie wormes are there. Hitherto out of Leland. But now to returne to mine owne course.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Leauing the Laie,Laie. which some call Elaie, and passing the Pennarth baie, that lieth betwéene the Pennarth and the Lauerocke points, we left Scillie Ilet (which lieth on the mouth of Scillie hauen be|fore described) and came vnto the Barrie,Barrie. whose head is aboue Wrinston castell, and from whence he run|neth by Deinspowis, Cadoxton, Barrie, and so into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being past the Barrie water,Aberthaw we come to a fall called Aberthaw, which riseth two or thrée miles aboue Lansanor, and going by Welch Newton, it commeth at length to Cowbridge, and from thence goeth to Lanblethian, Landoch, Beanpéere, Flim|ston, Gilston, and betweene the east and the west Aberthaw, & into the Sauerne sea. But yer it come all there it receiueth a brooke called Kensan, or Karn|san, or Kensech, on the east side, whose head is east of Bolston, & comming by Charnelhoid, Lhancaruan, & Lancadle, it falleth into the former aboue either of the Thawans.Kensan. Leland saith, that Kensan hath two heads, whereof the more northerlie called Brane, li|eth in Luenlithan, and runneth seauen miles before it méet with the other. Leauing this water we sai|led on, casting about the Nash point, omitting two or three small waters (whereof Leland hath alreadie as ye see made mention) because I haue nothing more to add vnto their descriptions, except it be, that the Colhow taketh in a rill from Lan Iltruit, of whose course (to saie the truth) I haue no manner of knowledge.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Ogur or Gur,Ogur. which some call the Ogmur, is a well faire streame (as we were woont to saie in our old English) whose head is in the same hilles, where the Rodeneies are to be found, but much more westerlie, and running a long course yer it come to anie village, it goeth at the length beneath Langui|neuere or Langouodoch, to S. Brides vpon Ogur, then to Newcastell, and Marthermaure, beneath which it méeteth the Wennie,Wennie. halfe a mile from O|gur or Ogmur castell on the east side of the banke. It riseth fiue or six miles from this place, among the hilles, and comming downe at last by Lanharne, it crosseth a rill yer long from northeast, and the con|fluence passeth foorth by Coitchurch, Ogur castell, & so into the Ogur. Leland writing of the waters that fall into this Ogur saith thus.Garrow. Into the Ogur also resorteth the Garrow two miles aboue Lansan|fride bridge, descending from Blaingarow. It ta|keth furthermore (saith he)Leuennie. another called Leuennie rising in the parish of Glin Corug, at northwest, and then running two miles lower,Corug. vniteth it selfe with the Corug brooke, a little short thing, and worthie no longer speach. From this confluence the Leuennie goeth seauen miles further yer it meete with the O|gur on the west side, at Lansanfride, two miles a|boue Penbowt. And so far Leland. But I wot not what he meaneth by it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Next vnto the Ogur is the Kensig water,Kensig. that commeth downe by the Pile and Kensig castell,Margan. and being past the same we crosse the Margan rill,Auon. where sir Edward Manxell dwelt, and so vnto Auon, which hauing two heads (as is said) the more easterlie of them commeth downe by Hauodaport chappell, the other by Glin Corug, Michaell church, Aber Auon, and so into the sea, yéelding also in time of néed a good harbour for ships to lodge and ride in. From hence we went along by the Cole pits to the mouth of the Neth.Neth. The Neth is a faire water, rising of diuerse heads, whereof the more easterlie named Nethuehan riseth not farre from the head of the Kennon,Nethuehan. and comming downe by Penedorin to Aberpirgwin,Neth|uaur. it receiueth Nethuaur, a little aboue the towne,Trangarth. which rising not farre southeast of the head of Tauie in Brecknoch shire (as all the rest doo) receiueth the Trangarth,Meltaie. the Meltaie and the Hep|saie, all which are accounted as members of his head in one chanell,Hepsaie. about a mile or more before it ioine with Nethuehan. For as Trangarth riseth east of Nethuaur, so the Melta riseth by east of Trangarth, and ioineth with the same aboue Istrad wealthie, and a little beneath the same towne taketh in the Hepsaie. So that albeit their seuerall risings be half or a whole mile in sunder, yet haue they (in a maner) like distance from Aberpirgwin, and their finall confluence in the edge of Glamorganshire, which they directlie doo crosse. After these confluences, the maine streame runneth in and out by sundrie miles, and through the wooddie soiles, till it méet with Cle|daugh, which ioineth with the same beneath the Re|sonlaie, and goeth withall to Lanisted, where it ta|keth in the Dulesse,Dulesse. whose head is aboue Chappell Krenaunt, in the marches of Brecknoch. Thence it goeth to Cadox towne, or betwéene it and Lanni|stide, then to Neth towne, whither small vessels of|ten come:Cledoch. and beneath the same receiuing the Cle|doch that runneth by Kelebebilch (and also Neth ab|beie where maister Crumwell dwelleth) it goeth on by Coitfranke forrest, Nethwood, Briton ferrie, and so into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Tauie riseth in the thickest of the blacke mounteines in Brecknochshire west of Nethuaur,Tauie. and comming downe west of Calwen chappell, it re|ceiueth on the east banke a rill named Coiell that runneth thither by Coielburne chappell:Coilus. and being thus vnited, the chanell passeth foorth by Istrad|gunles,Torch. and then méeting with the Turch or Torch water that cõmeth from the foot of the blacke moun|teines, and is march to parcell of Caermardinshire, it runneth to Langoge, Lansamled, saint Iohns, Swanseis, and so into the Baie. Being past this, we come by another little fall, whose water runneth thrée or foure miles yer it come into Swanseie baie, but without name. Thence we go to the Crimline becke, whose description I neither haue, nor find anie great want therof. Wherfore going about by Oister|mont castell, and Mumbles point, we passe foorth to|ward the southwest by Penmarch point, till we come to Ilston water,Ilston. whose head is not farre within the land; and yet as it commeth thorough the woodland, and downe by Penmarch castell, a rill or two dooth fall into the same. Then casting about by Oxwich point, we go onward there by, and sailing flat north by the Holme (hauing passed the Wormeslead and S. Kennets chappell) and then northeast by Whitford point, we went at length to the Lochar or Loghar,Lochar. or as Lhoyd nameth it, the Lichwr, whose indraught for a certene space is march betwéene Caermardine and Glamorgan shires. It riseth aboue Gwenwie chappell, from whence it goeth to Landbea, and aboueAmond. Bettus receiueth a rill named Amond that entreth thereinto from northeast. Being past Bettus, it passeth by Laneddie, Arthelas bridge, and ouer a|gainst Landilo Talabout, it crosseth from by west, the CombwilieCombwilie. by west of Parkreame, and after|ward the MorlaisMorlais. aboue Langnarch on the same side. Then comming to Loghor castell, it taketh in on the east side, the Lhu,Lhu. whose course is not aboue fiue miles, and thence loosing the name of Lochar, it is called Burraie,Burraie. as some gesse, vntill it come to the sea, where it parteth it selfe going on each side of Bachannie Iland, a small thing, and not worthie (for anie thing I read thereof) as yet to be particularlie described. From this water we passed (I saie) by Bachannies Ile, to the Aberlheddie water, whose head being in the hilles aboue Prenacrois, it passeth EEBO page image 77 by Lhaneltheie, and thence into the sea. Then went we to the Dulesse a little rill,Dulesse. whose head is not farre from Trinsaren: thence by the Pembraie and Cali|coit points,Wandres. till we came about to the Wandres or Uendraith mouth, whose description is partlie tou|ched alreadie; but bicause it is not such as I would with it to be, I will here after my owne maner deale somewhat further withall. Gwendrath or Uendraith vaur riseth in the lower ground, or not far from the hill Renneth Uaur, whereon castell Careg standeth, and descending by a pretie long course vnder sundrie bridges, commeth at the last to Glin, then to Capull Lanberie, and so vnto the sea, being little augmen|ted with influences by the waie. Uendraith Uehan riseth a mile higher towards the north than Uen|draith Uaur, but out of the same soile, & thence dire|cting his course toward the southwest, it goeth by Lancharog, Langendarne, Capull Langell, Bithon, Leighdenie, Kidwillie, and so into the sea, about one mile from the fall of Uendraith Uaur.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Towie riseth in the mounteines of Elen|nith foure miles by southeast from Lintiue,Towie. and two from Lingonon, in a moorith ground foure & twen|tie miles from Caermardine, and in a forrest called Bishops forrest, midwaie betwixt Landwibreuie & Landanuerie castell. For fish, in my opinion, this is much better than the Taw or Taffe, whose head breedeth no fish, but if it be cast into it, they turne vp their bellies, flote aloft, and die out of hand. It par|teth Brecknoch from Cardigonshire also for a cer|teine season,Trausnant. till it come by the water of Trausnant, that falleth thereinto from by cast out of the confins of Brecknoch, vnto Pilin capell, and so to Istrode|fine,Tothee. where it méeteth with the Tothee that com|meth thither from Lhinuerwin where it riseth, and so through Rescoth forrest, vniting it selfe by the waie with the Pescotter,Pescotter. which mounting out of the ground in the edge of Cardigonshire, runneth along as a limit and march vnto the same, till it ioine with the Tothée, and both come togither beneath Istrode|fine into Towie, which we haue now in hand. After this confluence it commeth to Lhanuair Awbreie, Lanthowell, and Lanimphsrie, and here it receiueth two waters in one chanell, whereof the first is called Brane,Brane. the other GutherijcGutherijc. (which lieth more souther|lie of the two) and fall (as I said) into Towie be|neath Landonuereie, which runneth on till it méet with the first Dulesse that goeth by Lenurdie,Dulesse. then with the Morlais,Morlais. and these on the northwest. Certes the Brane is a pretie brooke rising two or thrée miles aboue Capell Newith, and descending by Lanbrane and Ustradwalter, it méeteth (I saie) with the Gu|therijc, whose head is west of Tridcastell in Breck|nochshire, and thereby it is not a little increased. But to proceed with the Towie, which being past Lanimphfrie and a rill that méeteth with the same, descending from northwest of Lanurdan, it taketh in the influences of diuerse waters in one chanell, of which the greatest is called Modewie, and thereof I find this description.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Modewie,Modewie. or (as some pronounce it) Mo|sheuie, riseth of two heads, which ioining aboue La|nihangle, the streame runneth on till it meet with the Cledoch on the left hand,Cledoch. procéeding also further to|ward Langadocke, it receiueth not far from thence the Sawtheie,Sawtheie. whose two heads descend from the blacke mounteines or east edge of Carmardine|shire (as mine information leadeth me.) After thisDulesse. 2. confluence the second Dulesse dooth meet with the Towie, whose head is in the hilles aboue Talthogaie abbeie, northwest from Langadocke full fiue miles: then comming downe by Landilovaur, Newton; Dinefar castell, and Golden groue,Dulesse. 3. it receiueth the third Dulesse from by north that commeth in by La|nihangle and Drislan castell,Cothie. and after that the Co|thie, whose race is somewhat long, and therefore his description not vtterlie to be passed ouer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Not farre from the head (which is three miles from Landanbreuie, vnder the hulke of Blame Icorne, a narrow passage, and therein manie heaps of stones) and somewhat beneath Lana Pinsent chappell, it ta|keth in the Turche becke that runneth thither from aboue Lanacroies:Turche. thence it goeth to Lansawell, Abergorlech, Breghuangothie, Lannigood, and so into Towie, which hasting forward by chappell De|wie, receiueth the Rauelthie from by north,Rauelthie. Gwilie. then the Gwilie from northwest, whose head is aboue Lanie Pinsent, and race by Canwell, Eluert, Comewilie, and Merling hill, as I haue often heard. After this confluence with the Gwilie, the Towie goeth to Ca|ermardine, then to Lanigang, then to Lanstephan, S. Ismaels, and so into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Next vnto the Towie is the Taue,Taue. whose head is in the blacke mounteines, as at the roots of Wren|ni vaur hill in Pembrookeshire, from whence it run|neth by Lanuurnach, Langludien, Lanualteg, and taking in the Dudderie from southwest,Dudderie. out of the same countie by Lanbederuelfraie, and Lindwie, it goeth to Eglesware chappell, beneath which it cros|seth the Marlais by north that runneth by Lanbedie and Whitland.Marlais. Thence meeting with one rill called Uenni,Uennie. as I take it, that commeth through Cardith forrest on the one side, and the CaireCaire. on the other that runneth into it west of Landowror, it hasteth to S. Clares,Carthkinnie. where it taketh in the Carthkinnie, or Barthkinnie (as Leland calleth it) and the GowGow. or Tow both in one chanell, of which the first riseth a|boue Capell Bettus, from whence it runneth by Talacouthe, Kilsant, and Langinnin, the other is|sueth out of the ground aboue Trologh Bettus, by Midrun, & ioining with the former a little aboue S. Clares, they run into the Taue, and from thence to Lanihangle, and betwéene it and Abercowen, ad|mitteth finallie the Gowen or Gow streame,Gowen. which comming likewise from the blacke mounteines, go|eth by Ebbernant, & so into the Taue, who directeth his course by Lancharne castell, and then into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next water that we come to is the Gwair,Gwair. which is but a small thing rising aboue Lambeder Uelfraie, and going from thence by east of castell Merhie hill, Cruinuier and Argwaire, it is not long yer it fall into the sea, and so we leaue Cairdinshire, and go ouer into Penbrooke. Then passed we by an other comming out of Rathe forrest called Coit Rathe, the water it selfe rising about Templeton. Thence leauing the Monkeston rocke, we came to Tenbie or Diubechie Piscood, and passing into the port betwéene the castell and S. Katharines rocke, we found it serued with two little backe waters,Brechnocke. of so small countenance, that they are not worthie of anie further talke to be spent in their descriptions: yet the one seemeth to be called Florence brooke, the other Fresto, Gunfreston standing betwéene them both, whereby their sight cannot perish. After this we passed betwéene Londie and an other Ilet or rocke lieng by northwest of the same,From Lon|die to Caldie thirtie miles. to Ludsop point, & so to Abertrewent, where I found a sillie fresh water named Trewend that riseth a mile or thereabout within the land.Trewent. From thence we went southwards by Brode hauen, till we came to S. Gowans point. Then gathering west and by north before we came at Shepe Iland, we found another fresh water, that riseth short of Kiriog Maharen, and running south of Uggarston, Windmill hill, or betwéene it and Castell Norton and Gupton, it holdeth on flat west all the waie till it come to the Ocean.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being passed this water, we cast about toward the northwest, by the Poptons and Pennar, till we EEBO page image 78 came to the Pennar mouth,Pennar. out of which the salt wa|ter issueth that in maner inuironneth Penbroke. From this (omitting sundrie salt créekes on both sides of the hauen, not appertinent to our purpose) we came to the fall of two waters in one chanell, aboue whose confluence Williamston parke standeth, and whereof one (a méere salt course) incloseth thrée parts of Carew castell. The other rising neere to Coit Rath forrest is a fresh, & going by Geffraiston, Creswell & Lawrenie, it leaueth the parke on the south side, & go|eth into the hauen after confluence with the former.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now come I to the two swords,Dugledu. or hauen of Mil|ford, whereinto two riuers direct their course from the northeast called Dugledu or the two swords,Cultell. and betwéene them both is a rill which they call also Cult|lell (that is to saie) the knife. Hereof riseth a merrie tale of a Welshman, that lieng in this place abroad all night in the cold weather, and peraduenture not verie well occupied, was demanded of his hostesse (where he did breake his fast the next morrow) at what inne he laie in the night precedent, bicause he came so soone to hir house yer anie of hir maids were vp? Oh good hostesse (quoth he) be contented, I laie to night in a dangerous estate, for I slept betweene two swords with a long knife at my heart; meaning indéed that he laie betwéene these two riuers, and his brest towards the south neere to the head of Cult|lell. But to passe ouer these iests. Here Leland spea|keth of a riuer called Gwilie,Gwilie. but where it riseth or falleth, he maketh no certeine report: wherefore it is requisit that I proceed according to my purpose.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The one of these swords is called Clotheie or Clo|thie, of which I find this short and breefe description.Clotheie. The Clothie riseth at the foot of Wrennie vaure hill and comming downe to Monachlodge, Langelman, Lannakeuen, and Egremond, it receiueth a rill from by northwest before it come at Lanhaddon ca|stell, which commeth from aboue the moore by Clar|baston and Bletherston, his head arising in the hill west of Mancloghaie, as Leland dooth informe me. Yer long also and beneath Lanhaddon it taketh in another on the cast side from Narbarth castell, com|ming by Robeston, then going by Eunaston, Sle|bach, Picton castell, Sister houses, Minware & Mar|theltwie, at Rise castell point west of Coit Kenles (as I haue béene informed) it taketh in the other sword,Dugledie. named Dugledie, wherof I read as followeth. The head of the Dugledie is somwhere at northwest, betwixt S. Laurences & S. Dugwels, from whence it runneth to Trauegarne, Redbaxton, & taking in a rill by the waie from Camrose at the west, it goeth to Hauerford or Hereford west, and there vniteth it selfe with a water, which peraduenture is the same that Leland called Gwilie.Gwilie. Certes it riseth short of Walton, and comming by S. Leonards chappell and Pendergest, it falleth I saie into the Dugledie, ouer against the towne of Hauerford or Herford west, but in Welsh Hulford; as Lhoid dooth set it downe. Be|neath Herford it taketh in another water from south west, whose head is short of S. Margarets chappell, and enterance betweene Harraldston and Herford, which Harraldstone receiueth the name of Harrald the successour of Edward the confessour as some call him, who was a gréeuous mall vnto the Britons that remained in the time of the said Edward; as I haue noted elsewhere. Then the Dugledie still descending taketh in the Frese frõ Fresethorpe, a rill of no great accompt, and therefore I go from it making hast vn|to Culthell, & omitting two rils betwéene it and the Clotheie on the southside, of no great weight and moment. The Cultlhell commeth into the Dugledie beneath Bolston, with a streight course from by north, of three or foure miles, rising by west of Sle|bach, and comming by Bowlston, after whose vnition with the aforesaid water, they run on as one till they méet with the Clothie, casting out by the waie sun|drie salt créekes, as the maine chanell dooth from thence foorth vntill it passe the Sandie hauen, the Dale rode (whither a sillie fresh rill commeth of small value) & be come about againe to the large Ocean.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Hauing thus shewed the courses of those few fresh waters that come to Milford hauen, we cast a|bout by the Blockehouse and S. Annes chappell to Gateholme Ile,Gateholme Ile. that lieth betwéene S. Annes and the Wilocke point, directlie ouer against Stocke|holmeStockeholme Ile. Iland that is situat further off into the sea, to|ward the southwest, and is full halfe so great as the Scalmeie that I elsewhere described. Betwéene the Willocke point also and the Scalmeie, directlie west is the Midland Ile,Midland Ile. full so great as the Gateholme.Gresholme. As for the two rocks that lie by north and south of the Scalmeie, of which the one is called the Yardland stone, the other Mewstone, it shall not be greatlie re|quisit to stand on their discourses, sith they are such as may hardlie be taken for Ilands, and euen in like sort we may iudge of S. Brides Ile, which is south|west of Calthrop rode, & likewise of the Gresholme, whereof I find this short description. The Gresholme lieth directlie west of Scalmeie, from whence if you saile thither on the south side, you must néeds passe by the Mewstone rocke: if on the north of Scalmeie, you must leaue the Yarland stone on your left hand. Wherto if you note well the situation of these Ilands alreadie named, and confer them with the Ramseie and S. Dauids land, you shall find them to produce as it were two dangerous points, including the Brid baie, wherein (notwithstanding the greatnesse) are 1000 perils, and no fresh brookes for me to deale withall. Finallie, hauing doubled the Willocke point, we thought it not good altogether to leaue that baie vnsearched, at lestwise to sée what Ilands might there be found, & long entred into the same, we beheld one which the men of the countrie call S. Brides I|land,S. Brides Iland. a verie little place and situate néere the land, be|fore I came at Galtroie rode. From thence we went about by the little hauen, Doluach hauen, Caruaie hauen, Shirelace rocke, Carnbuddie, and Earnaie baies, Portelais, and so into the found betwéene Ramseie and the point. In this sound likewise is a little Ile, almost annexed to the maine: but in the middest thereof, I meane of the sound, is a rocke called the horsse (a mile and more by north of Ribbie rocke, that lieth south east of Ramseie) and more in|fortunate than ten of Seians colts, but thanked be God I neuer came on his backe.A fort of dan|gerous rocks lieng on a row vpon the west end of South|wales called the Bishop & his clerkes. Thence passing by S. Stephans, and Whitesand baies, we saluted the Bishop and his clerks, as they went in procession on our left side (being loth to take anie salted holie wa|ter at their hands) and came at last to the point cal|led S. Dauids head, which Ptolomie calleth Octapita|num promontorium, except I be deceiued. But here gentle reader giue me leaue to staie a while, and in|sert the words of Leland touching the land called S. Dewies or S. Dauids land, whereof some men may peraduenture haue vse, his words are these. Being therefore past this hauen and point of Demetia, in casting about the coast we come to S. Dewies or S. Dauids land,S. Dewie or Dauid a [...] one, which Ptolomie calleth Octapitanum pro|montorium, I read to be separated from the rest of the countrie much after this maner, although I grant that there may be and are diuerse other little creekes betwixt Newgale and S. Dauids head, and betwixt S. Dauids and Fischard, beside those that are héere mentioned out of a register of that house.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 As we turne therefore from Milford, S. Dauids land beginneth at Newgale, a créeke serued with a backe fresh water. Howbeit there is a baie before this creeke betwixt it and Milford. From hence a|bout EEBO page image 79 foure miles is Saluach creeke, otherwise called. Sauerach,Saluach. whither some fresh water resorteth: the mouth also thereof is a good rescue for balingers, as it (I meane the register) saith. Thence go we to Por|telais three miles,Portelais. where is a little portlet, whither the AlenAlen. that commeth through saint Dewies close dooth run. It lieth a mile southwest from S. Dewies, saint Stinans Chappell also is betwéene Portelais, and Portmaw.Portmaw Maw. The next is Port Maw, where I found a great estuarie into the land. The PendwiePendwie. halfe a mile from that: Lhand UehanLannuehan. is thrée miles from Pendwie,Tredine. where is a salt créeke, then to Tre|dine three miles, where is another creeke to Langun|da, foure miles,Langunda. and another créeke is there in like sort where fishermen catch herrings. Héere also the Gwerne riuer diuideth Penbidiane from Fischer|dine Kemmeis land.Fischard. From Langunda to Fischard at the GwerneGwerne. mouth foure miles, and here is a portlet or hauenet also for ships. And thus much of S. Dauids land.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Besides this also, Leland in a third booke talketh of lhinnes and pooles, but for asmuch as my purpose is not to speake of lakes and lhinnes, I passe them ouer as hasting to Teifie, in Latine Tibius, and af|ter Ptolomie Tuerobius or Tiuirobius, which is the next riuer that serueth for my purpose. And yet not forgetting to touch the Gwerne, for after we came from saint Dauids head, we coasted along toward the southeast, till wée came ouer against saint Catha|rins, where going northwards by the bread hauen, and the Strombles head, we sailed thence northeast, and by north, to Langlas head, then flat south by the Cow and Calfe (two cruell rockes) which we left on the left hand, & so coasted ouer to Abergwin or Fis|chard,Gwerne. where we found a fresh water named Guin, or Gwerne, whose course is in maner directlie out of the east into the west, from Uremie hils by pont Uaunt and Lanichair, vntill it come within a mile of the foresaid towne. It riseth flat north of the Per|selie hill, from whence it goeth by Pont vaine, Laue|rillidoch, Lanchar, Landilouair, & so to Abergwine, or Abergwerne, for I read both. From Abergwine, we cast about by Dinas head, till we come to the fall of Neuerne,Neuerne. where Newport standeth. The head of this riuer is aboue Capell Nantgwin, from whence it runneth by Whitchurch, but yer it come at Kilgwin, it taketh in a little water that riseth short of Wrenie vaure, and thence go foorth as one vntill they come to Newport. Cardigan hauen is the next fall that I did stumble on, wherein lieth a litle Iland ouer against the north point. Hereinto also commeth the Teifie,Teifie or Tine. a noble riuer which riseth in Lintinie, and is fraught with delicate samons, and herein and not else where in all the riuers of Britaine, is the Castor or Beuer to be found. But to procéed. The verie hed thereof (I saie) is foure miles aboue Stradflore in Luitie, and after it hath run from thence a little space, it receiueth a brooke from southeast that com|meth out of Lin Legnant, and then after the conflu|ence runneth on to Stradflore abbeie, beneth which it méeteth with the Miricke waterMiricke. (that riseth aboue Stradmirich) and soone after with the LandurchLandurch. (both from the northwest) and finallie the Bremich aboue Tregaron, that commeth in by the east; as Leland hath set downe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Néere to Landwibreuie also it crosseth the Bro|mis by east northeast,Bromis. and then goeth to Landuair, Cledogh,Matherne. Kellan, and soone after taking in the Ma|therne from by east, that parteth Cardigan partlie from Carmardine shire,Dulas. and likewise that Dulas a|boue Lanbedder (which riseth aboue Langibbie, and goeth thence to Bettus) on the northwest, it goeth next of all to Lanbedder towne, then to Laniuair, beneath which it crosseth the Grauelth,Grauelth. thence to Pencarocke, Lanibether, Lanlonie, Lanihangle, and Sandissell, and there it vniteth it selfe with the Clethor or Dettor,Clethor. which commeth downe thither by Lantisilued chappell, Lanfraine, and finallie Landis|sell from by north, as I doo here affirme. After this confluence it procéedeth on to Landuaie, Alloine, Bangor, Langeler, Landeureog and Newcastell, yer long taking in the Kerie from by north,Kerie. whose head is not farre from that of Clethor, and whose course is somewhat inlarged by such rilles as des|cend into the same. For west of Kenwith two becks in one chanell doo fall into it, which be namelesse, and but of a little length.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Beneath Tredwair also it crosseth another from by west, that runneth along by Bettus, Euan, and fi|nallie méeting with the Teifie, they run as one by Kennarth (still parting Cardigon shire from Car|mardin, as it hath doone sith it met with the Ma|therne) and so forth on till they ioine with the Cheach,Cheach. which rising southeast aboue chappell Euan, dooth part Carmardine and Brechnocke shire in sunder, till it come vnto the Teifie. From this confluence, and being still a limit vnto Cardigon shire, it goeth by Marierdine, and so to Cardigon, taking in one rill from by north descending by Penneralt, by north of Monardiue or Marierdiue, and two other from by southwest, of which the one commeth in be|neath Kilgaron castell, the other from Lantwood northwest of Oswid Mortemer, which lieth southeast of Cardigan, and then going forward betwéene S. Dogmaile, & Langordinere, it is not long yer it fall into the Irish sea, flat west and by north from his vprise, and sending vs forth from Penlooke into Cardigon shire, wherevnto it hath become march e|uer sithence it came from Kellam, or confluence with the Matherne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Being come into Cardigon shire, and hauing passed the Cardigon point, an Iland of the same de|nomination lieng by west thereof, we came vnto the fall of Airon thrée miles beneath Lancleere,Airon. it riseth in the mounteines by a chappell called Blam Peni|all belonging to Landwie breuie about thrée or foure miles from Tiue banks, & runneth on by Lamber|wooddie, Langitho, Tregrigaron hill, Treuilian, Talaferne, and soone after taking in a rill from by south from Siliam by Lanleir it runneth by Istrade, Kilkennen, Lanicharin, and finallie into the sea, crossing by the waie the Bidder brooke, which com|ming from Dehewide,Bidder. dooth fall into the same, be|twéene Lanchairin, and Henuenneie.Arth. The Arth which is the next fall is no great thing, neither of a|nie long course, yet somewhat crotched, and it riseth three or foure miles or more within the land slope|wise, and comming by Lambaderne, and Treue|glois, it falleth into the sea, northeast of Aberarth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Being past the Arth, & hauing staied there a while bicause we found some harborough, we came next of all vnto the Wereie, which riseth of two heads,Ris aliàs Wereie. aboue whose confluence standeth a towne, named Lani|hangle, Redrod, and from whence it goeth by Lani|gruthen to Laristed, & so into the Ocean. Then went we to the Ystwith, which riseth in the blacke moun|teins aboue Comerstwith, from whence it runneth certeine miles,Istwith. vntill it come vnto Ispittie, Istwith, Lananon, Laniler, Lan Nachairne, and so into the sea, taking withall first the Meleuen, then the Ridall or Redholl not farre from the shore,Redholl. whereof I haue this description. The Ridall riseth in the top of Plim|limmon hill out of a lake named Lin Ridall, from whence going toward Spittie Kinwen, it crosseth one water on the north, and another beneth it on the southeast, and so goeth on by Lanbeder vaure, till it come to Aberistwith, the Istwith, and so into the O|cean. Hauing thus viewed the Istwith, and taken EEBO page image 80 our selues againe to the sea, we crossed the Salke or Salique brooke,Salique. whereof I find this memoriall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Salique brooke descendeth in like sort from the blacke mounteins, & going from Ummaboue, toward Gogarth, or Gogirthar, it receiueth the Mas|salique,Massalique. and from thence goeth into the sea, southwest from his originall. From hence we went to the Le|rie, an indraught of no great quantitie,Lerie. neither com|modious as I gesse (yet I may be deceiued) for anie ship to harborough in. It riseth toward the lower ground of the blacke hils, and going by Lanthangle castell Gwalter, it runneth from thence northeast in|to the Ocean, receiuing a rill by the waie from the hilles which lie by northeast of his course. But what stand I vpon trifles?

Thus haue I brought my selfe out of Caerdigan shire vnto the Wie,Wie. which is limit betwéene it and Merioneth for a certeine space, & being entred in the mouth thereof we gat vp to the head, minding in the description of the same to come downeward as in the rest, which we will doo in such good manner as for the time and want of some information is pos|sible to be performed. It ariseth in the south part of Snowdonie and goeth on foorth right to Lammoth|wie, by Mowdhewie, Mathan laith, and comming downe to Dinas Mathew, it receiueth two rilles from northwest, and the third comming by Mailroid called Cludoch from northeast, & so holdeth on cros|sing the Angell water at the west, which boundeth Mongomerie shire in part,Romis. till it come to Romis, be|neath which water it taketh in the Towin that pas|seth by Lambrin mawr from Talgarth, and then go|eth to Mathrauerue, crossing another from by north and so foorth to Lanworing, where it méeteth with the Kerig on the one side, and the Gwidall which com|meth from Dorowen on the other.

After this, our maine riuer goeth by Pen|gos, and beneath the same taketh in an influence from southeast, called the Dulas, and another from the northwest from thence it hasteth on to Ma|genillet, or Machenlet, first crossing the Leuennie from southeast, secondlie the Peniall from north|west, thirdlie the Einon, fourthlie the Kinar, fiftlie the Cleidor, these thrée last rehearsed falling into it from southeast, & the last hauing his course by Lan|gwinhelin and so into the sea, as mine instruction vpholdeth. It séemeth in some mens iudgements to part Northwales and Westwales in sunder, and the same which in Latine hight Deuus, in Welsh or Bri|tish Dift or Dewie, whereof the Latine doth séeme to fetch his sound. But to procéed with the rest of such falles and waters as are to be found in this countie. Going therfore northwestward we come to a fall frõ the north called Towen Merionneth which is the mouth of the Difonnie streame, a pretie riuer rising in the hilles aboue Lanihangle, and west of castell Traherne receiueth the Ridrijc, which commeth from Chadridrtjc hill, by Tallillin castell, Treherie, and so into the Difonnie from southeast, fetching his course by Lanegrin, and so into the sea within fiue miles thereof.

Being past this we did cast about by the Sarna|bigh point, till we came to the Lingouen becke, and so to the Barre, which is a faire water, and therefore worthie to be with diligence described, yet it is not called Bar from the head, but rather Moth or Derie, for so are the two chiefe heads called out of which this riuer descendeth, and are about six miles west of the Lin, out of which the Dée hath his issue, and betwéene which the Raran vaure hilles are situat and haue their being. After the ioining of the two heds of this Barre, as I name it from the originall, it receiueth a rill from northeast called Cain, & another beneath the same, comming from Beurose wood, and so hol|deth on towards the south betweene Laniltid and Kemmor abbaie, till it meet a little by west of Dol|gelth with the Auon vaure, which comming also out of the Woodland soile, & taking in a rill from Gwan|nas, hasteth northwestward (by Dolgelth) to ioine with the Barre, and being met they receiue the Kes|silgunt, then the Hirgun, & after a course of foure to fiue miles it falleth into the sea, hauing watered the verie hart & inward parts of this shire. From hence we crosse the Skethie which runneth by Corsogdale and Lanthwie, aliàs Lanthonie, then the Lambader which receiuing the Artro aboue Lambader, doth fall into the sea, southeast of the point, and flat south of Landango, which is a towne situat on the other side of the turning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this we passed by Aberho, so named of the riuer Ho,Ho. that falleth there into the sea, and commeth thither from the Alpes or hils of Snowdonie, moun|teins, no lesse fertile for grasse, wood, cattell, fish and foule, than the famous Alpes beyond the seas, where|of all the writers doo make so honorable report. From hence we sailed by Abermawr or mouth of Mawr,Mawr. which commeth in like sort from Snowdonie, and taketh diuerse riuers with him whose names I doo not know.Artro. Then vnto the Artro a brooke, whose head commeth from by north east, and in his course receiueth the Gedar on the north side, and so holdeth on till it fall into the sea, after a few windlesses which it maketh as it passeth. After this we come to Traith vehan, which is the fall of the Drurid, a pretie riuer comming from the marches of Caernaruon|shire, which passing by Festimog, soone after taketh in the Cunwell, then the Uelenrid; and so holdeth on to Deckoin, where it falleth into the said Traith. For of the other two rilles that lie by south hereof, and haue their issue also into the same, I make but small accompt, bicause their quantitie is not great. Next vnto this we haue Traith mawr, whereinto the Farles hath his issue,Farles. a riuer proceeding from Snowdonie or the Snowdon hils, descending by Bethkelerke and Lanwrothen, without mixture of anie other water in all his course and passage. It is parcell of the march also betwéene Merioneth and Caernaruon shires. From Traith mawr we passe by the Krekith, and come to another water descend|ing from the north by Lanstidwie, and after that to the Moie, whose mouthes are so néere togither, that no more than halfe a mile of the land dooth seeme to kéepe them in sunder.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then come we vnto the Erke,Erke. a pretie brooke descending from Madrtjn hils, into whose mouth two other of no lesse quantitie than it selfe doo séeme to haue their confluence, and whose courses doo come a|long from the west and northwest; the most souther|lie being called Girch, and the other the Hellie: ex|cept my memorie doo faile me. Then casting about toward the south (as the coast lieth) we saw the Aber|soch or mouth of the Soch riuer vpon our right hand,Soch. in the mouth whereof, or not farre by south thereof lie two Ilands, of which the more northerlie is called Tudfall, and the other Penrtjn: as Leland did obserue. I would set downe the British names of such townes and villages as these waters passe by; but the writing of them (for want of the lan|guage) is so hard to me, that I choose rather to shew their falles and risings, than to corrupt their denomi|nations in the writing: and yet now and then I vse such words as our Englishmen doo giue vnto some of them, but that is not often, where the British name is easie to be found out and sounded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, going about by the point, and leauing Gwelin Ile on the right hand, we come to Daron riuer,Daron. wherevpon standeth Aberdaron a quarter of a mile from the shore betwixt Aberdaron and Uorti|gernes EEBO page image 81 vale, where the compasse of the sea gathereth in a head, and entereth at both ends. Then come we about the point to Edarne becke,Edarne beck. a mile and more south of Newin. And ten or twelue miles from hence is the Uennie brooke, whose course is little aboue so manie miles; and not farre from it is the Liuan, a farre lesse water, comming also from the east: and next vnto that another, wherinto the Willie by south and the Carrog by north after their coniunction doo make their common influence. Hauing passed this riuer, we cast about toward the north east, and enter at Abermenaie ferrie, into the streicts or streame called Menaie, betweene Angleseie and the maine, méeting first of all with the Gornaie, which commeth from the Snowdonie out of the Treuennian lake, and passeth by Lanunda into the sea or Menaie streame at South crocke. Next of all we meet with the Saint, which commeth from Lin Lanbereie, pas|seth by Lanihangle, and so falleth into the Me|naie at Abersaint, which is on the southwest side of Caernaruon: on the other side also of the said towne is the Skeuernocke, whereby it standeth betweene two riuers, of which this hath his head not farre from Dinas Orueg.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then come we (saith Leland) to Gwiniwith mi|rith (or Horsse brooke) two miles from Moilethon, and it riseth at a Well so called full a mile from thence. Moilethon is a bowe shot from Aberpowle, from whence ferrie botes go to the Termone or Angleseie. Aberpowle runneth thrée miles into the land,Conte. and hath his head foure miles beyond Bangor in Me|neie shore: and here is a little comming in for botes bending into the Meneie.Gegeine. Aber Gegeine commeth out of a mounteine a mile aboue,Torronnen. and Bangor (tho|rough which a rill called Torronnen hath his course) almost a mile aboue it. Aber Ogwine is two miles aboue that;Ogwine. it riseth at Tale linne, Ogwine poole, fiue miles aboue Bangor in the east side of Wi|thow. Aber Auon is two miles aboue Aberogwene,Auon. and it riseth in a poole called Lin man Auon, thrée miles off.Lannar Uehan. Auon lan var Uehan riseth in a moun|teine therby, and goeth into the sea, two miles aboue Duegeuelth.Duegeuelth. Auon Duegeuelth is three miles aboue Conweie, which rising in the mounteins a mile off, goeth by it selfe into Meneie salt arme. On the said shore also lieth Conweie, and this riuer dooth run be|twixt Penmaine Maur, and Penmaine Uehan. It riseth about three miles from Penmaclon hils which lie about sixtie miles from Conweie abbeie, now dis|solued out of a lake called Lin Conweie, and on the north and west of this riuer standeth the towne of Conweie, which taketh his name thereof.

This riuer (which Ptolomie calleth Toesobius, Téec. as I take it) after the deriuation thereof from the head, passeth on the west side by Spittieuan and Tiherio, beneath which it taketh in a streame comming from the east out of Denbighshire, deriued from thrée heads, and of the greatest called Nag. Soone after also another, and then the third, which commeth in from the west by Lanpen Mawr: next of all the Le|der on the same side, which commeth by Dolathelan castell: and aboue that from a Lin of the same deno|mination. Beneath this and selfe hand lieth like|wise the Ligow or Ligwie,Ligow. proceeding from two lakes, that is, the Mumber and the Ligow. On the right hand as we still descend, is the Coid, then the Glin, & a little lower we méet with the Lin Ge|rioneth: and after we be past another on the right side, we come to the Perloid, which commeth out of Lin Cowlid, to the Ygan, to the Idulin, to the castell Water on the left, & then to the Melandider on the right, without the sight of anie other, till we come almost to Conweie, where we find a notched streame comming from by west, and called Guffen or Gyffin into the same by one chanell on the norrtheast side of the towne, beneath Guffin or Gyffin, and ouer a|gainst Lansanfraid in Denbighshire; so farre as I now remember. Some part of Carnaruonshire stretcheth also beyond Aber Conweie, or the fall of Conweie,Ormeshed. & it is called Ormeshed point, wherein al|so is a rill, whose fall into the sea is betwéene Penrin and Landright. And thus we haue made an end of the chéefe waters which are to be found in this countie.

The next is a corner of Denbigh, by which we doo as it were step ouer into Flintshire, and whose first water is not great, yet it commeth from south|west, and falleth into the north or Irish sea called Virginium, beneath Landilas; as the next that commeth south from Bettas dooth the like thrée miles beneath Abergele,Gele. and is not onelie called Gele (as the name it selfe importeth) but also noted to take his course through the Canges. Hauing thus gone ouer the angle of Denbighshire, that lieth betwéene those of Carnaruon and Flint, we come next of all vnto Aber Cluide, or the fall of Clotha or Glota, which is a streame not to be shortlie intreated of. It riseth a|mong certeine hilles, which lie not far distant from the confines of Merioneth and Denbighshires. Southeast from his fall, and hauing run foure or fiue miles from the head, it commeth about to Darwen, taking in the Maniton on the left hand,Maniton. and the Mes|pin on the right: and soone after the third from by|west, whose head is not farre from Gloucanocke. Beneath Ruthen also it taketh in the Leueneie: and after that another, and the third, all on the right hand,Cluedoch. and so holdeth on till it méet with the Clue|doch, then with the Ystrade, which passeth by Whit|church on the left hand. After which we come to the Whéeler on the right, and so to his ioining with the Elwie, which is beneath S. Asaphes, a bishops sée that is inuironed with them both.Elwie. This Elwie ri|seth aboue Gwitherne, & beneath Lanuair taketh in the Alode, which commeth from lin Alode, by Lan|fannan, and ioineth with him fiue miles beneath Langrenew. The Cluda therefore and the Elwie being met, the confluence passeth on to the sea by Rutland castell, where it taketh in the Sarne, which commeth from by east, and hath a course almost of sixteene miles. From hence we tooke sea toward the Dée mouth: and as we passed by the rest of the shore, we saw the fall of a little brooke néere Basing Werke, of another néere to Flint, of the third at Yowleie castell, which with his two armes in maner includeth it; and the fourth beneath Hawarden hold, which in like sort goeth round about the same, & from whence we came to the Dée, where we landed and tooke vp our lodging in Chester. In this place also it was no hard matter to deliuer & set downe the names of such riuers and streames as are also to be found in Angleseie, finding my selfe to haue some leasure and fit opportunitie for the same: and i|magining a iourneie thither also, as vnto the other places mentioned in this description, whither as yet it hath not béene my hap to trauell: I thought it not amisse to take it also in hand, and performe it after this maner.

Ferrieng therefore ouer out of Carnaruon|shire to Beaumarise, I went by land without cros|sing of anie riuer or streame worthie memorie, till I came to the Brant, which hath his fall not farre from the southest point of that Iland. This Brant riseth farre vp in the land, not farre from Lauredenell, and holding on his course southward to Lanthoniell Uaall, it goeth on to Bodoweruch, Langainwen, and so into the sea.

The next fall we came vnto was called Maltrath, and it is producted by the confluence of two riuers, EEBO page image 82 the Geuennie and the Gint, who ioine not farre from Langrestoll. This also last rehearsed hath his head neere to Penmoneth, the other being forked riseth in the hillie soile aboue Tregaion and Langwithlog: so that part of the Iland obteineth no small commodi|tie and benefit by their passage. Next vnto this we came vnto the Fraw,Fraw. whose head is neere to Langi|newen, and passage by Cap Maer; after which it falleth into a lake, from whence it goeth east of Aber|fraw, and so into the sea. The next riuer hath no name to my knowledge: yet hath it a longer course than that which I last described. For it riseth two or thrée miles aboue Haneglosse: and passing from thence to Treualghmaie, after the descent of foure miles, it falleth into the sea. After this we came to an other, which riseth more to Cap legan ferwie, and falleth in|to the sea; southeast of the little Iland, which is called Ynis Wealt, it is namelesse also as the other was: and therefore hauing small delight to write thereof, we passed ouer the salt créeke by a bridge into Cair Kibie, which by the same, is as it were cut from the maine Iland, and in some respect not vn|worthie to be taken for an Ile. In the north side therefore of Cair Kibie is a little rill or créeke: but whether the water thereof be fresh or salt, as yet I doo not remember.

This place being viewed, I came backe againe by the aforesaid bridge, into the maine of Angleseie, and going northwards I find a fall inforced by thrée riuerets, each one hauing his course almost south from other; and the last falling into the confluence of the two first, not halfe a mile from the west, where I first espied the streame: the name of the most nor|therlie is Linon,Linon. of the second Allo;Allo. but the third is altogither namelesse for aught that I can learne, wherefore it shall not be necessarie to spend anie time in the further searching of his course. Being past this, we went northwards till we came to the point, and then going eastward, we butted vpon the fall of a certeine confluence growing by the ioining of the Nathanon and the Geger, which méet beneath and néere to the Langechell. And after the same we pas|sed on somewhat declining southward by the Hilla|rie point, toward the southeast, till we came to the Dulesse: and from thence to Pentraeth water: af|ter which we turned northward, then eastward; and finallie southward, till we came to Langurdin; from whence vnto Beaumarise (where began our voiage) we find not anie water worthie to be re|membred. And thence I go forward with the descrip|tion of the Dee.

The Dee or Deua (as Ptolomie calleth it) is a noble riuer,Dée or Deua. & breeder of the best trout, whose head is in Me|rioneth shire, about thrée miles aboue the lake, situate in the countie of Penthlin, and called Lin Tegnis, whose streame yet verie small, by reason of the short|nesse of his course, falleth into the said lake, not far from Lanullin. There are sundrie other waters which come also into the said lake, which is foure or flue miles in length, and about two miles ouer; as one from by south, whose fall is east, and not manie fur|longs from the Dee: another hath his issue into the same by Langower: the third on the north side of Lanullin, named Leie: the fourth at Glanlintegid called the Iauerne, the lake it selfe ending about Bala,Trowerin. and from thence running into the Trowerin, a pretie streame, and not a little augmented by the Kelme and Monach which fall by north into the same, and ioineth with the Dée south of Lanuair; from whence forth it looseth the name, and is afterward cal|led Dée. East of Bala in like sort, it receiueth the Ruddoch, then the Cleton, and so passing on by Land|right to Langar,Ruddoch. it méeteth with a confluence pro|céeding from the Alwen and the Giron,Cleton. of which this riseth in the hils aboue Langham, the other in the mounteins about fiue or six miles by northwest of Lanihangle in Denbighshire, where (as I gesse) it falleth into the ground; and afterward rising againe betwéene Lanihangle and Bettus, it holdeth on a|bout two miles, and then ioineth with the Giron, full six miles aboue Dole, and before it come to the Dee. From hence the Dee goeth by Lansanfraid, and the marches of Merioneth into Denbighshire, and so to Langellon, Dinas, Bren, &c: kéeping his course by certeine windlesses;Gristioneth. till he receiue the Gristioneth, descending by Ru [...]bon, then another est of the same; the third,Keriog. from by west called Keriog (whose head is not farre from the bounds of Merioneth and course by Lanarmon, Lansanfraid, and Chirke) the fourth from south east out of Shropshire, called Morlais, and so passeth as bounds betwéene Denbighshire, and the Outliggand of Flintshire, to wit by Bistocke on the one side and Bangor on the other, till it come to Worthenburie: whereabout it receiueth a chanell descending from foure influences, of which one com|meth by Penlie chappell, the second from Hamnere, which goeth downe by Emberhall, and falleth in a little by east of the other; the third from Blackmere (by Whitchurch) &c: and the fourth from betwéene Chad and Worsall. These two later méeting aboue nether Durtwich, doo hold on to Talerne, as mine information instructeth me.

From Wrothenburie the Dee goeth northwest|wards toward Shocklige, méeting by the waie with the confluence of the CluedochCluedoch. (or Dedoch originall mother to those trouts for which the Dée is commen|ded) and descendeth from Capell Moinglath) and the Gwinrogh,Gwinrogh. that runneth through Wrexham, both ioining a mile and more beneath Wrexham, not far from Hantwerne. Soone after also our maine riuer receiueth another becke from by east, which is bound on the northwest side to the Outliggand of Flint|shire, and so passeth on betwéene Holt castell and Ferneton, Almere and Pulton, as march betwéene Denbighshire and Cheshire, and then taketh in the Alannus or Alen;Alannus. a pretie riuer and worthie to be described. The head of this Alen the refore is in Den|bighshire, and so disposed that it riseth in two seue|rall places, ech being two miles from other, the one called Alen Mawr, the other Alen Uehan, as I doo find reported. They méet also beneath Landegleie, and run northwards till they come beyond Lanuer|res, where meeting with a rill comming from by west, it runneth on to the Mold to Horsheth, and so in and out to Greseford, taking the Cagidog from southwest with it by the waie; then to Traue Alen, and so into the Dée, a mile and more aboue the fall of Powton becke, which also descendeth from south|west out of Flintshire, and is march vnto the same, euen from the verie head. After which confluence the Dée hauing Chestershire on both sides, goeth to Ald|ford with a swift course, where it méeteth with the Beston brooke, whereof I doo find this description following.

The Beston water riseth in the wooddie soile be|twéeneBeston. Spruston and Beston castell with a forked head, and leauing Beston towne on the northeast, it goeth to Tarneton, and to Hakesleie, where it di|uideth it selfe in such wise, that one branch thereof runneth by Totnall, Goldburne, and Léehall, to Alford, and so into the Dée, the other by Stapleford, Terwine, Barrow, Picton, and Therton, where it brancheth againe, sending foorth one arme by Stan|neie poole, and the parke side into Merseie arme, toward the northwest, and another by southwest, which commeth as it were backe againe, by Stoke, Croughton, Backeford, Charleton, Upton, the Baites, and so vnder a bridge to Chester ward, EEBO page image 83 where it falleth into the Dée arme at Flockes brooke, excluding Wirall on the northwest as an Iland, which lieth out like a leg betwéene the Merseie and the Dée armes, and including and making another fresh Iland within the same, whose limits by north|west are betwéene Thorneton, Chester, & Aldford, on the northeast Thorneton and Hakesleie, and on the southeast Hakesleie and Aldford, whereby the forme thereof dooth in part resemble a triangle.
And thus much of the Dee, which is a troublesome streame when the wind is at southwest, and verie dangerous, in so much that few dare passe thereon. Sometimes also in haruest time it sendeth downe such store of water, when the wind bloweth in the same quarter, that it drowneth all their grasse and corne that gro|weth in the lower grounds néere vnto the bankes thereof. Certes it is about thrée hundred foot, at his departure from the Tignie, and worthilie called a litigious streame; because that by often alteration of chanell, it inforceth men to séeke new bounds vnto their lands, for here it laieth new ground, and there translateth and taketh awaie the old, so that there is nothing more vnconstant than the course of the said water. Of the monasterie Bangor also, by which it passeth after it hath left Orton bridge, I find this note, which I will not omit, because of the slaughter of monks made sometime néere vnto the same. For although the place require it not, yet I am not willing altogither to omit it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This abbeie of Bangor stood sometime in Eng|lish Mailor,The situation of ye monaste|rie of Bangor. by hither and south of the riuer Dée. It is now ploughed ground where that house stood, by the space of a Welsh mile (which reacheth vnto a mile and an halfe English) and to this day the tillers of the soile there doo plow vp bones (as they saie) of those monks that were slaine in the quarrell of Au|gustine, and within the memorie of man some of them were taken vp in their rotten weeds, which were much like vnto those of our late blacke monks, as Leland set it downe: yet Erasmus is of the opini|on, that the apparell of the Benedictine monks was such as most men did weare generallie at their first institution. But to proceed. This abbeie stood in a val|leie, and in those times the riuer ran hard by it. The compasse thereof likewise was as the circuit of a walled towne, and to this daie two of the gates may easilie be discerned, of which the one is named Port Hogan lieng by north, the other Port Clais situat vpon the south. But the Dée hauing now changed his chanell, runneth through the verie middest of the house betwixt those two gates, the one being at the left a full halfe mile from the other. As for the squa|red stone that is found hereabout, and the Romane coine, there is no such necessitie of the rehersall ther|of, but that I may passe it ouer well inough without anie further mention.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being past the Dée we sailed about Wirall, pas|sing by Hibrie or Hilbrée Iland, and Leuerpole, Nasse, making our entrie into Merseie arme by Le|uerpole hauen, where we find a water falling out be|twéene Seacombe and the Ferie, which dooth in ma|ner cut off the point from the maine of Wirall. For rising néere to the northwest shore, it holdeth a course directlie toward the southeast by Wallaseie and Po|ton, and so leaueth all the north part beyond that wa|ter a peninsula, the same being three square, inuiro|ned on two sides with the Ocean, & on the third with the aforesaid brooke, whose course is well néere three miles except I be deceiued. Frõ hence entring fur|ther into the hauen, we find another fall betwéene Bebington and Brombro chappell, descending from the hilles, which are seene to lie not farre from the shore, and thence crossing the fall of the Beston wa|ter, we come next of all vnto the Wiuer,Wiuer. than the which I read of no riuer in England that fetcheth more or halfe so many windlesses and crinklings, before it come at the sea. It riseth at Buckle hilles, which lie betwéene Ridleie and Buckle townes, and soone after making a lake of a mile & more in length called Ridleie poole, it runneth by Ridleie to Chal|mondlie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thence it goeth to Wrenburie, where it taketh in a water out of a moore that commeth from Marbu|rie: and beneth Sandford bridge the Combrus from Combermer or Comber lake:Combrus. and finallie the third that commeth from about Moneton, and runneth by Langerslaw, then betweene Shenton and Atherlie parkes, and so into the Wiuer, which watereth all the west part of England, and is no lesse notable than the first Auon or third Duze, whereof I haue spoken alreadie. After these confluences it hasteth also to Audlem, Hawklow, and at Barderton crosseth the Betleie water,Betleie. that runneth by Duddington, Wid|denberie, and so by Barderton into the aforesaid streame. Thence it goeth to Nantwich, but yer it come at Marchford bridge, it meeteth with a rill cal|led Salopbrooke (as I gesse) comming from Caluer|leie ward,Salop. and likewise beneath the said bridge,Lée and Wul|uarne. with the Lée and the Wuluarne both in one chanell, wher|of the first riseth at Weston, the other goeth by Cop|nall. From thence the Wiuer runneth on to Min|chion and Cardeswijc, and the next water that fal|leth into it is the AsheAshe. (which passeth by Darnall Grange) and afterward going to Warke, the vale Roiall, and Eaton, it commeth finallie to North|wich where it receiueth the Dane, to be described as followeth.Dane. The Dane riseth in the verie edges of Chester, Darbishire, & Staffordshire, and comming by Warneford, Swithamleie and Bosleie, is a li|mit betwéene Stafford and Darbie shires, almost e|uen from the verie head, which is in Maxwell forrest.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It is not long also yer it doo méet with the Bidle water,Bidle. that commeth by Congerton, and after the confluence goeth vnto Swetham, the Heremitage, Cotton and Croxton, there taking in two great waters,Whelocke. whereof the one is called Whelocke, which comming from the edge of the countie by Morton to Sandbach, crosseth another that descendeth from church Cawhlton, and after the confluence goeth to Warmingham, ioining also beneath Midlewish with the Croco or Croxston, the second great water, whose head commeth out of a lake aboue Bruerton (as I heare) and thence both the Whelocke and the Croco go as one vnto the Dane,Croco. at Croxton, as the Dane dooth from thence to Bostocke, Dauen|ham, Shebruch, Shurlach, and at Northwich into the foresaid Wiuer. After this confluence the Wiuer runneth on to Barneton, and there in like sort recei|ueth two brookes in one chanell, whereof one com|meth from aboue Allostocke, by Holme & Lastocke, the other from beyond Birtles mill,Piuereie. by Chelford (where it taketh in a rill called Piuereie) thence to ouer Peuer,Waterlesse. Holford, and there crossing the Water|lesse brooke (growing of two becks and ioining at nether Tableie) it goeth foorth to Winshambridge, and then méeting with the other, after this conflu|ence they procéed till they come almost at Barne|ton, where the said chanell ioineth with a pretie water running thorough two lakes, whereof the greatest lieth betwéene Comberbach, Rudworth and Marbu|rie. But to go forward with the course of the maine riuer. After these confluences our Wiuer goeth to Warham, Actonbridge, and Dutton, ouer against which towne, on the other side it méeteth with a rill, comming from Cuddington: also the second going by Norleie, and Gritton, finallie the third soone after from Kimfleie, and then procéedeth on in his passage by Asheton chappell, Frodesham, Rockesauage, and EEBO page image 84 so into the sea: and this is all that I doo find of the Wiuer, whose influences might haue beene more largelie set downe, if mine iniunctions had béene amplie deliuered, yet this I hope may suffice for his description, and knowledge of his course.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Merseie riseth among the Peke hils,Merseie. and from thence going downe to the Woodhouse, and taking sundrie rilles withall by the waie, it becommeth the confines betwéene Chester and Darbishires. Go|ing also toward Goitehall,Goite. it méeteth with a faire brooke increased by sundrie waters called Goite, whereof I find this short and briefe description. The Goite riseth not far from the Shire méere hill (where|in the Doue and the Dane haue their originall) that parteth Darbishire and Chestershire in sunder, and thence commeth downe to Goite houses, Ouerton, Taxhall, Shawcrosse, and at Weibridge taketh in the Frith,Frith. and beneath Berdhall, the SetSet. that riseth aboue Thersethall and runneth by Ouerset. After this confluence also the Merseie goeth to Goite hall, & at Stockford or Stopford towne méeteth with the Tame,Tame. which diuideth Chestershire and Lancaster|shire in sunder, and whose head is in the verie edge of Yorkeshire, from whence it goeth southward to Sadleworth Firth, then to Mukelhirst, Stalie hall, Ashdon Underline, Dunkenfield, Denton, Reddish, and so at Stockford into the Merseie streame, which passeth foorth in like sort to Diddesbirie, receiuing a brooke by the waie that commeth from Lime parke, by Brumhall parke and Chedle.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 From Diddesbirie it procéedeth to Norden,Irwell. Ash|ton, Aiston, Flixston, where it receiueth the Irwell a notable water, and therefore his description is not to be omitted before I doo go forward anie further with the Merseie, although it be not nauigable by reason of sundrie rockes and shalowes that lie dispersed in the same. It riseth aboue Bacop, and goeth thence to Rosendale, and in the waie to Aitenfield it taketh in a water from Haselden. After this confluence it go|eth to Newhall, Brandlesham, Brurie, and aboue Ratcliffe ioineth with the Rache water, Raeus, or Rache. a faire streame and to be described when I haue finished the Irwell, as also the next vnto it beneath Ratcliffe, bi|cause I would not haue so manie ends at once in hand wherewith to trouble my readers. Being ther|fore past these two, our Irwell goeth on to Clifton, Leland spea|keth of the Corue water about Man|chester; but I know nothing of his course. Hollond, Edgecroft, Strengwaies, and to Manche|ster, where it vniteth it selfe with the Yrke,Yrke. that run|neth thereinto by Roiton Midleton, Heaton hill, and Blackeleie. Beneath Manchester also it méeteth with the Medlocke,Medlocke. that commeth thither from the northeast side of Oldham, and betwéene Claiton and Garret Halles, and so betwéene two parkes, falling into it about Holne. Thence our Irwell go|ing forward to Woodsall, Whicleswt [...]c, Ecles Bar|ton, and Deuelhom, it falleth néere vnto Flixton, in|to the water of Merseie, where I will staie a while withall, till I haue brought the other vnto some passe, of which I spake before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Rache,Rache. Rach or Rish consisteth of sundrie wa|ters, whereof ech one in maner hath a proper name, but the greatest of all is Rache it selfe, which riseth a|mong the blacke stonie hils, from whence it goeth to Littlebrough, and being past Clegge, receiueth the Beile,Beile. that commeth thither by Milneraw chappell. After this confluence also, it méeteth with a rill néere vnto Rachedale, and soone after with the SprottonSprotton. water, and then the SudleieSudleie. brooke, whereby his cha|nell is not a little increased, which goeth from thence to Grisehirst and so into the Irewell, before it come at Ratcliffe.Bradsha. The second streame is called Bradsha. It riseth of two heds, aboue Tureton church, whence it runneth to Bradsha, and yer long taking in the Walmesleie becke,Walmesleie. they go in one chanell till they come beneath Bolton in the More. From hence (re|ceiuing a water that commeth from the roots of Ra|uenpike hill by the way) it goeth by Deane and Bol|ton in the More, and so into Bradsha water, which ta|keth his waie to Leuermore, Farnworth, Leuer|lesse, and finallie into the Irwell, which I before de|scribed, and whereof I find these two verses to be ad|ded at the last:

Irke, Irwell, Medlocke, and Tame,
When they meet with the Merseie, do loose their name.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now therefore to resume our Merseie, you shall vnderstand that after his confluence with the Ir|well, he runneth to Partington, and not farre from thence interteineth the Gles,Gles. or Glesbrooke water, increased with sundrie armes, wherof one commeth from Lodward, another from aboue Houghton, the third from Hulton parke, and the fourth from Sha|kerleie: and being all vnited néere vnto Leigh, the confluence goeth to Holcroft, and aboue Holling gréene into the swift Merseie. After this increase the said streame in like sort runneth to Rigston, & there admitteth the Bollein or Bolling brooke water intoBolleiu brooke. his societie, which rising néere the Chamber in Max|well forrest goeth to Ridge, Sutton, Bollington, Prestbirie, and Newton, where it taketh in a water comming from about Pot Chappell, which runneth from thence by Adlington, Woodford, Wimesleie, Ringeie,Birkin. and Ashleie, there receiuing the Birkin brooke that commeth from betwéene Allerton and Marchall, by Mawberleie, and soone after the Ma|rus or Mar,Mar. that commeth thereinto from Mar towne, by Rawstorne, and after these confluences goeth on to Downham, and ouer against Rixton beneath Crosford bridge into the Merseie water, which procéeding on, admitteth not another that mée|teth with all néere Lim before it go to Thelwall. Thence also it goeth by Bruche and so to Warring|ton, a little beneath crossing a brooke that commeth from Par by Browseie, Bradleie, and Saukeie on the one side, and another on the other that commeth thither from Gropenhall, and with these it runneth on to nether Walton, Acton grange, and so to Pen|kith, where it interteineth the Bold,Bold. and soone after the GrundichGrundich. water on the other side, that passeth by Preston, and Daresbirie. Finallie our Merseie go|ing by Moulton, it falleth into Lirepoole, or as it was called of old Liuerpoole hauen, when it is past Run|corne. And thus much of the Merseie, comparable vnto the Wiuer, and of no lesse fame than most ri|uers of this Iland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Being past these two, we come next of all to the Tarbocke water,Tarbocke. that falleth into the sea at Har|bocke, without finding anie mo till we be past all Wirall, out of Lirepoole hauen, and from the blacke rockes that lie vpon the north point of the aforesaid Iland. Then come we to the Altmouth,Alt or Ast. whose fresh rising not far into the land, commeth to Feston, and soone after receiuing another on the right hand, that passeth into it by Aughton, it is increased no more before it come at the sea. Neither find I anie other falles till I méet with the mouth of the Yarrow and Duglesse, which haue their recourse to the sea in one chanell as I take it.Duglesse or Duiesse. The Duglesse commeth from by west of Rauenspike hill, and yer long runneth by Andertonford to Worthington, and so (taking in two or thrée rilles by the waie) to Wigen, where it receiueth two waters in one chanell, of which one commeth in south from Brin parke, the other from northeast. Being past this, it receiueth one on the north side from Standish, and another by south from Hollond, and then goeth on toward Rufford chappell taking the Taud withall, that descendeth from a|boue Skelmersdale towne,Tand or Skelinere. and goeth through La|than parke, belonging (as I heare) vnto the earle of EEBO page image 85 Derbie.Merton. It méeteth also on the same side, with Mer|ton meere water, in which meere is one Iland called Netholme beside other, and when it is past the hang|ing bridge, it is not long yer it fall into the Yarrow.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The YarrowYarrow. riseth of two heads, whereof the se|cond is called BagenBagen. brooke, and making a conflu|ence beneath Helbie wood, it goeth on to Burgh, E|glestan, Crofton, and then ioineth next of all with the Dugglesse, after which confluence, the maine streame goeth foorth to Bankehall, Charleton, How, Hesket, and so into the sea. Leland writing of the Yarrow, saith thus of the same, so farre as I now remember. Into the Dugglesse also runneth the Yarrow, which commeth within a mile or therea|bout of Chorleton towne, that parteth Lelandshire from Derbieshire. Under the foot of Chorle also I find a rill named Ceorle, and about a mile and a halfe from thence a notable quarreie of stones, whereof the inhabitants doo make a great boast and price. And hitherto Leland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Ribble,Ribble. a riuer verie rich of salmon and Iam|preie, dooth in manner inuiron Preston in Ander|nesse, and it riseth neere to Kibbesdale aboue Gis|borne, from whence it goeth to Sawleie or Salleie, Chathburne, Woodington, Clithero castell,Odder. and be|neath Mitton méeteth the Odder at northwest, which riseth not farre from the crosse of Gréet in Yorke|shire, and going thence to Shilburne, Newton, Rad|holme parke, and Stonie hirst, it falleth yer long in|to the Ribble water. From hence the Ribble wa|ter hath not gone farre,Calder. but it méeteth with the Cal|der from southeast. This brooke riseth aboue Holme church in Yorkeshire, which lieth by east of Lanca|stershire, and goeth by Towleie and Burneleie, where it receiueth a trifling rill, thence to Higham, and yer long crossing one water that commeth from Wicoler by Colne, and another by and by named Pidle brooke,Pidle. that runneth by New church in the Pi|dle, it méeteth with the Calder, which passeth foorth to Paniam; and thence receiuing a becke on the o|ther side, it runneth on to Altham, and so to Mar|tholme,Henburne. where the Henburne brooke dooth ioine with|all, that goeth by Akington chappell, Dunkinhalgh, Rishton, and so into the Calder, as I haue said be|fore. The Calder therefore being thus inlarged, runneth foorth to Reade, where maister Nowell dwelleth, to Whallie, and soone after into Ribble, that goeth from this confluence to Salisburie hall, Rib|chester, Osbastin, Samburie, Keuerden, Law, Rib|bles bridge, & then taketh in the Darwent,Darwent. before it goeth by Pontwarth or Pentwarth into the maine sea. The Darwent diuideth Lelandshire from An|dernesse, and it riseth by east aboue Darwent chap|pell; and soone after vniting it selfe with the Blacke|burne, and Rodlesworth water,Blackeburne Rodlesworth. it goeth through Houghton parke, by Houghton towne, to Walton hall, and so into the Ribble. As for the Sannocke brooke,Sannocke. it riseth somewhat aboue Longridge chappell, goeth to Broughton towne, Cotham, Lée hall, and so into Ribble. And here is all that I haue to saie of this riuer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Wire riseth eight or ten miles from Gar|stan,Wire. out of an hill in Wiresdale forrest, from whence it runneth by Shireshed chappell, and then going by Wadland, or Waddiler, Grenelaw castell (which belongeth to the erle of Darbie) Garstan, and Kirk|land hall, it first receiueth the second Calder, that commeth downe by Edmerseie chappell, then ano|ther chanell increased with sundrie waters,Calder. 2. which I will here describe before I procéed anie further with the Wire. I suppose that the first water is called Plimpton brooke, it riseth south of Gos [...]er, and com|meth by Cawford hall,Plimpton. and yer long receiuing the BartonBarton. becke, it procéedeth forward till it ioineth with the Brooke rill that commeth from Bowland forrest,Brooke. by Clanghton hall, where master Brooke-hales dooth lie, & so through Mersco forrest. After this confluence the Plime or Plimpton water mée|teth with the Calder, and then with the Wire, which passeth foorth to Michaell church, and the Raw cliffes, and aboue Thorneton crosseth the Skipton that go|eth by Potton, then into the Wire rode,Skipton. and finallie through the sands into the sea, according to his na|ture. When we were past the fall of the Wire, we coasted vp by the salt cotes, to Coker mouth,Coker. whose head, though it be in Weresdale forrest, not far from that of the Wire, yet the shortnesse of course deser|ueth no description. The next is Cowdar,Cowdar. which is comming out of Wire dale, as I take it, is not in|creased with anie other waters more than Coker, and therefore I will rid my hands thereof so much we sooner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being past these two,Lune. I came to a notable ri|uer called the Lune or Loine, or (as the booke of sta|tutes hath) Lonwire Anno 13 Ric. 2. cap. 19, and gi|ueth name to Lancaster, Lonecaster, or Luneca|ster, where much Romane monie is found, and that of diuerse stamps, whose course dooth rest to be de|scribed as followeth; and whereof I haue two de|scriptions. The first being set downe by Leland, as master Moore of Catharine hall in Cambridge deli|uered it vnto him. The next I exhibit as it was gi|uen vnto me, by one that hath taken paines (as he saith) to search out and view the same, but verie late|lie to speake of. The Lune (saith master Moore) of some commonlie called the Loine, riseth at Crosse|ho, in Dent dale, in the edge of Richmondshire out of thrée heads. North also from Dent dale is Gars|dale, an vplandish towne, wherein are séene manie times great store of red déere that come downe to feed from the mounteins into the vallies, and there|by runneth a water, which afterward commeth to Sebbar vale, where likewise is a brooke méeting with Garsdale water, so that a little lower they go as one into Dent dale becke, which is the riuer that afterward is called Lune, or Lane, as I haue verie often noted it. Beside these waters also before men|tioned, it receiueth at the foot of Sebbar vale, a great brooke, which commeth out of the Worth, betwéene Westmerland and Richmondshire, which taking with him the aforesaid chanels, dooth run seauen miles yer it come to Dent dale foot. From hence it entreth into Lansdale, corruptlie so called, perad|uenture for Lunesdale, & runneth therein eight or nine miles southward, and in this dale is Kirbie. Hi|therto master Moore, as Leland hath exemplified that parcell of his letters. But mine other note wri|teth hereof in this manner.Burdecke. Burbecke water riseth at Wustall head, by west, and going by Wustall foot to Skaleg,Breder. it admitteth the Breder that descen|deth thither from Breder dale. From hence our Burbecke goeth to Breder dale foot, & so to Tibarie, where it méeteth with foure rilles in one bottome, of which one commeth from besides Oxton, another from betwéene Rasebecke and Sunbiggin, the third and fourth from each side of Langdale: and after the generall confluence made, goeth toward Round|swath,Barrow. aboue which it vniteth it selfe with the Bar|row. Thence it runneth to Howgill, Delaker, Firrebanke, and Killington, beneath which it mee|teth with a water comming from the Moruill hilles, and afterward crossing the Dent brooke,Dent. that run|neth thither from Dent towne, beneath Sebbar, they continue their course as one into the Burbecke, from whence it is called Lune. From hence it go|eth to Burbon chappell, where it taketh in ano|ther rill comming from by east, then to Kirbie, Lansdale, and aboue Whittenton crosseth a brooke EEBO page image 86 comming from the countie stone by Burros, and soone after beneath Tunstall and Greteie,Greteie. which des|cending from about Ingelborow hill, passeth by Twiselton, Ingleton, Thorneton, Burton, Wrat|ton, and néere Thurland castell, toucheth finallie with the Lune, which brancheth, and soone after vniteth it selfe againe. After this also it goeth on toward New parke,Wennie. and receiueth the Wennie, and the HinburneHinburne. both in one chanell, of which this riseth north of the crosse of Greteie, and going by Benthams and Ro|berts hill, aboueRheburne. Wraie taketh in the Rheburne that riseth north of Wulfecrag. After this conflu|ence also aboue New parke, it maketh his gate by Aughton, Laughton, Skirton, Lancaster, Excliffe, Awcliffe, Soddaie, Orton, and so into the sea. Thus haue you both the descriptions of Lune, make your conference or election at your pleasure, for I am sworne to neither of them both.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The next fall is called Docker,Docker. and peraduen|ture the same that Leland dooth call the Kerie,Kerie. which is not farre from Wharton, where the rich Kitson was borne, it riseth north of Docker towne, and go|ing by Barwtjc hall, it is not increased before it come at the sea, where it falleth into the Lune water at Lunesands. Next of all we come to Bitham becke, which riseth not far from Bitham towne and parke, in the hilles, where about are great numbers of goates kept and mainteined, and by all likelihood resorteth in the end to Linsands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Being past this, we find a forked arme of the sea called Kensands: into the first of which diuerse waters doo run in one chanell, as it were from foure principall heads, one of them comming from Grar|rig hall, another frõ by west of Whinfield, & ioining with the first on the east side of Skelmere parke. The third called Sprot or Sprota riseth at Slod|dale,Sprota. & commeth downe by west of Skelmer parke, so that these two brookes haue the aforesaid parke betwéene them, & fall into the fourth east of Barne|side, not verie farre in sunder. The fourth or last cal|led Ken, commeth from Kentmers side,Ken. out of Ken moore, in a poole of a mile compasse, verie well stored with fish, the head whereof, as of all the baronie of Kendall is in Westmerland, & going to Stauelope, it taketh in a rill from Chappleton Inges. Then lea|uing Colnehead parke by east, it passeth by Barne|side, to Kendall, Helston, Sigath, Siggeswijc, Le|uenbridge, Milnethorpe, and so into the sea. Certes this Ken is a pretie déepe riuer, and yet not safelie to be aduentured vpon, with boates and balingers, by reason of rolling stones, & other huge substances that off annoie & trouble the middest of the chanell there.Winstar. The other péece of the forked arme, is called Winstar, the hed wherof is aboue Winstar chappell, & going downe almost by Carpmaunsell, & Nether|slake, it is not long yer it fall into the sea, or sands, for all this coast, & a gulfe from the Ramside point to the Mealenasse, is so pestered with sands, that it is al|most incredible to sée how they increase. Those also which inuiron the Kenmouth, are named Kensands: but such as receiue the descent from the Fosse, Wi|nander, and Sparke, are called Leuesands, as I find by sufficient testimonie. The mouth or fall of the Dodon also is not farre from this impechment: wherefore it is to be thought, that these issues will yer long become verie noisome, if not choked vp al|togither. The Winander water riseth about Cim|barlrasestones,Winander. from whence it goeth to Cangridge, where it maketh a méere: then to Ambleside, and ta|king in yer it come there, two rilles on the left hand, and one on the right that commeth by Claper|gate, it maketh (as I take it) the greatest méere, or fresh water in England; for I read it is ten miles in length. Finallie, comming to one small chanell a|boue Newbridge, it reacheth not aboue six miles yer fall into the sea. There is in like sort a water, cal|led the Fosse that riseth néere vnto Arneside,Fosse. and Tillerthwates, and goeth foorth by Grisdale, Satre|thwate, Rusland, Powbridge, Bowth, and so falleth with the Winander water into the maine sea. On the west side of the Fosse also commeth another through Furnesse felles, and from the hilles by north thereof, which yer long making the Thurstan lake not far from Hollinhow, and going by Bridge end, in a narrow chanell, passeth foorth by Nibthwaits, Blareth, Cowlton, & Sparke bridge, and so into the sea.Sparke. Hauing passed the Leuen or Conisands, or Co|nistonesands, or Winander fall (for all is one) I come to the Lew,Lew. which riseth at Cewike chappell, and falleth into the sea beside Plumpton. The RawtherRawther. descending out of low Furnesse, hath two heads, whereof one commeth from Penniton, the other by Ulmerstone abbeie, and ioining both in one chanell, they hasten into the sea, whither all waters direct their voiage,. Then come we to another rill south|west of Aldingham, descending by Glaiston castell; and likewise the fourth that riseth néere Lindell, and running by Dawlton castell and Furnesse abbeie, not farre from the Barrow head, it falleth into the sea ouer against Waueie and Waueie chappell, ex|cept mine aduertisements misleade me.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Dodon,Dodon. which from the head is bound vn|to Cumberland and Westmerland, commeth from the Shire stone hill bottome, and going by Blacke|hill, Southwake, S. Iohns, Uffaie parke, & Brough|ton, it falleth into the faltwater, betwéene Kirbie, and Mallum castell. And thus are we now come vnto the Rauenglasse point, and well entred into Cum|berland countie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Comming to Rauenglasse, I find hard by the towne a water comming from two heads, and both of them in lakes or pooles, whereof one issueth out of Denocke or Deuenocke méere,Denocke. and is called De|nocke water, the other named Eske from Eske poole which runneth by Eskedale, Dalegarth, and soone af|ter meeting with the Denocke,Eske. betwéene Maw|burthwate and Rauenglasse, falleth into the sea. On the other side of Rauenglasse also commeth the Mite brooke,Mite. from Miterdale as I read. Then find we an|other which commeth from the hils, and at the first is forked, but soone after making a lake, they gather a|gaine into a smaller chanell: finallie meeting with the Brenge,Brenge. they fall into the sea at Carleton south|east, as I wéene of Drig. The Cander,Cander. or (as Leland nameth it) the Calder, commeth out of Copeland for|rest, by Cander, Sellefield, and so into the sea. Then come we to Euer water, descending out of a poole a|boue Coswaldhow, and thence going by Euerdale, it crosseth a water from Arladon, and after procéedeth to Egremond, S. Iohns, and taking in another rill from Hide, it is not long yer it méeteth with the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next fall is at Moresbie, whereof I haue no skill. From thence therefore we cast about by saint Bees to Derwentset hauen, whose water is truelie written Dargwent or Deruent.Dargwent. It riseth in the hils about Borrodale, from whence it goeth vnto the Grange, thence into a lake, in which are certeine I|lands, and so vnto Keswtjc, where it falleth into the Bure, whereof the said lake is called Bursemere,Burthméere. or the Burthmere poole. In like sort the Bure or Burth|mere water, rising among the hils goeth to Tegbur|thesworth, Forneside, S. Iohns, and Threlcoe: and there méeting with a water from Grisdale, by Wa|kethwate, called Grise, it runneth to Burnesse,Grise. Kes|wtjc, and there receiueth the Darwent. From Kes|wtjc in like sort it goeth to Thorneswate (and there making a plash) to Armanswate, Isell, Huthwate and Cokermouth,Cokar. and here it receiueth the Cokar, EEBO page image 87 which rising among the hils commeth by Lowse|water, Brakenthwate, Lorton, and so to Cokar|mouth towne, from whence it hasteth to Bridge|ham, and receiuing a rill called the Wire, on the south side that runneth by Dein, it leaueth Sam|burne and Wirketon behind it, and entereth into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Leland saith that the Wire is a créeke where ships lie oft at rode,Wire. and that Wirketon or Wirkington towne dooth take his name thereof. He addeth also that there i [...]iron and coles, beside lead ore in Wire|dale. Neuerthelesse the water of this riuer is for the most part fore troubled, as comming through a sud|die or soddie more, so that little good fish is said to liue therein.Elmus. But to proceed. The Elme ri [...]eth in the mines aboue Amautrée, and from Amautre goeth to Yeresbie, Harbie, Brow, and there taking in a rill on the left hand comming by Torpennie, it goeth to Hatton castell, Alwarbie, Birthie, Dereham, and so into the sea. Thence we go about by the chappell at the point, and come to a baie serued with two fresh wa|ters, whereof one rising westward goeth by War|ton, Rabbie, Cotes, and so into the maine, taking in a rill withall from by south, called Croco, that com|meth from Crockdale, by Bromefield.Croco. The second is named Wampoole brooke,Uanius. & this riseth of two heads, whereof one is about Cardew. Thence in like sort it goeth to Thuresbie, Croston, Owton, Gamlesbie, Wampall, the Larth, and betwéene Whiteridge and Kirbie into the saltwater. From hence we double the Bowlnesse, and come to an estuarie, whither thrée notable riuers doo resort, and this is named the Sol|ueie mouth. But of all, the first excéedeth, which is cal|led Eden, and whose description dooth follow here at hand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Eden well fraught with famon,Eden. descendeth (as I heare) from the hils in Athelstane moore at the foot of Husstat Moruell hill, where Swale also riseth, and southeast of Mallerstang forrest. From thence in like maner it goeth to Mallerstang towne, Pen|dragon castell, Wharton hall, Netbie, Hartleie ca|stell, Kirkebie Stephan, and yer it come at great Musgrane, it receiueth thrée waters, whereof one is called Helbecke,Helbecke. bicause it commeth from the Derne and Elinge mounteins by a towne of the same de|nomination. The other is named Bellow,Bellow. and descen|deth from the east mounteins by Sowarsbie, & these two on the northeast: the third falleth from Rauen|standale, by Newbiggin, Smardale, Soulbie, Bla|terne, and so into Eden, that goeth from thence by Warcop;Orne. and taking in the Orne about Burelles on the one side, and the Morton becke on the other, it ha|steth to Applebie,Moreton. thence to Cowlbie, where it crosseth the Dribecke,Dribecke. thence to Bolton, and Kirbie, and there méeting with the Trowt becke,Trowt becke. and beneath the same with the LiuenetLinenet. (whereinto falleth an other water from Thurenlie méeting withall beneath Cle|bron) it runneth finallie into Eden. After the conflu|ences also the Eden passeth to Temple, and soone af|ter meeting with the Milburne and BlincorneMilburne. Blincorne. wa|ters, in one chanell, it runneth to Winderwarth and Hornebie, where we will staie till I haue described the water that meeteth withall néere the aforesaid place called the Ulse.Ulse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This water commeth out of a lake, which is fed with six rils,Marke. whereof one is called the Marke, and néere the fall thereof into the plash is a towne of the same name;Harteshop. the second hight Harteshop, & runneth from Harteshop hall by Depedale; the third is Pa|terdalePaterdale. rill; the fourth Glent Roden,Roden. the fift Glenk|guin,Glenkguin. but the sixt runneth into the said lake, south of Towthwate. Afterward when this lake commeth to|ward Pole towne, it runneth into a small chanell, & going by Barton, Dalumaine, it taketh in a rill by the waie from Daker castell. Thence it goeth to Stockebridge, Yoneworth, and soone after méeteth with a pretie brooke called Loder,Loder. comming from Thornethwate by Bauton, and héere a rill; then by Helton, and there another; thence to Askham, Clif|ton, and so ioining with the other called Ulse, they go to Brougham castell, Nine churches, Hornebie, and so into Eden, taking in a rill (as it goeth) that com|meth downe from Pencath. Being past Hornebie, our Eden runneth to Langunbie, and soone after re|ceiuing a rill that commeth from two heads, and ioi|ning beneath Wingsell, it hasteth to Lasenbie, then to Kirke Oswald (on ech side whereof commeth in a rill from by east) thence to Nonneie, and there a rill, Anstable, Cotchill, Corbie castell, Wetherall, New|bie: where I will staie, till I haue described the Ir|ding, and such waters as fall into the same before I go to Carleill.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Irding ariseth in a moore in the borders of Tindale,Irding. néere vnto Horsse head crag, where it is called Terne becke;Terne. vntill it come to Spicrag hill, that diuideth Northumberland and Gillesland in sunder, from whence it is named Irding. Being therfore come to Ouerhall, it receiueth the Pultrose becke,Pultrose. by east, and thence goeth on to Ouerdenton, Netherdenton, Leuercost, and Castelstead, where it taketh in the Cambocke,Cambocke. that runneth by Kirke Cambocke, Askerton castell, Walton, and so into Irding, which goeth from thence to Irdington, Newbie, & so into Eden. But a little before it come there,Gillie. it crosseth with the Gillie that commeth by Tankin, and soone after falleth into it. After these confluences, our Eden goeth to Linstocke castell, (and here it interteineth a brooke, comming from Cotehill ward by Aglionbie) and then vnto Car|leill, which is now almost inuironed with foure waters.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For beside the Eden it receiueth the Peder,Pedar aliàs Logus. which Leland calleth Logus from southeast. This Peder riseth in the hils southwest of Penruddocke, from whence it goeth to Penruddocke, then to Gra|stocke castell, Cateleie, and Kenderside hall, and then taking in a water from Unthanke, it goeth to Cath|wade, Pettrelwaie, Newbiggin, Carleton, and so into Eden, northeast of Carleill. But on the north side the Bruferth brooke dooth swiftlie make his en|trance, running by Leuerdale,Bruferth. Scalbie castell, and Housedon; as I am informed. The third is named Candan (if not Deua after Leland) which rising about the Skidlow hils, runneth to Mosedale, Caldbecke, Warnell, Saberham, Rose castell, Dawston, Brounston, Harrington, and west of Carleill falleth into Eden, which going from thence by Grimsdale, Kirke Andros, Beaumont, falleth into the sea be|neath the Rowcliffe castell. And thus much of the E|den, which Leland neuerthelesse describeth after an|other sort, whose words I will not let to set downe here in this place, as I find them in his commen|taries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Eden, after it hath run a pretie space from his head,Wise after Leland. méeteth in time with the Ulse water, which is a great brooke in Westmerland, and rising aboue Maredale, a mile west of Loder, it commeth by the late dissolued house of Shappe priorie,Loder. théee miles from Shappe, and by Brampton village into Loder or Lodon. Certes this streame within halfe a mile of the head, becommeth a great lake for two miles course, and afterward waxing narrow againe, it runneth foorth in a meane and indifferent bottome. The said Eden in like sort receiueth the Aimote a|bout thrée miles beneath Brougham castell,Aimote. and in|to the same Aimote falleth the Dacor becke (alreadie touched) which riseth by northwest in Materdale hils, foure miles aboue Dacor castell,Dacor. and then going EEBO page image 88 through Dacor parke, it runneth by east a good mile lower into Eimote, a little beneath Delamaine, which standeth on the left side of Dacor. In one of his bookes also he saith, how Carleill standeth betwéene two streames,Deua. that is to saie the Deua, which com|meth thither from by southwest, and also the Logus tha descendeth from the southeast. He addeth more|ouer how the Deua in times past was named Uala or Bala,Uala. and that of the names of these two, Lugiba|la for Caerleill hath beene deriued, &c. and thus much out of Leland. But where he had the cause of this his coniecture as yet I haue not read. Of this am I cer|teine, that I vse the names of most riuers hete and else-where described, accordinglie as they are called in my time, although I omit not to speake here and there of such as are more ancient, where iust occasion mooueth me to remember them, for the better vn|derstanding of our histories, as they doo come to hand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Blacke LeuenLeuen. and white Leuen waters, fall in|to the sea in one chanell, and with them the LamfordLamford. and the Eske,Eske. the last confluence being not a full mile from the maine sea. The white and blacke Leuen ioi|ning therfore aboue Bucknesse, the confluence goeth to Bracken hill, Kirkleuenton, and at TomuntTomunt. water meeteth with the Eske. In like sort the KirsopKirsop. ioining with the LiddeLidde. out of Scotland at Kirsop foot, running by Stangerdike side, Harlow, Hath|water, and taking in the Eske aboue the Mote, it looseth the former name, and is called Eske, vntill it come to the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Hauing thus gone thorough the riuers of Eng|land, now it resteth that we procéed with those which are to be found vpon the Scotish shore, in such order as we best may, vntill we haue fetched a compasse about the same, and come vnto Barwike, whence af|terward it shall be easie for vs to make repaire vnto the Thames, from which we did set forward in the be|ginning of our voiage. The first riuer that I met withall on the Scotish coast,Eske. is the Eske, after I came past the Solueie, which hath his head in the Che|uiot hilles, runneth by Kirkinton, and falleth into the sea at Borow on the sands. This Eske hauing receiued the Ewis falleth into the Solueie first at Atterith. After this I passed ouer a little créeke from Kirthell, and so to Anand, whereof the vallie Anan|dale dooth séeme to take the name. There is also the Nide, whereof commeth Nidsdale, the Ken, the Dée, the Crale, and the Bladnecke, and all these (besides diuerse other small rilles of lesse name) doo lie vpon the south of Gallowaie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 On the north side also we haue the Ruan, the Arde, the Cassile Dune, the Burwin, the Cluide (where|vpon sometime stood the famous citie of Alcluide, and whereinto runneth the Carath) the Hamell, the Dourglesse, and the Lame. From hence in like ma|ner we came vnto the Leuind mouth, wherevnto the Blake on the southwest and the Lomund lake, with his fléeting Iles and fish without finnes (yet verie holesone) dooth séeme to make his issue. This lake of Lomund in calme weather ariseth sometimes so high, and swelleth with such terrible billowes, that it causeth the best marriners of Scotland to abide the leisure of this water, before they dare aduenture to hoise vp sailes on hie. The like is seene in windie weather, but much more perillous. There are cer|teine Iles also in the same, which mooue and remooue, oftentimes by force of the water, but one of them e|speciallie, which otherwise is verie fruitfull for pastu|rage of cattell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Next vnto this is the Leue,Leue. the Rage, the Long,Long. the Goile, & the Heke,Goile, Heke. which for the excéeding great|nesse of their heads, are called lakes. Then haue we the Robinseie,Robinseie. the Foreland, the Tarbat,Forlan Tarbat. the Lean,Lean. and the Abir,Abir. wherevnto the Spanseie, the Loine, the Louth, the Arke,Arke. and the ZefeZefe. doo fall, there is also the Sell,Sell. the Zord,Zord. the Owin,Owin. the Newisse,Newisse. the OrneOrne. the Lang,Lang. the Drun,Drun. the Hew,Hew. the Brun,Brun. the Kell,Kile. the Dowr,Dowr. the Faro,Faro. the Nesse,Nesse. the Herre,Herre. the Con,Con. the Glasse,Glasse. the Maur,Maur. the Urdall,Urdall. the Fers (that com|meth out of the Caldell) the Fairsoke, which two lat|ter lie a little by west of the Orchades, and are pro|perlie called riuers, bicause they issue onelie from springs; but most of the other takes, bicause they come from linnes and huge pooles, or such low bot|tomes, fed with springs, as séeme to haue no accesse, but onelie recesse of waters, whereof there be manie in Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to procéed. Hauing once past Dungisbie head in Cathnesse, we shall yer long come to the mouth of the Wifle, a prettie streame, comming by south of the mounteins called the Maidens pappes. Then to the Browre, the Clin, the Twin (where|into runneth three riuers,Fesse. the Shin, the Sillan, and Carew) the Nesse,Calder. which beside the plentie of sa|mon found therein is neuer frosen,Wifle. nor suffereth yce to remaine there, that is cast into the poole.Browre. From thence we come vnto the Narding,Clin. the Fin|derne, the Spaie (which receiues the Uine) the Fitch,Twin. the Bulich,Shin. the Arrian, the Leuin, and the Bogh, from whence we saile vntill we come about the Buquhan head,Sillan. and so to the Downe, and Dee: which two streames bring forth the greatest samons that are to be he had in Scotland,Carew. and most plentie of the same.Nesse. Then to the north Eske, whereinto the Esmond runneth aboue Brechin,Narding. the south Eske, then the Louen and the Taw,Spaie. which is the finest riuer for water that is in all Scotland,Downe. and wherevnto most riuers and lakes doo run.Dée. As Farlake, Yrth, Goure,Eske. Loich, Cannach, Linell, Loion, Irewer, Erne, and diuerse other besides small rillets which I did neuer looke vpon.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then is there the lake Londors, vpon whose mouth saint Andrewes dooth stand, the lake Lewin, vnto whose streame two other lakes haue recourse in Fifland, and then the Firth or Fortha, which some doo call the Pictish and Scotish sea, whither the king|dome of the Northumbers was sometime extended, and with the riuer last mentioned (I meane that commeth from Londors) includeth all Fife, the said Fortha being full of oisters and all kinds of huge fish that vse to lie in the déepe. How manie waters run into the Firth, called by Ptolomie Loxa, it is not in my power iustlie to declare: yet are there both ri|uers, rills, & lakes that fall into the same, as Clacke,Clacke. Alon,Alon. Dune,Dune. Kerie,Kerie. Cambell,Cambell. Cumer,Cumer. Tere,Tere. Man,Man. Torkeson,Torkesan. Rosham,Rosham. Mushell,Mussell. Blene,Blene. and diuerse o|ther which I call by these names, partlie after infor|mation, and partlie of such townes as are neere vn|to their heads. Finallie, when we are past the Haie, then are we come vnto the Twede, Twede. whereinto we entred, leauing Barwike on the right hand and his appurtenances, wherein Halidon hill standeth, and conteineth a triangle of so much ground beyond the said riuer, as is well néere foure miles in length, and thrée miles in bredth in the broad end: except mine information doo faile me.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Twede (which Ptolomie nameth Toualsis or Toesis, & betwéene which and the Tine the coun|tie of Northumberland is in maner inclosed, and watred with sundrie noble riuers) is a noble streame and the limes or bound betwéene England & Scot|land, wherby those two kingdomes are now diuided in sunder. It riseth about Drimlar in Eusbale (or rather out of a faire well (as Leland saith) standing in the mosse of an hill called Airstane, or Harestan in Twede dale ten miles from Pibble) and so com|ming by Pibble, Lander, Dribiwgh, Lelse, Warke, EEBO page image 89 Norham and Hagarstone, it falleth into the sea be|neath Barwike, as I heare. Thus saith Leland. But I not contented with this so short a discourse of so long a riuer & briefe description of so faire a streame, will ad somewhat more of the same concerning his race on the English side, and rehearsall of such ri|uers as fall into it. Comming therefore to Ridam, it receiueth betwéene that and Carham a becke, which descendeth from the hilles that lie by west of Windram. Going also from Ridam by Longbridg|ham (on the Scotish side) and to Carham, it hasteth immediatlie to Warke castell on the English, and by Spilaw on the other side, then to Cornewall, Cald streame, and Tilmouth, where it receiueth sundrie waters in one botome which is called the Till, and whose description insueth here at hand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes there is no head of anie riuer that is na|med Till,Till. but the issue of the furthest water that com|meth hereinto, riseth not farre from the head of Us|waie in the Cheuiot hilles, where it is called Bren|nich, whereof the kingdome of Brennicia did some|time take the name. From thence it goeth to Hart|side, Ingram, Branton, Crawleie, Hedgeleie, Be|ueleie, and Bewije, beneath which it receiueth one water comming from Rodham by west, and soone after a second descending from the Middletons, and so they go as one with the Bromish,Bromis. by Chatton to Fowbreie (where they crosse the third water falling downe by north from Howborne by Hescibridge) thence to Woller, there also taking in a rill that ri|seth about Middleton hall, and runneth by Hardleie, Whereleie, and the rest afore remembred, wherby the water of Bromis is not a little increased, and after this latter confluence beneath Woller, no more cal|led Bromis but the Till, vntill it come at the Twede. The Till passing therefore by Wetel and and Dedington, méeteth soone after with a faire streame comming from by southwest, which most men call the Bowbent or Bobent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It riseth on the west side of the Cocklaw hill,Bobent. and from thence hasteth to Hattons, beneath the which it ioineth from by southeast with the Hellerborne, and then goeth to Pudston, Downeham, Kilham, and a little by north of Newton Kirke, and betwéene it and west Newton, it taketh in another water called Glin, comming from the Cheuiot hilles by Heth poole, and from thenseforth runneth on without anie further increase, by Copland, Euart, and so in the Till. The Till for his part in like sort after this con|fluence goeth to Broneridge, Fodcastell, Catall ca|stell, Heaton, & north of T [...]mouth into the Twede, or by west of Wesell, except my memori [...] dooth faile me. After this also our aforesaid water of Twede descendeth to Grotehugh, the Newbiggins, Nor|ham castell, Foord, Lungridge,Whitaker. & crossing the Whita|ker on the other side from Scotland beneath Caw|mill, it runneth to Ordo, to Barwike, and so into the Ocean, leauing (as I said) so much English ground on the northwest ripe, as lieth in manner of a trian|gle betwéene Cawmils, Barwike, and Lammeton, which (as one noteth) is no more but two miles and an halfe euerie waie, or not much more; except he be deceiued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being past this noble streame, we came by a rill that descendeth from Bowsden by Barington. Then by the second which ariseth betwéene Middleton and Detcham or Dereham, and runneth by Eskill and the Rosse, next of all to Warnemouth of whose backe water I read as followeth. The Warne or Gwerne riseth southwest of Crokelaw, and going by Warneford,Warne. Bradford, Spindlestone, and Bud [...], it leaueth Newton on the right hand, and so falleth in|to the Ocean after it hath run almost nine miles from the head within the land, and receiued a rill be|neath Yessington, which commeth downe betwéene Newland and Olchester, and hath a bridge beneath the confluence, which leadeth ouer the same. From Warnemouth, we sailed by Bamborow castell, and came at last to a fall betweene Bedwell and New|ton. The maine water that serueth this issue, riseth aboue Carleton from the foot of an hill, which séemeth to part the head of this and that of Warne in sun|der. It runneth also by Carleton, Tonleie, Oxford, Brunton, and Tuggell, and finallie into the sea, as to his course apperteineth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From this water we went by Dunstanbugh ca|stell,Aile, or Alne, aliàs Chaine. vnto the Chalne or Alnemouth, which is serued with a pretie riueret called Alne, the head whereof ri|seth in the hils west of Alnham towne, and called by Ptolomie, Celnius. From thense also it runneth by Rile, Kile, Estington, and Whittingham, where it crosseth a rill comming from by south, and beneath the same, the second that descendeth from Eirchild at Brone, & likewise the third that riseth at Newton, and runneth by Edlingham castell and Lemmaton (all on the southeast side or right hand) and so passeth on further, till it meet with the fourth, comming from aboue Shipleie from by north, after which confluence it goeth to Alnewije, & then to Denntie, receiuing there a rillet from by south and a rill from by north, and thence going on to Bilton, betweene Ailmouth towne and Wooddon, it sweepeth into the Ocean.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The CocketCocket. is a goodlie riuer, the head also there|of is in the roots of Kemblespeth hils, from whence it goeth to Whiteside, and there meeting with the Us|waieUswaie. (which descendeth from the north) it goeth a little further to Linbridge, and there receiueth the Ridleie by southwest, and after that with another, called (as I thinke) the Hoc, which commeth from the Woodland and hillie soile by Allington, & falleth into the same, west of Parke head. It ioineth also yer long with the Ridland,Ridlcie. which commeth in north by Bilstone, and then hieth to Sharpton, to Harbotle, where it crosseth the Yardop water by south,Yardop. then to Woodhouse, and swallowing in a litle becke by the waie from south|west, to Bickerton, to Tossons, Newton, and run|ning apace toward Whitton towre, it taketh a brooke withall that commeth in northwest of Alnham, néere Elthaw, and goeth by Skarnewood, ouer nether Trewhet, Snitter, and Throxton, and soone after vni|teth it selfe with the Cocket,It may, be Leland mista|keth Ticking+ton water for one of these. from whence they go to|gether to Rethburie, or Whitton towre, to Halie, to Brinkehorne, Welden, taking withall soone after the Tod or burne called Tod, which falleth in from by south, then to Elihaw, Felton (receiuing thereabout the Fareslie brooke, that goeth by Wintring by south east, and Sheldike water, that goeth by Hason, to Brainsaugh by north) and from thence to Morricke Warkworth ca [...]ell, and so into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There is furthermore a little fall, betwéene Hawkeslaw and Drurith, which riseth about Stokes wood goeth by east Cheuington, and Whittington ca|stell, and afterward into the Ocean.Lune. The Lune is a pretie brooke rising west of Espleie, from whence it goeth to Tritlington, Ugham, Linton, and yer long in the sea. Wansbecke (in old time Diua) is far grea|ter than the Lune.wansbecke. It issueth vp west and by north of west Whelpington, thence it runneth to Kirke Whelpington, Wallington, Middleton, and Anger|ton. Heere it méeteth with a water running from a|bout Farnelaw by the grange, and Hartburne on the north, and then going from Angerton, it runneth by Moseden to Mitforth, and there in like maner cros|seth the Font,Font. which issuing out of the ground about Newbiggin, goeth by Nonneie Kirke, Witton ca|stell, Stanton, Nunriding, Newton, and so into the Wansbecke, which runneth in like maner from Mit|ford to Morpheth castell (within two miles whereof it EEBO page image 90 ebbeth and floweth) the new Chappell, Bottle castell, Shepwash, and so into the sea, thrée miles from the next hauen which is called Blithe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Blithe water riseth about kirke Heaton, and go|eth by Belfe,Blithe. Ogle, and (receiuing the Port aliàs the Brocket, that springeth east of S. Oswolds) passeth by Portgate, Whittington, Fennike hall, Madfen|nes, Hawkewell, the Grange, & Dis [...]ngtons. After it hath taken in the Pont from the east (whose head is not farre from that of Hartleie streame) and is pastHartleie. Barwijc on the hill, it runneth by Harford, Bed|lington, Cowpon, and at Blithes nuke, into the deepe Ocean. Hartleie streamelet riseth in Wéete|slade parioch, goeth by Haliwell, and at Hartleie towne yeeldeth to the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Time or Tinna,North Tine. a riuer notablie stored with samon, and other good fish, and in old time cal|led Alan, riseth of two heads, whereof that called north Tine, is the first that followeth to be described. It springeth vp aboue Belkirke in the hils,Shele. & thence goeth to Butterhawgh (where it receiueth a con|fluence of Kirsop and the Shele) thence to Crag|sheles, Leapelish (receiuing on the south a rill out of Tindale) then to Shilburne, against which it taketh in a becke that commeth out of Tindale called Shill, also two other on the same side, betweene Yarro and Fawston hall, and the third at Thorneburne, and so goeth on to Grenested, and there carrieth withall a fall, from by north also made by the confluence of one rill comming by Thecam, and another that pas|seth by Holinhead, and likewise another on the south comming from Tindale, by Chuden, Dalacastell, and Brokes: after which our north Tine goeth by Hellaside, to Billingham, and at Rhedes mouth méeteth with the Ridde, a verie prettie water, whose description is giuen me after this maner.Ridde.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Ridde therefore riseth within thrée miles of the Scotish march, as Leland saith, & commeth through Riddesdale, wherevnto it giueth the name. Another writeth how it riseth in the roots of the Carter, and Redsquibe hilles, and yer it hath gone farre from the head, beside a few little rilles it taketh in the Spel|hopShelop. or Petop from the north and the CheslopCheslop. on the south, beside sundrie other wild rits namelesse and obscure, as one on the north side next vnto the Potop or Spelhop; another by south out of Riddesdale, the third west of Burdop, the fourth runneth by Wul|law to Rochester, then two from southwest, another from by north which goeth by Durtburne, and is cal|led Durt or Durth, then the Smalburne from the west. Next to the same is the Otter or Otterburne on the north side also the Ouereie, and finallie the last which descendeth from Ellesdon hilles, by Munkrige and ioineth with our Ridde, northwest of Nud|howgh, after which the said Ridde goeth by Wood|burne, Risingham, Leame, and so into the Tine, a little lower than Belingham or Bilingham, which standeth some what aloofe from north Tine, and is (as I take it) ten miles at the least aboue the towne of Hexham. After this confluence it passseth to Léehall,3. Burnes. to Carehouse (crossing ShitlingtonShitlington. becke by west which also receiueth the Yare on the south side of Shitlington) another also beneath this on the same side, made by the confluence of Workes burne, and Middle burne, at Roseburne, beside the third called Morleis or Morelée aboue, and Simons burne be|neath Shepechase, and likewise the Swine from by forth that runneth by Swinburne castell, next of all the Riall from the northeast, which commeth by E|rington, & so holding his course directlie southwarde, it goeth by S. Oswolds through the Pictithwall, to Wall, and so into south Tine, beneath Accam, and northwest (as I doo wéene) of Hexham.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The south Tine ariseth in the Cheuiot hils,Tine. S. and yet it hath gone farre from the head, it méeteth with Esgill on the east,Esgin. and another rill on the west, and so going by the houses toward Awsten moore, it [...]ometh with Schud from by west, and soone after with the Uent from by east aboue Lowbier. From Low|bier it goeth to Whitehalton,Uent. to Kirke Haugh (cros|sing the Gilders beckeGilders beck. on the one side, and the Alne on the other) to Thornehope, where it is inlarged with a water on each side, to Williamstone, and al|most at Knaresdale,Knare. taketh in the Knare, and then runneth withall to Fetherstone angle. At Fether|stone angle likewise it méeteth with Hartleie water, by southwest comming from Sibins or Sibbenes, another a little beneath from southeast, and thence when it commeth to Billester castell, it carieth ano|ther withall from by west, Thirlewall called Rippall which riseth in the forrest of Lowes, and goeth by the Waltowne, Blinkinsop, & Widon, and after which confluence it taketh in another from by north rising west of Swinsheld, which goeth by Grenelegh to Haltwestell: thence going by Unthanke, it crosseth a|nother rill from by south, descending from thee hilles that lie north of Todlewood, and then proceeding vn|to Wilmotteswije, it admitteth the Wilmots becke from the south, and another running by Bradleie hall on the north side of Beltingham; after which it mée|teth with the Alen a proper water, and described af|ter this maner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Alen or Alon hath two heads,East Alen. whereof one is called east Alen, the other west Alen. The first of them riseth southeast of Sibton Sheles, & going by Sun|dorp, it taketh in a rill withall from by est; after which confluence it runneth to Newshele, Allington, Cad|don, Old towne, & in the course to Stauertpele, mée|teth with the west Alen. The west Alen riseth in Kil|lop low hilles aboue Whe [...]ele [...]e sheles,West Alen. from whence it goeth to Spartwell, Hawcopole, Owston, and ta|king in a rill thereabouts, if procéedeth on to Per|mandbie, and crossing there another rill in like ma|ner from by west, it goeth by Whitefield, and ioining soone after with the est Alen, they run as one to Sta|uert poole, Plankford, and so into the Tine betweene Beltingham and Lées, from whence the Tine run|neth on by Lees Haddon, Woodhall, Owners, Whernebie, Costleie, & so by Warden, till it crosse the north Tine, and come to Hexham, from whence it goeth to Dilstan, crossing two waters by the waie, whereof one commeth from by south, and is called the Wolsh, which holdeth hir course by Sielehall, and Newbiggin receiueth another comming from Grimbridge: the other called Dill so me what lower descending from Hedleie, and running by Rising, till it fall into the south side of our streame from Dilstan, it goeth to Bywell castell, ouer against which it receiueth a rill that runneth by Hindleie, thence it hasteth to Eltingham, Pruddo, Willam, (and there it meeteth with another becke) then to Re|ton, Blaidon, and next of all ioineth with the Dar|went, from by south.

This riuer riseth aboue Knewdon, and Rudlam|hope in Northumberland,Darwent. from two heads: the nor|therlie being called Dere, and the southerlie the Guent: and ioining so well yer long in chanell as in name, they runne on to Humsterworth, new Big|gin, Blankeland, Acton, Aspersheles, Blackheadlie, Brentfield side, Pansheles, E [...]chester, and there ta|king in a water from Hedlere in Northumberland, néere to Blacke hall in the bishoprike, it goeth on to Spen, Holl inside, Wickham Swalwell, and so into Tine, which passeth from thence by Elswijc, and mée|ting with another water comming from Shildraw, by Rauensworth castell to Redhugh, it goeth on to Newcastell, Fellin, Netherheworth, Walker, Waswon, Hedburne, and next to Ierco or Girwie, EEBO page image 91 where Beda dwelled in an abbeie; now a gentlemans place (although the church be made a parish church, wherevnto diuerse townes resort, as moonke Eaton where Beda was borne, which is a mile from thence, Southsheles, Harton, Westhow, Hebburne, Hed|worth, Wardleie, Fellin, Follinsbie, the Heworthes) and from thence to the south and Northsheles, and so into the sea, fiue miles by northwest of Weremouth, and (as I gesse) some what more.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Beneath the confluence in like sort of both the Tines, standeth Corbridge, a towne sometime inha|bited by the Romans, and about twelue miles from Newcastell, and hereby dooth the Corue run, that meeteth yer long with the Tine. Not farre off also is a place called Colchester, wherby Leland gesseth that the name of the brooke should rather be Cole than Corue,Corue. and in my iudgement his coniecture is verie likelie; for in the life of S. Oswijn (otherwise a féeble authoritie) the word Colbridge is alwaies vsed for Corbridge, whereof I thought good to leaue this short aduertisement. In this countrie also are the thrée vales or dales, whereof men haue doubted whether théeues or true men doo most abound in them, that is to saie, Riddesdale, Tuidale, and Liddesdale: this last being for the most part Scotish, and without the marches of England. Neuerthelesse, sithens that by the diligence cheefelie of maister Gilpin, and finallie of other learned preachers, the grace of God work|ing with them, they haue béene called to some obedi|ence and zeale vnto the word, it is found that they haue so well profited by the same, that at this present their former sauage demeanour is verie much aba|ted, and their barbarous wildnesse and fiercenesse so qualified, that there is great hope left of their reduc|tion vnto ciuilitie, and better order of behauiour than hitherto they haue béene acquainted withall. But to procéed with the rest.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Ptolomie, writing of the Were, calleth it Uedra, a riuer well knowne vnto Beda the famous préest, who was brought vp in a monasterie that stood vpon the bankes thereof.Were. It riseth of thrée heads in Kellop|peslaw hill, whereof the most southerlie is called Burdop,Burdop. the middlemost Wallop,Wallop. and the northerli|est Kellop,Kellop. which vniting themselues about S. Iohns chappell, or a little by west thereof, their confluence runneth through Stanhope parke, by east Yare, and so to Frosterleie. But yer it come there, it receiueth thrée rilles from the north in Weredale, whereof one commeth in by Stanhope, another west of Wood|croft hall, and the third at Frosterleie afore mentio|ned. And a little beneath these, I find yet a fourth on the south side, which descendeth from southwest by Bolliop, Bishopsleie, Milhouses, and Landew, as I haue béene informed. Being therefore vnited all with the Were, this streame goeth on to Walsing|ham,Wascrop. there taking in the Wascropburne, beside ano|ther at Bradleie, the third at Harpleie hall (and these on the north side) and the fourth betwéene Witton and Witton castell called Bedburne, comming by Hamsterleie,Bedburne. whereby this riuer dooth now wax ve|rie great. Going therefore from hence, it hasteth to Bishops Akeland, and beneath it receiueth the Ga|rondlesse, which (as Leland saith) riseth six miles by west of Akeland castell, and running south thereof, passeth by west Akeland, S. Helens Akeland, S. An|drewes Akeland, and bishops Akeland, and then into the Were which goeth to Newfield, and Willing|ton. Neere vnto this place also and somewhat beneath Sunderland, the Were, crosseth one brooke from southest by Het, Croxseie, Cronefurth, Tursdale, and Coxdale, and two other from by northwest in one botome, whereof the first commeth from aboue Ash by Langleie: the other called Coue, from aboue Kinchleie by Newbiggin, Lanchester, north Langlie, and through Beare parke, & so méeting beneath Rel|leie or Hedleie with the other, they fall both as one into the Were, betweene south Sunderland and Burnall. From hence our riuer goeth on to Howgh|well, Shirkeleie, old Duresme (and there taking in the Pidding brookePidding brooke. by northeast) it goeth to Dures|me, Finkeleie, Harbarhouse, Lumleie castell (where it méeteth with the Pilis,Pilis. whose heads are vnited be|tweene Pelton and Whitwell (and after called Hed|leie) and from thence to Lampton, Harroton, the Be|dikes, Ufferton, Hilton parke, Bishops, Were|mouth, and so into the sea, betweene north Sunder|land and north Weremouth towne, which now is called moonke Weremouth of the monasterie some|time standing there, wherein Beda read & wrote manie of his bookes, as to the world appeareth. This mouth of Were is eight miles from Durham, and six from Newcastell. Being thus passed the Were, & entered into the Bishoprijc, yer we come at the mouth of the These, almost by two miles, ouer passing a rill that runneth by castell Eden, and Hardwijc, and likewise Hartlepoole towne, which lieth ouer into the sea in maner of a byland or peninsula, we meet with a pret|tie fall, which groweth by a riuer that is increased with two waters, whereof one riseth by northwest a|bout Moretons, and goeth by Stotfeld and Claxton, the other at Dawlton, going by Breerton, Ow|tham, and Grettam, finallie ioining within two miles of the sea, they make a prettie portlet: but I know not of what securitie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The These,Thesis. a riuer that beareth and féedeth an ex|cellent samon, riseth in the Blacke lowes, aboue two miles flat west of the southerlie head of Were called Burdop, and south of the head of west Alen, and thence runneth through Tildale forrest: and ta|king in the Langdon water from northwest it run|neth to Durtpit chappell, to Newbiggin, and so to Middleton, receiuing by west of each of these a rill comming from by north (of which the last is called Hude) and likewise the Lune afterward by southwestHude. that riseth at thrée seueral places, whereof the first is in the borders of Westmerland and there called Arnegill becke, the second more southerlie, named Lunebecke, and the third by south at Bandor Skarth hill,Lune. and méeting all aboue ArnegillArnegill. house, they run togither in one bottome to Lathekirke bridge, and then into the These. Hauing therefore met with these, it runneth to Mickelton (& there taking in the Skirkwith water) it goeth to Rombald kirke (cros|singSkirkewith. there also one rill and the Bander brooke by southBander west) and then going to Morewood hag, and More|wood parke, till it come to Bernards castell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here also it receiueth the Thuresgill water com|ming east of Rere crosse in Yorkeshire,Rere crosse. from the spittle in Stanmore by Crag almost southwest, and being vnited with the These, it goeth by Stratford, Eglesdon, Rokesbie, Thorpe, Wickliffe, Ouington, Winston, and betweene Barfurth and Gainfurth méeteth with another rill, that commeth from Lang|leie forest, betwéene Rabie castell and Standorpe, of whose name I haue no knowledge. But to procéed. The These being past Ramforth, runneth betwéene Persore and Cliffe, and in the waie to Croffs bridge taketh in the Skerne a pretie water, which riseth a|bout Trimdon,Skerne. and goeth by Fishburne, Bradburie, Preston, Braforton, Skirmingham, the Burdons, Haughton and Darlington, & there finallie meeting with the Cocke becke or Dare, it falleth in the These beneath Stapleton, before it come at Croffs bridge, and (as it should séeme) is the same which Leland cal|leth Gretteie or Grettie. From thence it runneth to Sockburne, nether Dunsleie, Middleton row, New|sham, Yarne (crossing a brooke from Leuen bridge) called Leuen or Leuinus in Latine, whose crinkling EEBO page image 92 course is notable, and the streame of some called Thorpe, which I find described in this maner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The Thorpe riseth of sundrie heads,Thorpe aliàs Leuand. wereof one is aboue Pinching Thorpe, from whence it goeth to Nonnethorpe, and so to Stokesleie. The second hath two branches, and so placed, that Kildale standeth be|tweene them both: finallie, méeting beneath Easbie they go by Eaton, and likewise vnto Stokesleie. The last hath also two branches, whereof one com|meth from Inglesbie, and méeteth with the second beneath Broughton; & going from thence to Stokes|leie, they méet with the Thorpe aboue the towne, as the other fall into it somewhat beneath the same. From hence it goeth to Ridleie,Trawthorne. and there taketh in another rill comming from Potto, thence to Craw|thorne brooke, Leuanton, Milton, Hilton, Inglesbie, and so into the These, betwéene Yarne and Bar|wtjc, whereof I made mention before. After this confluence our These hasteth on to Barwtjc, Pres|ston, Thorne abbeie, and Arsham, which standeth on the southeast side of the riuer almost betweene the falles of two waters, whereof one descendeth from west Hartburne by long Newton, Elton, & Stock|ton; the other from Stillington, or Shillington, by Whitton, Thorpe, Blackestone, Billingham, and Norton. From Arsham finallie it goeth to Bella|sis, Middleburgh, and so into the sea. Leland de|scribing this riuer speaketh of the Wiske, which should come thereinto from by south vnder Wiske bridge, by Danbie, and Northalarton, and should ioine with a greater streame: but as yet I find no certeine place where to bestow the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Next of all we come vnto the high Cliffe water, which rising aboue Hutton, goeth by Gisborow, and there receiueth another streame comming from by southeast, and then continuing on his course, it is not long yer it fall into the sea. The next is the Sca|ling water, which descendeth from Scaling towne, from whence we come to the Molemouth, not farre from whose head standeth Molgraue castell: then to Sandford creeke,Eske. and next of all to Eske mouth, which riseth aboue Danbie wood, and so goeth to Ca|stelton, there méeting by the waie with another rill comming from about Westerdale by Danbie, and so they go on togither by Armar and Thwate castell, till they ioine with another water aboue Glasdule chappell, thence to new Biggin, taking yet another brooke with them, running from Goodland ward, and likewise the Ibur, and so go on without anie further increase by Busworth,Ibur. yer long into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 There is also a créeke on each side of Robin Whoodes baie, of whose names and courses I haue no skill, sauing that Fillingale the towne dooth stand betwéene them both. There is another not far from Scarborow, on the north side called the Har|wood brooke. It runneth through Harwood dale by Cloughton, Buniston, and soone after méeting with another rill on the southwest, they run as one into the ocean sea. From Scarborow to Bridlington, by Flamborow head, we met with no more falles. This water therefore that we saw at Bridlington, riseth at Dugglebie, from whence it goeth to Kirbie, Helperthorpe, Butterwtjc, Boithorpe, Foxhole, (where it falleth into the ground, and riseth vp a|gaine at Rudston) Thorpe, Cathorpe, Bridlington, and so into the Ocean.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being come about the Spurne head, I meete yer long with a riuer that riseth short of Withersie, and goeth by Fodringham and Wisted, from thence to another that commeth by Rosse, Halsham, Car|mingham: then to the third, which riseth aboue Hum|bleton, and goeth to Esterwtjc, Heddon, and so into the Humber. The fourth springeth short of Sprot|leie, goeth by Witton, and falleth into the water of Humber at Merslete, as I heare.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next of all is the Hull water,Hull. which I will describe also here, and then crosse ouer vnto the sou|therlie shore. The furthest head of Hull water ri|seth at Kilham, from whence it goeth to Lewthorpe créeke, and so to Fodringham, a little beneath which it meeteth with sundrie waters, whereof one falleth in on the northest side, comming from about Lisset; the second on the northwest banke from Nafferton; the third from Emmeswell and Kirkeburne: for it hath two heads which ioined beneth little Drifield, and the fourth which falleth into the same: so that these two latter run vnto the maine riuer both in one chanell, as experience hath confirmed. From hence then our Hull goeth to to Ratseie, to Goodale|house, and then taking in a water from Hornesie mere, it goeth on through Beuerleie medowes, by Warron, Stoneferrie, Hull, and finallie into the Humber. Of the rill that falleth into this water from south Netherwijc, by Skirlow, and the two rilles that come from Cottingham and Woluer|ton, I saie no more, sith it is enough to name them in their order.

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